In general, the “Cuban Fossil Record”, which covers approximately the last 200 million years of life on Earth, is rich in very varied fossils, witnessing a wide diversity of organisms, both animals and plants, that inhabited the Antillean and Caribbean region and constitute the inheritance of the biological diversity exhibited by the current Cuban Archipelago. The most characteristic fossils of Jurassic Period in Cuba are petrified bones of marine reptiles, shells and molds of ammonites, petrified skeletons and molds of ganoid fish, bivalve mollusc shells, fronds and carbonized plant stems, mainly ferns, and very abundant pollen and spores. The fossil record of the Cretaceous Period is characterized by shell varieties of rudist molluscs, ammonites, and aptychus, endoskeletons and radioles of echinoids, gastropod shells such as the acteonellids, nerineids and naticids, ostreids, and others. Other fossils such as corals, ichnofossils, the very diverse planktic and benthic foraminifera, and radiolaria are also common. The fossils that characterize the Paleogene are abundant echinoderms, shark teeth, ichnofossils, shells and molds of turritellid and naticid gastropods, ostreids, and various foraminiferal genera, especially large orbitoids. Neogene rocks contain abundant shells and molds of bivalve and gastropod molluscs, and mineralized endoskeletons of various sea urchins are also common. Corals and frequent skeletons and molds of marine crustaceans can also be commonly found. Among vertebrates, fish are very common, mainly teeth of sharks, rays, and skeletons of bony fish, and a single whale tooth have also been found. The fossil remains of sirenians are relatively common. Very important is the finding of terrestrial mammal vertebrate remains, among them are monkey, rodents, and sloths. The greatest feature exhibited by the fossil record of the Quaternary in the Cuban Archipelago is perhaps the peculiar fossil material produced by the diverse megafauna of terrestrial vertebrates, which inhabited it in the last hundreds of thousands and thousands of years ago. It also highlights the bones and teeth of large sloths, various rodents, the giant predatory birds and gunboats, small and giant insectivorous, numerous bats, reptiles, and amphibians, among other animals that disappeared in the recent past. Fossils are part of the Cuban natural heritage, and as such, they deserve to be studied, conserved and protected, as a legacy to future generations, to contribute to a better understanding of our origins and to the full enjoyment of our island nature. The numerous literature about Cuban fossils allows us to know the varied degree of study exhibited by the different fossil groups reported to this day. The irregular development of the investigations carried out so far reveals the possibilities of study that the Cuban fossil record still needs, and which points out the future path for new researchers interested in different topics on this paleontological richness, where there are many questions to be solved, even waiting to assess correctly, from modern work basis.