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GLASS FABRIC COMBINATION FOR ACOUSTICES OF BUILDING INTERIOR

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Materials that reduce the acoustic energy of a sound wave as the wave passes through it by the phenomenon of absorption are called sound absorptive materials. They are commonly used to soften the acoustic environment of a closed volume by reducing the amplitude of the reflected waves. Absorptive materials are generally resistive in nature, either fibrous, porous or in rather special cases reactive resonators. Classic examples of resistive materials are nonwovens, fibrous glass, mineral wools, felts and foams. Porous materials used for noise control are generally categorized as fibrous medium or porous foam. Fibrous media usually consists of glass fiber, wool or polyester fibers due to have high acoustic absorption. The work has been done to study the behavior of different glass fabric and its combination with nonwoven on sound absorption behavior. The effect of Glass fabrics and its structures on sound absorption behavior and its advantage to use as wall covering applications has been described. Such types of materials with different structure are promising for home interiors, office interiors, and automobile interiors due to their good sound absorption and insulating properties.
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GLASS FABRIC COMBINATION FOR ACOUSTICES OF BUILDING INTERIOR
HIRENI R. MANKODI
1
, PURVI MISTRY
2
1
Associate Prof, Department of Textile Engineering, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, M. S. University of Baroda,
Kalabhavan, Baroda, India
2
ME Student, Department of Textile Engineering, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, M. S. University of Baroda,
Kalabhavan, Baroda, India
ABSTRACT
Materials that reduce the acoustic energy of a sound wave as the wave passes through it by the phenomenon of
absorption are called sound absorptive materials. They are commonly used to soften the acoustic environment of a closed
volume by reducing the amplitude of the reflected waves. Absorptive materials are generally resistive in nature, either
fibrous, porous or in rather special cases reactive resonators. Classic examples of resistive materials are nonwovens,
fibrous glass, mineral wools, felts and foams. Porous materials used for noise control are generally categorized as fibrous
medium or porous foam. Fibrous media usually consists of glass fiber, wool or polyester fibers due to have high acoustic
absorption. The work has been done to study the behavior of different glass fabric and its combination with nonwoven on
sound absorption behavior. The effect of Glass fabrics and its structures on sound absorption behavior and its advantage to
use as wall covering applications has been described. Such types of materials with different structure are promising for
home interiors, office interiors, and automobile interiors due to their good sound absorption and insulating properties.
KEYWORDS:
Fibrous Material, Acoustics, Sound Absorption Coefficient, Porosity, Nonwoven
INTRODUCTION
A Technical Textile is a textile product manufactured for non-aesthetic purposes, where functional properties are
the prime requirement. The growth of technical textile shows the upward trend and use of technical products in large
verities of applications. Nowadays the most widely technical textile materials are used in filter, Building and Construction,
Clothing, Hygiene Medicals and Furniture. One of the technical product applications in building interiors is for Acoustic.
Materials that reduce the acoustic energy of a sound wave as the wave passes through it by the phenomenon of
absorption are called sound absorptive materials. They are commonly used to soften the acoustic environment of a closed
volume by reducing the amplitude of the reflected waves. Absorptive materials are generally resistive in nature, either
fibrous, porous or in rather special cases reactive resonators. Classic examples of resistive materials are nonwovens,
fibrous glass, mineral wools, felts and foams. When a sound wave strikes on acoustical materials, due to sound pressure the
air molecules oscillates and particles of acoustic materials are vibrate due to transmission of sound. This vibration liberates
tiny amount of heat due to the friction and thus absorb sound energy is converted to heat energy.
The performance of textile absorptive materials are depends on many parameters like gram/square meter (GSM),
Thickness, Air permeability, Structures, Orientation of yarn and fibers. The nonwoven fabrics are widely use as back up
material due to its different structure, orientation of fibers, different method of manufacturing techniques and type of
bonding (Mechanical, Thermal as well as Chemical). There are mainly four factors to be considered in choosing a sound
absorbing material for a wall covering for interior like appearance, acoustic performance, environment and cost
effectiveness.
International Journal of Industrial
Engineering & Technology (IJIET)
ISSN(P): 2277-4769; ISSN(E): 2278-9456
Vol. 4, Issue 1, Feb 2014, 1-8
© TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.
2
Hireni R. Mankodi, Purvi Mistry
CONSTRUCTION OF SOUND PROOF WALL
The sound proof walls are made by using the three to four layers of different materials. The verities of the
materials are used for making the sound proof wall. Generally for making the sound proof wall the first layer is cover
fabrics, which are the selected based on its look, feel and application. The second layers used the fibrous materials as
backup materials. In this layer different types of fibers (Rock wool, fiber glass) or nonwoven fabrics are used and these
layers are mainly responsible for the absorbing sound. The last third layer is made by plywood or timber frame which are
fixed with the wall.
This project introduced the glass fabric as a wall covering. The glass fabric is a good sound absorption and heat
insulating properties. The glass fabric cannot directly apply on the wall because of its itching properties. It can be apply by
covering with the some acoustic fabric or cover fabric, or by laminating or painting glass fabric as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Construction of Sound Proof Wall
This type of wall covering mainly used in the industries. When the glass fabric is used as a wall covering it gives
the best results because of its properties like thermal conductivity, chemical resistance, fire resistance etc so this type of
wall coverings are giving a good advantages.
ADVANTAGES OF GLASS FABRIC
The glass is an inorganic material due to its unique properties and chemical composition; it will not act as a
breeding ground for moulds or fungi.
The properties like high tenacity, high impact resistance, fire resistance, chemical resistance and excellent
insulating properties make glass fiber ideal material for outdoor and indoor applications, fire resistance wall,
insulated wall, roofs and floors.
The glass fabrics are also having good reinforcement properties which make it suitable for construction, crack
resistance wall and smooth surface with good appearance.
The hospital environment should be ecologically sound and disinfected sealed walls, which can be regularly
scrubbed to fight against superbugs in this case glass fabrics founds suitable.
The walls can easily cover with glass fabrics and easy to clean. The glass fabrics are an unbeatable finish to meet
even the most exacting standards required by architects. It can also create design statements of their own with a
Glass Fabric Combination for Acoustices of Building Interior
3
huge array of textured finishes. The glass fabrics are designed for the long term, offering an attractive and cost-
effective solution that puts all other wall coverings in the shade.
MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY
The different glass fabric having different Structures and GSM Value has been selected for experiment as shown
in figure 2.The three woven glass fabrics, four samples of bi-axial glass fabrics and four multiaxial glass fabrics have been
studied for sound reduction.
Figure 2: Different Structures of Glass Fabrics
The sound reduction of the fabric has been measured by the “Steady State Method” as per the ASTM E336 71.
The glass and non woven fabric back up has been taken for the measuring the sound reduction. The measurement of sound
absorption of fabrics first measured the sound level without mounting the sample between sound source and sound receiver
and then with sample. The difference between these two results gives sound reduction by the samples. This project
measured the sound reduction of samples by varying the distance between the sound source and fabric, and sound receiver
and fabric. The instrument has been fabricated as shown in figure 3. The steps involves for experiments are mounting the
sound source and sound receiver, adjust sound level, sample mounting, adjust the distance between the fabric and sound
receiver, adjust the distance between the fabric and sound source and calculate the sound reduction value.
Figure 3: Experimental Setup
RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS
The three woven glass fabrics, four samples of bi-axial glass fabrics and four multiaxial glass fabrics have been
studied for sound reduction the results are listed in Table 1.
Table 1: Sound Reduction of Glass Fabrics
Sr.No Sample Air
Permeability
GSM Sound Reduction in dB
Woven Glass Fabric
5cm 10cm 15cm 20cm
1 GW1 250 360 6.8 7.3 8.4 10.3
4
Hireni R. Mankodi, Purvi Mistry
2 GW2 1700 803 3.6 3.7 4 4.4
3 GW3 1800 905 3 3.2 3.8 5.2
Bi-Axial Glass Fabric
Table 1: Contd.,
1 GB1 1150 440 3.8 3.9 4.9 5.7
2 GB2 1600 450 2.7 3.2 4 4.3
3 GB3 2600 460 1 2.4 2.7 3.2
4 GB4 450 600 8.5 9 9.7 10.8
Multiaxial Glass Fabric
1 GM1 525 690 7.2 6.6 7.7 8.8
2 GM2 160 1180 11.7 12.6 12.9 14.5
3 GM3 185 1181 11.4 11.5 12.7 14
4 GM4 375 1290 7.8 8.2 8.9 9.4
The Figure 4(a) shows air permeability and GSM value of woven, biaxial and multi axial glass fabrics. GW1 and
GW2 are plain weave fabric but it has a different GSM because it made from the different tex of roving. Roving tex of
GW1 has 300 tex and GW2 has 2400 tex. GW1 shows low air permeability compared to GW2 because it has been made
from the low tex of roving and different GSM. Another woven structure GW3 the twill weave fabrics show similar
behavior as GW2. GW1 has been given highest sound reduction and lowest air permeability (Figure 4(b)).
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
GW1
GW2
GW3
GB
1
GB2
GB3
GB
4
GM
1
GM
2
GM
3
GM
4
Air permeability
m³/m²/hr
Different Samples
Air permeability
GSM
Figure 4(a): Air Permeability and GSM of Different Glass Fabric
GW
2
GW
3
0
500
1000
1500
2000
0 2 4 6 8 10
Air permeability, m³/m²/hr
Sound Reduction, dB
Figure 4(b): Air Permeability vs Sound Reduction (at 20 cm) (Woven Glass Fabric)
The Bi-axial fabrics also have two directional laying of the glass roving but there is no interlacement between two
layers. The stability of the structure is lesser compare to woven structure. Where GB1, GB2 and GB3 have less compact
structure compare to GB4, hence GB4 gives the low air permeability and higher sound absorption value. Also the GB4
(±45º) and GB3 (0º, 90º) have extreme results due to difference in structure. As explain earlier in biaxial fabrics the laying
Glass Fabric Combination for Acoustices of Building Interior
5
direction of roving play important role to decide the compactness of the fabric. Generally diagonal laying in two layers
give ±45º or ±60º better compactness (Figure 5).
GB
GB
1
GB
2
GB
3
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
0 2 4 6 8 10
Air permeability, m³/m²/hr
Sound Reduction, dB
Figure 5: Air Permeability Vs Sound Reduction (at 20 Cm) (Biaxial Glass Fabric)
In multiaxial fabrics the number of layers can be up to 7 but in this study three layered fabric has been taken for
study. The multiaxial glass fabric GM1 (90º,±45º) shows the higher air permeability and lower sound reduction compare
to GM2 (0º,±45º). This significant difference mainly due to difference in structures, where GM3, GM4 have same structure
(90º,±45º) and nearer value of GSM but GM3 shows lower air permeability and higher sound reduction value. This
difference may be due to the fabrics are from different companies (Figure 6).
GM
2
GM
3
GM
4
GM
1
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0 5 10 15
Air permeability, m³/m²/hr
Sound Reduction, dB
Figure 6: Air Permeability vs Sound Reduction (at 20 cm) (Multiaxial Glass Fabric)
The sound reduction increases as the distance between the sound source and sample have been increases. The
relation between sound reduction and fabric to source distance has been shown in Figure 7 (a), (b), (c). The GW1,GB4 and
GM2 shows similar trend where sound reduction increases with distance from the sound source and gives the highest
sound reduction at 20cm for all three samples
6
Hireni R. Mankodi, Purvi Mistry
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0 5 10 15 20 25
Sound Reduction, dB
Fabric to Sound Source Distance, cm
GW1
GW2
GW
3
Figure 7(a): Distance vs Sound Reduction (Woven Glass Fabric)
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0 5 10 15 20
25
Sound Reduction, dB
Figure 7(b): Distance vs Sound Reduction (Biaxial Glass Fabric)
0
5
10
15
20
0 5 10 15 20 25
Sound Reduction, dB
Fabric to Sound Source Distance, cm
GM1
GM2
GM3
GM4
Figure 7(c): Distance vs Sound Reduction (Multi Axial Glass Fabric)
The different structure of glass fabric like woven, biaxial and multiaxial fabric has taken as wall cover fabric
(Table 1). The result it clearly shown that at distance 20 cm all sample give better sound reduction and GM2 the multiaxial
fabric shows best result. The best of woven, biaxial, and multiaxial glass fabrics has been taken for study based on earlier
results. The woven (GW1), biaxial (GB4), and multiaxial (GM2) glass fabric have been combined with the N1(500 GSM) ,
N2(750GSM) and N3(1000 GSM) non woven for measuring the sound reduction the result is given in Table 2
Table 2: Sound Reduction of Glass Fabrics + Nonwoven Fabrics
Sr.No
Sample
Sound Reduction dB
5cm 10cm 15cm 20cm
N1
1 N1 + GW1 10.8 12.5 13.2 14.1
2 N1 + GB4 9.9 10.4 11.5 11.8
3 N1 + GM2 12.8 13.9 15.3 16.6
Glass Fabric Combination for Acoustices of Building Interior
7
N2
1 N2 + GW1 10.5 11.5 14 12.6
2 N2 + GB4 8.6 9.4 11.8 10.8
3 N2 + GM2 12.5 13.6 16.6 15
N3
1 N3 + GW1 7.2 11.8 13.2 12
2 N3 + GB4 8.2 9.3 11.4 11.4
3 N3 + GM2 11.3 12.4 15.5 14.5
The above results conclude that the multi axial glass fabric GM2 gives the best sound absorption compare to the
woven and biaxial glass fabric with all combination of nonwoven.
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Absorbers”, AUTEX Research Journal, Vol.3, No.2.
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Materials”, Textile Research Journal, Pg 827-837.
4. M.D. Teli, Y. N. Rane (2004) , “Evaluation of Non Woven Textile As Sound Absorbents”, HPTEX 2004,
Pp 352-357.
5. Goran Hudec, Bojan Ivancevic, et al(2007) , “Nonwoven Fabric Acoustical Properties” 3rd Congress of the Alps
Adria Acoustics Association.
6. Surajit Sengupta (2010) , “Sound Reduction by Needle Punched Non Woven Fabrics”, Indian Journal of
Fibre & Textile Research, Vol. 35 , Pg 237-242.
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Structure on Sound Absorption Behavior of Spacer Knitted Structure”, 7th International Conference
TEXSCI 2010.
8. Abdel Fattah, A. Mahmoud, et al (2011), “Using Nonwoven Hollow Fibers to Improve Car Interior Acoustic
Properties”, Life Science Journal, Vol 8, Pg 344-351.
9. Stanciu M.D, Curtu I, et al (2012), “Research Regarding Acoustical Properties of Recycled Composites”
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10. H. Rammohan, T. Ramachandran (2010), “Development and Investigation of Recycled Fibre Nonwovens for
Acoustic Absorbing Materials”, Journal of the Textile Association, Pg 96-104.
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  • M C Moholkar And Marijn
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