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Nature's Aphrodisiacs -A Review of Current Scientific Literature

Authors:
  • College of Pharmacy Shivalik
  • Himachal Institute of Pharmacy Paonta Sahib

Abstract and Figures

Despite progress made in modern medical science herbal drugs constitute a major share of all the officially recognized systems of health in India viz. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Naturopathy. More than 70% of India's 1.1 billion populations still use these non-allopathic systems of medicine. Various synthetic drugs like Sildenafil citrate, Tadalafil citrate, Vardenafil, etc are used to treat ED but these drugs also have fatal side effects. The use of synthetic aphrodisiacs results in the dilation of blood vessels in other parts of the body causing headache and fainting. Other side effects include facial flushing, stomach upset, blurred vision and sensitivity to light which usually occur at higher doses. Thus, there is growing need to look for aphrodisiacs more of herbal origin as opposed to synthetic compounds which are known to cause severe unwanted side effects. Unlike the old-time aphrodisiacs, which were meant only to increase sex drive and/or sexual pleasure, modern stimulants including Viagra, may rightly be called medications, since their purpose is to correct problems that make sex difficult or impossible. Besides of the fact that several plant sources contain aphrodisiac ingredients (phytochemicals) which can be beneficial as an immune modulator, sex stimulant and also as medication in erectile dysfunctions, there is very low range of research work carried out in this field. This review contains a collection of more than 200 medicinally important plants which are not only aphrodisiac in nature but also used to treat ED. All the herbal plants in this review are verified from the Current Scientific Literature as well as traditional book.
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... There are a number of prescription drugs such as Sildenafil (enhances the erection), Tadalafil (promotes an erection), Addyi (women suffering from hypoactive sexual desire disorder) which may act as a sex stimulant and enhance sexual desire and activity in humans. Although the use of allopathic medicines has gained great strides in treating sexual disorders, there are a number of side effects associated with these drugs such as: rhythmic irregularity of the heart, suicidal tendencies, mental disorders and tremors (Semwal et al., 2013). The use of synthetic aphrodisiac drugs results in the dilation of blood vessels in other parts of the body in addition to sexual organs causing headache and fainting (Javeed et al., 2011). ...
... Other side effects include facial flushing, stomach upset, blurred vision and sensitivity to light which usually occur at higher doses (Kulkarni and Reddy, 1998). In comparison, the plant products used as aphrodisiacs are usually believed to be safe and to seldom show any side effects (Semwal et al., 2013); however, with sustained use and at higher doses these products may also be unsafe. ...
... There are a number of prescription drugs such as Sildenafil (enhances the erection), Tadalafil (promotes an erection), Addyi (women suffering from hypoactive sexual desire disorder) which may act as a sex stimulant and enhance sexual desire and activity in humans. Although the use of allopathic medicines has gained great strides in treating sexual disorders, there are a number of side effects associated with these drugs such as: rhythmic irregularity of the heart, suicidal tendencies, mental disorders and tremors (Semwal et al., 2013). The use of synthetic aphrodisiac drugs results in the dilation of blood vessels in other parts of the body in addition to sexual organs causing headache and fainting (Javeed et al., 2011). ...
... Other side effects include facial flushing, stomach upset, blurred vision and sensitivity to light which usually occur at higher doses (Kulkarni and Reddy, 1998). In comparison, the plant products used as aphrodisiacs are usually believed to be safe and to seldom show any side effects (Semwal et al., 2013); however, with sustained use and at higher doses these products may also be unsafe. ...
... The organoleptic examination carried out include color, odor and texture. The texture observed is the reserve consistency [6]. ...
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Kalakai (Stenochlaena palustris) is one of the diversity of Kalimantan typical plants that are often consumed as food but can also be used as medicinal plants. Ethanol Extract of Kalakai Root has been shown to have very strong antioxidants and has an SPF value of extreme ability level. Researchers want to examine a form of cosmetic emulgel which potentially as sunscreen. The purpose of this study is as a preliminary stage to see how the physical evaluation results (organoleptic, pH and dispersal power) of emulgel kalakai roots ethanol extract at 1% and 2% concentration. The results obtained for formula I (1%) and formula II (2%) of emulgel kalakai roots ethanol extract meet the organolepic test quality parameters, pH and spreadability test.
... These results justified the aphrodisiac properties of P. macrophylla extract and corroborated the results of Carro-Juárez et al. [13] , Kpomah et al. [46] and Kenmogne et al. [21] who demonstrated the similar effects using Zanthoxylum leprieurii, Piper guineense, Montanoa tomentosa and Carpolobia alba respectively. These findings are consistent with those of Sandroni [47] and Alok et al. [48] who state that aphrodisiacs are substances that can increase libido, sexual potency and/or sexual pleasure. However, for the better understanding of the aphrodisiac properties of P. macrophylla, other parameters of the sexual function need to be investigated. ...
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Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a real health problem for men worldwide. This work investigated the effects of aqueous roots extract of Pycnocoma macrophylla (Euphorbiaceae) on sexual behavior in rats. Twenty-five adults' rats divided into five groups were treated orally for fourteen days with distilled water (5 ml/kg, control), sildenafil citrate (5 mg/kg) and the aqueous extract of P. macrophylla (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w) respectively. Sexual behavior parameters such as mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL), ejaculation latency (EL), post-ejaculatory intervals (PEI), mount frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation frequency (EF) and mean interval of copulation (MIC) were evaluated in treated animals mated with receptive female at days 1, 7 and 14 of treatment. At day 14, serum testosterone was measured. The results indicated that, the aqueous extract of P. macrophylla and especially the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly (p<0.01-0.001) decreased mount and intromission latencies as well as the post-ejaculatory interval on day 14 compared to the control and initial values (day1) respectively while this extract significantly (p<0.01-0.001) increased the frequencies of mounts intromissions and ejaculations, and the mean intervals of copulation. Moreover, serum testosterone significantly (p<0.05) increased in rats treated with P. macrophylla (200 mg/kg b.w) when compared to the control. P. macrophylla possess pro-sexual and aphrodisiac effects in relation with the androgenic potential of particular bioactive components present in the aqueous root extract of plant. These outcomes could be applied for the management of sexual debilities in patients.
... [3] In response to modern medicine, there has renewed interest in various medicinal plants belonging to different botanical families for the treatment of sexual dysfunction, which are showed to be effective and safe in the daily practice of traditional healers [11] as well as to phytomedicines based aphrodisiac plant extracts. Quite number of aphrodisiac natural products are excellent sexual enhancers and those exist [12][13][14][15][16] and it is difficult to say which one is best since different people respond to different ones. ...
... [3] In response to modern medicine, there has renewed interest in various medicinal plants belonging to different botanical families for the treatment of sexual dysfunction, which are showed to be effective and safe in the daily practice of traditional healers [11] as well as to phytomedicines based aphrodisiac plant extracts. Quite number of aphrodisiac natural products are excellent sexual enhancers and those exist [12][13][14][15][16] and it is difficult to say which one is best since different people respond to different ones. ...
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Full-text available
In the present study, it was examined the aphrodisiac activity of P-VIRIL® ® , a phytomedicine based lyophilized aqueous extract (LAE) from Penianthus longifolia or P. longifolius root bark on sexual behaviors in male Wistar rats. Results showed that the extract possesses aphrodisiac properties by its oral administration at respective doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight characterized by significant increase of mount frequency, intromission frequency, ejaculation frequency, copulatory efficiency, number of intromission and penile trusting, and serum testosterone as well as significant decrease of of mount frequency, intromission latency, ejaculation latency, mount latency and inter-intromission interval. In addition, the extract provoked the increase of the number of spermatozoa and their mobility, the level of testosterone and spontaneous penile erection at all administered oral doses at different extents. LAE extract of P-VIRIL ® also showed good increase in potency parameters such as Kanyanga et al. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences erection, quick flip, long fi-lip and total reflex. All these effects of LAE extract of P-VIRIL ® on evaluated sexual behaviors confirm its aphrodisiac properties. The oral dose of 200 mg/kg was found to be more effective than other administered doses. The extract did not show toxic effects and its LD 50 was estimated to be greater than 10 g/kg body weight. It was concluded that the phytomedicine P-VIRIL ® based lyophilized aqueous extract of P. longifolia root bark functions as a quick acting and aphrodisiac agent. The results support and justify the use the phytomedicine P-VIRIL ® as well as the plant part acclaimed aphrodisiac agent and for the management of young, adult men and women sexual disorders.
Chapter
Schon seit Urzeiten beschäftigten sich die Menschen mit den Möglichkeiten, ihre sexuelle Lust zu steigern. Die Faszination durch Liebes- oder Zaubertränke, Elixiere, Kräuter und Düfte, Verzehr von Meeresfrüchten u. v. a. m. die Libido zu steigern ist bis heute ungebrochen. Aphrodite war die Namensgeberin der Substanzen, die die sexuelle Appetenz zu beleben und zu steigern versprachen. Während die Wirkung vieler Aphrodisiaka nur auf dem Hintergrund ihrer mythologischen, religiösen oder kulturellen Geschichte zu verstehen sind und über eine reine Placebowirkung nicht hinausgehen, zeigen Untersuchungen aus der neueren Zeit, dass es eine Reihe von Phytotherapeutika gibt, die nachweislich einen positiven Effekt auf die Libido haben. Während diese Phytotherapeutika sehr arm an unerwünschten Nebenwirkungen sind, sieht das bei den Substanzen aus der Chemsexgruppe anders aus. Diese synthetischen, psychoaktiven Drogen wie Metamphetamin, Mephedron, MDMA, GHB u. a. haben ein zum Teil verheerendes psychotropes Potenzial, das nach anfänglich berauschenden Sexparties zu Sucht und sozialem Absturz führen kann.
Chapter
Since ancient times, humans across diverse cultures have shown keen interest in traditional herbal products which enhance sexual abilities, pleasure and libido, and improve sexual functions and potency. Herbal aphrodisiacs have been claimed to possess antistress as well as adaptogenic properties that assist in combating disease-associated stress and improving physical strength ultimately helping to alleviate the anxiety linked with lack of sexual desire and performance. Even in the modern era, particularly due to social or cultural reasons, some men still prefer the use of traditional herbal aphrodisiac products to counter sexual and/or reproductive dysfunctions. Important herbal aphrodisiacs—such as Panax ginseng, Tribulus terrestris, Eurycoma longifolia, Chlorophytum borivilianum, Ginkgo biloba, and Turnera diffusa var. aphrodisiaca have been discussed in this chapter in accordance with their effects and the potent molecules/compounds that manifest their activity. In fact, the constituent biomolecules present as the active principles of the herbal preparations behind their noticeable effects. However, there can be various pathways through which they may affect the sexual and reproductive functions, ranging from enhancement of spermatogenesis; modulation of hormonal levels (particularly testosterone) and steroidogenesis; erectogenic properties including improvement in sexual motivation, copulatory behavior, and modulation of neurotransmitters; to reduction of oxidative stress. For their potential incorporation into the clinical management of male reproductive and/or sexual disorders such as erectile dysfunction or male infertility in future, these herbal aphrodisiac biomolecules have to pass through stringent confirmatory studies including proper assessment of their safety and regulatory issues together with any side effect and associated toxicity for safe human administration.
Thesis
Quantified the temporal and spatial changes in plant community dynamics, soil physical and chemical attributes collected from 12 sites, histopathology and Physico-chemical analysis of three arid and semi-arid plant species
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Crotalaria burhia Buch.-Ham. (Family- Fabaceae) is used traditionally in the treatment of eczema. Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of root were screened for antimicrobial activity against different strains of bacteria and fungi. The tests were carried out using agar disc diffusion method at four different concentrations of the crude extracts. All the extracts inhibited the growth of both Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus) and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium). The Gram positive bacteria appeared to be more susceptible to the extracts than the Gram negative bacteria. Methanol extract at the concentration ranging between 250 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml showed inhibitory activity against all bacteria while petroleum ether and chloroform extract showed moderate antimicrobial activity. Aqueous extract was found neutral against all bacteria. The extracts also showed significant antifungal activity against A. niger and C. albicans. All the microorganisms showed dose dependent susceptibility towards the extracts used in the study. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of the extracts and standard drugs were statistically significant. The results indicate the potential of C. burhia root in treating microbial infections, thus, justifying their traditional use in the treatment of eczema, which are of infectious origin.