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Using Magnesium Oxide Wallboard as an Alternative Building Façade Cladding Material in Modern Cairo Buildings

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Abstract

Magnesium Oxide is a versatile material widely used in Asian residential and commercial buildings. Major (magnesite) deposits are found in China, Middle East, and Canada. Egypt is one of the Middle East countries that mines magnesite. Magnesium Oxide wall cladding is a new technique in Egyptian construction field, some of Cairo's modern buildings facades applied locally manufactured Magnesium Oxide wallboard as external shaping material. The research paper illustrates through site observations followed by a comparative study between Cairo's traditional façade shaping technique using Cement Plaster on metal lath and using Magnesium Oxide wallboards, The research ends up by showing the advantages and disadvantages of using Magnesium Oxide wallboard for external claddings in Cairo.  Historical background about the use of Magnesium Oxide material as building façade cladding material.  Illustration of the environmental sustainability of Magnesium Oxide material.  Environmental and financial comparison of building facades shape forming traditional cement plaster on expanded metal lath technique used in Cairo Egypt and external wall cladding using Magnesium Oxide wallboards.  Site investigation on the results of applying Magnesium Oxide wallboards as a new shape forming technique in modern Cairo buildings showing its advantages and disadvantages and its application capabilities in Cairo's weather conditions.
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Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 8(4): 2024-2032, 2012
ISSN 1819-544X
This is a refereed journal and all articles are professionally screened and reviewed
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Corresponding Author: Mohamed Adel El-Gammal, Civil & Architectural Engineering Department, National Research
Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
Using Magnesium Oxide Wallboard as an Alternative Building Façade Cladding
Material in Modern Cairo Buildings
Mohamed Adel El-Gammal, Ayman M.H. El-Alfy and Nermin M. Mohamed
Civil & Architectural Engineering Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
ABSTRACT
Magnesium Oxide is a versatile material widely used in Asian residential and commercial buildings. Major
(magnesite) deposits are found in China, Middle East, and Canada. Egypt is one of the Middle East countries
that mines magnesite. Magnesium Oxide wall cladding is a new technique in Egyptian construction field, some
of Cairo’s modern buildings facades applied locally manufactured Magnesium Oxide wallboard as external
shaping material. The research paper illustrates through site observations followed by a comparative study
between Cairo’s traditional façade shaping technique using Cement Plaster on metal lath and using Magnesium
Oxide wallboards, The research ends up by showing the advantages and disadvantages of using Magnesium
Oxide wallboard for external claddings in Cairo.
Key words: Magnesium Oxide wallboard, façade claddings, modern Cairo buildings, Sustainable building
materials.
Methodology:
Historical background about the use of Magnesium Oxide material as building façade cladding material.
Illustration of the environmental sustainability of Magnesium Oxide material.
Environmental and financial comparison of building facades shape forming traditional cement plaster on
expanded metal lath technique used in Cairo Egypt and external wall cladding using Magnesium Oxide
wallboards.
Site investigation on the results of applying Magnesium Oxide wallboards as a new shape forming
technique in modern Cairo buildings showing its advantages and disadvantages and its application
capabilities in Cairo’s weather conditions.
Introduction
Environment sustainability, safety and finance are the major factors that affect the prefer ability of choice
for building materials. Magnesium Oxide material was used as an adhesive material in the Great Wall of China
and other ancient landmarks. Roman cement also is contained high levels of MgO. (Substance distributing, Inc.)
Construction materials that consume less energy during its production phase and site transportation are
considered environment sustainable materials. For that reason it is preferable to use natural building materials
with minimum manufacturing steps or material that its residue is locally mined. Presently Magnesium Oxide
board is widely used in Asia as a primary construction material. It was designated as the ‘official’ construction
specified material of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games and was used in extensively on the inside and outside of
all the walls, fireproofing beams, and as the sub-floor sheathing in the world’s second tallest building,Taiwan.
Magnesium is the lightest metal commonly used for structural purposes, having a density of 1.74, only 65%
of that of aluminum and 22% of that of iron. Magnesium is in plentiful supply and is widespread globally; it is
the eighth most abundant element in the earth’s crust and the third most plentiful element dissolved in seawater.
World resources of Magnesium are enormous and Mgbearing brines contain a resource estimated in billions of
tones (USGS, 2008).
Magnesite deposits are found in East South areas of Egypt. It is locally extracted and Magnesium Oxide
boards are recently locally manufactured in Egypt, but its application as an external building façade shaping
technique is considered new for the Egyptian construction sector that is traditionally using Cement plaster on
expanded metal lath as the main façade shaping technique which takes long time to construct and ends up with
less plaster surface finish quality.
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J. Appl. Sci. Res., 8(4): 2024-2032, 2012
Wallboard, drywall or plasterboard, was invented in 1916 by U.S. Gypsum Corp., as an alternative to
plaster walls, but it did not become a popular and almost universal building material until the 1950s. It got a big
boost during World War II, when the government needed a lot of buildings in a hurry and plastering was too
slow. (http://www.ehow.com).
Cairo’s hot weather in the summer days has a negative effect on the traditional technique of external use of
cement plaster on expanded metal lath due to the expansion of the steel supporting structure. As a result surface
plaster cracking happen very often.
1-1 Historical background about the use of Magnesium Oxide as building façade cladding material:
Magnesium Oxide’s was used in mostly masonry construction is ancient. It was used primarily as a mortar
component and stabilizer for soil bricks. Magnesium Oxide has also been identified in the Great Wall of China
and other ancient landmarks. Roman cement is reported to have contained high levels of Magnesium Oxide.
In the West, Portland cement has replaced Magnesium Oxide for masonry uses. However, New York City’s
Brooklyn Bridge base is made from locally mined cement, a mixture of calcium Oxide and Magnesium Oxide
commonly called Rosendale Natural Cement, the only natural non-fired cement made in the US.
Magnesium Oxide boards were approved for construction use in the US around 2003. Due to its fire
resistance and safety ratings, New York and New Jersey were early adopters of Magnesium Oxide boards.
Florida has adopted Magnesium Oxide for its mold/mildew resistance. While Magnesium Oxide sheeting was
the “official” specified construction material of the 2008 World Olympics buildings in Beijing (Burstow, Clive,
2000).
1-2 Purpose and use:
Magnesium Oxide board is a factory-made, non-insulating sheathing board product. It can be used for a
number of interior or exterior applications including wall and ceiling linings, fascias, soffits, countertop, shaft-
liner & area separation wall board, exterior sheathing, substrates for coatings and insulated systems such as:
direct-applied finish systems, (painting & Stucco), it can be used as tile backing and under laments.
Magnesium Oxide is widely used primarily as wallboard alternative to conventional gypsum-based drywall
–but with much improved characteristics such as fire resistance, weather ability, strength, resistance to mold and
mildew and so on. The Magnesium Oxide boards can be scored and snapped, sawed, drilled and fastened to
wood or steel framing. Magnesium Oxide boards are a good example of the advances made in construction
materials to meet changes in building safety and durability codes. Magnesium Oxide is available in many
forms, and for building construction purposes it is produced in various thicknesses and sheet sizes with various
grades, such as smooth finishes, rough textures and utility grades. It is white, beige or light gray in color.
1-3 Ratings, Advantages and Disadvantages:
• Ratings and testing (Wikipedia, 14 /1/ 2012).
- Fire-resistant (UL 055 and ASTM-Tested and A-Rated)
- Waterproof (Freeze/Thaw-Tested for 36 months)
- Mold/fungus/bug free (non-nutritious to mold, fungus, insects ASTM G-21)
- Impact-resistant (ASTM D-5628)
- NYC Approved (MEA # 359-02-M)
- Silica/asbestos Free
- Florida hurricane tested [peacock term]
- STC-Rated 53-54
Advantages:
Can be used in the place of traditional drywall or cement boards. No special tools required.
Hard non-absorbent surface – with no paper backing.
It can be used in applications like cement-based siding.
Available in various colors.
Environmentally friendly
It is removed from ore at about 25% of the temperature (400-800 °F) required to form Calcium Oxide, (the
starting material for the preparation of slaked lime or portlandite used in common mortar and plaster).
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Disadvantages:
Magnesium Oxide board for the use in the indoors is more expensive than conventional gypsum drywall
material.
Wall lining materials are typically used on exposed interior surfaces in a building for decoration, acoustical
correction, surface insulation, or structural fire resistance. However, in a fire, these materials provide fuel
and surfaces that allow a fire to spread. Heat, smoke and toxic gases are then transported to other parts of a
compartment or to other compartments, thereby endangering the safety of people and property. Therefore,
the fire performance of such materials must be evaluated. (Kuang-Chung Tsai, 2009).
2- Green features of sustainable building materials:
A chart of the criteria, grouped by the affected building life-cycle phase helps compare the sustainable
qualities of different materials used for the same purpose. The presence of one or more of these "green features"
in a building material can assist in determining its relative sustainability. Fig.(1) shows the key to the green
features of sustainable building materials. (Jong-Jin Kim, Brenda Rigdon, 1998).
Fig. 1: Key to the green features of sustainable building materials.
2-1 Green Features Of Magnesium Oxide Boards:
Manufacturing Process:
- Natural Material (NM):
Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element and constitutes about 2% of the Earth's crust, and it is the
third most plentiful element dissolved in seawater (Burstow, Clive, 2000) .Although Magnesium is found in
over 60 minerals, only dolomite, magnesite, brucite, carnallite, and olivine are of commercial importance.
Magnesium and other Magnesium compounds are also produced from seawater, well, lake brines and lake
bitterns. ; Magnesium compounds, primarily Magnesium Oxide, are used mainly as refractory material in
furnace linings for producing iron and steel, nonferrous metals, glass and cement. Magnesium Oxide and other
compounds also are used in agricultural, chemical, and construction industries. Magnesium alloys also are used
as structural components of automobiles and machinery (USGS, 2010).
Magnesium Oxide, or magnesia, is a white solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of
Magnesium. It has an empirical formula of MgO and it is formed by an ionic bond between one Magnesium and
one oxygen atom.
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The majority of Magnesium Oxide produced today is obtained from the processing of naturally occurring
minerals such as magnesite (Magnesium carbonate), Magnesium chloride rich brine, and seawater. In addition to
sea water and lake brine sources include also, Carnalite, Dolomite, and Serpentine Magnesite.
- Embodied Energy Reduction (EER):
The total energy required to produce one ton of Magnesium is around 35 to 40 man working hour for both
the electrolytic and thermal routes. The electrolysis only step component ranges down to just 12 man working
hour per ton with the latest technology (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2010).
Three basic types or grades of "burned" Magnesium Oxide can be obtained from the calcination step with
the differences between each grade related to the degree of reactivity remaining after being exposed to a range
of extremely high temperatures.
Magnesium Oxide board:
Magnesium Oxide board is a “low tech” and “energy-friendly” product. CO2 is high on the list of
“greenhouse” gases, which are said to contribute to the global warming phenomenon. Magnesium Oxide
production is simple, energy efficient, and produces few “greenhouse” gases. This aspect of Magnesium Oxide,
from the standpoint of being a ‘green’/eco-friendly product. (George Swanson , Oram Miller and Wayne
Federer,2008)
Magnesium Oxide boards are harder than drywall, and are somewhat like the Portland cement board used in
bathtub enclosures. Magnesium Oxide is ‘worked’ in a manner like a combination of drywall and cement
boards. It can be scored and snapped, although it is stronger than drywall and requires a bit more effort. It can be
cut with a power saw, drilled-through and fastened like other similar boards. As when sawing Portland cement
boards, dust is created and thus precautions against inhalation need to be taken, but the dust itself is basically
inert. It’s an easy-to-install product.
Like any sheathing board, Magnesium Oxide board can absorb water but its performance is unaffected.
Thus it can be used indoors and outdoors, and in damp locations. If Magnesium Oxide is used outdoors in an
exposed location, it needs some form of coating, such as paint. Magnesium Oxide boards are not completely
homogeneous, but do not have a separate facing like drywall or glass matt-faced gypsum board. Hence
delaminating is not an issue–for practical purposes it is a solid material.
Magnesium Oxide board is more flexible than Portland cement boards and less flexible than drywall. Thin
sheets of Magnesium Oxide can be bent or warped to follow gentle curves. Magnesium Oxide is not as brittle as
Portland cement boards, but “edge distance” (closeness of fasteners to the edge of a sheet) is an issue in using
certain types of fasteners. For instance, it can be nailed, but the hammering of the surface by the tool when
setting the nail can damage the surface, although the nail itself does not. It’s basically like drywall or cement
boards, in terms of ease-of-installation. (Raugei M, Ulgiati S, Cherubini F, 2008).Table (1) shows the future of
MgO Board.
Table 1: MgO Board Comparison. Source: www.mgoboards.co.za.
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J. Appl. Sci. Res., 8(4): 2024-2032, 2012
- Recycled (RC):
Newly manufactured Magnesium oxide wall boards use 30%recycled material.
Building Operations:
- Energy Efficiency (EE):
Using Magnesium Oxide wall boards for external building envelope saves heating and cooling energy as
the wall boards of 10Mm thickness has thermal insulation R Value of 219 Watt/Mt Kelvin.
- Non Toxic (NT):
Magnesium oxide wall boards are manufactured from 100% natural material; it does not produce toxic
emissions that affect the building indoor air quality.
Waste Management:
- Biodegradable (B):
Magnesium oxide wall boards contain 100% natural material, so the demolished product produces a fully
biodegradable natural material.
- Recyclable (R):
Demolished Magnesium wallboards produces Magnesium oxide powder which can be used in either the
manufacturing process of new boards or in many other products that use magnesium oxide as one of its
components.
2-2 Green Features Of Cement Plaster on expanded metal lath:
Manufacturing Process
- Natural Material (NM):
Cement plaster on expanded metal lath technique uses steel section frames and rods and Cement – Sand
mortar for plastering which are all manufactured materials.
- Recycled (RC):
Cement plaster on expanded metal lath does not use any recycled material.
Building Operations:
- Energy Efficiency (EE):
Cement plaster on expanded metal lath used for external façade shaping does not directly affect the building
occupant comfort temperature although it is not a good thermal insulator.
- Non Toxic (NT):
Cement plaster on expanded metal lath does not produce toxic emissions that affect the building indoor air
quality.
Waste Management:
- Biodegradable (B):
Cement plaster on expanded metal lath after demolishing produces Portland cement parts and steel rods that
are not bio degradable
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- Recyclable (R):
Cement plaster on expanded metal lath after demolishing does not produce recyclable materials
3 - Comparison between application techniques of Cement plaster on expanded metal lath and wall cladding
using Magnesium Oxide wall boards:
3-1 Cement plaster on expanded Metal lath:
Cement plaster on expanded Metal lath technique was common building technique around the world in the
1950s, see figure (2), its construction steps is as follow:
* Welded steel structural frame of various steel sections is constructed to support
6 - 8 Mm diameter steel rod grid at 40 Cm x 40 Cm intervals.
* Galvanized steel expanded metal sheets are surface fixed on the supporting grid using steel metal wire every
30 Cm, while 10 Cm overlaps are required for the connections between expanded metal sheets.
* Smooth trowel is used to apply a layer of the plaster over the expanded metal sheets. The plaster should be
about 5Mm thick. Pressing plaster on the expanded metal is a must form hooks. Plaster is allowed to dry for 24
hours.
* A second layer of plaster is applied to the wire mesh, creating an even finish. Scooping plaster up with the
trowel and smooth it. This second layer should be approximately 6 Mm thick. Plaster is allowed to dry for 24
hours. The final layer of plaster is left to dry for at least 48 hours before applying any finishing paint or stucco.
Fig. 2: Steel Frame to support Cement plaster on expanded metal lath.
3-2 Façade wall cladding using Magnesium Oxide wall boards:
* Galvanized steel U shape steel rods are fixed through rivets on rough wall surface, used as main supporting
frame distributed evenly at 60 Cm apart distances. Or it might be shaped to get the desired form. Fig. (3)
* Secondary omega shaped galvanized steel are riveted on perpendicular direction to the main U shape rods on
intervals of 60 Cm. Fig. (4,5)
* Magnesium oxide boards are directly riveted to the secondary omega shaped rods.
* Mesh and plaster are applied at the connection joints between the boards to prevent cracking.
* Final finish (paint or stucco) is applied to the boards.
4 – Financial Comparison:
Table (2) shows a comparison between the cost in Cairo Egypt (March 2012) of one square meter cement
plaster on expanded metal lath, Magnesium oxide board 10 mm thickness and Gypsum board for internal use
thickness 10mm. (ESDCO).
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Material Price LE
one square meter cement plaster on expanded metal including frame plaster and
workmanship 120
Magnesium oxide board 10 mm thickness including support frame and workmanship 125
Gypsum board for internal use thickness 10mm including supporting frame 105
Magnesium oxide board 10 mm thickness including support frame and workmanship is more expensive
than Gypsum board for internal use thickness 10mm including supporting frame, and one square meter cement
plaster on expanded metal including frame plaster and workmanship, but MgO board a lower life cycle cost
because of their durability and longevity.
Fig. 3: Using Magnesium oxide boards as Building Façade shaping material.
Fig. 4: Using Magnesium oxide boards supporting metal frame.
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Fig. 5: Using Magnesium oxide boards as Ceiling shaping material
5- Results:
Shaping building facades in many of the existing and newly constructed buildings in Cairo Egypt depend on
using cement plaster on expanded metal lath which showed by time plenty of cement plaster cracking problems
due to the expansion of metal supporting structure. External façade cladding using Magnesium Oxide wall
boards is a new applied technique for façade shaping in some modern building in Cairo Egypt. According to site
observation visits for a chosen sample of Cairo buildings that had applied Magnesium Oxide cladding technique
after its construction completion by varying periods of time. Painted or plastered Magnesium Oxide wall
cladding showed its capability to match Cairo’s climate, no surface cracking had appeared, smooth curved
surfaces with no hand plastered defects can be formed. Magnesium Oxide wall cladding technique in
comparison to Cairo’s traditionally used cement plaster on metal lath showed a great improvement construction
speed and the finishing quality.
6- Conclusion:
Magnesium Oxide is a natural material which are available in Egyptian mines. Utilizing local materials in
the construction industry helps improving building economy and energy saving. Magnesium Oxide wall boards
physical characteristics serves environmental sustainability both in its production stage and after demolishing
stage. Laboratory tests do not usually show the full capability of a material to be used in outdoors especially in
different weather conditions. An experimental building site application and site observation during a round year
of time shows material capability to withstand the local weather conditions. The research study is based on a
comparison between the local applied façade shaping technique in Cairo buildings which is cement plaster on
structurally framed expanded metal lath and the newly applied cladding technique using Magnesium Oxide wall
boards. The site observations showed great benefits of applying of Magnesium Oxide wall boards and its full
capability for application in Cairo’s weather conditions.
References
Burstow, Clive, 2000. Magnesium-the impact of projected new supply on prices over the next five years in IMA
2000-Annual World Magnesium Conference, 57th, Toronto, May 21-23, 2000, Proceedings: McLean, VA,
International Magnesium Association.
George Swanson, Oram Miller and Wayne Federer, 2008. Breathing Walls :A Biological Approach to Healthy
Building Envelope Design and Construction, available at: http://www.breathingwalls.com.
Jong-Jin Kim, Brenda Rigdon, 1998. Sustainable Architecture Module:Qualities, Use,and Examples of
Sustainable Building Materials. Available at:
http://www.umich.edu/~nppcpub/resources/compendia/ARCHpdfs/ARCHdesIntro.pdf
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Kuang-Chung Tsai, 2009. Influence of substrate on fire performance of wall lining materials, Construction and
Building Materials, 23: 3258-3263, Elsevier Ltd.
Magnesium oxide wallboard, Wikipedia, This page was last modified on 14 January 2012.
Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnesium_oxide_wallboard.
Raugei, M., S. Ulgiati, F. Cherubini, 2008. Emergy synthesis of Chinese magnesium production-a case of
“Maximum Power” at work. In: Proceedings of the 5th biennal emergy evaluation and research conference.
Robert Thomas Article “MgO Board: A Primer on the Next Generation of Sheathing” (October 2007).
Schand, M.A., 2006. The chemistry and technology of magnesia.John Wiley and Sons.
Substance Distributing, Inc, http://substanceproducts.com/products/content/history-mgo.
Sivertsen, L.V., J.O. Haagensen, D. Albright, 2003. A review of life cycle environmental performance of
automotive magnesium. Sustainability of environmental systems and materials. SAEWorld Congress. SAE
Technical Paper 2003-01-0641.
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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2010. Magnesium production-Greenhouse gas reporting program: U.S.
Environmental Agency Information Sheet, June, 2 p. (Accessed July 2, 2010, at
http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/downloads10/Subpart-T_infosheet.pdf.).
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... More recently, this material is being used as a core in sandwich structures for flooring and wall panels. Similarly, MgO board is an emerging panel used in residential and building construction in China, Middle East and United States because this material is highly sustainable, consumes low energy, resistant to fire, strong and resistant to mould and mildew [15]. ...
Article
This paper presents the structural behaviour of an emerging prefabricated wall system made up of glass fibre reinforced rigid polyurethane foam (PUF) and Magnesium Oxide (MgO) board. Full-scale wall specimens were prepared and tested under transverse bending, compression and shear. The results of the experimental investigation showed that the behaviour of the composite walls is governed by the strength of the MgO board. A complete interaction between the rigid PUF and MgO board was achieved using epoxy adhesives. In compression, a 17% lower failure load was measured for wall specimen with the MgO board attached to the wall frame with a 10 mm offset from the bottom plate than the wall with the sheathing flushed to the bottom plate. Under in-plane shear test, the single and two-panel composite wall systems exhibited similar shear stiffness and strength. The provision of tie-down anchor bolts increased the shear strength by almost 15% but has no significant contribution to the shear stiffness. Finally, the results confirmed the potential of this composite wall system in residential modular construction.
Book
Full-text available
One of the challenges in research by modern engineers is the acquisition of new materials for the creation of various constructions in order to improve their properties, including mechanical ones. One possible way to achieve this goal is through composite materials. Moreover, the use of such materials in various real constructions leads to material, cost, energy and environmental savings, e.g. by reducing the weight of the products, significant reductions in fuel consumption, exhaust emissions and costs during transport can be achieved. Therefore, composite materials are of great practical importance, as seen in various applications in the automotive and aerospace industries, building construction and many other fields. Composite materials are inhomogeneous materials consisting of at least two various materials of different properties. Considering the construction of the composites, one can distinguish some typical examples, e.g., fibrous composites, when one component of the composite is made of fibers and the other is called a matrix. Another kinds of composite materials are sandwich or layered plates, in which their components are arranged in layers. Both of them have a wide range of applications in various engineering fields. On the other hand, there are multiple methods for analyzing the mechanical properties of these composites, including experimental, analytical or numerical studies. Corrugated cardboard, commonly used in the packaging industry, is a special type of corrugated material. In the case of corrugated cardboard boxes, the key is to obtain a durable and stable structure with a relatively low weight. Another important issue is the modeling of structures made of composite or corrugated materials. Their specific design and heterogeneity make it very expensive to build a complete model while maintaining all the details and is thus also very time-consuming. Therefore, both the material of individual components (layers) and the cross-sectional geometry are usually a priori homogenized to simplify and speed up the calculations. The simplification should not, however, distort the results that would be obtained using the full model. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate homogenization method is often a key issue when analyzing structures made of corrugated or composite materials. This Special Issue is devoted to the mechanics of composite materials, particularly corrugated materials, e.g., corrugated cardboard or multilayer boards with a soft core. In addition, the articles published in this Special Issue of Materials present different approaches to the research and application of various computational methods and the homogenization of selected composite materials. Finally, we take this opportunity to express our most profound appreciation to the MDPI Book staff; the editorial team of Materials, especially Ms. Daisy Liu, the managing editor of this Special Issue; all of the authors; and all of the professional reviewers. Tomasz Garbowski, Tomasz Gajewski, and Jakub Krzysztof Grabski Editors
Article
Diffusion zone growth kinetics and its phase composition after heat treatment of the bimetal obtained by explosive welding of copper M1 + magnesium alloy MA2-1 are studied. Thermal conductivity of a bimetal after welding and diffusion annealing are evaluated. The change in the textural state of magnesium alloy due to structural distortions during the formation of new phases is demonstrated.
Conference Paper
The use of aluminum and magnesium provides cost-effective weight savings in car components. Its increased use, as a structural and body material will bring about further weight savings. Environmentally this translates into fuel savings and lower emissions. Substituting light metals as magnesium and aluminum for steel in the primary structure of a car opens up room for design innovation and changes in production processes tailored to the particular needs of automotive industry. Additionally sophisticated recycling techniques are needed, i.e. recycling of the light weight metals from ELV's must be efficient in terms of amount recovered and material properties. The aim of this paper is to review various Life Cycle Analyses (LCAs) conducted over the last years for environmental assessment of automotive parts made of light metals. Use of SF 6 and recycling effects are highlighted. The advantage of using magnesium and aluminum is obvious when using the car. Savings of energy throughout the use-phase pays back for the high energy consumption at production. Additionally light metals are considered well suited for recycling and will contribute to further improved environmental performance in the second life cycle. Due to upcoming legislation, increased awareness and investigated alternatives, use of SF 6 is assumed to be phased out in the future. This implies a major reduction in greenhouse gas emissions for parts made of magnesium and makes magnesium even more favorable as a material in automotive applications.
Article
This study assessed the fire risk of attaching a qualified surface wall lining to an unqualified combustible substrate. Experimental materials were gypsum, magnesium oxide, calcium silicate board and fire-retardant plywood, which were attached to a non-fire-retardant plywood panel. The CNS 6532 Surface Test and the ISO 5660 Cone Calorimeter Test were applied. The former simulates the heating environment in the early fire stage and the latter simulates a fully developed fire. Experimental data show that when a qualified surface material was attached to a non-qualified substrate, the temperature rise in the Surface Test decreased. The substrates consequently enhance fire safety performance in the early stage of fire growth mainly due to crake prevention and a decrease in the amount of heat stored in surface materials for subsequent ignition. Additionally, the heat release rate in the Cone Calorimeter Test increased or decreased when a qualified surface material was attached to a non-qualified substrate. Therefore, the existence of substrates enhances or reduces a material’s combustibility rank when a fire is fully developed. The key mechanism is the crake or flame penetration of surface wall lining, which can lead to substrate ignition. The change of combustibility rank depends on the time at which a crake develops or flames penetrate a substrate.
Breathing Walls :A Biological Approach to Healthy Building Envelope Design and Construction
  • George Swanson
  • Oram Miller
  • Wayne Federer
George Swanson, Oram Miller and Wayne Federer, 2008. Breathing Walls :A Biological Approach to Healthy Building Envelope Design and Construction, available at: http://www.breathingwalls.com.
Sustainable Architecture Module:Qualities, Use,and Examples of Sustainable Building Materials
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  • Brenda Rigdon
Jong-Jin Kim, Brenda Rigdon, 1998. Sustainable Architecture Module:Qualities, Use,and Examples of Sustainable Building Materials. Available at: http://www.umich.edu/~nppcpub/resources/compendia/ARCHpdfs/ARCHdesIntro.pdf 2032
Magnesium oxide wallboard, Wikipedia, This page was last modified on 14
  • Kuang-Chung Tsai
Kuang-Chung Tsai, 2009. Influence of substrate on fire performance of wall lining materials, Construction and Building Materials, 23: 3258-3263, Elsevier Ltd. Magnesium oxide wallboard, Wikipedia, This page was last modified on 14 January 2012. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnesium_oxide_wallboard.
Emergy synthesis of Chinese magnesium production-a case of "Maximum Power" at work
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Raugei, M., S. Ulgiati, F. Cherubini, 2008. Emergy synthesis of Chinese magnesium production-a case of "Maximum Power" at work. In: Proceedings of the 5 th biennal emergy evaluation and research conference.
MgO Board: A Primer on the Next Generation of Sheathing
  • Robert Thomas Article
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The chemistry and technology of magnesia
  • M A Schand
Schand, M.A., 2006. The chemistry and technology of magnesia.John Wiley and Sons. Substance Distributing, Inc, http://substanceproducts.com/products/content/history-mgo.
Magnesium production-Greenhouse gas reporting program: U.S. Environmental Agency Information Sheet
USGS, 2008. available at:http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2008/3049/fs2008-3049.pdf USGS, 2010. available at: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/mcs/2010/mcs2010.pdf U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2010. Magnesium production-Greenhouse gas reporting program: U.S. Environmental Agency Information Sheet, June, 2 p. (Accessed July 2, 2010, at http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/downloads10/Subpart-T_infosheet.pdf.).