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Modern Lattice Domes Based on the Traditional Iranian Masonry Domes


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In this paper the forms of the traditional Iranian masonry domes are reviewed and classified into four main categories. These categories consist of the ellipsoidal, simple pointed, multi-curved pointed and conical domes. Also, for each category of domes relevant historical buildings are presented. Furthermore, for each category a parametric formex formulation is presented that allows generating various lattice models based on the geometry of traditional Iranian domes. Presented Iranian lattice domes indicate that designers can create their desired forms with appropriate patterns by modifying the pertinent parameters of the formulations.
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... Hemispherical domes are common geometric elements found in the historical developments of many civilizations, including the Persians, Greeks, Romans and Assyrians [11,33]. Figure 1a shows an artistic impression of typical hemispherical domes in urban developments pertaining to the surroundings of the central Iranian desert (Kavir) dating back to the medieval era. ...
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Advancements in optical metrology has enabled documentation of dense 3D point clouds of cultural heritage sites. For large scale and continuous digital documentation, processing of dense 3D point clouds becomes computationally cumbersome, and often requires additional hardware for data management, increasing the time cost, and complexity of projects. To this end, this manuscript presents an original approach to generate fast and reliable semantic digital models of heritage hemispherical domes using only two images. New closed formulations were derived to establish the relationships between spheres and their projected ellipses onto images, which fostered the development of a new automatic framework for as-built generation of spheres. The effectiveness of the proposed method was evaluated under both laboratory and real-world datasets. The results revealed that the proposed method achieved as-built modeling accuracy of around 6mm, while improving the computation time by a factor of 7, when compared to established point cloud processing methods.
... The entire structure is modeled using the concepts of formex algebra via its associated software system, Formian 2.0. Further information about configuration processing of diverse spatial structures can be found in [8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15]. Application of the latest edition of the Formian software system, Formian K, could be helpful for configuration processing of the branching structures and the grid shell and visualization of the output. ...
Conference Paper
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This study addresses the relationship between the geometry and structural performance of branching columns using an example case based on a square grid shell supported by four branching columns. The branching columns are configured with three levels of members, bifurcating into four members as each member branches upwards. A range of solutions is parametrically generated using the concepts of formex algebra and its associated software system, Formian 2.0. The form exploration uses the GA-based method, ParaGen which incorporates both quantitative structural performance and qualitative architectural considerations in the exploration process. Certain design constraints, as well as multiple objectives, are established including minimizing structural weight and deflection, and increasing vibration stiffness, in addition to the designer’s satisfaction with the visual appearance of the columns. Within the iterative process of form generation, the structural performance of the branching columns under a combination of self-weight and snow load is evaluated using the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software, STAAD.Pro. The branching members are sized based on the AISC LRFD steel code. ParaGen creates a database of suitable solutions, which can be explored by filtering and sorting based on a variety of performance parameters. Different techniques are demonstrated in the exploration of good solutions including scatter point graphs, Pareto front analysis, and images of the design alternatives.
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This textbook is prepared explicitly for students seeking a degree in an Architecture program and taking an introductory course in structural engineering. It is assumed that students referring to this textbook have a minimum background in math and physics. Therefore, principal concepts are explained using visual demonstrations, videos, graphics, and jargon-free descriptions. Wherever a minimum knowledge of trigonometry and math is required, additional materials are introduced for review. Unlike a standard textbook, this textbook aims to support student’s self-exploration of foundational topics on structural design rather than providing them with a script to assimilate and repeat. Therefore, it contains a collection of visual materials and interactive resources readily available online resources developed by research groups and public agencies. In addition, sufficient examples are included to clearly explain the theories and math problems. Within this book, students learn about different types of loads, forces and vector addition, the concept of equilibrium, internal forces, geometrical and material properties of structural elements, and rules of thumb for estimating the proportion of some structural systems such as catenary cables and arches, trusses, and frame structures. I hope this textbook is an accessible and enjoyable resource to support your learning about fundamental concepts of structural design. I acknowledge that this textbook will never really be finished. It can always be better. The readers’ perspectives on both content and style are valued as I revise and improve this book. Please do not hesitate to contact me with your critics via email The textbook is accessible via as well.
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Gonbad-e Qabus, with a height of 52.8 m that makes it the tallest pure-brick tower in the world, located in the northern part of Iran, represents one of the most magnificent structures of the early Islamic centuries. This structure is still standing among the chaos of urban life and construction, catching the eyes of beholders even from far distances. This paper summarizes the historical and architectural background of this monumental structure and the important restorations carried out mainly in the past century. Various types of existing and potential structural and architectural damages are classified and elaborated in detail, and for each problem, a series of proposed solutions are presented. Utilizing the nonlinear finite-element simulations and equivalent lateral static force method, it is concluded that Gonbad-e Qabus is vulnerable to seismic demands with a return period of 475 years; therefore, retrofit strategies should be considered to improve its seismic performance.
This is the first paper in a series of papers that are intended to cover the present state of knowledge in the field of formex configuration processing. This field of knowledge has been developed during the last three decades and has now reached a level of maturity that makes it an ideal medium for configuration processing in many disciplines. In particular, it provides a rich assortment of concepts that are of great value to the engineers and architects involved in the design of space structures.
This is the second paper in a series of papers that are intended to provide a comprehensive coverage of the concepts of formex configuration processing and their applications in relation to structural configurations. In the present paper, attention is focused on the configuration processing for a number of families of space structures, namely, pyramidal forms, towers, foldable systems and diamatic domes. Also included is a section on information export as well as an Appendix on basic formex functions. The section on information export describes the manner in which the information about the details of a configuration, generated by the programming language Formian, can be exported to graphics, draughting and structural analysis packages.
Stylistic of Iranian architecture
  • M K Pirnia
  • Gh Memarian
Pirnia MK, Memarian Gh, Stylistic of Iranian architecture, Soroush-e danesh Press, Tehran, 2004, p. 171, 238 (The book was published In Persian).
Beyond the Cube (The Architecture of Space frames and Polyhedra
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Arches and Vaults in Iranian Architecture
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Bozorgmehri Z, Pirnia MK, "Arches and Vaults in Iranian Architecture", Asar Journal, Vol. 24, Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization Press, Tehran, 1994, pp. 5-45 (The journal was published In Persian).
Domes in Iranian Architecture
  • Z Bozorgmehri
  • M K Pirnia
Bozorgmehri Z, Pirnia MK, "Domes in Iranian Architecture", Asar Journal, Vol. 20, Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization Press, Tehran, 1991, pp. 77-70, 96, 109, 128 (The journal was published in Persian).