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This paper describes the concept and development of the interactive installation "Pre-Choreographic Movement Kit". It utilizes a dance concept as a starting point to use physical objects for generating movements, using sensor-based motion tracking. The "Pre-Choreographic Movement Kit" is part of the interdisciplinary research project"Pre- Choreographic Alphabet", initiated by Bertha Bermudez and Emio Greco, ICKAmsterdam (International Choreographic Center in Amsterdam) joined by Chris Ziegler (School of Arts Media Engineering ASU, Tempe) for design and development under LABO211. The objective of the research project, is to reflect upon previous artistic work, define methodologies for the articulation of dance experiences using interactive environments for transmission and dissemination of knowledge. Choreographer Emio Greco and Pieter C. Scholten have developed over many years an understanding of dancer's technologies to generate movement material for dance creation. Chris Ziegler cites the idea of "art in a box" first developed by George Maciunas "Fluxkit" (1964), by designing a playful environment for dancers and non-dancers alike. The "PreChoreographic Movement Kit"proposes interactive Objects, generating a physical encounter to"Pre-choreographic Knowledge" of thinking and performing movements.
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Pre-Choreographic Movement Kit
Bertha Bermudez
Dance Researcher at ICKamsterdam
Van beuningstraat 188 E
1051 ZX Amsterdam
+31618337584
bertha@ickamsterdam.nl
Chris Ziegler
Assistant Professor ASU Phoenix,
PO Box 875802
AZ 85287-5802 Tempe, USA
+1 (480) 371 8684
chris.ziegler@asu.edu
ABSTRACT
This paper describes the concept and development of
the interactive installation “Pre-Choreographic
Movement Kit”. It utilizes a dance concept as a
starting point to use physical objects for generating
movements, using sensor-based motion tracking. The
“Pre-Choreographic Movement Kit” is part of the
interdisciplinary research project “Pre-Choreographic
Alphabet”, initiated by Bertha Bermudez and Emio
Greco , ICKAmsterdam (International Choreographic
Center in Amsterdam).
The objective of the research project, is to reflect upon
previous artistic work, define methodologies for the
articulation of dance experiences using interactive
environments for transmission and dissemination of
knowledge. Choreographer Emio Greco and Pieter
C.Scholten have developed over many years an
understanding of dancer’s technologies to generate
movement material for dance creation.
Chris Ziegler cites the idea of “art in a box” first
developed by George Maciunas “Fluxkit” (1964), by
designing a playful environment for dancers and non-
dancers alike. The “Pre-Choreographic Movement
Kit” proposes interactive Objects, generating a
physical encounter to “Pre-choreographic Knowledge”
of thinking and performing movements.
George Maciunas “Fluxkit” (1964)
General Terms
Algorithms, Measurement, Documentation,
Performance, Design, Experimentation, Human
Factors, Languages
Keywords
Interaction, Installation, Dance, Movement Principles,
interactive Objects, Sculpture, Sound, Sonification,
Notation
1. INTRODUCTION
Dance is a human expression that - in the western
world evolved away from daily routines and
activities. Dance is performed by professional dancers.
The audience observes and the performer is being
observed. The performers experience dance as an
embodied praxis, while the audience experience the
dance only through viewing. The characteristics of the
relationship between performer and audience have had
a long history, rooted in the Greek definition of theatre
θέατρον théatron, as “a place for viewing".
Maaike Bleeker (2008,2011) proposes theatre as ‘the
place from where the theatrical event is seen’1. This
definition implies that there is something to look at,
the dance and someone looking at it, the audience. The
gap between action and observation within the
‘apparatus of theatre’2 seems to have grown
throughout our history, creating a lack of
understanding.
Rituals are on the other side of this spectrum as the
place where the relationship between those engaged
are equal and based on the idea of transformation and
transaction. Dances within rituals are normally
performed as ceremony and have been established
and agreed upon by a community. The physical
experience of the participant is required to be engaged
1 Bleeker, Maaike. Visuality in the theatre: the locus
of looking. Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.
2 Barthes, Roland. "Upon leaving the movie theater."
Cinematic Apparatus: Selected Writings. New York,
NY: Apparatus (1980): 1-4.
with the intentions of the ritual. As Richard Schechner
proposes, ‘if the performance’s purpose is to effect
change, then the performance is a ritual. If the
performance’s purpose is mainly to give pleasure, to
be beautiful, or for passing time, then the performance
is entertainment.’3 Dance as a shared embodied praxis,
such as the ritual, may establish a new perspective for
contemporary dance studies and research projects. For
example, what if performer and audience share similar
experiences creating a more emphatic relationship?
The interactive installation “Pre-Choreographic
Movement Kit“ proposes an innovative perspective
towards the transmission of dance and movement
principles.
It has been developed within the frame of the
interdisciplinary research project Pre-choreographic
Alphabet initiated by dance company Emio Greco | PC
at the ICKamsterdam Choreographic Arts Center in
Amsterdam under coordination of dance researcher
Bertha Bermudez. The development and creation of
the interactive installation is part of the European
project LABO 21 (2012-2014)4, the laboratorium of
the 21th century, a platform that encompasses
different autonomous research projects based on
artistic methodologies in four European countries:
Belgium - Troubleyn/Jan Fabre
The Netherlands ICKamsterdam
Croatia - BADco
UK - Wayne McGregor/Random dance / Centre of
Dance Research (C-DaRE) at Coventry University.
Labo 21 strives to enhance a better understanding of
the performing arts by connecting the knowledge of
performance and dance to other fields, such as
cognitive science, biology and technology research,
social science and philosophy.
During the “Pre-choreographic Alphabet” research
project, different disciplines have been implemented:
motion tracking, interactive environment, cognitive
linguistics, dance analysis and dance education.
The “Pre-Choreographic Movement Kit“ is part of the
research using motion tracking and interaction.
Exploring the potential of sound as feedback and the
use of objects and their manipulation through
movement and transformation is an interesting case
study of the quantification of qualitative principles.
The installation is a proposal of a playful interactive
environment where dance principles can be discovered
in moving the objects and executing instructions,
receiving specific sound feedback.
The “Kit” will be finalized as a pilot at the end of the
3 Schechner, Richard. Performance studies: An
introduction. Routledge, 2013.
4 LABO21 is supported by the the Education,
Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA).
Labo 21 project July 2014. It is being developed as a
collaboration between dance researcher Bertha
Bermudez with digital media artist Chris Ziegler and
composer Todd Ingalls, both affiliated with AME
(School of Arts, Media and Engineering) at ASU
(Arizona State University) Phoenix, USA.
1.1 Emio Greco | PC work and research
projects
Since 1995 Emio Greco and Pieter C. Scholten have
worked together in search for new dance forms. For
both artists the search for a new dramaturgy of the
body is an important motivating factor. The body is a
holistic entity that can express itself through
movement. From there choreography can start
appearing and is being developed. Always interested
in findings Greco and Scholten have engaged
themselves in the creation of discourse, salons,
publications and research around dance transmission,
notation and recreation.
In 2005, dance company Emio Greco | PC (EG | PC)
Amsterdam, initiated and developed interdisciplinary
research projects that looked at the notation,
documentation and re-creation of dance. The first
period of research between 2005-2008 focused on the
research question
What do we need to do in our attempts, to capture?
We looked at different documentation methods:
notation systems, motion capture, film, text and
multimodal interaction through interactive
environments. The focus was on transmitting
movement intentionality in physical preparation,
“Double Skin/Double Mind” (DS/DM). The
preparation workshop DS/DM lead to a publication
(Capturing) Intention” containing a film
documentary, interactive DVD-ROM and finally these
publications lead to the development of an interactive
prototype installation for dance learning.
An environment to guide the moving body while
learning was designed. The DS/DM installation
invited a user, dancer and non dancers to follow
excerpts of the EG | PC’s dance preparation workshop.
After the first 45mins of video instructions, the user is
able to customize the learning sections. Finally the
installation starts a practice session. The algorithms of
the installation are looking at movement qualities,
while the user is improvising, generating a physical
dialogue of a dancer with an animated graphic object
on screen. The installation is a reproduction of the real
dancers workshop DS/DM, but also enables
customized physical training and a performance try-
out, where the software starts a creative dialogue,
based on the movement qualities, the participant just
learned.
The installation was developed by Bertha Bermudez
and Chris Ziegler together with the IRCAM research
team Frédérique Bevilacqua, Sarah Fdili Alaoui and
with Martin Bellardi.
After this first approach towards the relations between
words, movements, choreographic structures and
possible modes of documentation and representation,
the results and research questions were shared with a
much wider group. The interdisciplinary research
project “Inside Movement Knowledge”5 focused on
new methods for documentation, transmission and
preservation of contemporary choreographic and
dance knowledge. The interactive installation DS/DM
was further developed as a tool for dance education
where images, sounds, instructions and iconic
representations were used to transmit the work of
Emio Greco | PC within a virtual learning and practise
environment.
Along side this result a generative model for the
documentation of performances was made public.
The present research project “Pre-choreographic
Alphabet” (2009-2014) takes the previous research
methodologies and questions further extending the
research process around DS/DM.
The intentional aspect of the movement gained
importance in comparison to shape or form of
movement. The “Pre-Choreographic Alphabet” refers
to the pre-phase of choreography, where the content is
being created, shaped and tested but not yet part of the
selection and ordering process of choreography. The
research has shifted from preparation of the body
mind state for creation to the generation of movement
material that might later become part of a
performance. The focus is on ideas or concepts that
generate movement material and that keep appearing
consistently throughout the work. These have become
part of the common language of the company, but
have never been analyzed in depth.’6 The “Pre-
choreographic Alphabet” is a lexical collection of
Greco and Scholten of their creative principles,
devleoping a new methodology for their work. The
alphabet is a glossary of their artistic process and a
cognitive map of their philosophy.
The movement concepts reflect the creative process of
creating a performance. They are generative, being
used within their repertory since the past 20 years.
During the process of making dance there are many
phases. One of them is about generating movement
material. Emio Greco creates the material departing
5 www.insidemovementknwoeldge.net
6 Delahunta, Scott, and Bertha Bermúdez Pascual.
"Pre-choreographic elements: Scott deLahunta in
conversation with Bertha Bermúdez." International
Journal of Performance Arts and Digital Media 9.1
(2013): 52-60.
from an idea or concept. It is materialized into
physical actions that will be shaped, studied,
transmitted, reshaped and in some cases left aside, to
hopefully find a better life in another moment of the
artistic process. The idea is not only materialized
through movements, but is also scripted through the
use of words that can make transmission tangible.
After four years working on the definition of the
principles of Greco’s work, this research project hopes
to inspire others to use the terms as source material to
create and understand moving principles. This process
has been very challenging, since these concepts not
only need physical execution, but also request a
mental state and an intentional approach to the
creation of movement. The relationship between shape
and intentionality of movement is a constant interest
of the work of Greco and Scholten. The shape of
movement is an empty vessel where the aim to act has
to be placed inside. The intention of the movement
directs it into the how movement and for what reason.
The execution and creation of shape is generating a
secondary stage. As Rudolf Laban said in La Maitrise
du Movement (1994); ‘men moves to satisfy a need’7
It is about this need that we refer to when speaking of
movement intentionality.
From the big list of terms they accumulated
throughout the years of research, Greco and Scholten
selected in 2013 seven voices to base their site-
specific performance “Addio alla Finne”. The same 7
elements are the ones selected for the development of
the “Pre-Choreographic Movement Kit”. There is no
direct relation to the performance. But the objects of
the installation and the performance demonstrate the
same principles of movements, using mental state and
visual associations to create dance and movement.
1.2 Alphabet
For Emio Greco and Pieter C.Scholten the
communication of their artistic findings, the definition
of words/vocabulary and the creation of a discourse
has always been important. Words are considered as
important as movement, they are part of their critique
to the western dualist perspective on the body. “Fra
cervello et movimento”, between brain and movement,
they proposed a dance trilogy where in between two
there is a space of unison. The role of words plays an
important part in trying to understand such a space.
Besides their performances, they have created the
physical preparation workshop DS/DM that expresses
essential principles of their philosophy and work.
The workshop is used fro knowledge transmission
within the company, merging daily practice with the
artistic research for new means of physical
transformation. Focusing throughout the years on
7 Laban, Rudolf. "La maîtrise du mouvement." Ed.
Acte Sud (1994).
qualities and intentions in relation to form and
execution of movement, the DS/DM workshop has
built up a structured mode of transmission that is
specific to the company and its work.
The “Pre-choreographic alphabet” has now established
a total of 43 terms. In order to understand the context,
a bigger list of general terms have been made within
the DS/DM workshop. In total the Alphabet consist of
159 terms and it will serve as a base of generating a
future multimodal archive of the company.
Since the nature of these elements is generative, the
purpose of the research was not to describe the
movement as such, neither notate it, but to extract the
intentional information, the mental state and potential
definition that could inspire the reader to understand
how movement is generated to inform their own
movements. The selected words of the Alphabet
should sufficiently map the ideas and sensations
behind the concept of movement, but not describe the
shapes that contained them.
Above: Articulation of possible relations between the
hands, front part of arms and the upper space of the
head. Awareness of the level above the head.
This text was written while creating the movement
phrase of the aureol, performed by Emio Greco in the
performance “Extra Dry”8, where hands and arms are
moving sensing the upper part of the head,
reproducing the image of an aureol. A later definition
of this term vertical extension of the senses takes out
the movement material Greco created within the
performance, leaving space to the core intention of the
movement “Above”.
Writing dance is a complex task, defining words is
difficult, but even more defining words that represent
movements and their qualities has been a great
challenge. The speed of movement is always
surpassing the pace in which the describing units the
words exist. Vygotsky’s defines the unit: ‘The unit
designates a product of analysis that possesses all the
basic characteristics of the whole. The unit is a vital
and irreducible part of the whole.’9 The search for the
single unit, the irreducible Pre-choreographic Element,
needs separation of form and intention of movement in
three modalities:
i) the theme they refer to
ii) how it is done and
iii) the intention of it
8 "Extra Dry Trailer - Emio Greco | PC - YouTube."
2009. 15 Feb. 2014
<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=evJQo5IzqyY>
9 Vygotsky, Lev S. Thought and language. MIT press,
2012.
1.3 Definitions of 7 elements
[December 2013:
Greco’s proposal of a Pre-choreographic Alphabet is
allowing space to generate the users own inspiration
and imagination of what the physical actions could
actually be]
ABRACADABRA, deals with the appearance and the
disappearance of form. The mental state seeks to
create illusions. Abracadabra plays with the limits of
the audience's perception and attention.
BRIDGING, deals with the transition of the energy of
an existing physical path into another one by reducing
the distance between them. Keywords: colonization,
invasion.
LEAVING AURA, deals with the crystallization of
form and the withdrawal from it by travelling through
space. The aim is to reconstitute one established form
at another point in space, before the memory of it has
vanished.
MAPPING, deals with the creation of a repetitive
patterns or roadmaps on the floor, executed within a
limited amount of time. The aim is to reprint the traces
of these patterns before their memory is faded.
RHYTHM ON, deals with the migration of a singing
or pulsing rhythm within the body. Departing from
one place, the pulse travels to another. The body
surrender to an irresistible pulse that could be the
remembrance of a cosmic echo.
UNDULATION, deals with the horizontal/vertical
creation of oscillating structures that depart from
within the body moving towards the outside space.
The body spreads the sound of the movement, its
resonance and its frequency.
VACUUM, deals with the fixation and
transformation of form and the mental state,
remembering and recalling an iconic position.
2. PROJECT DESCRIPTION
The interactive installation Pre-Choreographic
Movement Kit will contain a suitcase with 7
compartments, containing 7 interactive physical
objects. The “Pre-choreographic Movement Kit”
articulates questions around movement tracking and
digitizing dance and notation, designing interactive
objects for movement generation. Associations,
instructions and movements are the components of the
Kit, where objects are used for generating sound as a
sonified feedback to movement.
Inspired by the George Maciunas »Fluxkit (1)« 1964 ,
the installation cites the idea of art in a box which also
refers to Marcel Duchamp’s 'Boîte-en-valise’. Fluxus
used principles of chance and interaction between the
artwork and the onlooker. In this way scores,
instructions and propositions were shared with the
audience to create an event. Following the philosophy
of George Maciunas and Duchamp, this Pre-
Choreographic Movement Kit is a collective product
rather than an individual artwork, instructing the
audience through propositions and instructions. The
audience playful researches the movement objects.
The embodied experience makes him/her performing
the Pre Choreographic Principles.
2.1 Movement Elements
The selected movement elements are Abracadabra,
Bridging, Leaving Aura, Mapping, Rhythm On,
Undulation and Vacuum. These seven elements
generate different intentions, dynamics and different
qualities of movement. For example:
Abracadabra requires a mental state of teasing where
a speedy action of showing and taking something
away plays with the attention of the viewer.
Bridging, requires the pre visualization of a shape in
space that will allow the body to transit its energy and
shape into a new form derived from a previous
position.
Leaving Aura requires memory and speed. The body
can outlive its own shape imprinted in space, while
moving on. While Abracadabra does not move much
in space, the dancer using Bridging and Leaving Aura
must travel in order to generate movement.
Mapping is rooted in repetition, patterns and traces
using space, while Rhythm On deals with repetition of
a rhythmic pattern within the body.
Separating the body into an inner space (space inside
the body, thus under the skin) and an outer space
(space outside the body’s skin) are essential to
understand these elements.
In Undulation, a dancer needs to be in a state of
oscillation where the body is malleable and can listen
to the duration of an action.
Vacuum proposes a transition from one shape into
another, which is similar to Bridging. In Vacuum it all
happens within the body, using memory to recall the
next place where the body will then re-appear.
Attention, transformation, memory, tracing, repetition,
oscillation and transition are the states of “The Pre
Choreographic Movement Kit”.
The installation searches descriptors for movement
parameters. “The Pre-choreographic Alphabet” is not
prescriptive and also does not aim towards a specific
physical manifestation or dance phrase. In this sense,
the tracking does not depart from a physical execution
of the dance or movement. Instead it looks at the
collection of parameters that define the movement
element in movement and intentions.
The design of the interactive installation follows the
generative character of the Alphabet and continues the
research question from previous projects around the
relationship between qualitative and quantitative
descriptors of movement. Attached to the objects is a
set of instructions that propose physical actions. For
example in the element Mapping, the tracking is not
tracking a dancer’s movement phrase but specifically
looking at a single repetitive pattern in time, which
can be generated by an object such as a stick or a
marker. The Kit is like a micro world, of dancer’s
movement principles outside the usual realm of the
creation space of dance.
2.2 Test
As part of the research project development a test of
the “Pre-choreographic Alphabet” with students of
Dance Department of the Amsterdam School of the
Arts (AHK) took placed. Two of the elements were
selected - Above and Abracadabra. A sonic feedback
was generated with the use of a Kinect Interface.
During the workshop previous to the test, the dancers
received information about the elements. After a few
days they generated movement using the Alpahbet.
The sound feedback improved the awareness of the
movement principles they were trying to express.
The tracking parameters to track the principles on,
unfortunately did not inspire the dancers to generate
new material. They were limiting the dancers
movements to achieve measurable tracking parameters
to generate the assigned sound feedback. Movement
tracking technology could not leave space to create
individual movement material departing from a mental
state, required to work with the “Pre-choreographic
Elements”.
The body as generator of movement might need a
playful pre phase that can leaving space to an
associative and more abstract way to generate
movement. As result of the test and further brainstorm
around the role of motion tracking within the research,
the idea of using objects as interface took shape. When
holding a pen, there is an assumption that there
follows a gesture to start writing. This assumption is
inscribed in the object itself. Writing a pattern and
repeat it again and again will shift the awareness from
the mere act of writing to the pattern itself. It will
generate new ways to use a pen or at least new
movement ideas. Each object serves as an enhancer
for an empathic experience. Each of the 7 Objects in
the Kit have their characteristic shape with haptic and
material qualities, representing movement principles
of the Pre-choreographic Alphabet. The objects
generate a momentum to the body and stimulate a
haptic experience. Finally the mechanical
manipulation of the objects generates a complex
soundscape, moving or manipulating them in a
specific way.
The objects and correspondent manipulation principles
are:
Table 1. Objects
Term
Object and Physical Manipulation
Abracadabra
Finger origami, opening closing
action
Bridging
Object with liquids, flowing from
one side to another
Leaving
Aura
Foam, silicon matter and memory
Mapping
Stick Marker, rewriting traces
Rhythm On
Vibrator Motor with heartbeat pulse
detector
Undulation
String, oscillation
Vacuum
Mechanical toy, transformation and
memory of shape
The object serves as a medium that makes the users
aware of their actions and relationships with
movement, time, space. The objects influence the
users mental state and give intentions on the way they
want to be moved:
i) in the movement characteristics of the
principles,
ii) with instructions to move or transform the
objects
iii) to the resulting acoustic soundscape
2.3 Sound
The sonic feedback will guide the user through a
specific range of possible actions. Sound is used as
another association derived from the Pre-
Choreographic Principles.
Table 2. Sound
Term
Sound Description
Abracadabra
Instantaneous change in the nature of
sound, assembling and breaking the
flow of sound. By adding or breaking
one sound the first sound can sound
like something else.
Bridging
The sound fades in and out / there is
a morphing quality of the sound and
also a transformation path. There are
two states and one in between state
playing a different sound.
Leaving
Aura
Spectral freezing / reverberation /
fade out into silence, echoing sounds
Mapping
Repeated pattern/ grid of rhythm that
becomes a repeated pattern /
placement of sound on space
Rhythm On
Sound object on body, synced with
bodily rhythms
Undulation
Decreasing volume/ spatial
expansion of sound/ variation in
volume
Vacuum
Superimposition of 2 rhythms, (first
recognize 1 rhythm / hear time
between transformation)
2.4 Movement Knowledge
There had been a decade of research projects10 where
the processes of creating dance had been accompanied
by mapping this process to various other media. Still
the act of movement stays on the level of observation
and is rarely proposed as the source to achieve things
like learning to move while moving. To move and
interact with a dance technology, the installation is
enacting the user to move in a specific state. In the
Emio Greco | PC’s dance company’s own principles
the “Pre-choreographic Alphabet are used to put a
dancer into a state that he could generate dance. This
state is a movement state, which generates movements
of a specific quality.
The experience system of the installation gives an
embodied approach to knowledge of dance. Interactive
objects are charged by the Emio Greco | PC’s
movement principles. Playing intuitively with the
objects of the installation develops cognitive and
experiential knowledge, from which he will be able to
generate movements within the principles of the “Pre-
choreographic Alphabet”.
“Pre-Choreographic Movement Kit” (2014)
10Motion Bank, http://motionbank.org/en/, A
Transmedia Knowledge-Base for Performing Arts
http://tkb.fcsh.unl.pt/, Re-play Siobhan Davis Archive,
http://www.siobhandaviesreplay.com/ ,Wayne
McGregor R-research
http://www.randomdance.org/r_research, BADco
What ever dance toolbox http://badco.hr/
3. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION
The box contains 7 interactive object, with XBees
connected to MAX/MSP as a host to analyse incoming
movement data and generating the sounds in realtime.
The sounds are designed to support the user to move
and/or transform the objects. Some of the objects have
more than one sensors to track several movement tasks
the same time. Most movement tasks are rather simple
to inspire the creation of movement.
Table 3. Sensors
Term
Sensors - Movement
Abracadabra
1 * Acceleration X/Y/Z, 2 * Switches
- combined movements of object
open/closed and arm movement
Bridging
1 * Acceleration X/Y/Z
- angle of object
Leaving
Aura
2 * Bend Sensors
- distorting shape
Mapping
1 * Acceleration X/Y/Z
- measuring speed and acceleration of
movement in space
Rhythm On
1 * Pulse Sensor, 1 * Vibrator Motor
- Heart beat in relation with
superimposed static rhythm patterns
Undulation
2 * Acceleration X/Y/Z
- relation of acceleration and speed of
two sensors attached to a rope in
motion
Vacuum
2 * Turn Sensors
- relation of moving physical object
4. CONCLUSION
The interactive installation “Pre-Choreographic
Movement Kit proposes a physical encounter of
thinking and performing movements. It is an
environment both for dancers and non-dancers, where
the process of making dance is shared and made
accessible.
This attempt is not a solitary one, the development of
this installation has a context of interdisciplinary
research projects since the past 15 years on
documentation, dissemination and representation of
dance outside its performance environment.
Throughout the development of these projects a new
way of looking at the nature and characteristics of
dance as an art-form has been established through
research. Dance seen as an ephemeral art form is a
result of the analysis and study of dance, defined only
by its performance. The experience of this event is a
singular occurrence. The process of creation, rehearsal
and transmission of dance is a scored and scripted
process that can easily turn itself into tangible
documents. Performing bodies and the oral
transmission used traditionally to create and re-enact a
dance performance can be transcribed into other
scores using paper, film, video and digital
environments.
The development of interactive environments can
propose an embodied experience of dance principles,
learning structures and elements that make the dance
while moving. The audience can be positioned closer
to establish an empathic artistic relationship of
creating and perceiving dance. All members of the
event share an understanding of the experiences.
The Pre-choreographic Movement Kit, is in a pilot
phase. Testing of the Kit will take place in May, June
2014.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Our thanks to Emio Greco and Pieter C.Scholten, for
allowing us to use their concepts to develop this
installation. Thanks to Assegid Kidane (AME) for
technical supervision.
5. REFERENCES
[1] Bleeker, M. (2011). Visuality in the theatre: The
locus of looking. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
[2] Cha, T. H. (1980). Apparatus, cinematographic
apparatus: Selected writings. New York: Tanam
Press.
[3] Delahunta, S., & Pascual, B. B. (2013, 12). Pre-
choreographic elements: Scott deLahunta in
conversation with Bertha Bermúdez. International
Journal of Performance Arts & Digital Media, 9(1),
52-60. doi: 10.1386/padm.9.1.52_1
[4] Laban, R. V., Challet-Haas, J., & Bastien, M.
(1994). La maîtrise du mouvement. Arles: Actes Sud.
[5] Mercier, M. (2010). La boîte-en-valise de ou par
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... Previous works in dance and HCI have intersected mainly from three perspectives. First, with the theoretical grounding in embodied interaction [25,40] and the experience from empirical studies of the human body, previous works in dance have experimented novel use of bodily signals in performances, and investigated the idea of kinaesthetic creativity [9,42,85]. Second, the extensive use of motion capture and analysis technologies and methods have provided the foundation for the crucial analysis of expressive movement qualities in dance, such as the attempts of capturing and analysing the Laban Movement Qualities with novel technologies [30,31,62]. Finally, the designs of computational aid for the process of dance-making have learned from HCI studies of creativity support, to develop systems and tools for annotating dance sequences and for coordinating the communication between different personnel in dance production teams [21,22,81]. ...
... Previous works have attempted to sense physiological signals from the dancers and to use them directly in the performances, with the aim of uncovering their inner felt experience on stage. Bermudez and Ziegler presented an interactive installation, Pre-Choreographic Movement Kit, consisted of seven objects aimed at articulating questions around movement tracking and the digitisation of dance and notation [9]. One of the components is the combination of a pulse sensor and a vibration motor, expressing the idea of the transformation of rhythm between the inner body space and the outer choreographic space [85]. ...
... They pointed out that the mapping between the biosignal obtained from sensors and the expressive elements in media representation is a complex one, that is shaped by the hardware, software, context, and the designer of the performance. They gave an example close to the idea of the Pre-Choreographic Movement Kit, that the mapping from the heartbeat sensor data to a drumbeat is biased by many factors such as the sampling rate of the sensor, the choice of peak values to sonify, and the quality of the sonification [9,66]. ...
Article
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Technology has increasingly occupied other areas of sciences and humanities, including art and dance. Over the years, initiatives to use technological applications in artistic performances have been observed and this research is developed regarding this context and the challenge of using technology to support the artist’s imagined creations. The systematic mapping of the literature carried out is part of a broad search for studies that portray the interdisciplinarity of these two universes, aiming to find technologies that support the choreographic composition process, focusing on tools that work together with the choreographer’s activities. The methodology consisted of using search terms in research repositories, which initially returned 635 publications, which were filtered by inclusion and exclusion criteria, to undergo further analysis. Eighteen tools were identified and explored in which the main applicability was the simulation of movements through graphic animation. From the operating mode of these applications, the challenges of the existing relationship between technology and the creation of dance were discussed. This study only incorporates technologies that act as a support tool by sharing the compositional effort, which creates the opportunity for future investigations into other ways of using technology in dance creation. The main contribution of this paper is identifying and classifying the main integration strategies of technology and dance composition, as well as summarizing the data and discussing its implications, been the identification of the lack of involvement of artists (end users) in the early stages of the development process the most relevant finding.
Chapter
Among the arts, dance is regarded as a “dynamic spatiotemporal art using the body as a medium,” and it is considered better to appreciate it live [10]. By appreciating dance work live, the theme, movement, and impressions of the work are communicated [12]. However, because of the spread of COVID-19, the first emergency state was declared in Japan in March 2020. Under these circumstances, theaters were closed because of the risk of infection, and all dance performances were cancelled. Live dance appreciation is no longer possible, and dance performances using visual media have soared. Therefore, to clarify how Japanese dance artists have shifted to video distribution in response to the spread of COVID-19 and how this shift has been perceived, we first conducted semi-structured interviews with dance artists who have engaged in video distribution of dance owing to the spread of COVID-19. The interview revealed the merits and demerits of video-delivering dance, problems that emerged, points particular to video-delivering dance, and new physical sensations obtained by video-delivering dance. Based on these results, we suggest room for improvement and then discuss how to provide better computer support. KeywordsContemporary danceVisual mediaCOVID-19
‘Pre-Choreographic Elements’ is a research project that evolved from the interdisciplinary project (Capturing) Intention initiated by dance company Emio Greco | PC and the Art and Development Research Group of the Amsterdam School of the Arts in 2005 (see article by Bermúdez in this issue, pp. 61–81.). ‘Pre-Choreographic Elements’ refers to the ‘pre-phase of choreography, where the content is being created, shaped and tested but not yet part of the selection and ordering process choreography implies’. In this dialogue, deLahunta talks to Bermúdez about the current state of this research.
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