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Argan oil, the 35‐years‐of‐research product

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Abstract

Argan oil is nowadays a major and internationally well‐established actor on the edible‐oil as well as cosmetic‐oil markets. Nevertheless, argan oil fame is quite recent. Indeed, due to important quality matters, argan oil had remained ignored for years. During all this time, argan oil's numerous pharmacological properties have provided benefit only to the population of the Essaouira and Sous Massa Draa regions, the part of the world where argan oil is exclusively produced. Argan oil's world‐wide success is principally the result of a vast multidisciplinary program initiated by the government of Morocco almost 35 years ago. This program, which began by the chemical characterization of argan oil and argan metabolites, has subsequently allowed the establishment of an official, and internationally recognized, argan oil quality norm, together with good preparation pratice guidelines. Because of this norm and these stringent guidelines argan oil has got the trust of customers. This has led to the triggering of its international recognition. Concomittantly, private, governmental and non‐governmental organizations have taken great care to ensure that a large part of argan‐oil derived wealth was redistributed to the Sous Massa Draa population, principally through the building of woman‐managed argan oil preparation cooperatives. This paper relates the major steps of the argan oil saga. Going from the argan tree to high quality argan oil in 35 years.

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... Chemical meqO 2 /kg and K 270 below 0.45. The lampante category (low quality Argan oil (LQAO)) concerns an oil with an acidity exceeding 2.5% [4,5]. ...
... The quality certification is based on a number of parameters, which should be within the legislative limits established by the Moroccan Commission of Normalization [4]. This guideline specifies the maximal parameter levels for Argan oil in order to classify it in four categories: extra virgin, virgin, pure and lampante [4,5]. The oil category depends on some extrinsic and intrinsic factors, such as quality of raw Argan material, environmental conditions, harvesting period, ripeness, extraction process and storage conditions [7,8]. ...
... The peroxide value is a parameter to indicate Argan oil oxidation. The Moroccan PV limits of "extra virgin" and "virgin" Argan oils were defined as ⩽15 meqO 2 /kg and ⩽20meq O 2 /kg, respectively [4,5]. The first category samples ranged from 2.0 to 2.5 meqO 2 /kg and were within the "extra-virgin" limits, while the samples from the second category were ranging from 16.6 to 17.3 meqO 2 /kg. ...
Article
The characterization of Argan oils to classify them in three categories (‘Extra Virgin’, ‘Virgin’ and ‘Lower quality’) was evaluated. A total of 120 Moroccan Argan oils samples from the Taroudant Argan forest was investigated. The free acidity, peroxide value, spectrophotometric indices (K232 and K270), fatty acids, sterols, and tocopherol contents were assessed. The samples were also scanned by FTIR spectroscopy. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and four classification methods, Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA), K-nearest Neighbors (KNN), and Support Vector Machines (SVM), were applied on both the chemical and spectral data. Besides the conventional chemical profiling, FTIR spectra were evaluated for their feasibility as a rapid non-invasive approach for classifying and predicting the oil quality categories. The most important variables for differentiating the oil categories were identified as K232, peroxide value, ɣ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, acidity, stigma-8-22-dien-3β-ol, stearic acid (C18:0) and linoleic acid (C18:2) and could be used as quality indicators. Eight chemical descriptors or key features from the FTIR spectra (selected by interval-PLS) could also be established as indicators of quality and freshness of Argan oils.
... The extraction processes (traditional and press) of edible argan oil are based on a previous thermal treatment (direct heat) of argan kernel before extraction, while the cosmetic oil is obtained from unroasted kernels. Roasting is usually carried out in clay containers over wood fire or in rotating oven applying gas burners (Charrouf and Guillaume 2014). Indeed, roasting is a unit operation very important for the extraction of edible argan oils, as it increases oil yield and allows the development of its specific organoleptic properties such as flavours, aromas and colour (Matthäus et al. 2010). ...
... This fact justifies the increase in fat yields when the temperature increases. The best result, OY = 32.45%, was obtained at roasting conditions of 150°C and 50 min, result coinciding with those obtained by Charrouf and Guillaume (2014) in the traditional extraction technique. At highest temperatures of 175°C, during 30 and 50 min, and 200°C, during 10, 30 and 50 min, the oil yield did not change too much, with values close to 30%. ...
... With the Abencor Ò system, adding 35% ultrapure hot water at 40°C to the roasted kernel grinding paste, kneading it at 50°C for 45 min, a maximum oil yield of 32.5% was obtained, result that coincided with those obtained by Charrouf and Guillaume (2014). This result corresponded to kernel roasting conditions of 150°C and 50 min, and similar one was obtained, using RSM, with an oil yield of 32.1%, under the same roasting conditions. ...
Article
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Roasting is an important step in the production of edible argan oils. The effect of argan kernel roasting temperature (ranging from 150 to 200 °C) and time (from 10 to 50 min), on oil yield, contents in total phenolic compounds, α- and γ-tocopherol, and oxidative stability, was researched using response surface methodology. Increases in roasting temperature and time have a significant effect on all the responses. This study showed that the optimum roasting conditions of argan kernel (indirect heat by convection) for the production of edible argan oils were 150 °C and 50 min, which allowed reaching a maximum oil yield of 32.45%. Edible argan oil, obtained under these conditions, had a content of total phenolic compounds of 78.01 mg/kg, α- and γ-tocopherol of 30.28 and 495.03 mg/kg, respectively, and an oxidative stability of 37.58 h. Furthermore, it presented olfactory notes of ‘almond, dried fruits, hazelnut and waffle’, with ‘sweet’ and ‘fruity’ as positive attributes, without any defect.
... Virgin argan oil has been known for centuries in Morocco where it constitutes the basic ingredient and sometimes exclusive source of vegetable fat in the ''Amazigh diet'' (Charrouf & Guillaume, 2014). Today, however, virgin argan oil is also reaching a relevant presence in the international market of high quality edible oils, due to its appreciated nutritional and sensory properties (Gharby et al., 2011). ...
... Virgin argan oil is characterized by high levels of linoleic and oleic acids and is rich in polyphenols and tocopherols, which exhibit significant antioxidant activity. In addition, the presence of minor bioactive compounds such as sterols, carotenoids, xanthophylls, squalene and CoQ 10 contributes to its antioxidant potential, nutritional value and health properties (Cabrera-Vique, Marfil, Giménez, & Martínez-Augustin, 2012;Charrouf & Guillaume, 2014). Recent studies have shown it to have hypolipidaemic, hypocholesterolaemic, hypoglycaemic and antihypertensive effects as well as a possible role in cancer prevention (Cabrera-Vique et al., 2012;Charrouf & Guillaume, 2014;Cherki, Berrougui, Drissi, Adlouni, & Khalil, 2006;El Monfalouti, Guillaume, Denhez, & Charrouf, 2010;Sour et al., 2012). ...
... In addition, the presence of minor bioactive compounds such as sterols, carotenoids, xanthophylls, squalene and CoQ 10 contributes to its antioxidant potential, nutritional value and health properties (Cabrera-Vique, Marfil, Giménez, & Martínez-Augustin, 2012;Charrouf & Guillaume, 2014). Recent studies have shown it to have hypolipidaemic, hypocholesterolaemic, hypoglycaemic and antihypertensive effects as well as a possible role in cancer prevention (Cabrera-Vique et al., 2012;Charrouf & Guillaume, 2014;Cherki, Berrougui, Drissi, Adlouni, & Khalil, 2006;El Monfalouti, Guillaume, Denhez, & Charrouf, 2010;Sour et al., 2012). Among the various components of the Mediterranean diet, much attention has been paid to virgin olive oil, because its consumption is associated with favorable cardiovascular outcomes (Sour et al., 2012); however, some countries, namely those in the Maghreb area, also consume virgin argan oil in the habitual diet, and a growing body of evidence suggests that this edible oil might have healthful effects, mostly as a result of its antioxidant activity, that would reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease and prostate cancer. ...
... It is prepared from roasted argan kernels, whose pressing can be performed using traditional and modern techniques (14)(15)(16). In both cases, the obtained argan oil has a golden color and a unique hazelnut taste (17). Food argan oil is sweet with a nutty flavor and it is known as one of the most nutritional oils in the world. ...
... The solid residue remaining after the maximum quantity of oil has been collected may still contain up to 25% of oil. In addition, traditional extraction is frequently achieved in unsatisfactory sanitary conditions, particularly, in terms of bacteriological safety, traceability, and oxidative stability (17). As a solution, a change was made to increase argan oil quality and traceability by improving its extraction technology. ...
Article
Full-text available
Argan oil is considered a relatively international product exported from Morocco, although different companies in Europe and North America distribute argan oil around the globe. Argan oil is non-refined vegetable oil, of the more well-known “virgin oil” type, is produced from the argan tree [ Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels]. The argan tree is deemed to be an important forest species from both social and economic standpoints. Argan oil has rapidly emerged as an important product able to bring more income to the local population. In addition, it also has important environmental implications, owing to its ability to stand against desert progression. Currently, argan oil is mainly produced by women's cooperatives in Morocco using a semi-industrial mechanical extraction process. This allows the production of high-quality argan oil. Depending on the method used to prepare argan kernels, two types of argan oil can be obtained: food or cosmetic grade. Cosmetic argan oil is prepared from unroasted kernels, whereas food argan oil is achieved by cold pressing kernels roasted for a few minutes. Previously, the same food argan oil was prepared exclusively by women according to a laborious ancestral process. Extraction technology has been evolved to obtain high-quality argan oil at a large scale. The extraction process and several accompanying parameters can influence the quality, stability, and purity of argan oil. In view of this, the present review discusses different aspects related to argan oil chemical composition along with its nutritional and cosmetic values. Similarly, it details different processes used to prepare argan oil, as well as its quality control, oxidative stability, and authenticity assessment.
... Despite the high socioeconomic and ecological importance of argan, this species is threatened by several biotic and abiotic factors that led to the argan ecosystem's degradation. For example, argan is overexploited by local people for food, wood, cosmetic and medicine industries [8]. In addition, argan suffers from intensive overgrazing by goats and natural habitat loss by urban expansion [8][9][10]. ...
... For example, argan is overexploited by local people for food, wood, cosmetic and medicine industries [8]. In addition, argan suffers from intensive overgrazing by goats and natural habitat loss by urban expansion [8][9][10]. Developing efficient propagation systems for argan is today a key tool in the preservation and rehabilitation of the argan ecosystem. ...
Article
Full-text available
Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels is an endangered plant species endemic to Morocco. In recent years, attempts to develop in vitro regeneration systems for this species were made. However, rooting and acclimatization of in vitro plants have been a bottleneck for successful propagation. In the present study, the effects of different concentrations of auxins, putrescine, silver nitrate (AgNO3) and ammonium nitrate on the in vitro rooting of adventitious shoots of two argan genotypes “Mejji” and “R’zwa”, were evaluated. The highest rooting percentages (86.6% in “Mejji” and 84.4% in “R’zwa”) were observed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium modified by reducing the ammonium nitrate concentration and supplemented with 1.5 mg L−1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 0.5 mg L−1 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 2 mg L−1 AgNO3 and 160 mg L−1 putrescine. This medium resulted in the development of a good root system after only 10 days of culture. Plantlet acclimatization was carried out using different substrate mixtures, and high survival rates (100%) were observed when the substrate contained either peat alone or a sand–peat mixture (1:1, w/w). The high percentages of rooting and acclimatization reported in the present study are of high importance for rapid and large-scale propagation of this endangered species.
... In this area of 800,000 ha, goats can be seen grazing freely around family-sized domestic farms scattered throughout the forest. 7 Cosmetic-and edible-grade argan oils are commonly prepared from argan kernels isolated from mechanically depulped fruit. 7 Fruit depulping prolonged the already multistep and lengthy preparation process of argan oil. ...
... 7 Cosmetic-and edible-grade argan oils are commonly prepared from argan kernels isolated from mechanically depulped fruit. 7 Fruit depulping prolonged the already multistep and lengthy preparation process of argan oil. 8 Traditionally, in Morocco and exclusively on a family scale, the argan nuts collected after goat regurgitation are also used to prepare edible argan oil. ...
Article
Mechanically peeled argan nuts are expensive. The cosmetics industry preferentially uses colorless and odorless ingredients and almost systematically deodorizes cosmetic grade argan oil before incorporating it into cosmetics. Goat-regurgitated argan nuts are underutilized because they lead to an oil that has an unpleasant taste and smell. The preparation of cosmetic argan oil from regurgitated nuts therefore seems to be an interesting avenue to explore even though deodorization might remove some of the oil essential nutrients, generate undesirable compounds, and possibly increase the final oil price. The deodorization of argan oil prepared from goat-regurgitated nuts, using the exact currently used method utilized for regular argan oil, led to colorless and odorless oil that a slightly decreased tocopherol, sterol, β-carotene, and free fatty acid content. A major reduction in primary oxidation products was observed with an increase of the level of stigmasta-3,5-diene. No significant change in the relative percentage of fatty acids was observed. Finally, deodorization extents the preservation properties of argan oil. The use of regurgitated goat nuts can therefore be recommended to prepare cosmetic argan oil while allowing the development of the argan oil industry in a sustainable manner.
... It does not have the hazelnut taste of edible argan oil. Its content of volatile components is lower than of edible argan oil and its shelf life is also shorter, extending up to 2 years, probably due to the formation of Maillard compounds during roasting, which favours preservation [23]. potential is responsible for argan oil's important position in the oil market. ...
... As a cosmetic, argan oil revitalizes skin, cures acne, hydrates dry skin and makes hair shine [24]. Oleic acid was found to be predominating FAs (45.6 AE 0.2%), followed by LA and palmitic acids (32.5 AE 0.4% and 13.7 AE 0.1%, respectively), which indicates that our results are in accordance with official description of argan oil [23]. As far as oils classified into subcluster B are concerned, our results for the fatty acid profile in AMAR are similar to those of Leon-Camacho et al. [25], who detected slightly higher amount of C18:1 n-9 and slightly lower amount of C18:2 n-6 in amaranth oil. ...
Article
Objective: Oils have been used on the cosmetic application since antiquity. With the growing interest in cosmetic formulation of strictly natural origin there has been also an increased interest in the use of alternative oils obtained from nuts, herbs, fruit and vegetable seeds. Due to lack of good scientific reports on the cosmetic plant oils available in Poland, the aim of our research was to characterize fatty acids (FA) profile and oxidative quality of selected unconventional plant oils, which are used as cosmetics or potential cosmetic ingredients. Methods: Oils were purchased from cosmetic health shops in Warsaw (Poland); FA profile was analysed by gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection. Peroxide index (PI), content of hydroperoxides (PV) and free fatty acids (AV) were also determined. Results: Oxidative quality and FA composition of examined oils varied widely among analyzed oils. Cluster analysis revealed three clusters. Clusters S1 and S3 include only one oil (Perilla and sea buckthorn, respectively). Perilla oil is characterized by relatively small content of both saturated FA (8.5%) and monounsaturated FA (14.2%) and much higher amount of polyunsaturated FA (73.5%) whereas in sea buckthorn these proportions are opposite (saturated FA and monounsaturated FA - 33.5% and 51.0% respectively, and the lowest amount of polyunsaturated FA - 5.2%). In cluster S2 two sub-clusters were distinguished and the content of linoleic (p = 0.0015), α-linolenic (p = 0.0092) and oleic (p = 0.0015) acid caused this distinction. PI ranged from 8.9 in sea buckthorn oil to 135 in Perilla oil. Perilla oil and raspberry seed oil were also characterized by the highest PV (225 ± 14.9 mEq O/kg oil and 232 ± 13.8 mEq O/kg oil, respectively), whereas the lowest PV was determined for walnut oil (0.82 ± 0.18 mEq O/kg oil) and carrot seed oil (0.87 ± 0.21 mEq O/kg oil) oils. Conclusion: FA composition of cosmetic oils in combination with data concerning their oxidative quality, is very important for determining their safe and effective use. It is very important to standardize and test the FA content in commercially available oils of cosmetic use.
... The cold press extraction is the most used technique on the local cooperatives, due to its low cost, relatively important extraction yield and the high quality of the obtained oil [22]. Charrouf [23] described the cold press extraction process of the argan oil, and mentioned a yield value of 50%, which, despite being low in comparison with the other extraction techniques, stays higher than the traditional extraction that gives only 30% of oil with poor microbiological quality [24]. ...
Presentation
L’extraction enzymatique est une méthode largement utilisée dans l’industrie pour l’extraction de jus de fruits et d’huiles. Cette technique consiste en l’hydrolyse en milieu aqueux d’une matrice végétale. L’extraction enzymatique présente l’avantage de fournir des extraits propres à la consommation sans risques sur la santé des consommateurs. Le but de notre étude est l’optimisation du rendement d’extraction de l’huile d’argane en utilisant l’extraction enzymatique sans altérer ces paramètres qualitatifs. Pour cela l’huile d'argane a été extraite en utilisant différentes méthodes d'extraction à savoir la presse à froid, le Soxhlet, l’extraction au CO2 supercritique, et l’extraction assistée par enzyme en utilisant 3 préparations enzymatiques (cellulast, pectinex et viscozyme). L'évaluation des paramètres de qualité a été réalisée en déterminant les valeurs d'acide, de peroxyde et d'iode ainsi que les coefficients d'extinction K232 et K270. Les résultats obtenus ont montré un rendement d’extraction élevé obtenu par extraction enzymatique avec le viscozyme (66,37 ± 3,3%), suivi de l’huile extraite par Soxhlet (59,5 ± 3,1%). Nos résultats ont également démontré de bons paramètres qualitatifs dont une bonne stabilité oxydative (en accords avec la norme officielle de l'huile d'argane), avec des valeurs d'acide, de peroxyde et d'iode inférieures à 0,8 mg/g, 15 meq d'O2/kg d'huile et 110 g I2/ 100 g d'huile, respectivement. Ces résultats prouvent que la méthode d'extraction enzymatique peut éventuellement être appliquée pour l’amélioration du rendement d’extraction de l’huile d’argane sans altérer sa qualité. Cette étude est la première à reporter l’utilisation de la technologie d’hydrolyse enzymatique pour l'extraction de l'huile d'argane.
... The most emblematic use of this tree regards the production of argan oil, a cold-pressed non-refined vegetable oil. Argan oil is traditionally obtained from the fruits of the argan tree using a laborious multistep process that includes fruit picking, fruit peeling, nut cracking, kernel roasting, kernel grinding, dough malaxing and oil collection [1][2][3]. Despite the current use of modern mechanical presses for oil extraction to allow for a higher oil yield, the process still results in a very low production (approximately 4 L of oil per 100 kg of dried argan fruit), requiring laborious work corresponding to 20 person-hours [4]. ...
Article
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Argan oil is a traditional product obtained from the fruits of the argan tree (Argania spinosa L.), which is endemic only to Morocco. It is commercialized worldwide as cosmetic and food-grade argan oil, attaining very high prices in the international market. Therefore, argan oil is very prone to adulteration with cheaper vegetable oils. The present work aims at developing novel real-time PCR approaches to detect olive and soybean oils as potential adulterants, as well as ascertain the presence of argan oil. The ITS region, matK and lectin genes were the targeted markers, allowing to detect argan, olive and soybean DNA down to 0.01 pg, 0.1 pg and 3.2 pg, respectively, with real-time PCR. Moreover, to propose practical quantitative methods, two calibrant models were developed using the normalized ΔCq method to estimate potential adulterations of argan oil with olive or soybean oils. The results allowed for the detection and quantification of olive and soybean oils within 50–1% and 25–1%, respectively, both in argan oil. Both approaches provided acceptable performance parameters and accurate determinations, as proven by their applicability to blind mixtures. Herein, new qualitative and quantitative PCR assays are proposed for the first time as reliable and high-throughput tools to authenticate and valorize argan oil.
... The argan tree "Argania spinosa" is generally a plant that exists exclusively in the Souss plain in Morocco. An oil of high nutritional value, "high level in unsaturated fatty acids", cosmetic, environmental and economic value, pastoral plant and a better quality wood are the main characteristics of this tree [1][2][3]. Although the argan tree has a long lifespan (several hundred years), its growth is very slow, and it may take decades to reach its maturity stage [4][5][6][7]. ...
Article
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The argan tree, which is found in southern Morocco, is characterized by environmental, economic and nutritional benefits, but the growth of this tree is very slow. This makes it necessary to find methods to accelerate its growth. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of biochar (BC) and bio-compost (CP) each applied at the rate of 0, 3 and 6% (M/M) on starting growth of argan in fine silty soil for sixteen months. Main stem length, diameter, durability ratio, total length of all stems and number of sprouted shoots were measured every two months with two photosynthetic measurements spaced five months apart for each argan seedling. Despite the strong signs of epigenetic sensitivity and genetic variability across the argan behavior of each treatment depending on the duration and environmental conditions of the crop and the large standard deviations marked in all the tests that were conducted on the argan, some treatments showed interesting results, even in terms of the interaction between climatic conditions, type of treatment and type of test. The argan plants which were grown in the substrate at 6% BC 3% CP showed significant results for all the growth parameters studied and throughout the test. This mixture marked an average water holding capacity (WHC) of around 0.66 g H2O/g dw; the argan seedlings showed the best perimeter average, which exceeded 2.7 cm in the last measurement, with a ratio (height/diameter) strictly less than 7, which removes any possible problem of argan filiform. However, argan plants from all treatments were not stable in the growth characteristics studied; each treatment has advantages and disadvantages regarding argan. Transplantation and monitoring in the field of argan seedlings that have had interesting results are strongly recommended to see if the good starting growth influences their development in the field or if it is a temporary effect.
... The cold press extraction is the most used technique on the local cooperatives, due to its low cost, relatively important extraction yield and the high quality of the obtained oil [22]. Charrouf [23] described the cold press extraction process of the argan oil, and mentioned a yield value of 50%, which, despite being low in comparison with the other extraction techniques, stays higher than the traditional extraction that gives only 30% of oil with poor microbiological quality [24]. ...
... Au Maroc, L'arganier (Argania spinosa L. Skeels) qui appartient à la famille des sapotacées, est la deuxième essence forestière, il couvre une aire approximative de 800 000 ha (Msanda et al., 2005 ;Charrouf, & Guillaume, 2014 Les champignons mycorhizogènes à arbuscules (MA), forment une association mutualiste avec la plupart des plantes terrestres (Smith et al., 2003;Fortin et al., 2008;Garbaye, 2013). Ils favorisent leur croissance et leur résistance à de nombreux stress biotiques et abiotiques. ...
Conference Paper
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Mycorrhizal fungi play an important role in the tolerance of host plants to environmental stresses. Nine areas of the argan tree located in southwest Morocco (Argana, Amskroud plain, Amskroud mountain, Immouzzar, Admine, Lekhssas, Bouyzakarne, Essaouira, and Safi) were investigated to assess the mycorrhizal potential of their soils in order to exploit them as a source of inoculum. The results showed that in its natural state, the argan tree is highly dependent on mycorrhization and that the cytological organization of mycorrhizae observed in its roots is of the arbuscular endomycorrhiza type. The root colonization potential of these symbiotic fungi was higher for the soils sampled at the Argana and Bouyzakarne sites. Thus, soils harvested from the rhizosphere of these two argan groves could be used as an effective source of mycorrhizal inoculum for the production of vigorous Argania spinosa plants in forest nurseries.
... However, it is threatened by various biotic and abiotic factors. It is overexploited by the local population as well as various commercial enterprises for the production of edible and cosmetic oils (Charrouf and Guillaume 2014). Moreover, the argan forest has declined substantially due to increasing pressures from agricultural and urban expansion and overgrazing (El Bahloul et al. 2014;Genin et al. 2017). ...
Article
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Key message This paper summarizes recent findings on argan propagation through conventional and tissue culture techniques and outlines the advantages and limitations of each method. New directions for future research are proposed. Abstract Argan (Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels) is an agroforestry species that produces one of the most expensive oils in the world. In 1998, the endemic argan forest in Morocco was recognized as a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO. Since then, argan has gained considerable international attention. Argan is primarily found in a limited coastal area of Morocco and is threatened by various biotic and abiotic factors, including overexploitation, urban expansion, overgrazing, successive years of drought, and climate change. Moreover, argan is difficult to propagate. Because the demand for argan products is constantly increasing, many researchers have attempted to develop efficient propagation methods using both conventional and tissue culture techniques. Conventional propagation has been successfully achieved by seeds, stem cuttings, and by grafting. In vitro propagation has been achieved through seed germination, nodal segment culture, micrografting, and organogenesis from zygotic explants. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports on regeneration of argan via somatic embryogenesis or adventitious organogenesis from adult tissues. In this review, we discuss the main methods of argan propagation, summarize the progress made in this field, and report the most relevant findings from the literature. In addition, we highlight the advantages and limitations of each propagation method and propose new directions for future research.
... Nowadays, to preserve argan tree integrity, goat farmers also feed goats with argan oil preparation by-products [7]. Those are "argan pulp" (the peel of the argan fruit) and "argan cake" (the solid residue collected after argan kernel pressing) [8]. Annual pulp production exceeds 64,000 tons and that of argan press-cake is estimated to be over 4,000 tons. ...
Article
Argan leaves along with fruit by-products serve, since ancient times, as animal feed as well as incorporated into other food products. Most of research works conducted on argan tree were devoted to oily fraction and little is known about by-product. In this study, thirteen elements including macro, micro-elements as well as heavy metals were quantified in argan leaves, cake and pulp using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. Sampling was carried out over 4 localities. Analyses of variance revealed that locality, by-product type and their interaction affect significantly data variability, while by-product was the main variability source. These outcomes were confirmed by principal component analysis, which allowed a clear discrimination among localities and by-products. Our samples were found to be rich in macro and micro-elements but lower levels of heavy metals demonstrating higher nutritional value on one hand and lack of toxicity concerns of argan by-products.
... The cold press extraction is the most used technique on the local cooperatives, due to its low cost, relatively important extraction yield and the high quality of the obtained oil [22]. Charrouf [23] described the cold press extraction process of the argan oil, and mentioned a yield value of 50%, which, despite being low in comparison with the other extraction techniques, stays higher than the traditional extraction that gives only 30% of oil with poor microbiological quality [24]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Argan oil is most frequently sold as pure oil, which can be directly applied topically due to its cosmetological proprieties or ingested in order to provide several health benefits. It's also commonly mixed into a number of cosmetic products like shampoos, soaps, and conditioners. In this study we aimed to improve the argan oil extraction yield and quality parameters by comparing the effects of different extraction technologies. Argan kernel oils were extracted using four methods: mechanical cold press, Soxhlet extraction with n-hexane, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and enzyme assisted extraction with three different enzyme solutions cellulase (cellulast), pectinase (Pectinex) and a mixture of carbohydrase enzymes (Viscozyme®). The quality parameters was evaluated by determining the acid, peroxide and iodine values as well as the extinction coefficients K232 and K270 as measures of conjugated dienes and trienes, respectively. The results showed that the highest yield (66.37% ± 3.3%) was obtained by enzyme assisted extraction using the carbohydrases enzymes mixture (Viscozyme®), followed by Soxhlet extraction (59.5% ± 3.1%) and pectinase extraction (52.03% ± 3.55%). All argan oils samples obtained by the different methods showed a good oxidation stability, with acid, peroxide and iodine values lower than 0.8 mg/g, 15 meq/kg and 110 g/100 g according to the official argan oil norm, respectively. The results of argan oils quality parameters demonstrated that the enzyme extracted argan oils showed low oxidation, with the following quality parameters: acid values (0.4–0.6 mg/g), iodine values (95–100 g/100 g), dienes (K232 < 2), trienes (K270 < 0.35), and peroxide values (<1.5 meq/kg). The results proved that the enzyme assisted extraction method can be applied to improve the argan oil yield without affecting the oil quality. The enzyme extraction method may be a great alternative to solvent and cold press extractions for this eco-friendly processing approach.
... The Argan forest covers an area of 830,000 ha, occurring on the coastal and subcoastal areas of central-western Morocco (the fertile Souss Valley, Anti-Atlas and the coastal regions between Safi and Sidi Ifni) [1]. It was recognized in 1998 as a UNESCO biosphere reserve (Man and the Biosphere Reserve) [2]. This area presents a unique flora composed mainly of Mediterranean taxa, coexisting with tropical, Saharan, Macaronesian and endemic taxa [3,4]. ...
Article
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Quality control and traceability of Argan oil requires precise chemical characterization considering different provenances. The fatty acid profile is an essential parameter that certifies the quality and purity of Argan oil. In addition, stable isotopes were recently shown to be accurate as an indicator for geographical origin. In this study, fatty acid composition by gas chromatography (GC) and stable isotope ratio by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) were investigated for classifying Argan oil according to its geographical origin. Forty-one Argan oil samples, belonging to six geographical origins of Moroccan natural Argan population (Safi, Essaouira, Agadir Ida Outanane, Taroudant, Tiznit and Sidi Ifni) were collected and extracted under the same conditions. The results show that the isotope δ13C, palmitic acid (C16:0), linoleic acid (C18:2) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) were strongly influenced by ecological parameters. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was performed to discriminate the six studied provenances. Discriminant models predicted the origin of Argan oil with 92.70% success. Samples from Safi, Essaouira and Agadir Ida Outanane presented the highest classification rate (100%). In contrast, the lowest rate was reported for samples from Tiznit (85.70%). The findings obtained for fatty acids and isotope combination might be considered as an accurate tool for determining the geographical origins of Argan oil. Moreover, they can potentially be used as specific markers for oils labeled with Protected Geographical Indication (PGI).
... While the presentation of commercial-only arguments has long been considered satisfactory by the customers, a trend has recently emerged that customers are more inclined to ask for scientific evidences to back up the new cosmetics. A few years ago, argan oil was lauched on the cosmetic market with extensive advertising but also with scientific studies validating its claimed or empirically observed properties (Charrouf and Guillaume, 2008;Guillaume and Charrouf, 2011;Charrouf and Guillaume, 2014). With such an approach, the commercial success of argan oil has been global and its acceptance by the public almost immediate. ...
Article
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Cactus seed oil is gaining considerable popularity in the cosmetic industry. To estimate cactus seed oil’ industrial as well as domestic ease of use, we investigated the oxidative stability of Moroccan cactus seed oil under accelerated aging conditions. In addition, we compared cactus seed oil stability to that of argan oil, a popular and well-established cosmetic oil, under the same conditions. Cactus seed oil is much more sensitive to oxidation than argan oil. Its shelf-life can be estimated to be no longer than 6 months at room temperature. Such instability means that the preparation process for cactus oil must be carried out with great care and cactus seed oil needs to be protected once extracted.
... Such fame is the result of an intensive, prolonged, and rigorous scientific and marketing work that has propelled argan oil from local curiosity to a globally valued product. Over 30 years were needed to achieve this result [1,2] that resulted in the design of a sustainable way to prepare argan oil frequently presented as a success exemple [3][4][5][6]. In parallel, and just as successfully, cosmetic argan oil (INCI: Argania spinosa kernel oil; CAS: 23747-87-3) has also become a major cosmetic ingredient that can be either directly applied on the skin/hair or incorporated into cosmetic preparations [7,8]. ...
Article
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Argan oil is prepared by cold pressing argan kernels collected from fully ripe fruit. Argan oil market price is particularly elevated. Consequently, efficient methods to ascertain its authenticity and quality are looked for by industrials as well as individual consumers. Argan oil element profile has already been shown to be sufficiently singular to be used to certify its authenticity. Quantification of eleven elements (Ca, P, Mg, Mn, K, Cu, Fe, Cd, Cr, Zn, and Sn) indicated a 55 to 60% increase in global metal content in argan oil prepared from fully ripe fruit, compared to argan oil prepared from unripe fruit. Individual variations are herein reported and our study demonstrates that argan oil element profile allows to certify the degree of maturity of the argan fruit at its harvest time and hence to guarantee the respect of one essential parameter necessary to get an argan oil of high nutritional quality.
... Argan (Argania spinoza) is the archetypal tree which values the southwestern province of Moroccan territory with 74% of the global production share, and approximately more than 20 million trees, covering an area of 800 000 ha [8]. The main wealth of this plant is its fruit. ...
Article
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Argan nut shell (ANS) is one of the most abundant agricultural by-product in the southwestern of Morocco. This study aims to focus on thermal characteristics of ANS biomass for alternative energy production. Physicochemical studies were done to characterize biomass-based material. Moreover, thermal degradation characteristics and kinetic parameters were assessed under pyrolysis and oxidizing conditions by means of thermogravimetric methods. Fundamental tests involving particle combustion of ANS and coal were carried out, and a comparison was performed. The results exhibit a negligible amount of nitrogen and sulfur and a heating value of 20.63 MJ kg-1 compared to 24 MJ kg-1 for high grad coals. Furthermore, ANS follows the usual structural decomposition of lignocellulosique biomass, while coal reveal a discrete devolatilization zone. In addition, combustion tests show a significant burning period and high particle temperature. This experimental research is intended to provide a reference data of ANS biomass for energy recovery through combustion.
... Argan oil was demonstrated to have significant health advantages and benefits compared to other edible vegetable oils (Charrouf & Guillaume, 2008). The Argan oil shows a balanced composition, including tocopherols (Khallouki et al., 2003), fatty acids (FAs) (Rueda et al., 2014), sterols (Charrouf & Guillaume, 1999Charrouf, Hilali, Jauregui, Soufiaoui, & Guillaume, 2007), triacylglycerols (Charrouf & Guillaume, 2014), polyphenols , pigments, and antioxidant compounds (El Monfalouti, Guillaume, Denhez, & Charrouf, 2010). Argan oil can be prepared by two extraction processes resulting in cosmetic grade from unroasted pulps and edible grade oils from roasted pulps (Charrouf, Guillaume, & Driouich, 2002;Hilali, Charrouf, Aziz Soulhi, Hachimi, & Guillaume, 2005). ...
Article
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The present work examined and assessed the in vivo anti‐inflammatory effect of polyphenolic extracts from Moroccan edible Argan oils (Argania spinosa L.), extracted by two extraction processes: Hand pressing and mechanical pressing. Chemical properties, such as acidity, peroxide index, ultraviolet indices, total polyphenols composition, fatty acid composition, tocopherol composition, phenolic profiling, and sterol composition were studied. Then, the anti‐inflammatory potential was determined by applying carrageenan, an induced paw edema test in rats. The results revealed an anti‐inflammatory effect of edible Argan oil and indicated a higher efficiency of hand‐pressed oil compared to mechanical‐pressed oil, supporting its traditional use in human health, related to pain and inflammations. The chemical composition of these oils was evaluated, and total polyphenols, tocopherol composition, and some phenolic compounds were found highly concentrated in the hand‐pressed oil. Practical applications The present study highlights and compares the in vivo anti‐inflammatory effect of polyphenolic compounds, extracted from Argan oil by two processes (hand and mechanical extraction). The study demonstrated the better quality of hand‐pressed oil over mechanically pressed, supporting the traditional uses of this oil in treating several inflammations and pain‐related situations. Moreover, the edible Argan oil may be introduced as a regular diet and food ingredient.
... It constitutes the third most common wood specie in Morocco, behind the thuya (Tetraclinis articulata) and evergreen oak (Quercus ilex). It benefits local populations economically because of the argan oil extracted from almonds largely used as antioxidants in food (Khallouki et al., 2015), and cosmetic products (Charrouf and Guillaume, 2014). The extracted fruit of the argan tree is known for its potential pharmaceutical applications, while its leaves are used to isolate pectin polysaccharides (Hachem et al., 2016). ...
Article
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The present work is focused on spectroscopic study of four samples of Argan wooden artifact pertaining to the 17th, 18th, 20th and 21st centuries. The objective is to characterize their unknown structures by the study of their non degraded parts and to investigate changes occurred in their degraded parts due to the natural degradation process. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy gauges the presence of many functional groups related to cellulose I and/or II (OH, C-O-C and -CH2), hemicelluloses (particularly C=O acetoxy ester band at 1732 cm-1), and lignin (OH phenolic, Car-O and C=Car) and provides qualitative information on the state of wood alteration by informing on the evolution of new former C=O bands. The degree of conversion to carbonyl group, especially quinone or p-quinone at 1650 cm-1, is correlated to lignin degradation, while the absence of the C=O acetoxy absorption is ascribable to occurred deterioration in hemicelluloses, and partial degradation of cellulose with enhancement of the C=O region between 1730-1630 cm-1. X-ray diffraction determines the presence of two forms of cellulose; amorphous cellulose at 18.5° 2 θ and predominant crystalline cellulose Iβ at 2 θ = 22.6° which characterized by an intense peak. The decrease of crystallinity index values confirms the deterioration level and obvious changes in crystallinity level. However, the microcrystalline structure appears unaltered because no significant changes were observed for calculated cristallite seize. The obtained results depend on the prolonged time of ageing, natural deterioration phenomena, and wood part (internal or external) that is exposed to degradation. The combination of these two methods is useful for an accurate estimation of the degradation level of argan wood.
... Currently, the Moroccan Argan forest covers an area of 840 000 ha including the fertile Souss valley region, the foothills of the Anti-Atlas mountains, and the coast region between Essaouira and Agadir. In 1998, UNESCO declared this tree a world heritage (Charrouf & Guillaume, 2014). The fatty acids, tocopherols, squalenes, sterols and phenolic antioxidants (particularly vitamin E) make Argan oil a precious and unique product of high quality, edible and cosmetic simultaneously (Aabd et al., 2013;Charrouf & Guillaume, 2008). ...
Article
Fatty-acid profiling vs UV-Visible fingerprinting in combination with chemometric tools were applied to classify edible Extra Virgin Argan Oils (EVAO) with protected geographic indication according to their geographical origins. Secondly three EVAO categories classification were classified according to their extraction process (mechanical or traditional) and/or on the kernels (seeds) used for their preparation (roasted or unroasted). A total of 150 edible EVAO samples were collected during the harvest periods of 2012–2015, from five Moroccan Argan forests, i.e. Ait-Baha, Agadir, Essaouira, Tiznit and Taroudant. A second set of 30 samples from the Taroudant region (harvest 2015) was used to classify in three EVAO categories according to extraction process/kernel type applied. Firstly, the EVAO quality is checked by determining physico-chemical parameters and the fatty-acid composition. Then, the UV-Visible spectra are recorded. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), were performed to classify the oils either according to their geographical origins or to their extraction process/kernel type. The results showed a highly significant discrimination of the five groups according to the region and of the three groups when considering the preparation. This study demonstrated the feasibility of UV-Visible fingerprinting (routine technique) for geographical classification or method preparation distinction.
... These antioxidants are very interesting for their nutritional activity; the α, β, γ and δ tocopherols are the main antioxidants present in Argan oil (Charrouf & Guillaume, 2014). The results obtained from our EVAO samples are reported in Table 1. ...
Article
This study investigated the effectiveness of SIFT-MS versus chemical profiling, both coupled to multivariate data analysis, to classify 95 Extra Virgin Argan Oils (EVAO), originating from five Moroccan Argan forest locations. The full scan option of SIFT-MS, is suitable to indicate the geographic origin of EVAO based on the fingerprints obtained using the three chemical ionization precursors (H3O+, NO+ and O2+). The chemical profiling (including acidity, peroxide value, spectrophotometric indices, fatty acids, tocopherols- and sterols composition) was also used for classification. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN), and support vector machines (SVM), were compared. The SIFT-MS data were therefore fed to variable-selection methods to find potential biomarkers for classification. The classification models based either on chemical profiling or SIFT-MS data were able to classify the samples with high accuracy. SIFT-MS was found to be advantageous for rapid geographic classification.
... The essential fatty acids are oleic acid with 43-49% and linoleic acid with 29-36%. Schottenol and spinasterol are the essential sterols with 44-49% and 34-44% respectively and γ-tocopherol is the esential tocopherols with 81-92% [13,14,21]. We considered that these fatty acids and tocopherols could reduce postoperative adhesion formation. ...
Article
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The aim of this study is to reveal effect of Argan oil on postoperative peritoneal adhesion. Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. After laparotomy was carried out intraperitoneally, 0,9% NaCl and 3 ml Argan Oil applied to saline and Argan oil groups, respectively. Four subjects in each groups were sacrificed at postoperative day 3 and 7. Macroscopic adhesions and microscopic cellular reactions, such as giant cell, lymphocyte/plasmocyte, neutrophil and histiocyte, were assessed and hydroxyproline levels were measured in all three groups. Adhesion and fibrosis scores were lower both 3rd and 7th days in Argan oil, but only lower fibrosis scores were statistically significant (p<0,05). Except giant cell 3th day scores; Argan oil had lowest neutrophil, lymphocyte, plasmocyte, and histiyocyte scores. Both 3rd and 7th days scores of neutrophil, lymphocyte, plasmocyte, but only 7th days scores of histiocyte reaction were statistically significant (p<0,05). However; Argan oil had highest hydroxyproline levels and the difference were not statistically significant both 3rd and 7th days (p>0,05). Argan oil reduced the postoperative peritoneal adhesions initially seperation the damaged tissues, subsequent effects of fatty acids and tocopherols on inflammation, plasminogen activation and matrix metalloproteinase steps of adhesion formation.
... The Argan culturing has a great economic and social importance in Southwestern Morocco. Argan forests cover an area of 800,000 ha, including the fertile Souss valley region, the foothills of the Anti-Atlas mountains, and the coast region between Essaouira and Agadir [1,2]. In fact, the resulting Argan oil has high health benefits in comparison to other oils [1], especially due to the special fatty acids composition [3], tocopherols [4], triacylglycerols [5], phytosterols [1,6,7], pigments and its antioxidant activity [8]. ...
... Argan forests cover an area of 800,000 ha, including the fertile Souss valley region, the foothills of the Anti-Atlas mountains, and the coast region between Essaouira and Agadir [1,2]. In fact, the resulting Argan oil has high health benefits in comparison to other oils [1], especially due to the special fatty acids composition [3], tocopherols [4], triacylglycerols [5], phytosterols [1,6,7], pigments and its antioxidant activity [8].Argan oil may result from two processes of preparation: cold pression of unroasted kernels to provide cosmetic Argan oil, while roasted kernels are used to prepare edible Argan oil [9]. ...
Poster
1 Introduction The Argan forest is a region of great ecological, cultural and economic importance, which allowed the subsistence of a part of the Moroccan population for centuries. Recognized for its various nutritional and pharmacological virtues, Argan oil is a leader on both the edible and cosmetic-oil markets [1, 2]. Quality traceability and authenticity of Argan oil have been objects of interest of the Moroccan authority for protecting this heritage and to increase its economic value. The characterization of its origin, composition and quality has a great interest to ensure the traceability for consumers [1]. 2 Material and methods The presented work concerns an investigation of several analytical techniques that are being used for the determination of the geographical origin of Argan oils, such as their chemical composition (i.e. free acidity, peroxide value, spectrophotometric indices, fatty acid composition, tocopherols and sterols content); spectroscopic(UV-Visible and FTIR), UPLC-MS and Selected-Ion-Flow-Tube Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS) fingerprinting, combined with chemometric tools. The abilities of four multivariate classification methods were compared for each data set: Partial-Least-Squares Discriminant-Analysis (PLS-DA), Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA), K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), and Support Vector Machines (SVM). A total of 365 Argan oil samples, originating from five geographical regions (‘AitBaha’, ‘Agadir’, ‘Essaouira’, ‘Tiznit’ and ‘Taroudant’), from2012till 2016 harvests, were analyzed. 3 Results and discussion Differences in the composition of the Argan oils from the five analysed regions were confirmed by several methods. Furthermore the results showed that: a) the chemical composition b)spectra(UV-Visible and FTIR),c) the phenolic profile (UPLC-MS) and, d) volatile compounds (SIFT-MS) in combination with chemometric tools may successfully differentiate the geographical origin of Argan oils originating from five different regions. 4 Conclusion Finally, it should be noted that the data sets presented in the present study, characterize the identity of Moroccan Argan oils and could be in corporate in to a quality control, in terms of its authentication. 5 References [1] Charrouf, Z., & Guillaume, D. Argan oil, the 35 years of research product. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 116 (10), 1316-1321, 2014. [2] Matthäus, B., Guillaume, D., Gharby, S., Haddad, A., Harhar, H., & Charrouf, Z. Effect of processing on the quality of edible argan oil. Food chemistry, 120 (2), 426-432, 2010.
... These antioxidants are very interesting for their nutritional activity; the α, β, γ and δ tocopherols are the main antioxidants present in Argan oil (Charrouf & Guillaume, 2014). The results obtained from our EVAO samples are reported in Table 1. ...
Conference Paper
1 Introduction The Argan tree (Argania spinosa L. Skeels) is a tropical plant and represents the only endemic species of the genus Argania in Morocco. Currently, in Morocco the Argan forest covers an area of 840 000 ha including the fertile Souss valley region, the foothills of the Anti-Atlas mountains, and the coast region between Essaouira and Agadir [1-2]. Nowadays the origins of food are essential for import and export trading in order to ensure the traceability for consumers, traders or even food producers. Information about food’s origin is necessary to verify its specifications and to guarantee its quality, because foods from different origin have distinct qualities [3-4]. Selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) is a newer analytical technique, which has the ability to identify and quantify trace gases at relatively low levels. Analyte specificity is enabled by using three chemical ionization precursors for analysis (H3O+, NO+ and O2+) [5]. 2 Material and methods This preliminary study investigated the effectiveness of SIFT-MS and multivariate data analysis to perform rapid screening of 95 commercial EVAO characterized by five different geographical origins (‘AitBaha’, ‘Agadir’, ‘Essaouira’, ‘Tiznit’ and ‘Taroudant’) declared by protected geographical indication. The abilities of four multivariate classification methods were compared for each data set: Partial-Least-Squares Discriminant-Analysis (PLS-DA), Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA), K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), and Support Vector Machines (SVM). 3 Results and discussion At present, the geographical origin of extra virgin argan oils (EVAO) can be ensured by documented traceability, although chemical analysis may add information that is useful for possible confirmation. The new approach using full scan is suitable to verify the geographic origin of EVAO based on three chemical ionization precursors for analysis (H3O+, NO+, and O2+). In this study, we have compared the abilities of four different multivariate classification methods: partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), and support vector machines (SVM) applied to the volatile profile of the headspace as a fingerprint. The selected variables that contain information for the aimed classification based on three algorithms such as interval partial least squares (iPLS) , variable importance in projection (VIP) and Uninformative variable elimination in PLS (UVE-PLS) were investigated, whereas those variables encoding the noise and/or with no discriminating power are eliminated. 4 Conclusion SIFT-MS data with chemometric tools can be used for the evaluation of the quality and the classification of the Moroccan Argan oils. 5 References [1] Charrouf, Z., & Guillaume, D. Argan oil, the 35 years of research product. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 116(10), 1316-1321, 2014. [2] Matthäus, B., Guillaume, D., Gharby, S., Haddad, A., Harhar, H., & Charrouf, Z. Effect of processing on the quality of edible argan oil. Food chemistry, 120(2), 426-432, 2010. [3] Gonzalvez, A., & de la Guardia, M. Basic Chemometric Tools. Food Protected Designation of Origin: Methodologies and Applications, 60, 299, 2013. [4] Luykx, D. M., & Van Ruth, S. M. An overview of analytical methods for determining the geographical origin of food products. Food Chemistry, 107(2), 897-911, 2008. [5] Španel, P., & Smith, D. (1999). Selected Ion flow tube-mass spectrometry: Detection and real-time monitoring of flavours released by food products. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 13, 585–596.
... Argan oil is obtained from the kernels of fruits of the Argan tree (Argania spinosa L., Sapotaceae), an endemic species of southwestern Morocco which, thanks to its ecological and socioeconomic function, is protected by UNE-SCO [1][2][3][4]. Argan oil is used in two forms: cosmetic and edible, and a Moroccan standard has been elaborated for its quality classification [5]. Edible Argan oil is obtained from slightly roasted kernels. ...
Article
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short note evaluation of authenticity and quality of argan oils sold on the Bulgarian market. This study analyzes the fatty acids, triacyglycerols, sterols, and oxidative stability (acid value, peroxide value, conjugated dienes and induction period) of six Argan oils for nutritional or cosmetic purposes imported on the Bulgarian market by different traders. The results were compared to that of authentic cold-pressed Moroccan Argan oil and processed by principal component analysis and clustering. The subsequent application of chromatographic and statistical methods revealed that the lipid composition of five of the samples was identical to that of the reference authentic Argan oil. Their oxidative stability was in a range such as to classify them as fine virgin Argan oils. One sample, labeled as containing an addition of antioxidants, showed the presence of another plant oil with fatty acid composition similar to that of pure Argan oil, but with significantly different triacylglycerol and sterol compositions. It also had the lowest oxidative stability. On the other hand, no significant differences in the fatty acids, triacylglycerols, sterols, and oxidative stability of the investigated Argan oils were observed regarding their recommended application, i.e. for cosmetic or nutritional purposes.
... This massive and drastic exploitation unbalanced the ecosystem, maintained by local human populations up until then through forest management in line with farming and pastoral practices (Boudy, 1950). The recent increase in the argan oil trade for cosmetic and food exports, as well as the poor state of natural vegetation heritage, led to genetic and agronomic research initiated by the government of Morocco almost 35 years ago (Charrouf and Guillaume, 2014). This research aims to repopulate the degraded forest and to set up argan tree orchards. ...
Article
Full-text available
The argan tree [Argania spinosa (L.) Skeel.] is a spontaneous and xerophilous species endemic to southwestern Morocco and the only representative species of the tropical Sapotaceae family in the country. It forms well-developed woodlands in the plain of Souss and open steppic vegetation on the semi-arid slopes of the Anti-Atlas Mountains. Currently, wild and managed argan trees are a staple firewood and timber resource, leaves and fruit are used for fodder and oil from the seeds for daily food. In the Anti-Atlas southeast of Taroudant, various tree growth forms can be observed in keeping with local management practices. We developed interdisciplinary research in this area by studying the bioarchaeological remains from the medieval site of ^Igîlîz in conjunction with current farming practices in the neighbouring village of Tifigit. A plant inventory of 96 taxa was recorded from the archaeobotanical remains, including 13 wild and cultivated tree species and eight herbaceous crops (cereals, pulses, vegetables, condiments and fruit). The charred wood and seeds of Argania spinosa predominated in a wide range of contexts, indicating the major role of this species in the 10the13th century economy. The ethnobotanical survey focused on the exploitation of argan trees and argan oil extraction techniques. In this paper, we discuss the past and present-day role of the argan tree in the agro-pastoral economy of the mountain hinterland.
Article
Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı altın otu esansiyel yağı ve argan yağı karışımının yanıt yüzey metodolojisi (YYM) koşullarında mikrokapsüle edilmesi ve uygun krem formülasyonundaki antioksidan aktivitesinin belirlenmesidir. Materyal ve Yöntem: YYM deney tasarımı kullanılarak, kompleks koaservasyon yöntemi ile mikrokapsül üretilmiştir. Araştırma Bulguları: Altın otu esansiyel yağı ve argan yağı karışımlı, jelatin/arap zamkı duvarlı mikrokapsüller üretilmiş ve karakterize edilmiştir. Oluşturulan deney tasarımına verilerimiz işlenerek ANOVA sonuçları elde edilmiştir. Mikrokapsül içeren kremin antioksidan kapasitesi yüksek bulunmuştur. Sonuç: YYM ile üç farklı parametrede, kompleks koaservasyon yöntemiyle mikrokapsül üretilip, karakterize edilmiştir. Mikrokapsüllerin morfolojik görüntüleri için SEM (taramalı elektron mikroskobu) ve optik mikroskoptan yararlanılmış olup, yapıyı aydınlatmak için GC-MS (gaz kromatografisi-kütle spektroskopisi) ve FT-IR (Fourier dönüşümlü kızılötesi spektroskopisi) kullanılmıştır. Mikrokapsüller kreme eklenip, kremin antioksidan kapasitesi CUPRAC metoduyla yorumlanmıştır. Tüm veriler değerlendirildiğinde altın otu ve argan yağı karışımı kompleks koaservasyon yöntemi kullanılarak başarılı bir şekilde mikrokapsüle edilmiştir. Mikrokapsül içeren kozmetik kremin etkin bir şekilde antioksidan kapasiteye sahip olduğu görülmüştür.
Article
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Argan oil plays a significant socio-economic role in southwestern Morocco, with many applications in cosmetics and nutrition. In this study, the chemical composition, the quality, as well as antioxidant activity of Argan oils extracted from different fruit shapes (apiculate, oval, spherical, and fusiform) in Essaouira and Agadir were evaluated. The results collected indicated a slight resemblance in the chemical composition of fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols, and polyphenols of Argan oils. These, extracted from two different regions, also show similar yields in the oval form, with values of 53.53 % for the Essaouira region and 54.86 % for that of Agadir. However, a slight difference was noted in the shape of the fruit. Indeed, the total sterols content for the oval shape showed values of 178.64 mg/100g in the Essaouira region and 171.97 mg/100g in the Agadir region. Also, γ-tocopherol was the predominant tocopherol in all tested oils.
Article
Recognized for its nutritional and therapeutic use, extra-virgin Argan Oil (EVAO) is frequently adulterated. Selected-Ion Flow-Tube Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS) spectra were applied to quantify adulterants (i.e., Argan oil of lower quality (LQAO), olive oil (OO), and sunflower oil (SO)) in EVAO. Four data sets, i.e., using H3O⁺, NO⁺, O2+• reagent ions, and the combined data were considered. Soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA), and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were assessed to distinguish adulterated- from pure EVAO. The effectiveness of SIFT-MS associated with PLS and support vector machine (SVM) regression to quantify trace adulterants in EVAO was evaluated. Variable Importance in Projection (VIP), and interval-PLS (iPLS) were also investigated to extract useful features. Different models were built to predict the EVAO authenticity and the degree of adulteration. High accuracy was achieved. SIFT-MS spectra handled with the appropriate chemometric tools were found suitable for the quality evaluation of EVAO.
Article
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Valorisation of Argan oil requires the precise identification of different provenances markers. The concentration of tocopherol is regarded as one of the essential parameters that certifies the quality and purity of Argan oil. In this study, 39 Argan samples from six different geographical origins (Safi, Essaouira, Agadir, Taroudant, Tiznit, and Sidi Ifni) from the central west of Morocco were collected and extracted using cold pressing. The total tocopherol amount was found to range from 783.23 to 1,271.68 mg/kg. Generally, γ-tocopherol has the highest concentration in Argan oil. It should also be noted that the geographical origin was found to have a strong effect on the amounts of all tocopherol homologues studied. Principal component analysis of tocopherol concentrations highlighted a significant difference between the different provenances. The content of tocopherol has also been found to be strongly influenced by the distance from the coast and altitude, whereas no significant effect was found regarding other ecological parameters. The prediction ability of the LDA models was 87.2%. The highest correct classification was revealed in coastal provenances (100%), and the lowest values were from the continental ones (71.4%). These results provide the basis for determining the geographical origins of Argan oil production with well-defined characteristics to increase the product’s value and the income of local populations. In addition, this study provides a very promising basis for developing Argan varieties with a high content of tocopherol homologues, as well as contributing to the traceability and protection of Argan oil’s geographical indication.
Article
BACKGROUND Argan oil is one of the purest and rarest oils in the world so that the addition of any further product is strictly prohibited by international regulations. Consequently, it is necessary to establish reliable analytical methods to ensure its authenticity. In this study, three multivariate approaches have been developed and validated using fluorescence, UV–visible, and ATR-FT-MIR spectroscopies. RESULT The application of partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model showed an accuracy of 100%. The quantification of adulteration have been evaluated using partial least square regression (PLS). The PLS model developed from fluorescence spectroscopy provided the best results for the calibration and cross-validation sets, as it showed the highest R² 0.99 and the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) of calibration and cross-validation 0.55, 0.79. The external validation of the three multivariate approaches by the accuracy profile shows that these approaches guarantee reliable and valid results between 0.5% -32%, 7%–32%, and 10%–32% using fluorescence, FT-MIR, and UV–visible spectroscopies respectively. CONCLUSION This study confirmed the feasibility of using spectroscopic sensors (routine technique) for rapid determination of argan oil falsification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Chapter
Vegetable oils are to a great extent difficult to differentiate one from another by visual inspection. This is particularly apparent when viewing refined seed oils that are liquid at room temperature, equally viscous and available in shades of pale yellow. Some oils can be differentiated by their fatty acid, triacylglycerol, and/or sterol composition. Because of the similarities in physical and chemical composition, vegetable oils from different sources may be used in the food industry interchangeably. A few low volume vegetable oils command a higher price based on their origins, methods of production, special composition, and perceived health benefits. These types of oils may be subject to adulteration with refined seed oils. Argan, camellia, and olive oils are special cases discussed in this chapter as examples of oils that are often the subject of food fraud activities, where adulteration may lead to a loss in one or more of the benefits to the consumer.
Thesis
Argan oil is obtained from the fruit of the Argan tree (Argania spinosa L.) and it is one of the leading cosmetic and edible oils in the world. Argan oil production is considered as an imperative sector for the economy of the Southwestern Moroccan regions. Argan oil has specific nutritional characteristics, therapeutic properties, and sensory aspects that makes it unique and precious. Under that perspective, Argan oil sector modernization, yield increase, geographical origin protection, and quality control enhancement, have been priorities for the Moroccan agricultural authority. Quality control and geographical characterization of Argan oil have been among the specific objectives of our research for protecting this heritage and increasing its economic value. Our studies have focused on the establishment of efficient instrumental analytical methods combining the comprehensive characterization of the composition of Moroccan Argan oils (developing fingerprints) and chemometric treatments in order to develop trustworthy and efficient tracing models for geographical origin, authentication, shelf life, and quality control. Briefly, the studies were conducted on more than 600 Argan oil samples collected from five Moroccan regions (Ait-Baha, Agadir, Essaouira, Tiznit, and Taroudant) during the harvest seasons between 2012 and 2018. All samples were produced by the Women Cooperatives Markets from the five regions. Geographical classification, quality characterization, authentication, and oxidative evaluation of these Moroccan Argan oils were carried out using several fingerprint techniques (FTIR, NIR, Raman, UV-Visible, and SIFT-MS) and chemical properties profiling (i.e. free acidity, peroxide value, spectrophotometric indices, fatty-acid composition, tocopherols, and sterols content) as-sociated with chemometric tools. The results showed suitable models for the geographical classification, discrimination, and for quality control of Moroccan Argan oils. Finally, it should be noted that the results are of great interest for the valorization and protection of the Argan tree, the Argan oil, and for the human sustainability. Research studies on therapeutic valorization, metabolites identification, and nutritional properties are still ongoing.
Article
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In this work, fatty-acid profiles, including trans fatty acids, in combination with chemometric tools, were applied as a determinant of purity (i.e., adulteration) and provenance (i.e., geographical origin) of cosmetic grade argan oil collected from different regions of Morocco in 2017. The fatty acid profiles obtained by gas chromatography (GC) showed that oleic acid (C18:1) is the most abundant fatty acid, followed by linoleic acid (C18:2) and palmitic acid (C16:0). The content of trans-oleic and trans-linoleic isomers was between 0.02% and 0.03%, while trans-linolenic isomers were between 0.06% and 0.09%. Discriminant analysis (DA) and orthogonal projection to latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were performed to discriminate between argan oils from Essaouira, Taroudant, Tiznit, Chtouka-Aït Baha and Sidi Ifni. The correct classification rate was highest for argan oil from the Chtouka-Aït Baha province (90.0%) and the lowest for oils from the Sidi Ifni province (14.3%), with an overall correct classification rate of 51.6%. Pairwise comparison using OPLS-DA could predictably differentiate (≥0.92) between the geographical regions with the levels of stearic (C18:0) and arachidic (C20:0) fatty acids accounting for most of the variance. This study shows the feasibility of implementing authenticity criteria for argan oils by including limit values for trans-fatty acids and the ability to discern provenance using fatty acid profiling.
Article
In order to achieve a better understanding of the shelf-life behavior of extra virgin Argan oils (EVAO) during storage, the influences of storage periods, roasting process and packaging materials were studied. Those oils were extracted from roasted and unroasted kernels. The EVAO shelf life assessment was made by determining chemical properties (acidity, peroxide value, specific absorbances K232 and K270, tocopherol content, fatty-acids and sterol composition, and oxidative stability index) and by FTIR spectra. Sixty EVAO samples (30 roasted and 30 unroasted) were evaluated after production and then were packed in two glass bottle types (dark and clear), which resulted in 120 samples. They were stored under realistic storage conditions (ambient temperature) for two successive years and analysed 6-monthly. Chemometric data analysis was applied to study the shelf life influence. PCA and PLS-DA, on either the chemical data or the FTIR spectra, allowed the discrimination between fresh and oxidized oils. The oil shelf life was predicted by means of PLS regression. Thus, the time of storage after which the oil loses its extra virgin quality could be predicted. Finally, the potential of FTIR fingerprinting to quantify four physicochemical properties (i.e. acidity, PV, K232 and K270) during EVAO storage was established using PLS regression.
Article
Morocco markets argan oil as a fair-traded, organic health and beauty elixir that women extract in an ancient forest protected internationally to clean the world’s air. Since the 1990s, the kingdom has partnered with global governance organizations and foreign investors to develop the argan forest as a coveted natural resource, designated a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in 1998. Large-scale investments in reforestation and “arganiculture” propose to mitigate carbon emissions, alleviate poverty, and empower women workers at proliferating state-subsidized argan oil cooperatives in the export-oriented commodity value chain. This impact evaluation of the booming argan enterprise weighs the social benefits and costs of a transnational push that prioritizes economic growth over social sustainability. Empirical data from 829 surveys with local residents depict an unregulated, informal commercial sector at odds with the inclusive neoliberal development narrative on the whole. Results show rural women and their communities exposed to risks in a centralized, market-driven extractivist industry geared toward consumers. The top-down argan boom has triggered new legislation and innovations in science and technology that have shifted control of the land, agroforestry practices, and oil extraction process from local producers to the state. Women and the rural poor have thus been divested of their patrimony and marginally sustained as manual labor rather than effectively empowered. Moving forward, rebalancing economic, environmental, and social sustainability priorities will require initiatives informed by empowerment indicators, revised regulatory policies, diversified investment strategies, and commitment to assuring compliance, transparency, and impartial assessment of benefits and costs to women workers.
Article
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The aim of the present work is to identify and characterize the most important aroma active compounds of argan oil from unroasted and roasted argan almonds as well as roasted almonds obtained from goat‐digested fruits by dynamic headspace GC and GC‐olfactometry with aroma dilution analysis to classify samples from the market according to their processing. While fresh ground argan almonds are characterized by only seven aroma active compounds, in argan oil from unroasted and roasted almonds, 22 and 35 aroma active compounds are found, respectively. As a result of the roasting process, 14 aroma active compounds with dilution factors >64 are detected in the oil by GC‐olfactometry. 17 aroma active compounds show significant differences between the three different argan oil qualities. These compounds are used to differentiate the quality of argan oil from the market. Practical Application: Argan oil belongs to the high‐price oils on the market but sometimes the sensory quality of the oil contradicts the positive image that has been built up for oil by unpleasant cheese‐like and fusty sensory attributes. Although some information about the composition of the volatile compounds of cold‐pressed argan oil from unroasted and roasted kernels is available, the knowledge about compounds that are typical for the aroma of argan oil is important in order to develop analytical methods for the classification of different argan oil qualities. This reduces the work for a panel group that is often time and labor consuming and sometimes the results are not reliable. The present paper demonstrates which volatile compounds show significant differences between argan oil from unroasted and roasted argan almonds as well as roasted almonds obtained from goat‐digested fruits allowing a differentiation of these oils.
Chapter
Argan oil is extracted from the kernels of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels, a tree that almost exclusively grows endemically in southern Morocco. If argan oil was initially only known around its traditional production area, major efforts combining chemical, agronomic and human sciences have led to its international recognition and marketing. In addition, to ensure the sustainable production of a sufficient quantity of argan kernels, a vast and unprecedented program that led to the reforestation of large areas of drylands has been developed in Morocco. Therefore, argan oil production is considered as an economic and ecologic success.
Article
Volatile compounds of argan oils obtained from raw and roasted kernels and subjected to accelerated storage test at 60 °C were profiled by means of headspace solid‐phase microextraction with gas chromatography coupled with high‐resolution time‐of‐flight mass spectrometry (HS‐SPME‐GC‐HRToFMS), followed by statistical multivariate analysis (MVA). Main volatile markers differentiating oils during storage were identified as 2‐methylbutanal, acetic acid, pentanal, hexanal, 2,5‐dimethylpyrazine, methyl pyrazine, 2,3‐butanediol, and 1‐methyl‐1H‐pyrrole. Principal component analysis (PCA) results show that MVA is suitable for differentiating between raw and roasted argan oils of various degrees of oxidation. Key odorants in both oils were determined by gas chromatography‐olfactometry (GC‐O) analysis, indicating butanal as the most prominent odorant for raw argan oil (flavor dilution [FD] = 8), whereas 3‐isopropyl‐2‐methoxypyrazine and 2‐ethyl‐3,5‐dimethylpyrazine with FD values of 1024 were the most prominent among 23 odorants in argan oil obtained from roasted kernels. Peroxide values (PV) indicate that argan oil obtained from roasted kernels is significantly less prone to oxidation than oil obtained from unroasted kernels.
Conference Paper
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L'Arganier est une plante tropicale et représente la seule espèce endémique du genre Argania au Maroc. La forêt d'Argan couvre une superficie de 840 000 ha, y compris la vallée fertile du Souss, les contreforts des montagnes d’atlas et la région côtière entre Essaouira et Agadir [1] La traçabilité de qualité et l'authenticité de l'huile d'Argan ont été des objets d'intérêt de l'autorité marocaine pour protéger ce patrimoine, augmenter sa valeur économique et assurer une traçabilité des consommateurs et producteurs. La spectroscopie infrarouge à transformée de Fourier est une technique non destructive, le Tube d'écoulement d'ions sélectionnés- Spectrométrie de masse (SIFT-MS) est une nouvelle technique d'analyse très spécifique, qui utilise trois précurseurs chimiques d'ionisation (H3O+, NO+ et O2+) pour identifier et quantifier les produits volatiles en traces [2]. Ce travail présente l’investigation des techniques analytiques qui sont utilisées pour la classification et la discrimination des huiles d'argan marocaines selon leurs cinq origines géographiques (Ait-Baha, Agadir, Essaouira, Tiznit et Taroudant). D’une part, 120 échantillons d'huile d'argan de la PGI ont été recueillis au cours de quatre saisons de récolte entre 2011 et 2014. Les paramètres physico-chimiques ont été déterminés (i.e. Acidité libre, indice de peroxyde, indices spectrophotométriques, composition des acides gras, tocophérols et stérols) et les empreintes digitales de FT-IR sont enregistrés pour tous les échantillons. D'autre part, 95 huiles d'argan vierges commerciales (EVAO) ont été étudiées par des empreintes digitales obtenues à l’aide de la technique SIFT-MS associés à une analyse de données multivariée. L’analyse en composantes principal (PCA) a été utilisée pour visualisation et révéler les différences entre les échantillons. Les modèles de classification ont été développés par l’analyse Discriminante des Moindres Carrés Partiels (PLS-DA). Des prétraitements de données mathématiques ont été appliqués pour améliorer la performance des modèles de classification multivariée. Les résultats obtenus permettent distinguer les cinq classes d'échantillons. Les modèles PLS-DA ont montré une bonne prédiction et une discrimination précise entre les échantillons de différentes régions. Les résultats de SIFT-MS liés aux empreintes digitales des composés volatils ont été évalués par quatre différentes méthodes de classification multi variée ('intervalle des moindres carrés partiels (iPLS), la projection des variables importants (VIP) et l'élimination non informative des variables dans PLS (UVE-PLS)). Ces techniques ont fourni des résultats fiables pour classer les huiles d'argan IGP marocaines de différentes régions d'une manière rapide et moins chère qui ne nécessitent aucune procédure de séparation préalable. Mots clés : huiles d’argan ; spectres FT-IR ; SIFT-MS ; origine géographique ; classification ; empreintes digitales, analyse multi variées.
Chapter
The article contains sections titled: 1.Introduction2.Composition2.1.Glycerides2.2.Fatty Acids2.3.Phospholipids2.4.Waxes2.5.Sterols and Sterol Esters2.6.Terpenoids2.7.Other Minor Constituents3.Physical Properties3.1.Melting and Freezing Points3.2.Thermal Properties3.3.Density3.4.Viscosity3.5.Solubility and Miscibility3.6.Surface and Interfacial Tension3.7.Electrical Properties3.8.Optical Properties4.Chemical Properties4.1.Hydrolysis4.2.Interesterification4.3.Hydrogenation4.4.Isomerization4.5.Polymerization4.6.Autoxidation5.Manufacture and Processing5.1.Vegetable Oils and Fats5.1.1.Cleaning5.1.2.Storage and Handling of Raw Materials5.1.3.Dehulling5.1.4.Expelling5.1.5.Cold-Pressing5.1.6.Extraction5.1.7.Modified Oil Recovery Techniques5.2.Land-Animal Fats5.3.Marine Oils5.4.Synthetic Fats6.Refining6.1.Degumming6.2.Deacidification (Neutralization)6.3.Bleaching6.4.Deodorization7.Fractionation8.Hydrogenation9.Interesterification10.Environmental Aspects11.Standards and Quality Control11.1.Standardization of Methods of Analysis11.2.Sampling11.3.Oilseeds and Oilseed Meals (Raw Materials)11.4.Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils11.4.1.Basic Procedures11.4.2.Chemical Characteristics and Fat Indices11.4.3.Physical Methods11.4.4.Determination of Fatty Acids and Acylglycerols11.4.5.Determination of Sterols and Tocopherols11.4.6.Determination of Contaminants11.4.7.Determination of Phosphor and Phospholipids11.4.8.Further Chromatographic Methods for Different Applications12.Storage and Transportation13.Individual Vegetable Oils and Fats13.1.Almond Oil13.2.Argan Oil13.3.Avocado Oil13.4.Babassu Oil and Other Palm Seed Oils13.4.1.Babassu Oil13.4.2.Other Palm Seed Oils13.4.3.Other Sources of Lauric Acid Oils13.5.Cuphea Oil13.6.Camelina Oil13.7.Castor Oil13.8.Chaulmoogra, Hydnocarpus, and Gorli Oils13.9.Cocoa Butter13.10.Coconut Oil13.11.Corn (Maize) Oil13.12.Cottonseed Oil13.13.Grape-seed Oil13.14.Hazelnut Oil13.15.Hempseed Oil13.16.Kapok and Related Oils13.17.Linseed Oil13.18.Lupine Oil13.19.Macadamia Nut Oil13.20.Mustard Seed Oil13.21.Neem Seed Oil13.22.Niger Seed Oils13.23.Oiticica and Related Oils13.24.Olive Oil13.25.Palm Oil13.26.Palm Kernel Oil13.27.Paranut or Brazilnut Oil13.28.Peanut Oil13.29.Pecan Nut Oil13.30.Perilla Oil13.31.Poppyseed Oil13.32.Pumpkin Seed Oil13.33.Rapeseed Oil13.34.Rice Bran Oil13.35.Safflower Oil13.36.Sesame Oil13.37.Shea Butter, Borneo Tallow, and Related Fats13.38.Soybean Oil13.39.Sunflower Oil13.40.Teaseed Oil13.41.Tung Oil and Related Oils13.42.Vernonia Oil ? Kinka-Oil13.43.Walnut Oil13.44.Wheat-Germ Oil14.Individual Animal Fats14.1.Land-Animal Fats14.1.1.Lard14.1.2.Beef Tallow14.1.3.Mutton Tallow14.1.4.Horse, Goose, and Chicken Fat14.2.Marine Oils14.2.1.Whale Oil14.2.2.Fish Oil15.Toxicology and Occupational Health
Article
Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2014, 116, 1–2 DOI: 10.1002/ejlt.201400448 Editorial: 12th Euro Fed Lipid Congress – From Lipidomics to Industrial Innovation The city of Montpellier, in South of France just a short distance from the Mediterranean sea, is well known for its touristic interests but also for its strong scientific community gathering internationally recognized research centres (CNRS,INRA, INSERM, CIRAD, Agropolis, SupAgro, Montpellier University,…) and around 12.000 researchers with main research topics being medicine, agronomy, chemistry, pharmacology, environment, water and so on. Eventually, this city appeared to be a very nice choice to host the twelfth edition of the Euro Fed Lipid Congress (September 14th-17th, 2014), an event that covered a wide variety of topics “from Lipidomics to Industrial Innovation”. This year, the congress was co-hosted by two French national societies, both being members of Euro Fed Lipid.The first one, SFEL (Société Française d’Etude des Lipides; www.sfel.asso.fr) is the oldest one and was created in1943. Covering various aspects of lipid science and technology, SFEL has strong links with the oil and fat industry. The second one, GERLI (Groupe d’Etude et de Recherche en Lipidomique;www.gerli.com/) is the lipid division of the French Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (SFBBM) and it was created in 1978 as an independent association. It also covers various aspects of lipid research with a strong connection to life sciences, biochemistry and cell biology of lipids. Together with the scientific committee members, members of those two French associations were involved in the selection of oral and poster presentations from submitted abstracts, as well as in contacting internationally recognized scientists for plenary and keynote lectures. This resulted in the establishment of a solid program with 16 different topical sessions providing a broad and comprehensive view on current lipid science and technology: • Lipids in Animal Science • Biotechnology and Enzyme Technology • Molecular and Cellular Biology of Lipids in Health and Disease • Lipids in Nutrition • Lipidomics, Analytics, Authenticity, Imaging • Marine Lipids • Microbial Lipids • Lipid Chemistry and Oleochemistry • Mediterranean Oils and Fats • Physical Chemistry, Lipid Biophysics and Formulations • Plant Lipids, Oil Seeds, Plant Breeding • Processing • Lipid Oxidation and Antioxidants • Milk and Dairy Products in Human Nutrition • Innovation in Industry • Young Scientists session The latter session was established this year as a tribune for Young Scientists and PhD awards in the field of lipid science. The Euro Fed Lipid Young Scientist Award, the GERLI PhD prize, the SFEL PhD prize and a new award from the SCI Lipids Technical Interest Group (UK) were delivered on that occasion, with oral presentations given by the winners of these awards. As it has been established since several years now, senior scientists who made important contributions to the field were also rewarded during the Euro Fed Lipid congress. Dr John Chapman (INSERM, Paris, France) received the European Lipid Science Award and gave a lecture on "Lipidomics and HDL Function: Insights into Innovative Therapeutics". Dr Jan-Kees Vis (Unilever, Vlaardingen, Pays-Bas) received the European Lipid Technology Award and gave a lecture on "The Journey towards Certified Sustainable Palm Oil, a Bumpy Road". The Chevreul Medal from SFEL was awarded to Prof. John Harwood (University of Cardiff, UK) while Prof. Uwe T. Bornscheuer (University of Greifswald, Germany) received the Wilhelm Normann Medal from DGF, the German Society for Fat Research. The opening lecture given by Prof. Rolf Schmid (Bio4business, Stuttgart, Allemagne) highlighted the importance of "Lipids in a Global Bioeconomy" and this was confirmed by the strong attendance of the Euro Fed Lipid congress this year. A record number of 870 delegates participated in that event, which made it the largest Euro Fed Lipid congress ever organized. Delegates came from 70 different countries, and a total of 180 oral lectures and 370 posters were presented. This special issue of EJLST brings some of the lectures that were presented during this event, exploring the latest developments in this fascinating world of lipids. Frédéric Carrière Marseille, France Co-chairman, GERLI President Pierre Villeneuve Montpellier, France Co-chairman, Vice-President of Euro Fed Lipid
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Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids are a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids that contribute to human health and well-being. Functionally the most important n-3 fatty acids appear to be eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoioc acid (DHA), but roles for n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) are now emerging. Intakes of EPA and DHA are usually low, typically below recommended intakes. Increased intakes are reflected in greater incorporation into blood lipid, cell and tissue pools. Increased content of EPA and DHA modifies the structure of cell membranes and the function of membrane proteins involved as receptors, signaling proteins, transporters, and enzymes. EPA and DHA modify the production of lipid mediators and through effects on cell signaling can alter patterns of gene expression. Through these actions EPA and DHA alter cell and tissue responsiveness in a manner that seems to result in more optimal conditions for growth, development, and maintenance of health. The effects of n-3 fatty acids are evident right through the life course, meaning that there is a need for all sectors of the population to have a sufficient intake of these important nutrients. EPA and DHA have a wide range of physiological roles which are linked to certain health or clinical benefits. Practical application: Very long chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids are found in seafood, especially fatty fish, and in supplements. They exert a range of health benefits as a result of their molecular, cellular and physiological actions. Consequently, very long chain n-3 fatty acids play important roles in growth, development, optimal function, and maintenance of health and well-being right across the life course. Therefore, all sectors of the population need to ensure sufficient intake of these important nutrients. This can be achieved through eating fatty fish or, failing that, use of good quality supplements.
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This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new markers for argan oil blends of up to 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection of argan oil adulteration at levels higher than 10%. Among the physical properties studied, the refractive index shows significant differences for sunflower oil and its blend at 10% with argan oil. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es contribuir al control de la autenticidad del aceite argán, un producto marroquí muy valorado. Con el fin de detectar la adulteración del aceite de argán con aceites vegetales comestibles, se han estudiado los siguientes parámetros: ácidos grasos, fracción de hidrocarburos, 3,5-estigmastadieno, ésteres alquílicos, pigmentos clorofílicos y propiedades físicas como la viscosidad, densidad e índice de refracción. Los resultados de este estudio muestran que el 3,5-estigmastadieno, kaureno y la feofitina-a podrían utilizarse como nuevos marcadores en la detección del aceite de argán adulterado con aceites refinados y aceite oliva virgen al 5%. La composición en ácidos grasos puede emplearse para la detección de la adulteración del aceite de argán a niveles superiores al 10%, debido a la similitud en la composición de los aceites estudiados. Entre las propiedades físicas analizadas, el índice de refracción mostró diferencias significativas entre el aceite de argán y sus mezclas con el aceite de girasol al 10%.
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The present study assessed the chemical composition (such fatty acids, triglycerides, tocopherols) of argan oil from plants growing in two regions of Algeria (Tindouf and Mostaganem). The extraction of oil was carried out by solvent using soxhlet apparatus. The oil yield obtained was 55.9 % for Tindouf oil (TO) and 66.5 % for Mostaganem oil (MO). The fatty acid composition was determined by GC-FID, the triglycerides and tocopherols by HPLC. The results showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were 79.88 % and 82.58 % with the predominant components were oleic acid 45.02 % and 50.3 % followed by linoleic acid 29 % and 36.8 %. The major triglycerides were dilinoleoyl-oleoyl-glycerol (LLO) 12 % and 15 %, dioleoyl-llinoleoyl-glycerol (OOL) 15.5 % and 18.8 %, palmitoyl-oleoyl-linoleoyl-glycerol (POL) 12.6 % and 14.3 %, palmitoyl-dioleoyl-glycerol (POO) 15.8 % and 16.8 % then triolein (OOO) 11.3 % and 12.1 %. The unsaponifiable fraction was 1.6 % and 1.71 %. The tocopherols showed a high amount 657. 424 and 749.38 mg/kg with the gamma tocopherol as main compound 555.827 and 689.49 mg/kg.
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Virgin argan oil, which is harvested from argan fruit kernels, constitutes an alimentary source of substances of nutraceutical value. Chemical composition and oxidative stability of argan oil prepared from argan kernels roasted for different times were evaluated and compared with those of beauty argan oil that is prepared from unroasted kernels. Prolonged roasting time induced colour development and increased phosphorous content whereas fatty acid compo-sition and tocopherol levels did not change. Oxidative stability data indicate that kernel roasting for 15 to 30 min at 110 °C is optimum to preserve virgin argan oil nutritive properties. Keywords Argania spinosa . Oxidative stability . Seed roasting . Virgin argan oil Abbreviations AV acid value A w activity of water B[a]P benzo[a]pyrene FA fatty acid FID flame ionization detector IP induction period MEQ milliequivalent PPM parts per million PPB parts per billion PV peroxide value Introduction
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The argan tree (Argania spinosa L. Skeels), an endemic tree in Morocco, is the most remarkable species in North Africa, due to its botanical and bioecologic interest as well as its social value. Argan oil is traditionally well known for its cardioprotective properties and it is also used in the treatment of skin infections. This paper gives an overview of scientific literature available on nutritional and pharmacologic properties of argan oil. Owing to its unique organoleptic properties associated with its cardioprotective properties, argan oil has found, recently, its place in the highly competitive international edible oil market. This success is a very positive sign for the preservation of the argan tree, the argan forests and, therefore, in general, the biodiversity.
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Integration of many remote regions into the global economy has brought an increasing array of exotic products from rural areas in the developing world to the plates and cupboards of wealthy consumers. This article contributes to the growing literature that looks at the role of global consumers in social and environmental governance. We examine a set of global commodities that, due to their high value, retail at prices well beyond usual agricultural products, giving wealthy consumers great influence over livelihood and land use choices in producer regions. Proponents assert this kind of commercialization will alleviate rural poverty. We identify necessary conditions for this to happen in general and consider the specific case of argan oil, produced in Morocco and sold abroad for prices above US$400 per liter. Using a livelihood approach drawing on geography and related fields, we test the claim that niche commodity trade alleviates poverty in this specific setting. We find that argan oil commercialization has played a relatively minor role in household budgets and asset accumulation, whereas nonfarm work and remittances play a greater role. Our results show the importance of a livelihood approach in contextualizing commodity chains. We conclude that the poverty alleviation effects of niche commodity marketing are context dependent and influenced by agro-ecological conditions, resource scarcity, resource ownership regime, and characteristics of the value chains.
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The determination of argan oil adulteration by other vegetable oils is a real analytical challenge. The authentication of argan oil needs fast and simple analytical techniques for quality control and testing. This study focuses on the detection and quantification of argan oil adulteration with different edible oils, using midinfrared spectroscopy with chemometrics. Chemometric treatment of MIR spectra has been assessed for the classification and quantification of argan oil adulteration with sunflower or soybean oils. The potential of MID spectroscopy combined with partial least squares regression (PLS) as a rapid analytical technique for the quantitative determination of adulterants in argan oil has been demonstrated. A PLS model has been established to predict the concentration of soybean and sunflower oil as adulterants in the calibration range between 0% and 30% (w/w) in argan oil with good prediction performances in the external validation.
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Virgin edible argan oil is prepared by cold-pressing argan kernels previously roasted at 110 degrees C for up to 25 minutes. The concentration of 40 volatile compounds in virgin edible argan oil was determined as a function of argan kernel roasting time. Most of the volatile compounds begin to be formed after 15 to 25 minutes of roasting. This suggests that a strictly controlled roasting time should allow the modulation of argan oil taste and thus satisfy different types of consumers. This could be of major importance considering the present booming use of edible argan oil.
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Deforestation is an important matter for the argan forest whose preservation necessitates planting trees. Macroscopic parameters are urgently needed to identify trees presenting good potential as oil producers. This study demonstrates that argan oil produced from kernels of apiculate fruit is richer in d-tocopherol, whereas oil produced from spherical fruit is richer in linoleic acid, and that produced from fusiform fruit is richer in oleic acid. Therefore, the use of fruit-form as a marker could permit an easy organic production of "naturally enriched" oils.
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In recent decades, argan oil has become one of the most expensive cosmetic oils on world markets. This review outlines the social and environmental context of the argan boom, highlighting its consequences on local livelihoods and conservation. It examines the claims that the argan oil boom has benefited the local population and that it encourages the conservation of argan woodlands.
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Levels of eight dietary elements were assessed by ICP-AES in virgin edible and beauty argan oil samples prepared from four remote locations of the argan forest, and over a three-year period. The data showed sufficiently little variability to assess that all argan oil samples present, in terms of dietary elements, a similar composition, independently from the tree location within the argan forest. Therefore, adulteration detection by trace element analysis in edible and beauty argan oil is a method that can be generalised.
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In Morocco, the region covered with argan trees is named the argan grove. Its long-term preservation depends on the discovery of new and economically rewarding markets to sell argan tree produces. At the present time, the argan oil appears to be the best candidate to fulfill this task. The scientific results that have allowed the emergence of argan oil on the international edible and cosmetic oil markets are reported together with recent analytic results. Alternative approaches, not based on argan oil marketing but also aimed at safeguarding the argan grove, are also reported.
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In the present study, we investigated the relationships between storage conditions of argan kernels and argan oil quality over a 1-year period. Argan kernels were packaged in black or white bags. Kernels in black bags were stored at room temperature (RT) while kernels in white bags were stored either at RT or at 4°C. Quality parameters periodically monitored over the 12 months were peroxide and acid value, oil yield, moisture content, UV absorption, and fatty acid composition. Whereas light had no impact on argan oil quality, only argan kernel storage at 4°C allowed a perfect preservation of argan oil quality after 1 year.Practical applications: In the present study we have established that solar light does not damage argan kernels in such a way that it could alter argan oil quality, and that argan kernels can be stored for up to 1 year at 4°C without alteration of argan oil quality. If stored at RT, argan kernels should be used within 10 months to prepare edible argan oil.
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Abstract Virgin argan oil, which is harvested from argan fruit kernels, constitutes an alimentary source of substances of nutraceutical value. Chemical composition and oxidative stability of argan oil prepared from argan kernels roasted for different times were evaluated and compared with those of beauty argan oil that is prepared from unroasted kernels. Prolonged roasting time induced colour development and increased phosphorous content whereas fatty acid composition and tocopherol levels did not change. Oxidative stability data indicate that kernel roasting for 15 to 30 min at 110 °C is optimum to preserve virgin argan oil nutritive properties.
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Triacylglycerol profiles were selected as indicator of adulteration of argan oils to carry out a rapid screening of samples for the evaluation of authenticity. Triacylglycerols were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection. Different peak area ratios were defined to sensitively detect adulteration of argan oil with vegetable oils such as sunflower, soy bean, and olive oil up to the level of 5%. Based on four reference argan oils, mean limits of detection and quantitation were calculated to approximately 0.4% and 1.3%, respectively. Additionally, 19 more argan oil reference samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection, resulting in highly comparative results. The overall strategy demonstrated a good applicability in practise, and hence a high potential to be transferred to routine laboratories.