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This research aims to develop a mixed-use facility model for the wellbeing of the elderly, responding to the changes caused by the recent trends of low birthrate, growth of the aging population, and baby boomers entering their senior years. It is expected that mixed-use facilities for the elderly in the current context should be integrated, including other generations and providing extensive beneficial services to all social classes for universal welfare. Using a customized questionnaire, we examined baby boomers' demands on welfare services associated with spaces, and characterized their lifestyles. Based on their lifestyles, a mixed-use facility model for the welfare of the elderly is proposed, suggesting a spatial configuration framework as an integrated system of various functions, generations and managements. This research can be used as a basis for constructing a customized welfare service environment for the elderly. By applying the proposed method, various spatial configurations can be developed for mixed-use facilities for the welfare of the elderly.
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1Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering/September 2013/8
Mixed-Use Facility Model for the Welfare of the Elderly Based on Lifestyle
Sung Jun Park1, Hyunsoo Lee*2 and Mi Jeong Kim3
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Interior and Environmental Design, Keimyung University, Republic of Korea
2 Professor, Department of Interior Architecture and Built Environment, Yonsei University, Republic of Korea
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Housing and Interior Design, Kyung Hee University, Republic of Korea
Abstract
This research aims to develop a mixed-use facility model for the wellbeing of the elderly, responding to
the changes caused by the recent trends of low birthrate, growth of the aging population, and baby boomers
entering their senior years. It is expected that mixed-use facilities for the elderly in the current context should
be integrated, including other generations and providing extensive benecial services to all social classes
for universal welfare. Using a customized questionnaire, we examined baby boomers' demands on welfare
services associated with spaces, and characterized their lifestyles. Based on their lifestyles, a mixed-use
facility model for the welfare of the elderly is proposed, suggesting a spatial conguration framework as an
integrated system of various functions, generations and managements. This research can be used as a basis
for constructing a customized welfare service environment for the elderly. By applying the proposed method,
various spatial congurations can be developed for mixed-use facilities for the welfare of the elderly.
Keywords: mixed-use; welfare facility; elderly; lifestyle; planning
1. Introduction
Life expectancy is anticipated to increase from the
range of 4689 years to 6693 years in the 21st century
(UN, 2004). Further, the proportion of the world's
population in the over 65 age group (the retirement
age in most countries) is estimated to quadruple from
8% to 32%, and in the 80 or over age group to double
from 8.5% to 17% within 7 or 8 decades. Concurrently,
the birthrate is declining, reducing the proportion of
children (Chan et al., 2009). Dishman (Dishman, 2004)
proposed four requirements to cope with the current
trend of increase in the elderly demographic: promote
healthy behaviors, detect diseases at an early stage,
improve treatment compliance and provide support
for informal care giving. These requirements can be
met by achieving the concept of 'aging in place', i.e.
assisting elderly people to continue to live in their
homes (Harmo et al., 2005). Most older persons defer
or avoid institutionalizing as long as possible, and
then seek wellness in safety and independence (Chan
et al., 2008; Kim & Kazuoki, 2010). Accordingly,
many strategies such as community centers and health
support have been proposed for elderly people's
comfort and healthy living in their own home or
community.
South Korea has already become an aging society
(Kim et al., 2009). In terms of the concept of
generation as a demographic cohort, those who make
up the aging population were mainly born during
the restoration period after the Korean War, from the
mid 1950s to the early 1960s. The period with the
greatest birth rate is denoted the "baby boom period",
showing a dramatic acceleration in population growth.
When the baby boomers enter their senior years, it is
possible that they will have different characteristics
and demands from those of the previous generations
of the elderly. They have specic social and historical
experiences; therefore, new social welfare policies and
strategies suitable for them should be explored and
addressed during the architectural planning stage, for
instance, of the provision of mixed-use facilities for the
elderly at a district or community level.
This research aims to develop a mixed-use facility
model for the wellbeing of the elderly, responding
to the changes caused by the recent trends of low
birthrate, growth in the aging population, and baby
boomers entering their senior years. There have been
various types of social welfare facilities, each targeting
a separate group, e.g. the elderly, children, the
disabled, etc. The government has generally focused
on supporting social welfare for low socioeconomic
classes. However, our assumption is that mixed-use
*Contact Author: Hyunsoo Lee, Professor,
Department of Interior Architecture and Built Environment,
Yonsei University, 419 Samsung Hall 134 Sinchon-Dong,
Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul, 120-479, Republic of Korea
Tel: +82-2-2123-3136 Fax: +82-2-313-3139
E-mail: hyunsl@yonsei.ac.kr
( Received October 10, 2012 ; accepted July 23, 2013 )
2 JAABE vol.12 no.2 September 2013 Sung Jun Park
facilities for the elderly in the current context should be
integrated, including other generations and providing
extensive beneficial services to all social classes for
universal welfare. We expect that, through the integrated
facility, synergic interaction could enable the elderly
to experience social cohesion with other community
members across social classes and generations, leading
to a sustainable society in a larger sense.
To suggest a space composition for integrated mixed-
use facilities for the elderly, we used a customized
questionnaire to examine the demands of the aging
baby boomers on welfare services associated with
spaces, and characterized their lifestyles. Based on the
baby boomers' lifestyles, a mixed-use facility model
for the welfare of the elderly is proposed, integrating
functions, generations and management within the
spaces.
2. Related Works
2.1 Baby Boomers and Lifestyle
Baby boomers make up about 14.6% of Korea's
population (Statistics, 2010). As senior members of
society, they have now started to retire from work,
which has increased the proportion of those considered
to be elderly in our society. Changes caused by this
new, aging generation might affect the economy,
housing types, consumption patterns, etc., eventually
causing a growing welfare investment or cost in our
society (Byeon, 2010, Jeong, 2010, Kim, 2010). Thus,
it is necessary to prepare for the aging population of
baby boomers and provide planning strategies for
welfare of the elderly in the future. To achieve this, the
characteristics and lifestyles of the baby boomers must
rst be characterized, as they might be different from
those of current elderly people.
In the field of marketing, an emphasis has been
placed on research dealing with lifestyle in order
to investigate consumers' consumption behaviors.
Lifestyle evaluation tools have been developed,
targeting all generations in the areas of hotel and
tourism management, architecture and housing
planning (Wee-Kean Fong et al., 2007), commercial
facilities, leisure activities, etc. These tools focus
on the measurement of valued aspects of life, living
mode, consumption behavior, attitude, etc. associated
with lifestyle. In particular, there have been several
studies on specialized space planning, centered on the
identication of service needs and the development of
new housing models (Chang et al., 1997, Oh, 2006,
Young-Sook, 2009, Kim and Kim, 2009, Yoon and
Park, 2010). Further, some research has specifically
dealt with the lifestyles of the elderly in order to apply
it to town planning, welfare services, interface design,
etc. for the elderly (Kim and Park, 2004, Ha et al.,
2007, Ko and Hwang, 2008, Yoo et al., 2007, Shin and
Park, 2010). In general, measured items of lifestyles
proposed by the previous research consist of factors
associated with family life, health, financial status,
social interaction, cultural and leisure activity, etc.
Gerontographics is another approach to
characterizing the elderly gerontographics; this focuses
on needs, features, lifestyle and behaviors. This
approach considers various dimensions associated with
aging and external environmental conditions affecting
the behavior of the elderly (Moschis, 1993). Compared
with lifestyle models based mainly on psychological
factors, gerontographics considers factors associated
with biological aging in addition to social aging. Based
on a survey of people over 55, Moschis (Moschis,
1993) proposed four lifestage segments for the
silver market: healthy hermits, ailing outgoers, frail
recluses and healthy indulgers. The proposed model,
consisting of 26 items, effectively reects biophysical
and psycho-social aging factors. Twelve items from
the model could be seen to be related to major factors
characterizing baby boomers' lifestyles.
2.2 Welfare Facilities and Complexation
Welfare facilities are generally defined as social
facilities supporting the weak in a society (Lee, 2009)
However, this research, which targets all generations
and social classes, considers five social services
associated with culture and leisure, medical and health
treatment, life-long education, protection and living
support (Seoul, 2010). Accordingly, various functions
for the elderly, children (youth), day-care, single-
parent families and social welfare should be integrated
in a welfare facility. An integrated facility could
provide the elderly with more opportunities to socialize
with other generations, to take up new jobs after
retirement, to enjoy leisure activities, to participate
in community services, etc. By adjusting welfare
facilities to accommodate the changes caused by the
low birthrate and growth in the aging population,
mixed-use facilities for the elderly—combining
social welfare, medical and health, and public
services—would emerge, specically targeted at baby
boomers. With other welfare services, an integrated
facility emphasizing welfare for the elderly could be
effectively utilized for baby boomers' social interaction
and productivity.
Trials have been conducted integrating various
facilities for cultural activities, social services, physical
exercise, etc. in a welfare facility (Kim, 1999). He
proposed a complexation of facilities for culture
and welfare to promote the efficient management of
public services, and suggested strategies for this based
on a location analysis. In particular, many attempts
at complexation have been made in Japan while
establishing a service infrastructure for the welfare
of the elderly, to cope with the rapidly aging society.
Mixed-use facilities for the elderly in Japan could
minimize the changes necessary to the residential
environment for the elderly, reduce the effects of
the elderly's physical and psychological disabilities,
secure their psychological stability, and enable a
sustainable facility management (Kim, 2009). Park,
3JAABE vol.12 no.2 September 2013 Sung Jun Park
(2009) analyzed case studies of mixed-use facilities
for the elderly in Japan, and then proposed strategies
for spatial configuration and planning to encourage
social interaction among different generations. For
instance, social interaction could be encouraged by
spatial planning that improves the chances of residents
coming across one another in mixed-use buildings (Lee,
2011). The complexation can be effected by integrating
various welfare facility functions, such as social
welfare, education, medical services, other social
facilities, community services, etc.
3. Research Methodology
This research conducted a questionnaire survey to
investigate baby boomers' lifestyles and needs from
welfare services. A customized questionnaire was
developed based on the literatures on lifestyle and case
studies of mixed-use facilities. To reduce the effect of
education and income levels on the result, subjects for
the survey were limited to inhabitants in Seoul.
3.1 Specifying Measure Items
The questionnaire comprises items in two survey
areas: baby boomers' lifestyle evaluation and service
needs. Five lifestyle factors were derived from factors
proposed by previous studies from 2000 to 2010,
and factors of gerontographics (Moschis, 1993)
specializing in silver markets. Further, 25 items for
lifestyle evaluation were extracted from previous
studies' measure items, as shown in Table 1.
As shown in Table 2., to investigate the baby
boomers' needs for welfare services associated with
spaces, five categories, each consisting of 50 items,
were developed based on previous research, case
studies and related laws on elderly welfare facilities,
social welfare facilities, etc.
3.2 Analyzing Questionnaire Data
The data analysis procedure is as follows: Firstly,
the reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated by
Cronbach's alpha. Secondly, general characteristics
of respondents were analyzed. Thirdly, the major
factors of respondents' lifestyle were deduced by factor
analysis.
Fourthly, cluster analysis was conducted using the
major lifestyle factors. Fifthly, through factor analysis
of service items, the type of the mixed-use facilities
was classified for each lifestyle group. Finally, the
diagram of the spatial composition of the mixed-
use facility was derived for each lifestyle, based on
the correlation among mixed-use classifications, and
the characteristics of welfare services. As shown in
Factors No Items
Culture &
Leisure
Q01
Q02
Q03
Q04
Q05
Interested in leisure & culture activities
Play sports & take up a hobby for enjoyment
Interested in dynamic leisure activities (exercise, climbing)
Interested in static leisure activities (reading, watching TV)
Interested in sharing leisure activities with the younger
generation
Health &
Aging
Q06
Q07
Q08
Q09
Q10
Afraid of developing an age-related disease, such as
arthritis and cardiac disorder
Afraid of having problems with hearing and sight
Be healthy enough to manage household chores by myself
Try to look younger than one's age
Afraid of being dependent as one grows older
Social
Interaction
Q11
Q12
Q13
Q14
Q15
Capable of being involved in charities & making donations
Sociable and able to make new friends
Sensitive to others' evaluation of myself
Interested in participating in voluntary activity
Places a big emphasis on intergenerational communication
Education
& Job
Q16
Q17
Q18
Q19
Q20
Need to master using new products
Need to learn about health & cultures
Interested in learning to become information technology
literate
Interested in joining a job re-entry program after retirement
Enjoy learning new skills
Family-
oriented
Life
Q21
Q22
Q23
Q24
Q25
Interested in overcoming the death of loved ones
Satisfactory life after retirement
Have a person who can advise on preparation for aging
Prefer installment plan when paying with credit cards
Spend plenty of time with spouse and children
Table 1. Factors and Items for Lifestyle Evaluation
Category No Items
Culture &
Leisure
(A)
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
Indoor exercise (aerobics, yoga, health, etc.)
Travel information (climbing, traveling, etc.)
Swimming
Billiards, table tennis
Basketball/badminton
Sports (soccer, gate ball)
Community events
Themed exhibition
Movie, performance
Music/video
Medical
Treatment
&
Health
(B)
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
Health improvement
Health counseling & examination
Physical therapy
Theme treatment (seeing/hearing/teeth, etc.)
Nursing the elderly
Public health support (emergency/treatment)
Geriatrics care
Child care (emotion & development care)
Drug abuse prevention & cure (youth, the elderly)
Seminars on health, nutrition education
Life-long
Education
(C)
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
Hobby/culture class (singing, dance, calligraphy)
Social community (the elderly/youth/children/women)
Book and information resources
Education for youth & children (reading, computer, study)
Lecture & information exchange on babies
Education preventing child/elderly abuse
Information service for the elderly (new job after
retirement)
Information service for children/youth/single mothers
Regional society contribution
Technology education (single mothers/youth)
Protection
& Care
(D)
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
Elderly day-care
Short-term baby/infant care
Elderly cohabitation support
Abused children protection
Child-care support
Elderly nursing support
Single mother protection
Mother (father)-son protection
Housing support for the elderly living alone
Children independent living support
Living
Support
(E)
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
Post ofce, bank, drug store
Bath, restaurant, beauty parlor
Café, internet
Mart, convenience store, department store
Family relationship improvement (counseling, education)
Multi-cultural family support
Intergenerational interaction
Daily life guidance (the elderly/children/youth)
Public administrative facility
Public open space
Table 2. Categories and Items for Service Needs
4 JAABE vol.12 no.2 September 2013 Sung Jun Park
Table 3., the Cronbach's alpha for variables' internal
consistency is more than 0.8, thus the reliability of the
questionnaire was validated.
Respondents' general characteristics, such as gender,
age, income, housing type, occupation and education
level were investigated. Of 224 respondents, 109
(48.7%) were men and 115 (51.3%) were women. The
age range was between 47 and 56 years of age with
overall distribution. Respondents' income level was
comparatively high, where 121 people (54%) earned
more than 4 million won monthly and 182 (81.3%)
owned their houses. The occupations were varied: 92
people (41.1%) were general employees, including
bank clerks, nurses, teachers, managers, etc. and 43
people (19.2%) were self-employed, for instance, as
drivers and shop owners. Twenty-ve people (11.2%)
were professionals such as doctors, professors, judges
and accountants, and 19 people (8.5%) worked in the
service sector, including stores, restaurants, etc. Fifteen
people (6.7%) were high-ranking officials, CEOs
and executives in organizations and companies. Only
6 people (2.7%) worked as cleaners, housekeepers
and laborers. Regarding the level of education, 158
participants (70.5%) graduated from universities or
higher institutions.
4. Lifestyle Categorization and Elderly Classication
Factor analysis, using principal component analysis
by varimax rotation, was conducted to characterize
respondents' lifestyles. The result of factor analysis
was significant since the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin value
for sampling adequacy was 0.797 and the value of the
Barlett test was 0.00. Factor loading was more than
0.4, and eigenvalue was more than 1.0. Initially, 24
variables were selected, but 4 variables were dropped
due to poor reliability and validity, thus 20 variables
were used finally. Table 4. shows 5. major factors
related to lifestyles revealed by the factor analysis. Five
factors associated with lifestyle explained 57% of the
variance. Even though the explanation percentage was
slightly low, all variables, excluding one, showed high
le loadings with values greater than 0.5. Accordingly,
the suitability of the categorization of variables was
veried.
To classify the respondents centered on the lifestyle
factors, cluster analysis was conducted. This analysis
categorizes cases as clusters that are relatively
homogeneous within themselves, on the basis of a
dened set of variables. In this research, 4 groups were
determined as clusters using K-means clustering, one
of the non-hierarchical procedures. All clusters were
statistically significant. The validity of clusters was
verified through discriminant analysis with a 95.1%
accuracy rate of discrimination. Table 5. shows the
results of cluster analysis.
The lifestyle groups can be characterized as follows:
Group 1, 'Passive social-oriented', is mainly interested
in one lifestyle factor, seeking 'social interaction', not
'future self-development', 'outgoing culture & leisure',
'family-oriented life' or 'health concerns'. Compared
to other groups, group 1 shows more negative and
passive attitudes to lifestyle factors. By referring to
the results of the cluster analysis, it became clear that
respondents from low income and education levels
belonged to this group. Group 2, 'Active stable-
oriented', is mainly interested in two factors, 'health
concerns' and 'family-oriented life'. In addition, they
have a positive response to 'outgoing culture & leisure'
activities compared to other groups. However, they
are less conscious of activities related to 'future self-
development' and 'social interaction'. Group 3, 'Active
ego', is intensely interested in the activities related
to 'future self-development' and 'outgoing culture &
leisure' compared to other groups. In addition, they are
very concerned with health problems. However, they
show less interest in activities for social interaction and
family life. The cluster analysis found that there were
a comparatively higher proportion of professionals in
respondents belonging to this group. It appears that
Classication Cronbach's
Alpha
Cronbach's Alpha Based on
Standardized Items
Items
(Variables)
Items for
Lifestyle 0.836 0.841 24
Items for
Service Needs 0. 0.967 50
Table 3. Reliability of the Questionnaire n=224
Factors Items Factor Loading Eigenvalues
(Variance Rates) Reliability
Future Self-
development
Q16
Q17
Q18
Q20
Q19
Q21
0.777
0.765
0.738
0.587
0.541
0.527
3.009
(15.046) 0.801
Outgoing
Culture &
Leisure
Q2
Q3
Q1
Q12
0.858
0.808
0.708
0.402
2.494
(12.471) 0.765
Social
Interaction
Q14
Q15
Q8
Q5
0.664
0.659
0.629
0.526
2.072
(10.36) 0.644
Health
Concerns
Q7
Q6
Q10
0.821
0.767
0.586
1.928
(9.64) 0.635
Family-
oriented Life
Q11
Q23
Q25
0.717
0.674
0.548
1.898
(9.492) 0.545
Table 4. Lifestyle Categorization n=224
Classication Passive
Social-oriented
Active
Stable-oriented Active Ego Passive Ego
F
(Sig)
No
39
(17.4%)
73
(32.6%)
60
(26.8%)
52
(23.2%)
Future Self-
development -1.177 .038 .440 .322 34.39
(0.000)
Outgoing
Culture & Leisure -.857 .125 .486 -.093 18.24
(0.000)
Social
Interaction .387 .087 .063 -.484 6.763
(0.000)
Health
Concerns -.132 .549 .424 -1.160 63.36
(0.000)
Family-
oriented Life -.379 .878 -.911 .102 74.396
(0.000)
Table 5. Classification of the Elderly, Centered on Lifestyle
Factors n=224
5JAABE vol.12 no.2 September 2013 Sung Jun Park
they may be keen to develop themselves and to enjoy
culture and leisure activities in their lives. Group
4, 'Passive ego', is much less interested in activities
related to 'health concerns' compared to other groups.
Similar to group 1 ('Passive social-oriented'), group
4 also shows a passive attention to lifestyle factors.
However, there is a difference in that group 4 is
somewhat concerned with activities related to 'future
self-development' and 'family-oriented life' rather than
'social interaction'.
5. A Proposed Mixed-Use Facility Model for the
Welfare of the Elderly Based on Lifestyle
We developed a mixed-use facility model for the
welfare of the elderly, suggesting a framework of
spatial conguration, based on baby boomers' lifestyles
and service needs associated with spaces. The facility
model adopted the concept of complexation, and thus
proposed mixed types of spaces supporting various
functions, generations and management systems. The
framework of spatial configuration was constructed
based on the mixed types of spaces and the proposed
welfare services extracted from the questionnaire
survey. The proposed mixed-use facility could play
an important role for the elderly by offering more
opportunities for new jobs, and by integrating various
functions of welfare facilities, such as health-care,
education and culture, and leisure. Further, the model
aims to activate social integration by promoting
generational interactions among the elderly, the youth,
and children, thereby enriching life experience for all
ages. To demonstrate the proposed model, one type of
mixed-use facility model for the welfare of the elderly,
specifically for group 3, 'Active ego', is described in
the following sections. With the same approach, the
other three types of mixed-use facility models could be
developed, each applied to every lifestyle group.
5.1 The Mixed-Use Facility Model Process
The process of developing the mixed-use facility
model, consisting of four steps, is described in Fig.1.
Firstly, a questionnaire survey needs to be conducted
to investigate the elderly's lifestyle and welfare service
needs. Secondly, items for lifestyle evaluation and
service needs in spaces must be specified. Through
factor and cluster analyses, the items for lifestyle
evaluation need to be categorized, forming several
clusters. Then, required spaces for each lifestyle group
need to be deduced from service needs with values
greater than 3.93. Therefore, the proposed model in
this research contains the elderly's preferred spaces
for needs. Thirdly, to propose the framework of spatial
configuration for each lifestyle group, the mixed-use
types of spaces need to be classied by factor analysis.
Fourthly, a mixed-use facility model for the welfare
of the elderly, suggesting a spatial conguration as a
combination of high-correlated welfare services, can
be proposed.
5.2 A Mixed-Use Facility Model for 'Active Ego'
For the 'Active Ego' group, 34 of their service needs
items, extracted from the items showing greater than
3.93 mean values, were analyzed by factor analysis.
As shown in Table 6., for the 'Active Ego' group,
eight factors emerged for the mixed type of spaces
related to medical treatment and health, protection
Fig.1. Development Process of the Mixed-Use Facility Model Process
Categorization of Lifestyle
70
Fig. 1
Items for lifestyle
evaluation Combination of
high correlated
welfare services
Needs of
Welfare Services
Passive
Social-
Oriented
Active
Stable-
Oriented
Active
Ego
Passive
Ego
Deducing spaces by lifestyle groups
Step 1.
Questionnaire
Survey
Step 2.
Identify group lifestyle by
factor & cluster Analysis
Complexation
of spaces
by lifestyle
groups
Step 3.
Develop the complexation
of spaces by factor analysis
Passive Social-
Oriented
Active Stable-
Oriented
Active Ego
Passive Ego
Complexation#1~#3
Step 4.
Suggest the framework
of spatial configuration
Complexation#1~#8
Complexation#1~#8
Complexation#1~#4
No Factors Services Spaces Needs Factor
Loading Reliability
01
D 7ea+
B 2ea+
E 1ea
D
D
D
D
D
D
B
B
D
E
08
05
04
10
03
09
08
06
06
05
3.93
3.95
4.20
3.93
4.08
4.22
3.93
4.08
4.33
4.00
0.907
0.902
0.803
0.695
0.652
0.633
0.606
0.529
0.502
0.477
0.925
02 B 5ea+
C 1ea
B
B
B
B
B
C
03
02
01
05
07
07
4.37
4.45
4.33
4.45
4.43
4.28
0.828
0.727
0.681
0.59
0.569
0.563
0.877
03 E 4ea+
B 1ea
B
E
E
E
E
09
09
10
07
08
4.02
4.10
4.03
3.98
4.00
0.689
0.65
0.621
0.581
0.571
0.82
04 E 3ea
E
E
E
04
01
02
4.00
4.23
4.07
0.839
0.78
0.727
0.852
05
C 1ea+
D 1ea+
B 1ea
C
D
B
01
01
04
4.23
4.08
4.25
0.741
0.682
0.608
0.821
06 A 2ea A
A
03
01
3.95
4.25
0.743
0.664 0.686
07
A 1ea+
B 1ea+
C 1ea
A
B
C
04
10
03
3.95
3.98
4.02
0.598
0.523
0.427
0.627
08 A 2ea A
A
02
09
4.07
4.02
0.795
0.556 0.537
Table 6. Mixed Types of Spaces for 'Active Ego' n=224
6 JAABE vol.12 no.2 September 2013 Sung Jun Park
and care, culture and leisure, and living support. They
show a marked tendency to include services related to
medical treatment and health and life-long education
in the mixed types of spaces, reecting a strong will to
develop themselves in the future.
The first type integrates spaces related to medical
treatment and life-long education centered around
spaces for general protection and care services. The
majority of the spaces support people in general
including adults, babies and children rather than the
elderly exclusively. Spaces for medical treatment and
health involve children's hospitals and public health
support. One example of spaces for life-long education
is social communities to enhance relationships among
members. Spaces affording protection and care
services provide not only housing support for elderly
cohabitation and the elderly who live alone, but also
other social welfare spaces for child-care, abused
children protection, and mother (father) and children
support.
The second type mixes spaces related to life-
long education centered around spaces for medical
treatment and health. This type consists of general
spaces affording health counseling and examination,
physical therapy, and health improvement for the
public, and specialized spaces supporting the elderly
such as nursing facilities and geriatrics hospitals. As
spaces for life-long education, information centers for
the elderly can be included, offering opportunities for
new jobs after retirement and organizing activities that
exercise both their brains and bodies.
The third type is the complexation of spaces for
medical treatment and health services centered around
spaces for life-support services. One example of these
spaces is associated with the prevention and treatment
of drug abuse as a preclusive approach reducing social
problems caused by diseases. Spaces associated with
life-support services include civic facilities, public
open spaces for rest, etc. Recently, remodeling of
local government facilities has been considered to
promote social interaction among generations, provide
counseling on daily life problems, offer services for
culture, leisure and education, and not be limited solely
to administrative support.
This third type of complexation can be applied
to unused spaces in existing public facilities by
integrating living support services with medical and
health services to promote generation interactions
and prevent social problems. Most public facilities
are easily accessible for local residents, thus the
complexation offers more convenience to local
residents.
The fourth type is primarily the complexation of
spaces' living support services such as supermarkets,
convenience stores, restaurants, etc. The fifth type is
the complexation of spaces associated with services for
life-long education, protection, and medical treatment
and health. This type of complexation is very similar to
current facilities for the elderly, but supplements with
various therapies for medical and health services. Thus,
by intensifying welfare services associated with health,
the current facilities for the elderly can be extended.
Spaces for hobby/culture classes, elderly day-care, and
theme treatment (of seeing, hearing, teeth problems,
Fig.2. The Framework of Spatial Conguration of the Mixed-Use Facility Model for 'Active Ego' Lifestyle
needs of services :
more than 4.00 in average
correlation among
welfare services are
above 0.6
D-09
D-03
D-08
D-10
D-05
D-04
D-06
E-05
B-08
B-05
C-07
B-01
B-02
B-03
B-09
E-07
E-08
E-10
E-02
E-04
C-01
요인 5
D-01
B-04
A-09
A-01 A-03
A-02
요인 6
요인 8
A-04
요인 7
Complexation 1
요인 2
요인 3
요인 4
B-06
E-09
E-01
B-07
B-10
C-03
Complexation 5
Complexation 7
Complexation 6
Complexation 8
Complexation 2 Complexation 4
Complexation 3
Category No Items
Culture
Leisure
(A)
01
02
03
04
09
Indoor exercise (aerobics, yoga, hea lth, etc.)
Travel information (climbing, traveling, etc.)
Swimming
Billiards , table tennis
Movie, performance
Medical
treatment
&
Health
(B)
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
Health improvement
Health counseling & examination
Physical therapy
Theme treatment (seeing/hearing/ teeth, etc.)
Nursing the elderly
Public health support(emergency /treatment)
Geriatrics care
Children care (emotion & development cure)
Drug abuse prevention & cure(youth, the old)
Seminars on health, nutrition education
Life long
education
(C)
01
03
07
Hobby/culture class(singing, dance, calligraphy)
Book and Information r esources
Information service for the elderly
Protection
(D)
01
03
04
05
06
08
09
10
Elderly day-care
Elderly cohabitation support
Abused children protection
Child care support
Elderly nursing support
Mother(father)-son protection
Housing support for the elderly living alone
Children independent living support
Life
Support
(E)
01
02
04
05
07
08
09
10
Post office, bank, drug store
Baths, restaurant, beauty parlor
Mart, convenience store, department store
Family relationship improvement(counseling)
Intergenerational interaction
Daily life guidance (the elderly/children/y outh)
Public administrative facility
Public open space
Fig. 2
7JAABE vol.12 no.2 September 2013 Sung Jun Park
etc.) are included. The sixth type is the complexation
of spaces for culture and leisure services. Spaces
supporting dynamic activities such as swimming,
indoor exercises, yoga, etc. are included.
The seventh type is the complexation of spaces
associated with services for medical treatment and
health, culture and leisure, and life-long education.
Spaces support billiards and table tennis, seminars
on health and nutrition, and provision of books and
information. The eighth type is the complexation of
spaces for culture and leisure services. Spaces are
associated with static culture leisure activities such as
performance, exhibition and travel information.
Fig.2. illustrates the framework of spatial
conguration of the mixed-use facility model for the
elderly in the 'active ego' lifestyle group. The eight
types of complexations of spaces are combined, based
on correlations and classication of welfare services.
The correlations range from 0.352 to 0.880. When the
correlations among welfare services are above 0.6, the
spaces associated with the services are connected as
shown in Fig.2. It is assumed that when spaces having
high correlations are located closely in a facility, the
utilization of the facility by users could be enhanced
signicantly. To sum up, this model for the 'active ego'
group highlights the spatial configuration combining
spaces related to living support, culture and leisure
centered around services associated with life-long
education, medical treatment and health, and protection
and care.
6. Discussion and Conclusion
Based on baby boomers' lifestyles, this research
proposed a mixed-use facility model for the welfare of
the elderly as an integrated system centered on facility
services for the elderly, combined with welfare services
for other generations. As current trends reflect an
aging population and low birthrate, the pre-elderly—
specically baby boomers entering their senior years—
were selected as subjects for the questionnaire survey
on lifestyle and service needs. The results follow.
The baby boomers' lifestyles were classified into
four groups: Passive social-oriented, Active stable-
oriented, Active ego, and Passive ego. By developing
space composition systems based on the baby boomers'
welfare service needs, it was identified that the two
active baby boomers groups have positive attitudes to
the complexation of functions and services for social
interaction among various generations. On the other
hand, the two passive baby boomers groups seem
to have no need for new types of welfare services.
That is, the spatial conguration developed based on
their service needs closely resembles existing welfare
facilities for the elderly. Accordingly, it can be argued
that, at town level, the complexation would be initiated
best by combining basic services that the passive baby
boomers need for their welfare. In a district or wider
area, services demanded by the active baby boomers
need to be integrated for a mixed-use facility to satisfy
their on-going enthusiasm for an active and interesting
life. The reason is that welfare spaces derived from the
passive baby boomers' service needs include only basic
needs, lacking the welfare services demanded by the
active baby boomers.
We expect that the classification of baby boomers'
lifestyles could be utilized to construct customized
welfare environments for the elderly, specializing
in or customizing silver markets. There has been
little research dealing with the correlations between
lifestyles and spaces affording welfare services. For a
welfare paradigm shift, the lifestyles of the pre-elderly
need to be classified based on their welfare service
needs, which would contribute to the development of
active and customized service environments for the
welfare of the elderly. Further, the proposed mixed-use
facility model could provide a specic type of mixed-
use services, and then produce a desirable spatial
composition for each group of lifestyles. Therefore,
integrated facilities for the welfare of the elderly
could maximize the efficiency and effectiveness
of management and utilization of the spaces by
combining existing facilities with other welfare
services. Accordingly, this research could be a basis for
space composition and planning direction for mixed-
use facilities for the welfare of the elderly.
The space conguration in this research is proposed
for a horizontal level; thus, the vertical level of space
composition needs to be addressed in the mixed-use
facility model in the future. Further, more detailed
planning factors that can be applied to the development
of welfare facilities for the elderly should be explored
and discussed for verification in future studies. The
methodology adopted for the proposed model could
be applied to develop a mixed-use facility model
for the elderly in other countries. However, our
proposed model can be best adapted for the elderly in
Korean society because it was constructed based on
the demands of the aging baby boomers on welfare
services in Korea. Thus, there would be a limitation in
that the model cannot be directly applied for the elderly
in other countries.
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