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Genetic studies of the distribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups in human populations residing within the Carpathian Mountain range have been scarce. We present an analysis of mtDNA haplogroup composition of the Boykos, Hutsuls, and Lemkos, three population groups of the Carpathian highlands. In our study Hutsuls had the highest frequency of subhaplogroup H1 in central and eastern Europe. Lemkos shared the highest frequency of haplogroup I ever reported and the highest frequency of haplogroup M(*) in the region. MtDNA haplogroup frequencies in Boykos were different from most modern European populations. We interpreted these unique mtDNA frequencies to be evidence of diverse and dynamic population histories in the Carpathian highland region.
... The T2b lineage is also frequent in modern populations of the Carpathian Basin. In the study of mDNA lineages of the Carpathian highlanders  one of the individuals coming from Bilche Zolote, three kilometers away from Verteba, carried an identical polymorphism pattern at HVS-1 to V3.14.1. Another individual from Bilche Zolote in the same study carried the H5a mtDNA lineage, thus testifying to the persistence of mitochondrial lineages derived from the European Neolithic farmers in local populations of the Verteba Cave area. ...
... Despite the small sample size (n = 9) of available mtDNA lineages of the Scandinavian FBC group, five out of nine (55.5%) of the group's mitochondrial lineages were represented by members of haplogroup H . FBC and BAC also featured members of the H1 haplogroup . Analyses of modern mtDNA genomes tied the origin of the main divisions of the H clade (H1, H3) to the Franco- Cantabrian region in the pre-glacial period, and their subsequent extension across Europe during the Holocene from the Iberian glacial refugium [32,39], although modifications of this scenario involving east European glacial refugia have also been proposed  . Some of the earliest finds of the members of the H clade in Europe, including representatives of H1 and H3, have been made in the early Neolithic sites in northeastern Spain and southern France [40– 42] . ...
The agricultural revolution in Eastern Europe began in the Eneolithic with the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture complex. In Ukraine, the Trypillian culture (TC) existed for over two millennia (ca. 5,400–2,700 BCE) and left a wealth of artifacts. Yet, their burial rituals remain a mystery and to date almost nothing is known about the genetic composition of the TC population. One of the very few TC sites where human remains can be found is a cave called Verteba in western Ukraine. This report presents four partial and four complete mitochondrial genomes from nine TC individuals uncovered in the cave. The results of this analysis, combined with the data from previous reports, indicate that the Trypillian population at Verteba carried, for the most part, a typical Neolithic farmer package of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages traced to Anatolian farmers and Neolithic farming groups of central Europe. At the same time, the find of two specimens belonging to haplogroup U8b1 at Verteba can be viewed as a connection of TC with the Upper Paleolithic European populations. At the level of mtDNA haplogroup frequencies, the TC population from Verteba demonstrates a close genetic relationship with population groups of the Funnel Beaker/ Trichterbecker cultural complex from central and northern Europe (ca. 3,950–2,500 BCE).
... This ethni- cally diverse and multicultural region is further enriched by Russians, Jews, Germans, Greeks, Armenians and Roma. However, specific minorities, such as the Rusyns, Lemkos, Bojkos, Hutsuls, Górals, Szeklers, Csángos, and Mot¸iMot¸i consider themselves different from the Carpathian nations ( Nikitin et al., 2009;Eberhardt, 2003). The moun- tain ranges have divided and isolated these populations from each other for centuries, and as a result they have developed and kept their own beliefs, dialects and ethnic identities. ...
A collection of proceedings from the third international seminar of the Delos Initiative, organized by Metsähallitus Natural Heritage Service (organization in charge of the system of protected natural areas in Finland), held in Anar/Aanaar/Inari in northern Finnish Lapland on 1–3 July 2010. This volume consists of six parts and describes many natural shrines found in protected natural areas in Europe. The first part deals with the indigenous Sami people and their relationship with nature. The second part presents case studies of ancient sacred places, of the conservation of sacred natural sites in Estonia and of spiritual heritage and environmental awareness. Thirdly, using three case studies, the article discusses the management of natural area by mainstream religions. The fourth part contains three articles on the management of natural areas by monastic communities. The fifth part describes the diversity of sacred natural sites in Europe, while the last part includes the results of a participatory exercise on the applicability of UNESCO-IUCN guidelines for the management of protected natural areas in sacred natural sites, along with the conclusions of the seminar.
... The frequency of M-derived lineages in the modern mtDNA pool of Eastern Europe is marginal, with the exception of an isolated population of Carpathian highlanders. 21 The haplogroup C HVS1 root sequence motif was frequent in ancient populations of the Tarim Basin. 22 Modern Siberian populations as well as Neolithic populations of the Northern Baikal region and Northeastern Siberia have been found to harbor polymorphisms found in the C-bearing DD specimens. ...
Recent studies of ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages have revealed the presence of East Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups in the Central European Neolithic. Here we report the finding of East Eurasian lineages in ancient mtDNA from two Neolithic cemeteries of the North Pontic Region (NPR) in Ukraine. In our study, comprehensive haplotyping information was obtained for 7 out of 18 specimens. Although the majority of identified mtDNA haplogroups belonged to the traditional West Eurasian lineages of H and U, three specimens were determined to belong to the lineages of mtDNA haplogroup C. This find extends the presence of East Eurasian lineages in Neolithic Europe from the Carpathian Mountains to the northern shores of the Black Sea and provides the first genetic account of Neolithic mtDNA lineages from the NPR.
The Hutsuls, an ethnic group belonging to the Bukovina’s agro-forestry and pastoral area, still preserve ancient folk traditions which generate friendly practices and attitudes towards the environment. Globalisation and modernisation have brought about changes in the local rural traditions which, on the one hand, threaten their singularity, and on the other hand, set the stage for a new start. The paper aims to analysethe perception of the Bukovina’s communities on the tradition-sustainable development relations considered from a double perspective: the Hutsuls’ traditions and the evolution of the group itself under changes in Romania in the last 25 years.
Consequently, our approach has sought to make a correlation between the information collected from the scientific literature, the answers given in a field survey and the opinions expressed in the media concerning this subject. The results of the study have shown that both the occupations and the traditions of the Hutsul ethnics, as well as their spiritual and cultural life, are strongly linked to the natural elements of the environment which the Hutsuls consider to be the basic resources for their existence. However, given that nowadays young people migrate abroad, the community’s perception is indicative of a particular concern to do with the viability of this ethnic group; that is, the human right to turn to modernisation and the efficiency of multicultural policies application in Romania. The study is hence useful from several points of view: it can disseminate information on a national level concerning this little-known ethnicity; it can promote the role of the ethnic groups in reaching the local objectives of sustainable development; and it can supply the authorities with the necessary information for taking the right decissions, be they political, cultural, economic or demographic.
The Hutsuls, an ethnic group belonging to the Bukovina’s agro-forestry and
pastoral area, still preserve ancient folk traditions which generate friendly practices
and attitudes towards the environment. Globalisation and modernisation have
brought about changes in the local rural traditions which, on the one hand,
threaten their singularity, and on the other hand, set the stage for a new start.
The paper aims to analysethe perception of the Bukovina’s communities on
the tradition-sustainable development relations considered from a double
perspective: the Hutsuls’ traditions and the evolution of the group itself under
changes in Romania in the last 25 years.
Consequently, our approach has sought to make a correlation between the
information collected from the scientific literature, the answers given in a field
survey and the opinions expressed in the media concerning this subject. The
results of the study have shown that both the occupations and the traditions of
the Hutsul ethnics, as well as their spiritual and cultural life, are strongly linked
to the natural elements of the environment which the Hutsuls consider to be
the basic resources for their existence. However, given that nowadays young
people migrate abroad, the community’s perception is indicative of a particular
concern to do with the viability of this ethnic group; that is, the human right to turn to modernisation and the efficiency of multicultural policies application in
Romania. The study is hence useful from several points of view: it can disseminate
information on a national level concerning this little-known ethnicity; it
can promote the role of the ethnic groups in reaching the local objectives of
sustainable development; and it can supply the authorities with the necessary
information for taking the right decissions, be they political, cultural, economic
In the sixth century AD, Avars came to Central Europe from middle Eurasian steppes and founded a strong Empire called the Avar Khagante (568-799/803 AD) in the Pannonian basin. During the existence of this empire, they undertook many military and pugnacious campaigns. In the seventh century, they conquered the northern territory inhabited by Slavs, who were further recruited in Avar military and were commissioned with obtaining food supplies. During almost 200 years of Avar domination, a significant influence by the Avar culture (especially on the burial rite) and assimilation with indigenous population (occurrence of "East Asian"cranial features) could be noticed in this mixed area, which is supported by achaeological and anthropologcal research. Therefore we expected higher incidence of east Eurasian haplogroups (introduced by Avars) than the frequencies detected in present-day central European populations.
Materials and methods:
Mitochondrial DNA from 62 human skeletal remains excavated from the Avar-Slavic burial site Cífer-Pác (Slovakia) dated to the eighth and ninth century was analyzed by the sequencing of hypervariable region I and selected parts of coding region. Obtained haplotypes were compared with other present-day and historical populations and genetic distances were calculated using standard statistical method.
Results and discussion:
In total, the detection of mitochondrial haplogroups was possible in 46 individuals. Our results prooved a higher frequency of east Eurasian haplogroups in our analyzed population (6.52%) than in present-day central European populations. However, it is almost three times lower than the frequency of east Eurasian haplogroups detected in other medieval Avar populations. The statistical analysis showed a greater similarity and the lowest genetic distances between the Avar-Slavic burial site Cifer-Pac and medieval European populations than the South Siberian, East and Central Asian populations.
Our results indicate that the transfer of Avar genetic variation through their mtDNA was rather weak in the analyzed mixed population.
In 2005, for the first time in the history of Tripolian culture research, samples to study genetic lineages of Tripolians were obtained from the Verteba Cave in the Podolye region (Ternopol Oblast, Ukraine). Five years later, our research team presented the results of this analysis to the scientific community. Three years after, our conclusions about the genetic roots of Tripolians received confirmation from a phylogenetic comparative analysis of the Neolithic predecessors of Tripolians from Central Europe and the Balkans. Tripollians, like their Balkan ancestors, carried maternal genetic lineages characteristic to all Neolithic farming ecumene, rooted in the lands of Asia Minor, the birthplace of European agriculture. However, the dominating lineage in the Tripolian remains studied so far is one that existed on the territory from the Carpathians to the northern Black Sea shores before farmers arrived there. Thus, based on the available information to date, we can reach a conclusion that genetic canvas of Tripolian inhabitants of the Podolye region contained elements of farming genetic lineages with autochthonous foundation in local, pre-Neolithic, maternally-derived genetic types.
Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are aggressive lymphomas with no effective upfront standard treatment, and ineffective options in relapsed disease, resulting in poorer clinical outcomes as compared to B-cell lymphomas. The adoptive transfer of T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) is a promising new approach for treatment of hematologic malignancies. However, preclinical reports of targeting T cell lymphoma with CARs are almost non-existent. Here, we have designed a CAR, CD4CAR, which re-directs the antigen-specificity of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells to CD4-expressing cells. CD4CAR T cells derived from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and cord blood effectively redirected T-cell specificity against CD4+ cells in vitro. CD4CAR T cells efficiently eliminated a CD4+ leukemic cell line and primary CD4+ PTCL patient samples in co-culture assays. Notably, CD4CAR T cells maintained a central memory stem cell-like phenotype (CD8+CD45RO+CD62L+) under standard culture conditions. Furthermore, in aggressive orthotropic T cell lymphoma models, CD4CAR T cells efficiently suppressed the growth of lymphoma cells while also significantly prolonging mouse survival. Combined, these studies demonstrate that CD4CAR-expressing CD8+ T cells are efficacious in ablating malignant CD4+ populations, with potential use as a bridge to transplant or stand-alone therapy for the treatment of PTCLs.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 03 November 2015. doi:10.1038/leu.2015.311.
Modern day Iran is strategically located in the tri-continental corridor uniting Africa, Europe and Asia. Several ethnic groups belonging to distinct religions, speaking different languages and claiming divergent ancestries inhabit the region, generating a potentially diverse genetic reservoir. In addition, past pre-historical and historical events such as the out-of-Africa migrations, the Neolithic expansion from the Fertile Crescent, the Indo-Aryan treks from the Central Asian steppes, the westward Mongol expansions and the Muslim invasions may have chiseled their genetic fingerprints within the genealogical substrata of the Persians. On the other hand, the Iranian perimeter is bounded by the Zagros and Albrez mountain ranges, and the Dasht-e Kavir and Dash-e Lut deserts, which may have restricted gene flow from neighboring regions. By utilizing high-resolution mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and reanalyzing our previously published Y-chromosomal data, we have found a previously unexplored, genetic connection between Iranian populations and the Arabian Peninsula, likely the result of both ancient and recent gene flow. Furthermore, the regional distribution of mtDNA haplogroups J, I, U2 and U7 also provides evidence of barriers to gene flow posed by the two major Iranian deserts and the Zagros mountain range.
The discovery of mitochondrial type N1a in Central European Neolithic skeletons at a high frequency enabled us to answer the
question of whether the modern population is maternally descended from the early farmers instead of addressing the traditional
question of the origin of early European farmers.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation was examined in Poles (from the Pomerania-Kujawy region; n = 436) and Russians (from three different regions of the European part of Russia; n = 201), for which the two hypervariable segments (HVS I and HVS II) and haplogroup-specific coding region sites were analyzed. The use of mtDNA coding region RFLP analysis made it possible to distinguish parallel mutations that occurred at particular sites in the HVS I and II regions during mtDNA evolution. In total, parallel mutations were identified at 73 nucleotide sites in HVS I (17.8%) and 31 sites in HVS II (7.73%). The classification of mitochondrial haplotypes revealed the presence of all major European haplogroups, which were characterized by similar patterns of distribution in Poles and Russians. An analysis of the distribution of the control region haplotypes did not reveal any specific combinations of unique mtDNA haplotypes and their subclusters that clearly distinguish both Poles and Russians from the neighbouring European populations. The only exception is a novel subcluster U4a within subhaplogroup U4, defined by a diagnostic mutation at nucleotide position 310 in HVS II. This subcluster was found in common predominantly between Poles and Russians (at a frequency of 2.3% and 2.0%, respectively) and may therefore have a central-eastern European origin.
The mtDNA polymorphism was analyzed in eight ethnic groups (N = 979) of the Volga–Ural region. Most mtDNA variants belonged to haplogroups H, U, T, J, W, I, R, and N1 characteristic of West Eurasian populations. The most frequent were haplogroups H (12–42%) and U (18–44%). East Eurasian mtDNA types (A, B, Y, F, M, N9) were also observed. Genetic diversity was higher in Turkic than in Finno-Ugric populations. The frequency of mtDNA types characteristic of Siberian and Central Asian populations substantially increased in the ethnic groups living closer to the Urals, a boundary between Europe and Asia. Geographic distances, rather than linguistic barriers, were assumed to play the major role in distribution of mtDNA types in the Volga–Ural region. Thus, as concerns the maternal lineage, the Finno-Ugric populations of the region proved to be more similar to their Turkic neighbors rather than to linguistically related Balto-Finnish ethnic groups.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction polymorphism was examined in Turkmens, Eastern Iranians, and Ukrainians. The gene pools of all populations studied were characterized by the presence of European mtDNA lineages. Mongoloid component observed in Turkmen and Iranian populations with the frequencies of about 20% was represented by groups C, D, and E/G in Turkmens, and by M*, D, A, and B in Iranians. The relative positions of the populations studied, of populations from the Caucasus, Western Iran, and Russian populations from the Krasnodar krai and Belgorod oblast in the space of principal components revealed a geographically specific pattern of the population clustering. The data on mtDNA polymorphism indicated pronounced differentiation of Eastern and Western Iranians. The latter were characterized by a mtDNA group composition similar to that in Eastern Slavs. The historical role of the Caspian populations in the formation of the population of Southeastern Europe is discussed.
■ Abstract Who are Europeans? Both prehistoric archaeology and, subsequently, classical population genetics have attempted to trace the ancestry of modern,Europeans back to the first appearance of agriculture in the continent; however, the question has remained,controversial. Classical population geneticists attributed the major pattern in the European gene pool to the demographic,impact,of Neolithic farmers dispers- ing from the Near East, but archaeological research has failed to uncover substantial evidence,for the population,growth,that is supposed,to have driven this process. Re- cently, molecular approaches, using non-recombining genetic marker systems, have introduced a chronological,dimension,by both allowing,the tracing of lineages back through time and dating using the molecular,clock. Both mitochondrial,DNA and Y- chromosome,analyses have indicated a contribution of Neolithic Near Eastern lineages to the gene pool of modern,Europeans of around,a quarter or less. This suggests that dispersals bringing the Neolithic to Europe may,have been demographically,minor and that contact and assimilation had an important role. INTRODUCTION: FARMERS OUR ANCESTORS? Prehistoric archaeology grew up under the shadow of nationalism, providing the
mtDNA sequence variation was studied in 419 individuals from nine Eurasian populations, by high-resolution RFLP analysis, and it was followed by sequencing of the control region of a subset of these mtDNAs and a detailed survey of previously published data from numerous other European populations. This analysis revealed that a major Paleolithic population expansion from the "Atlantic zone" (southwestern Europe) occurred 10,000-15,000 years ago, after the Last Glacial Maximum. As an mtDNA marker for this expansion we identified haplogroup V, an autochthonous European haplogroup, which most likely originated in the northern Iberian peninsula or southwestern France at about the time of the Younger Dryas. Its sister haplogroup, H, which is distributed throughout the entire range of Caucasoid populations and which originated in the Near East approximately 25,000-30,000 years ago, also took part in this expansion, thus rendering it by far the most frequent (40%-60%) haplogroup in western Europe. Subsequent migrations after the Younger Dryas eventually carried those "Atlantic" mtDNAs into central and northern Europe. This scenario, already implied by archaeological records, is given overwhelming support from both the distribution of the autochthonous European Y chromosome type 15, as detected by the probes 49a/f, and the synthetic maps of nuclear data.