Relationship between age and cardiovascular complications in obstructive sleep apnoea

Zakład Diagnostyki i Leczenia Niewydolności Oddychania Instytutu Gruźlicy i Chorób Płuc w Warszawie Kierownik.
Pneumonologia i alergologia polska: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Ftyzjopneumonologicznego, Polskiego Towarzystwa Alergologicznego, i Instytutu Gruzlicy i Chorob Pluc 01/2009; 77(3):235-41.
Source: PubMed


Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess relations between cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and age in OSA subjects.
Consecutive OSA subjects (AHI/RDI > 10, Epworth score > 9 points) were evaluated. The chest X-ray, spirometry, arterial blood gases, ECG, blood morphology and biochemistry were performed during trial treatment with autoCPAP.
We studied 533 consecutive OSA patients, mean age 55.6 +/- 10.3 years (range 24-81), with obesity (BMI 34.4 +/- 6.6 kg/m(2)) and severe OSA (AHI/RDI 37.8 +/- 21.8). To evaluate relations between CVD and age, patients were divided into three groups. Group 1 < 50 years (123 subjects, 23.1%), Group 2 aged 50-60 years (250 subjects, 46.9%) and Group 3 > 60 years (160 subjects, 30%). Subjects < 50 years were more obese and had higher AHI/RDI when compared to older groups. Incidence of arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, heart failure and stroke increased with age (higher in subjects > 60 years).
Cardiovascular diseases were prevalent in OSA patients > 60 years. However the youngest group presented with more severe obesity and higher AHI/RDI.

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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic studies have shown obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for systemic hypertension. The prevalence of systemic hypertension also increases gradually with age. The purpose of this study was to assess the combined effect of OSA and age on daytime blood pressure. Patients who received nocturnal polysomnography in Tainan Municipal Hospital were invited between October 2008 and February 2010. Daytime blood pressure was measured. Participants were classified into three groups: nonapnea (n = 14, 18%) with RDI <5 episodes/h; mild to moderate OSA (n = 34, 43%) with RDI ≧ 5 and <30; and severe OSA (n = 31, 39%) with RDI ≧ 30. Seventy-nine patients (79/101, 78.2%) (63 males) completed the study. The mean of age, severity of OSA (RDI) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 40.3 ± 15.4 years, 28.1 ± 26.0/h and 132.6 ± 19.7 mmHg, respectively. RDI and age were significant risk factors for SBP (P < 0.05). SBP became severe when patients were older in the group of mild to moderate OSA (p = 0.0067) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) became severe when patients were older in the group of nonapnea and mild to moderate OSA (P = 0.0042 and 0.0168, respectively). But the daytime blood pressure and age were not correlated significantly for the severe OSA subjects. This study revealed that age and RDI were risk factors in development of daytime hypertension. For patients with mild to moderate OSA, SBP was significantly worse when getting older and for patients with nonapnea and mild to moderate OSA, DBP was significantly worse with increasing age.
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