Single dose oral Flurbiprofen for acute postoperative pain in adults

ArticleinCochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) · February 2009with20 Reads
DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007358.pub2 · Source: PubMed
Flurbiprofen is a non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), related to ibuprofen and naproxen, used to treat acute and chronic painful conditions. There is no systematic review of its use in acute postoperative pain. To assess efficacy, duration of action, and associated adverse events of single dose oral flurbiprofen in acute postoperative pain in adults. We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies to January 2009. Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trials of single dose orally administered flurbiprofen in adults with moderate to severe acute postoperative pain. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Pain relief or pain intensity data were extracted and converted into the dichotomous outcome of number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, from which relative risk (RR) and number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) were calculated. Numbers of participants using rescue medication over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals were collected. Eleven studies compared flurbiprofen (699 participants) with placebo (362 participants) in studies lasting 6 to 12 hours. Studies were of adequate reporting quality, and most participants had pain following dental extractions.The dose of flurbiprofen used was 25 mg to 100 mg, with most information for 50 mg and 100 mg. The NNT for at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours for flurbiprofen 50 mg compared with placebo (692 participants) was 2.7 (2.3 to 3.3) and for 100 mg (416 participants) it was 2.5 (2.0 to 3.1). With flurbiprofen 50 mg and 100 mg 65% to 70% of participants experienced at least 50% pain relief, compared with 25% to 30% with placebo. Rescue medication was used by 25% and 16% of participants with flurbiprofen 50 mg and 100 mg over 6 hours, compared with almost 70% with placebo.Adverse events were uncommon, and not significantly different from placebo. Flurbiprofen at doses of 50 mg and 100 mg is an effective analgesic in moderate to severe acute postoperative pain. The NNT for at least 50% pain relief is similar to that of commonly used NSAIDs such as ibuprofen and naproxen at usual doses. Use of rescue medication indicates a duration of action exceeding 6 hours.
    • "It possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic as well as antipyretic activity due to its cyclo-oxygenase inhibiting action leading to prostaglandins biosynthesis inhibition (Kantor, 1986; Soraci et al., 2005; Ozbay et al., 2009; Alexander et al., 2011). Flurbiprofen is effective in subsiding pain and inflammation in many conditions like osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, sunburn and also used post-operatively (Cherie-Lingniere et al., 1983; Famaey and Ginsberg, 1983; Good, 1986; Charoo et al., 2005; Richy et al., 2007; Liu et al., 2009; Sultan et al., 2009; Bhaskar et al., 2009). The pharmacokinetics of conventional dosage form of flurbiprofen have been studied in some populations including Pakistan (Kaiser et al., 1986; Szpunar et al., 1987; Caille et al., 1989; Jamali et al., 1991; Kean et al., 1992; Greenblatt et al., 2006; Qayyum et al., 2011). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comparative bioavailability studies are conducted to establish the bioequivalence of generic formulation with that of branded reference formulation, providing confidence to clinicians to use these products interchangeably. This study was carried out to compare a locally manufactured formulation of flurbiprofen with that of a branded product. Twenty two healthy male adults received a single dose of flurbiprofen (100mg) either generic or branded product according to randomization scheme on each of 2 periods. Blood samples were collected and plasma flurbiprofen concentration was determined by a validated HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic parameters like AUC(0-t), AUC(0-oo), Cmax, Tmax, t½, Vd and clearance were determined. The 90% CI for the ratio of geometric means of test to reference product's pharmacokinetic variables was calculated. Pharmacokinetic parameters for two formulations were comparable. Ratio of means of AUC(0-24), AUC(0-oo) and Cmax for test to reference products and 90% CI for these ratios were within the acceptable range. The p-values calculated by TOST were much less than the specified value (p-0.05). ANOVA gave p-values which were more than the specified value (p-0.05) for sequence, subject, period and formulation. Test formulation of flurbiprofen (tablet Flurso) was found to meet the criteria for bioequivalence to branded product (tablet Ansaid) based on pharmacokinetic parameters.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013
    • "We retrieved the newest versions of the 14 Cochrane reviews from the Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 3/2013 used in [9] from the Cochrane Library212223242526272829303132333443]. We extracted the references for the included studies from the Cochrane reviews and listed them in a separate file. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent research indicates a high recall in Google Scholar searches for systematic reviews. These reports raised high expectations of Google Scholar as a unified and easy to use search interface. However, studies on the coverage of Google Scholar rarely used the search interface in a realistic approach but instead merely checked for the existence of gold standard references. In addition, the severe limitations of the Google Search interface must be taken into consideration when comparing with professional literature retrieval tools.The objectives of this work are to measure the relative recall and precision of searches with Google Scholar under conditions which are derived from structured search procedures conventional in scientific literature retrieval; and to provide an overview of current advantages and disadvantages of the Google Scholar search interface in scientific literature retrieval. General and MEDLINE-specific search strategies were retrieved from 14 Cochrane systematic reviews. Cochrane systematic review search strategies were translated to Google Scholar search expression as good as possible under consideration of the original search semantics. The references of the included studies from the Cochrane reviews were checked for their inclusion in the result sets of the Google Scholar searches. Relative recall and precision were calculated. We investigated Cochrane reviews with a number of included references between 11 and 70 with a total of 396 references. The Google Scholar searches resulted in sets between 4,320 and 67,800 and a total of 291,190 hits. The relative recall of the Google Scholar searches had a minimum of 76.2% and a maximum of 100% (7 searches). The precision of the Google Scholar searches had a minimum of 0.05% and a maximum of 0.92%. The overall relative recall for all searches was 92.9%, the overall precision was 0.13%. The reported relative recall must be interpreted with care. It is a quality indicator of Google Scholar confined to an experimental setting which is unavailable in systematic retrieval due to the severe limitations of the Google Scholar search interface. Currently, Google Scholar does not provide necessary elements for systematic scientific literature retrieval such as tools for incremental query optimization, export of a large number of references, a visual search builder or a history function. Google Scholar is not ready as a professional searching tool for tasks where structured retrieval methodology is necessary.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013
    • "Flurbiprofen axetil is mostly metabolized into flurbiprofen by hydrolysis and its analgesic effect is believed to result from the reversible inhibition of cyclooxygenase and peripheral inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Analgesia has been reported to last for up to 24 h after intravenous administration [33]. During postoperative pain management with flurbiprofen, patients must be monitored for side effects, especially gastrointestinal effects, as with all NSAIDs [2,34] . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Post-thymectomy pain in myasthenia gravis (MG) patients can inhibit breathing and coughing. Inappropriate usage of analgesics may exacerbate respiratory inhibition and even cause myasthenic crisis. Flurbiprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to control moderate postoperative pain and is not associated with respiratory inhibition. We hypothesized that flurbiprofen may provide post-thymectomy pain relief without increasing the risk of complications in MG patients. Methods Two hundred MG patients underwent extended thymectomy from March 2006 to December 2010 and were randomly allocated to a flurbiprofen group (110 patients, 50 mg intravenous flurbiprofen axetil) or a control group (90 patients, 100 mg intramuscular tramadol) as postoperative analgesia. Visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, pulse oximetry (SpO2), and adverse effects were recorded before and up to 24 h after drug administration. Results There were no significant differences in the preoperative clinical characteristics of the flurbiprofen and control (tramadol) groups. Both flurbiprofen and tramadol significantly alleviated post-thymectomy pain (p < 0.05 for both), but patients in flurbiprofen group had significantly lower VAS pain scores at 0.5 h, 2 h, 4 h, and 8 h after surgery (p < 0.05 for all times). There were no significant post-thymectomy changes of heart rate, respiratory rate, mean arterial blood pressure, or SpO2 in either group at all time points. Conclusions Post-thymectomy intravenous administration of flurbiprofen axetil provides safe and effective analgesia for MG patients.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012
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