Single dose oral Flurbiprofen for acute postoperative pain in adults
Flurbiprofen is a non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), related to ibuprofen and naproxen, used to treat acute and chronic painful conditions. There is no systematic review of its use in acute postoperative pain.
To assess efficacy, duration of action, and associated adverse events of single dose oral flurbiprofen in acute postoperative pain in adults.
We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies to January 2009.
Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trials of single dose orally administered flurbiprofen in adults with moderate to severe acute postoperative pain.
Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Pain relief or pain intensity data were extracted and converted into the dichotomous outcome of number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, from which relative risk (RR) and number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) were calculated. Numbers of participants using rescue medication over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals were collected.
Eleven studies compared flurbiprofen (699 participants) with placebo (362 participants) in studies lasting 6 to 12 hours. Studies were of adequate reporting quality, and most participants had pain following dental extractions.The dose of flurbiprofen used was 25 mg to 100 mg, with most information for 50 mg and 100 mg. The NNT for at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours for flurbiprofen 50 mg compared with placebo (692 participants) was 2.7 (2.3 to 3.3) and for 100 mg (416 participants) it was 2.5 (2.0 to 3.1). With flurbiprofen 50 mg and 100 mg 65% to 70% of participants experienced at least 50% pain relief, compared with 25% to 30% with placebo. Rescue medication was used by 25% and 16% of participants with flurbiprofen 50 mg and 100 mg over 6 hours, compared with almost 70% with placebo.Adverse events were uncommon, and not significantly different from placebo.
Flurbiprofen at doses of 50 mg and 100 mg is an effective analgesic in moderate to severe acute postoperative pain. The NNT for at least 50% pain relief is similar to that of commonly used NSAIDs such as ibuprofen and naproxen at usual doses. Use of rescue medication indicates a duration of action exceeding 6 hours.
Available from: Chiu-Wen Chou
- "Flurbiprofen axetil is mostly metabolized into flurbiprofen by hydrolysis and its analgesic effect is believed to result from the reversible inhibition of cyclooxygenase and peripheral inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Analgesia has been reported to last for up to 24 h after intravenous administration . During postoperative pain management with flurbiprofen, patients must be monitored for side effects, especially gastrointestinal effects, as with all NSAIDs [2,34]. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
Post-thymectomy pain in myasthenia gravis (MG) patients can inhibit breathing and coughing. Inappropriate usage of analgesics may exacerbate respiratory inhibition and even cause myasthenic crisis. Flurbiprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to control moderate postoperative pain and is not associated with respiratory inhibition. We hypothesized that flurbiprofen may provide post-thymectomy pain relief without increasing the risk of complications in MG patients.
Two hundred MG patients underwent extended thymectomy from March 2006 to December 2010 and were randomly allocated to a flurbiprofen group (110 patients, 50 mg intravenous flurbiprofen axetil) or a control group (90 patients, 100 mg intramuscular tramadol) as postoperative analgesia. Visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, pulse oximetry (SpO2), and adverse effects were recorded before and up to 24 h after drug administration.
There were no significant differences in the preoperative clinical characteristics of the flurbiprofen and control (tramadol) groups. Both flurbiprofen and tramadol significantly alleviated post-thymectomy pain (p < 0.05 for both), but patients in flurbiprofen group had significantly lower VAS pain scores at 0.5 h, 2 h, 4 h, and 8 h after surgery (p < 0.05 for all times). There were no significant post-thymectomy changes of heart rate, respiratory rate, mean arterial blood pressure, or SpO2 in either group at all time points.
Post-thymectomy intravenous administration of flurbiprofen axetil provides safe and effective analgesia for MG patients.
Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Calculating verisimilitude (or "truthlikeness") ad modum Popper is a quantitative alternative to the usual pros and cons in migraine and cluster headache mechanisms. The following items were evaluated: dilation of large cranial arteries during migraine; CGRP increase during migraine; migraine as a brain disorder; aura and migraine headache; brain stem activation during migraine; rCBF in migraine without aura; NO and pathophysiology of migraine; neurogenic inflammation and migraine; aura in cluster headache; and hypothalamic activation in cluster headache. It is concluded that verisimilitude calculations can be helpful when judging pathophysiological problems in migraine and cluster headache.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: All analgesic drugs (painkillers) are tested in standardised clinical studies of people with established pain following surgery, and often after removal of third molar (wisdom) teeth. In all these studies the participants have to have at least moderate pain in order for there to be a sensitive measure of pain-relieving properties. The Cochrane Library has 35 reviews of oral analgesic interventions, with 38 different drugs, at various doses involving 45,000 participants in about 350 studies. This overview sought to bring all this information together, and to report the results for those drugs with reliable evidence about how well they work or any harm they may do in single oral doses. For some drugs there were no published trials, for some inadequate amounts of information, and for some adequate information but with results that would have been overturned by just a few unpublished studies with no effect. None of these could be regarded as reliable. However, amongst the data there were still 46 drug/dose combinations with reliable evidence. No drug produced high levels of pain relief in all participants. The range of results with single-dose analgesics in participants with moderate or severe acute pain was from 70% achieving good pain relief with the best drug to about 30% with the worst drug. The period over which pain was relieved also varied, from about two hours to about 20 hours. Typically adverse event rates were no higher with analgesic drugs than with placebo, except often with opioids (for example, codeine, oxycodone) where more participants experienced them. Commonly used analgesic drugs at the recommended or licensed doses produce good pain relief in some, but not all, patients with pain. The reasons for this are varied, but patients in pain should not be surprised if drugs they are given do not work for them. Alternatives analgesic drugs or procedures should be found that do work.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.