Article

Occupational Low Back Pain in Primary and High School Teachers: Prevalence and Associated Factors

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Abstract

Objective: The purposes of this study were to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for low back pain (LBP) in teachers and to evaluate the association of individual and occupational characteristics with the prevalence of LBP. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 586 asymptomatic teachers were randomly selected from 22 primary and high schools in Semnan city of Iran. Data on the personal, occupational characteristics, pain intensity, and functional disability as well as the prevalence and risk factors of LBP were collected using different questionnaires. Results: Point, last month, last 6 months, annual, and lifetime prevalence rates of LBP were 21.8%, 26.3%, 29.6%, 31.1%, and 36.5%, respectively. The highest prevalence was obtained for the high school teachers. The prevalence of LBP was significantly associated with age, body mass index, job satisfaction, and length of employment (P < .05 in all instances). Prolonged sitting and standing, working hours with computer, and correcting examination papers were the most aggravating factors, respectively. Rest and participation in physical activity were found to be the most relieving factors. Conclusion: The prevalence of LBP in teachers appears to be high. High school teachers were more likely to experience LBP than primary school teachers. Factors such as age, body mass index, length of employment, job satisfaction, and work-related activities were significant factors associated with LBP in this teacher population.

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... Compared to studies in several other developing countries [49], the prevalence of MSDs varied. Using low back pain as an example, a study in Iran reported a prevalence of 31.1% [50], compared to 45.6% in China [51], 55.7% in Botswana [52], 57.5% in Ethiopia, [53], 68.8% in Taiwan (a province of China) [35], 63.8% and 66.9% in Saudi Arabia in two separate studies [54,55]. The prevalence was highest in Pakistan, at 87.0% [56], whereas the prevalence in Norway, a developed country, was 29.1% [57]. ...
... The socio-demographic risk factors identified in this review were in line with common findings. Previous studies in similar populations in other countries also found that female sex [52,53,63], increasing age [50,53,54,63,64] and obesity [50] were associated with a higher prevalence of MSDs than the contrary (male, younger, and non-obese). ...
... The socio-demographic risk factors identified in this review were in line with common findings. Previous studies in similar populations in other countries also found that female sex [52,53,63], increasing age [50,53,54,63,64] and obesity [50] were associated with a higher prevalence of MSDs than the contrary (male, younger, and non-obese). ...
Article
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Background Despite evidence of physical (illness) and mental (stress) health problems, there appears to be a lack of studies or concern regarding occupational safety and health among educators in Malaysia. Objective To review the prevalence of illness, stress, and corresponding risk factors among educators in Malaysia. Method Scopus, ProQuest, PubMed, ScienceDirect, CAB, and other computerized databases were searched according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to identify studies published between January 2013 and April 2019 on the prevalence and associated risk factors of illness and stress among educators (S1 Checklist). The keywords used included educator, teacher, lecturer, academic staff, teaching profession, university staff, academician, faculty, illness, injury, disease, pain, WMSD, dysphonia, hoarseness, stress, mental health, strain, health problem, disorder, and/or Malaysia. Selected studies were evaluated by quality assessment. Results Twenty-two articles fulfilled the eligibility criteria. The prevalence of illness and stress was determined for low back pain (33.3–72.9%); upper back pain (33.33–56.4%); neck/shoulder pain (40.4–80.1%); upper arm discomfort (91.3%); forearm pain (89.6%); wrist pain (16.7–93.2%); hip pain (13.2–40.9%); thigh discomfort (91.8%); lower leg discomfort (90.5%); knee pain (23.7–88.0%); ankle/feet pain (19.3–87.7%); elbow pain (3.5–13.0%); voice disorder (10.4–13.0%) and stress (5.5–25.9%). Sex, education level, teaching experience, quality of life, anxiety, depression, coping styles, and others were reported as associated risk factors across the studies. Conclusions There appears to be a cause for concern regarding musculoskeletal disorders, voice disorder, and stress reported among educators in Malaysia. While most risk factors matched those reported in studies elsewhere, others such as school characteristics (school level, government or private school, and location [rural/urban]) have not been investigated.
... One occupation that has been shown to suffer from MSD is the teaching profession [12]. A wide variety in the incidence of musculoskeletal disorders in school teachers has been reported: for example, from a low of 17.7% in Japan, to 53.3% in Brazil, 59.2% in China and as high as 61% in the United States [12]. ...
... One occupation that has been shown to suffer from MSD is the teaching profession [12]. A wide variety in the incidence of musculoskeletal disorders in school teachers has been reported: for example, from a low of 17.7% in Japan, to 53.3% in Brazil, 59.2% in China and as high as 61% in the United States [12]. Other studies have found school teachers to be an occupational group with a particularly high incidence of MSD [13], reporting rates of between 40% and 95%. ...
... The main results are presented in Table 1. Based on the previous studies, only the study by Mohseni Bandpei et al. (2014) showed the prevalence rate of musculoskeletal disorders among teachers. The prevalence rates of musculoskeletal disorder at various points, at that time, last month, last six months, annual, and lifetime, were reported as 21.8%, 26.3%, 29.6%, 31.1%, and 36.5%, ...
Article
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Purpose: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are among the most common and important occupational health problems in the teaching profession. However, there are few studies of teachers with MSDs in developing countries such as Malaysia. The objective of the study was to review the literature on the prevalence and the risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders among primary and secondary school teachers in Malaysia. Method: A search was made using various electronic databases and bibliographies (such as PubMed), which identified 18 reports from 2006 to 2016, although only 5 studies were included for the review. Results: Previous reviews demonstrated that secondary school teachers have a higher risk of MSDs compared to their counterparts in the primary schools. Dominant risk factors cited in the reviews were prolonged sitting and standing, long working hours with computers, and correcting test papers. These all contributed to the development and exacerbation of MSDs among high school teachers. However, one of the important findings from this review is the lack of high quality studies in both developed and particularly in developing countries. Conclusion: The studies concerning MSDs among teachers revealed a lot needing to be done, not only in examining the risk factors but also in developing interventions to minimize MSDs in the teaching profession.
... Musculoskeletal problems have been a dramatically increasing worldwide (Durmus, 2012;Labour Force Survey, 2016) and one of the occupations that has been shown to suffer from MSD is those in teaching profession (Mohseni-Bandpei, Ehsani, Behtash, & Ghanipour, 2014). Punnett, & Wegman (2004) classified MSD as injuries or pain in the body's joints, ligaments, muscles, nerves, tendons, and structures that support limbs, neck and lower back. ...
... In addition, a large and well-accepted research literature base supports the relationship between psychosocial factors and the development of work related MSD (Tsuboi, Takeuchi, Watanabe, Hori, & Kobayashi, 2002;Chiu, Lau, Ho, Ma, Yeung, & Cheung, 2006;Chiu & Lam, 2007;Macfarlane, Pallewate, Paudyal, Blyth, Coggon, Crombez, Linton, Leino-Arias, Silman, Smeets, & qvan der Windt, 2009;Samad et al., 2010;Mohseni-Bandpei et al., 2014;Maakip et al., 2017). A study which conducted in Japan by Tsuboi and colleagues (2002) reported that high job demand and physical loads correlated MSD in kindergarten personnel. ...
... Finding of the present study found that there was no significant gender difference whereas male higher than female teachers. This finding supported by few studies which reported no gender differences in the reporting of MSD (Bernard, 1997;Luime, Koes and Miedem, 2005;Rahman and Atiya, 2009;Mohseni Bandpei, Ehsani, Behtash, and Ghanipour, 2014). Although MSD among teachers have been positively associated with female sex in a number of studies (Chong & Chan, 2010;Başkurt, Başkurt, & Gelecek, 2011;Korkmaz, Cavlak, & Telci, 2011;Durmus & Illhanli, 2012;Yue, Liu, & Li, 2012). ...
Conference Paper
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One of the occupations that suffered from musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) is those in the teaching profession. The lack of study in Malaysia on MSD among teachers signifies the lack of awareness about the impact and effect of this occupational health problem among teachers. Given this, the impact and effect of MSD among Malaysian school teachers are unknown. A cross-sectional study was employed in this study. A questionnaire was used to measure physical factors, psychosocial factors, workload, work-life balance, general well-being and MSD levels among primary school teachers (N=460) from 10 primary schools in Kota Kinabalu. The prevalece of MSD in the past 6 months was 61.7% (95% CI: 57.4%-65.9%) with 63.7% of female and 43.2% of male teachers reporting discomfort. The present study findings indicated that there were no significant gender differences in MSD between female and male teachers (t = 1.04, p > .05). The predictors that associated with MSD among school teachers were physical factor (r= 0.40, p < .01), psychosocial factor (r=-0.37, p < .01), workload (r= 0.40, p < .01), work life balance (r= 0.47, p < .01), and general well-being (r=-0.59, p < .01). Predictors that associated with MSD are similar to those in the developed countries. Therefore, future research should be considered to examine further those predictors.
... Aunque los autores aseguran que descansar y participar en deportes son factores atenuantes, no presentan soportes de esta información. 20 Claus et al, (2014) en docentes y personal auxiliar de educación de niños especiales, encuentran riesgo de dolor lumbar crónico, principalmente relacionado con la edad, el tabaquismo, la depresión y transportar y levantar carga en forma frecuente (ver Tabla 5 ...
... Respecto al género, se observó claramente mayor prevalencia de dolor osteomuscular en mujeres y una mayor fuerza de asociación con dolor osteomuscular que en hombres, evidenciado en los resultados de al menos cinco estudios revisados. 12,[19][20][21]23 Este hallazgo podría estar relacionado con un mayor número de responsabilidades en la mujer, en sus labores de hogar y madre, que termina en una mayor actividad extra laboral y exposición a mayor carga física y mental. 7 Este hallazgo no es diferente a lo presentado en estudios previos. ...
... Las altas demandas laborales, la mala salud mental, una alta exigencia laboral, una baja satisfacción en el trabajo y el estrés laboral, fueron encontrados como factores de riesgo psicosociales intra laborales. 17,[19][20][21]23 Un estudio en Brasil, trata de explicar esta situación, en que la labor docente a menudo se realiza con sobrecarga laboral, salarios no acordes con la dificultad de la labor y grupos de estudiantes grandes, lo que determina una carga mental alta. 23 Estos resultados son similares a los expresados en estudios previos. ...
Article
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La docencia se asocia a una importante exposición a factores de riesgo, entre ellos el biomecánico, en regiones corporales como dorso, cuello y extremidades, además de la carga mental; por lo que se supone que es una población con probabilidad de desarrollar dolor osteomuscular. El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar una revisión sistemática de la literatura más reciente sobre la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo para dolor osteomuscular entre el personal docente. Metodología: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica de trabajos publicados en los últimos cinco años (2009-2014) en las bases de datos PUBMED y SCIELO, relacionados con la prevalencia de síntomas osteomusculares, dolor osteomuscular y desórdenes músculo esqueléticos en docentes. Resultados: De un total de 24 artículos hallados, luego del proceso de inclusión y exclusión, se revisaron 13. Los estudios revisados indican reportes de prevalencias superiores al 70% de dolor osteomuscular en docentes de diferentes disciplinas, en regiones como el cuello, hombro y lumbar. Los factores de riesgo identificados con mayor frecuencia están relacionados con posturas prolongadas y mantenidas; además de factores de riesgo psicosocial como carga mental alta. Conclusiones: No existen cambios significativos en los reportes de dolor osteomuscular y los factores de riesgo asociados al ejercicio docente en los últimos cinco años. Se necesitan nuevas estrategias para la prevención o intervención específica de este problema.
... One of the professions with the highest MSD rate worldwide is school teaching (9)(10)(11). Furthermore, a close relation exists between MSD and classroom experience years, age range, female gender (12), obesity (13)(14)(15), school type and number of students assigned (16), school infrastructure, work conditions, high stress, and psychosocial factors (4,10,(17)(18)(19), with links even being observed with the urban or rural area where teachers work (20). MSDs have been studied in both developed and developing countries, with high prevalence in body segments including the lower back, neck, shoulders, and upper limbs (14,(21)(22)(23). ...
... Furthermore, a close relation exists between MSD and classroom experience years, age range, female gender (12), obesity (13)(14)(15), school type and number of students assigned (16), school infrastructure, work conditions, high stress, and psychosocial factors (4,10,(17)(18)(19), with links even being observed with the urban or rural area where teachers work (20). MSDs have been studied in both developed and developing countries, with high prevalence in body segments including the lower back, neck, shoulders, and upper limbs (14,(21)(22)(23). In this way, evidence exists regarding the relation between MSD and quality of life (QoL) perception in teachers (10,11,24). ...
... The initial sample was overestimated by possible losses. Finally, 65 subjects were excluded for the following reasons: Nordic MSD questionnaire non-completion (40), not presenting the body composition evaluation (14), and incomplete 36-Item Short-Form Survey (SF-36) QoL instrument data (11). Therefore, the final sample consisted of 153 teachers. ...
Article
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Introduction: Teachers have been reported to be a labor group with high rates of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), stress, and strong deterioration of quality of life (QoL). However, little information exists about the association between MSD, QoL, and body composition in rural and urban teachers. Objective: The aim was to study the association of MSD with QoL perception and body composition of urban and rural teachers. Participants and Methods: Participants are comprised a representative sample of urban and rural public schoolteachers from the Valparaiso Region, Chile. MSDs were evaluated with the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire for Musculoskeletal Symptoms validated for the Chilean population. QoL perception was evaluated with the 36-Item Short-Form Survey (SF-36). Body composition was measured via bioimpedance. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between MSD, QoL, and body composition, adjusted for age and gender. Results: A total of 88.9% (urban 90%; rural 87%) of teachers felt pain in some body area, 71.2% of them with limitations; 39% of teachers presented body fat obesity, with the highest rate in rural women. The body area with the greatest MSD prevalence was the neck and shoulders (68.6%). Significant differences were observed between teachers with >p75 of MSD (over six pain regions) and those with ≤p75 (six or fewer painful regions; p < 0.05) on six QoL scales and on physical health components (PCSs) and mental health (MCS) in urban teachers. However, rural teachers presented no differences. The association between teachers with >p75 MSD and low QoL perception was significant ( p < 0.05) in PCS and MCS. Furthermore, the regression model presents a significant association between rural areas and low PCS perception. Conclusions: Urban and rural teachers present high rates of MSD and obesity. Teachers with higher rates of MSD have their mental and physical QoL affected, making workplace intervention in MSD necessary to prevent teacher health deterioration.
... Musculoskeletal problems have been a rapidly increasing issue for the adult population [25]. The teaching profession is one occupation that has been shown to suffer from MSD [14]. In particular, a large number of studies have shown that the prevalence of MSD in school teachers ranges from 12 to 84% [27]. ...
... In particular, a large number of studies have shown that the prevalence of MSD in school teachers ranges from 12 to 84% [27]. A wide variety in the incidence of MSD in school teachers has been reported: for example, from a low of 17.7% in Japan, to numbers as high as 53.3% in Brazil, 59.2% in China and 61% in the United States [14]. Other studies have also found school teachers to be an occupational group having a particularly high incidence of MSD [17], reporting rates of between 40 and 95% [28]. ...
... However, despite this, MSD is still the most prevalent and the most common cause of disability among teachers worldwide. Several studies have reported a high incidence of MSD among teachers [2,14,15]. School teachers perform numerous tasks that contribute to back pain. For example, standing in the classroom or at the blackboard for long periods of time and bending over desks to read or grade students' work may result in bad posture. ...
Article
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Background One of the occupations that suffer from musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) is the teaching profession. Although teachers are known to have a variety of health and safety issues, few studies have actually been published that relate to somatic health problems of teachers, especially studies conducted in Malaysia. From this viewpoint, it is clearly important to investigate psychosocial factors, and MSD with depression as mediator among school teachers. Methods The study aimed to determine the incidence of MSD for school teachers in 15 primary schools in Kuala Lumpur during a 6-month period. Secondly, the study also sought to examine the relationships between psychosocial factors, depression and MSD among teachers. Thirdly, the study aimed to explore depression as mediator. The hypothesis addressed by this cross-sectional study was that depression would prove to be a mediator for the psychosocial factors affecting MSD. Results The incidence of MSD during the previous 6 months was 80.1% (95% CI: 75.8–84.2%), with 80.5% of female and 77.5% of male teachers reporting symptomatic pain during that period. There were significant relationships between psychosocial factors, depression, and MSD. The results indicated that in relation to psychosocial factors, depression (r = − 0.25, p < .01) and musculoskeletal disorder (r = −.17, p < .01) were both negative. In addition, depression was positively related to musculoskeletal disorder (r = .30, p < .01). Furthermore, depression appeared to have a partially mediating effect on the relationship between psychosocial factors and MSD. Conclusions The findings in this study demonstrate that psychosocial factors and depression are significant predictors of MSD among teachers. Recognizing the relationship between these variables will help in arranging, planning or actualizing preventive intervention programs for teachers with the hope of lessening the incidence of MSD. This study also provides awareness for teachers and the Malaysian Ministry of Education regarding the issues of MSD in the workplace.
... The current study found more than two third of the participants were satisfied with their job and there was no significant relation of LBP with Job satisfaction, but the other study found the person with LBP who had a mild and moderate level of Job satisfaction. 10 This study initiated that no relation found between job experience and LBP. Past study stated that the longer the years of practice, the greater the risk of having LBP and length of employment seemed to be significantly associated with the prevalence of LBP for the school teachers. ...
... Past study stated that the longer the years of practice, the greater the risk of having LBP and length of employment seemed to be significantly associated with the prevalence of LBP for the school teachers. 10 10 But current study found that there was no significant relation of LBP with sitting and standing time. Revealed that a number of school teachers were suffering LBP who had a history of back injury and there was a highly significant relationship between LBP with a back injury and another study showed that history of injury in the lower back had the significant impact on the back pain. ...
... Past study stated that the longer the years of practice, the greater the risk of having LBP and length of employment seemed to be significantly associated with the prevalence of LBP for the school teachers. 10 10 But current study found that there was no significant relation of LBP with sitting and standing time. Revealed that a number of school teachers were suffering LBP who had a history of back injury and there was a highly significant relationship between LBP with a back injury and another study showed that history of injury in the lower back had the significant impact on the back pain. ...
... The commonly reported sites of MSDs were neck and shoulder, low back, and the upper limbs [2]. The issue of musculoskeletal problems in the adult population is overwhelming [3] and one of the occupations that suffered from MSDs is those in the teaching profession [4]. Increased risk has been shown in occupations with highly repetitive work tasks, forceful exertions, awkward postures, and heavy lifting [5]. ...
... As mentioned earlier, one of the occupations that suffered from MSD is those in the teaching profession [4,10]. Studies have found school teachers to be an occupational group with a particularly high incidence of MSD [15] reported rates of between 40% and 95% [16]. ...
Article
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One of the occupations that suffered from musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) is the teaching profession. Previous studies suggested that teachers also experienced musculoskeletal disorders (MSD); however, not many studies have been undertaken in Malaysia. Given this, it is not clear regarding the magnitude and impact of the problem towards those in the teaching profession. The present study was to examine physical factors, psychosocial factors, workload, work-life balance, and general well-being factors predict (influence) MSDs among primary school teachers in Kota Kinabalu. Accordingly, this cross-sectional study conducted among primary school teachers in Kota Kinabalu. Information on demographic, physical factors, psychosocial factors, workload, work-life balance, general well-being, and MSDs was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. A Structural Equation Modeling approach was used in which a structurally fitted model, with satisfactory goodness of fit indices, was developed. The strongest correlation was found between physical factors and general well-being towards MSDs among teachers in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. Physical factors and general well-being are significant predictors of MSDs among teachers. However, the path from psychosocial factors is not apparent to give an impact on MSD. Physical factors served as the predictors of MSD which independently and significantly influence MSD. While psychosocial factors have to work hand in hand with the workload and work-life balance to give the impact slowly through general well-being to MSD. In other words, psychosocial factors, workload, work-life balance, and general well-being is the 4 factors measurement models which they correlated with each other and give the impact to MSD. Thus, u Understanding the relationship is valuable and will assist those teachers in planning, designing, or implementing preventive intervention programs to reduce the risk of MSDs.
... Destaca-se que maiores níveis de AF proporcionam maiores benefícios 1 . Por outro lado, menores níveis de AF estão associados com menor qualidade de vida 5 , dores no corpo 6,7 , indisposição e excesso de peso 2,8 . ...
... O alto nível de sedentarismo da população adulta é considerado um grave problema de saúde pública 1,2 , pois está associado a diversas doenças crônicas não transmissíveis, aumentando os riscos à saúde dessa população 1,2 , prejudicando a qualidade de vida 5 , comprometendo a renda familiar, além de onerar os sistemas de saúde pública e as iniciativas privadas 10 . A literatura científica que investiga os mais amplos fatores associados ao nível de AF da população adulta é vasta 3,6,8 . No entanto, não foram encontrados outros estudos que avaliassem os fatores associados à AF em todos os domínios entre docentes do ensino superior da área da saúde. ...
Article
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Objetivo: Analisar os níveis de atividade física e os fatores associados entre professores do curso de medicina de uma universidade do Sul do Brasil.Materiais e Métodos: Estudo epidemiológico transversal, realizado com professores do curso de medicina de uma universidade do Sul do Brasil. As variáveis sociodemográficas e de estado de saúde foram avaliadas por meio de entrevistas, a partir de um questionário adaptado do instrumento utilizado pela Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico. Foram estimadas as razões de prevalência ajustadas de acordo com as características individuais da amostra, por Regressão de Poisson com variância robusta.Resultados: A prevalência de docentes considerados fisicamente ativos no lazer foi de 44,2%, fisicamente ativos no trabalho 40,4%, fisicamente ativos em atividades domésticas 5,8% e fisicamente ativos em atividades de deslocamento 2,6%. A realização de atividades domésticas foi associada com a idade dos docentes, sendo maior entre os docentes com idade maior do que 45 anos (RP: 8,74 IC95%: 1,03–74,31). Nenhuma outra característica sociodemográfica ou antropométrica foi associada à atividade física.Conclusão: O estudo concluiu que a maioria dos docentes do curso de medicina participantes deste estudo é considerada fisicamente ativa. Além disso, possuir idade superior a 45 anos demonstrou associação com maior quantidade de atividades domésticas.
... abdominal muscle thickness, ultrasound Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders found in both western and eastern societies. [1][2][3] About 10% to 15% of the patients with LBP have a chronic problem, 4 and up to 80% of them experience recurrence symptoms. 5 LBP is a multifactorial biopsychosocial disorder with unclear definitive anatomical causes. ...
... 5 LBP is a multifactorial biopsychosocial disorder with unclear definitive anatomical causes. 3,6 Insufficient activation of deep trunk muscles with altered central neural control of movements was frequently reported in the patients with LBP, which may be a major consequence of long-lasting pain in these patients. [7][8][9][10][11] During the last 2 decades, the majority of therapeutic approaches for patients with LBP were based on corrective exercises for control of deep trunk muscles, such as transverse abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO), and lumbar multifidus (MF) muscles. ...
Article
Context: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) often presents with a dysfunction in deep abdominal muscles activity during standing tasks. Although some studies indicated that deep abdominal muscle activity improved during some functional tasks following stabilization exercise (SE), there is no study to evaluate the effect of SE on lateral abdominal muscles thickness during standing postural tasks. Objective: The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate the lateral abdominal muscles thickness in the participants with CLBP while standing on a balance board and (2) to compare the effects of SE and a general exercise (GE) program on the lateral muscles thickness changes. Methods: This was a between-groups, triple-blinded randomized controlled trial design. In total, 40 females with CLBP were randomly assigned into 2 groups: GE (control group) and supervised progressive SE (experimental group). Diagnostic ultrasound imaging was used before and after the intervention to measure lateral abdominal muscles thickness during standing on 2 different levels of platform in the Biodex Balance System. Visual analog scale and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire were used to evaluate changes in pain intensity and disability. Results: The results indicated significant increases in transverse abdominis muscle thickness during all standing tasks (P = .02) and significant decreases in pain intensity and disability following SE intervention (P < .001). However, the lateral abdominal muscle thicknesses were not changed after GE intervention while standing postural tasks (P > .05). The GE group revealed only significant decreases in pain intensity after intervention (P = .03). Conclusion: Supervised progressive SE improved the activity of deep abdominal muscles in standing postural tasks in the patients with CLBP.
... It is also suggested that musculoskeletal disorders among primary school teachers are most probably an under-researched topic. The teaching profession is one occupation which has been shown to be suffering from musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) (Mohseni-Bandpei et al., 2014). Prolonged exposure due to unfavourable working condition and posture during teaching becomes a risk factor for health problems (Ebied, 2015). ...
... Different studies investigated the origins of MSD and suggested treatment mechanisms. Apart from this, although MSD appears to be the most prominent and severe cause of illness for teachers worldwide, many studies have reported high MSD occurrences among teachers (Eric and Smith, 2014;Mohseni-Bandpei et al., 2014;Yue et al., 2012). Teachers at the school carry out various activities that lead to MSD. ...
Article
Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) has been a well-known occupational health issue for workers over recent years, and the prevalence among school teachers is particularly high. In Malaysia, few studies are focusing on MSDs and associated factors among school teachers, but in Terengganu, there is no data available for MSDs among school teachers. Objectives: To identify the prevalence of MSDs and associated risk factors among female teachers in Terengganu primary school. Methods: Data collection was carried out with a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 212 female school teachers participated in this study. Results: The findings show that the prevalence for any parts of the body was 40.1%. The most affected part of the body was feet, with 32.5% for the past 12-months and 36.8% for the past 7 days. The most significant risk factors that associated with body parts (lower back, thigh, calf, knee, and feet) were age, BMI, sports activity, shoe type, teaching hours, and standing hours during school. Conclusion: Female teachers in Terengganu's primary school had shown a significant prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders. The most affected body parts were feet, followed by knee, upper back, and lower back. Related risk factors such as age, BMI, sports activity, type of shoe, teaching hours and standing hours were analysed. Hence, they are prone to have higher MSDs prevalence than current results due to significant risk factors if there is no measure taken to reduce MSDs prevalence among teachers.
... Further, not only it is important to investigate the prevalence and the contribution of predictors associated with MSDs but also the interaction of these predictors which has not been examined thoroughly particularly in Malaysia. To date, only a handful of studies have examined the interactive nature of the relationship of various predictors associated with MSDs (Samad et al., 2010;Mohseni-Bandpei et al., 2014;Erick & Smith, 2014;Balakrishnan, Chellappan & Thenmozhi, 2016;Maakip et al., 2017). Although a previous study which conducted by Ng, Peter Voo, and Maakip (2019) found that although the relationship between psychosocial factors and MSDs was partially modified by depression the authors did not explore other underlying risk factors such as physical factors, workload, work-life balance and general well being that may contribute to MSDs. ...
... Also, a large and well-accepted body of research literature base supports the relationship between psychosocial factors and the development of work-related MSDs (Tsuboi et al., 2002;Chiu et al., 2006;Chiu & Lam, 2007;Mafarlane et al., 2009;Samad et al., 2010;Mohseni-Bandpei et al., 2014;Maakip et al., 2017). Tsuboi and colleagues (2002) reported that high job demand and physical loads correlated with MSDs in kindergarten personnel. ...
Article
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Purpose: The present study aimed to examine the prevalence and gender differences in MSDs among teachers, as well as the interaction of associated predictor .In addition, another aim of the study was to investigate the contribution of these predictors, which have not been examined thoroughly particularly in Malaysia. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was employed in this study. A questionnaire was used to measure physical factors, psychosocial factors, workload, work-life balance, general well-being, and MSDs levels among primary school teachers (N=460) from 10 primary schools in Kota Kinabalu. Findings: The prevalence of MSD in the past 6 months was 61.7% (95% CI: 57.4% – 65.9%). The present study findings also indicated that there were significant gender differences in MSDs between female and male teachers (t = 1.04, p< .05). Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted to examine a range of predictors related to MSDs. Physical factors (ß = .17, p<0.05). Multiple regression was used for a variety of predictors that are associated with MSD. Physical factors (ß = .17, p<0.05), psychosocial factors (ß = -.14, p<0.05), and general well-being (ß = .43, p<0.01) are significantly associated with MSD in Malaysian primary school teachers. Overall, model statistic result was F (3, 276) = 36.730, p=0.001, R&sup2; = .45 and adjusted R&sup2; = .435. The model explained 44.7% (r= 0.67) of the variance in MSD discomfort. Conclusion: The studies concerning MSDs among teachers revealed the need for a significant effort, not only to examine the risk factors but also to develop interventions to minimize MSDs for those in the teaching profession.
... Various factors such as demographic factors (age, sex, body mass index) [12,13], physical factors (duration of employment, inappropriate physical posture at work, excessive computer use, sitting and prolonged standing, excessive bending of the neck forward or backward, unprincipled exercise, lack of adequate rest time) [1,2,5,8,14,15]. Psychological factors (high workload, general health, work-related stress, poor mood, lack of co-worker support, marital and family relationships, job dissatisfaction, monotonous work, organizational characteristics and financial and social aspects) in the prevalence of pain the neck plays a role in teachers [16][17][18]. ...
... This model is evaluated by understanding factors such as perceived intensity and sensitivity, perceived benefits and barriers, and self-efficacy. According to it, a persons' behavior changes when he understands the level of danger that threatens him (perceived sensitivity and severity) and also has a proper assessment of health barriers and behaviors (perceived barriers and benefits ) [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20]. According to the efficiency of the health belief model in different studies for prevent dangerous behaviors and promote healthy behaviors, because so far, this model has not been used to promote neck health-promoting behaviors in Iranian teachers, the aim of this study was to assessment the effect of the educational intervention program based on health belief model in adopting neck pain prevention behaviors in junior high school teachers in the 19th district of Tehran. ...
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Background Prevention of musculoskeletal disorders as one of the most common occupational health problems among the working population in both developed and developing countries is an important necessity and priority. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention program based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) to increase awareness, perceived sensitivity, perceived severity, perceived benefits, and self-efficacy in adopting neck health-promoting behaviors in school teachers . Methods The present study was a quasi-experimental of the randomized clinical trial that was conducted for 6 months (December 2020 to July 2021). Participants were 146 junior high school teachers were selected from 26 schools through random sampling and divided into two groups of intervention and control. The data collection instrument was the self-design questionnaire and was completed in three points of time (before, immediately, and 3 months after the intervention). The data were analyzed by software version 24 SPSS. Results The results showed that awareness, perceived sensitivity, perceived severity, perceived benefits and barriers, and self-efficacy in adopting neck health-promoting behaviors in the intervention group increased in two points of time (immediately after the intervention and 3 months of follow-up) ( P < 0.05). Conclusion Designing and implementing an educational intervention based on HBM could affect in adopting neck health-promoting behaviors among teachers. Trial registration IRCT20210301050542N1, 16/03/2021 first registration has been approved in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials at (16/03/2021).
... Worldwide, back pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders, ranking among the top 10 most frequent health issues [10]. The point prevalence of lower back pain in teachers is reported as follows: 21.8% [11], 38.1% [12], 40.4% [4], 45.6% [13], 64.98% [14], and 74.8% [15], and the point prevalence of cervical spine pain has been reported as: 11.3% [12], 24% [16], 48.7% [13], and 69.3% [17]. Wáng et al., (2016) reported higher back pain prevalence in females than in males, especially after menopausal age, in their systematic review [18]. ...
... In the present study, it was also found that secondary school teachers presented significantly more spinal pain than primary school teachers. In this regard, the studies conducted by Thaseen and Tantry (2019) and Mohseni-Bandpei et al., (2014) highlighted the greater probability of suffering from LBP in secondary school teachers as compared to those teaching in primary schools [11,38]. The reasons are factors such as age, body mass index, working years, work satisfaction, and work activities [38]. ...
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Significant back pain prevalence and intensity are reported in female pedagogues. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, they have been exposed to remote working conditions, higher psychological demands, and stress. Our objective was to evaluate the back pain prevalence, intensity, and related risk factors in female teachers from Slovak regions in the context of remote learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. An electronic questionnaire was applied for data collection. A total of 782 adult female teachers (age 43.11 ± 0.36, BMI 34.94 ± 5.94) from primary, secondary, and tertiary schools from Slovak regions were included in the survey. Of these, 74% reported cervical pain, 67% lower back pain, and 60% pain in more than one vertebral region. The highest pain intensities were reported in the following cohorts (pain scale 1–5, 1 = no pain, and 5 = extreme pain): pedagogues from the Presov region (3.74), those working in the special education sector (3.83), those who gave five online classes a week (3.58), those who performed no physical activity (PA, 3.86), pedagogues who did not work in compliance with ergonomic recommendations (3.59), those with moderate or severe stress (3.66), and those who were sitting all or most of the time (3.62). The main risk factors identified were: no PA performed, no compliance with ergonomic recommendations, and stress. Keywords: back pain; female teachers; COVID-19 pandemic; home office
... Musculoskeletal pain mostly influences those in the teaching career and is considered to be linked to adverse work circumstances (Arvidsson et al. 2016). Fig. 1 Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among secondary school female teachers in Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia Numerous studies revealed that secondary school teachers may have a higher risk of suffering from musculoskeletal pain than primary school teachers, mostly due to the more intensive workloads and more stressful conditions, factors that favor the occurrence of pain (Mohseni Bandpei et al. 2014;Yue et al. 2012). Various studies showed a positive association between musculoskeletal pain and female sex in the teaching profession (Erick and Smith 2014b;Mohseni Bandpei et al. 2014;Samad et al. 2010). ...
... Fig. 1 Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among secondary school female teachers in Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia Numerous studies revealed that secondary school teachers may have a higher risk of suffering from musculoskeletal pain than primary school teachers, mostly due to the more intensive workloads and more stressful conditions, factors that favor the occurrence of pain (Mohseni Bandpei et al. 2014;Yue et al. 2012). Various studies showed a positive association between musculoskeletal pain and female sex in the teaching profession (Erick and Smith 2014b;Mohseni Bandpei et al. 2014;Samad et al. 2010). This may be attributed to the fact that the teaching profession is mostly composed of females (Ng et al. 2017). ...
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Background and objectives Musculoskeletal pain is considered to be one of the most prevalent occupational health problems in the working environment. School teachers are at significant risk of developing this pain. The objective of this study is to assess musculoskeletal pain and its correlates among secondary school female teachers in Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on 254 secondary school female teachers in Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia. A structured, self-administered questionnaire was utilized in the present study to collect the required data. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS program, version 21. Results The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among secondary school female teachers in Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia was 68.50%. The main sites of musculoskeletal pain were low back (68.4%), knee (58.6%), shoulder (47.7%), neck (45.4%), elbow (23.6%), and wrist (14.4%). Nearly 70% of the teachers had musculoskeletal pain in various sites. Days of absenteeism per month because of musculoskeletal pain were one to five days among 89.7% of the teachers. Regarding the severity of musculoskeletal pain, 64.4% had non-disabling pain and 35.6% had disabling pain. Factors that showed a significant relationship with disabling musculoskeletal pain were age (p = 0.013), marital status (p = 0.043), practicing exercise (p = 0.008), years of teaching (p = 0.020), daily hours of working (p = 0.039), number of classes per week (p = 0.013), and comfortableness of school furniture (p = 0.009). Logistic regression analysis showed that the significant predictors of disabling musculoskeletal pain were age more than 40 years [odds ratio (OR): 2.08; confidence interval (CI): 1.16–3.71], not practicing exercise (OR: 3.19; CI: 1.29–7.88), more than ten years of teaching (OR: 2.07; CI: 1.12–3.84), and non-comfortableness of school furniture (OR: 2.16; CI: 1.21–3.88). Conclusion Secondary school female teachers showed a high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in most anatomic sites, such as low back, knee, shoulder, neck, elbow, and wrist. Significant predictors of disabling musculoskeletal pain were age more than 40 years, not practicing exercise, more than ten years of teaching, and non-comfortableness of school furniture.
... These disorders can progress from weak to severe [2] and have important social and economic consequences for the workforce [3,4]. Performing work tasks in inappropriate physical, psychological and ergonomic conditions causes disorders in the bones, nerves, tendons, ligaments, muscles and blood vessels and causes pain in the neck, back, shoulders, elbows, wrists, arms and hands [5][6][7]. About 44% of all occupational diseases are musculoskeletal disorders caused by WMSDs [8]. ...
... Although various factors cause neck pain, but one of the most important causes of neck pain in teachers is behavioral factors [11,12,22,23]. Reducing neck pain was possible if teachers could observe and maintain correct behaviors during work and activity [7,24]. It seems that the main obstacles in teaching correct behaviors to teachers are lack of time required for onthe-job training, lack of ergonomic equipment in the workplace, lack of adequate rest time at work and health care costs [22]. ...
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Background: Neck pain is one of the most common work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). Which has important social and economic consequences such as reduced productivity due to absenteeism, leave and early retirement and financial losses due to medical expenses for the workforce, especially teachers, and is a serious problem among teachers. This study aims was to evaluate whether a theory-based intervention social media could change the high-risk behaviors that cause to job-related neck pain among teachers. Methods: This is a community-randomized controlled trial that will be done in three steps. The stages of the study include: The first stage is a qualitative study to obtain the items and areas of the researcher-made questionnaire based on the health belief model (HBM), the second stage is the psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire and the third stage is the design and implementation of model-based educational intervention in social media. The study population is middle school teachers in the 19th district of Tehran, which are randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control. The intervention group receives training packages on social media and the control group does not receive any training. The intervention tries to improve the knowledge, attitude, skills and self-efficacy in adopting neck pain prevention behaviors among teachers. The study will also assess whether the intervention can reduce disability caused by neck pain among teachers. Discussion: Job-related neck pain can have a negative impact on teachers' health. This study is an attempt to investigate the impact, development and implementation of interventions in reducing job-related neck pain on social media. Trial registration number: IRCT20210301050542N1 Registered on 16 March 2021 in IRCT (Iranian registry of Clinical Trial Ethics Code: IR.MODARES.REC.1399.163
... The exposure of employees to tasks performed while standing for a long period, sometimes even in a static way, causes complications, as does the use of inappropriate instruments at work (Branco et al., 2011a, b;Kebede et al., 2019;Bandpei et al., 2014), which may compel them to place their upper and lower limbs in uncomfortable positions, resulting in back pain. Because they are intrinsically related to a perception, physical demands reflect much more on psychosocial stress than directly on WMSD symptoms of the back. ...
Article
The loss of workers to musculoskeletal disorders in Brazil represents one of the main health problems in the population. However, studies on workers from the inner Brazilian regions are still scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to determine the risk factors associated with musculoskeletal symptoms of the upper, middle, and lower back of workers in the inner northeast of Brazil. Based on a cross-sectional study of 420 workers (simple random sampling method), risk factors associated with the back were identified using an ordinal logistic regression model and a structural equation model (SEM). The influence of psychosocial, biomechanical, sociodemographic, and occupational factors in the emergence of musculoskeletal disorders among workers was confirmed to exist. Biomechanical factors such as physical demands contributed directly to back symptoms. The influence of psy-chosocial factors was indirect and mediated by psychosocial stress. Occupational factors such as employment contract and hours worked per day, and socio-demographic factors such as age (≥45 years) had a direct influence on upper back symptoms. Working with a curved spine and with the lower limbs in an uncomfortable position have a direct influence on mid-back and lumbar symptoms, respectively. This study confirmed that the origin of WMSDs, in the three regions of the back, is multifactorial and complex. Relevance to industry: The musculo-skeletal disorders have a not only a multifactorial, but also a complex origin, and risks factors may direct and indirect role in the development of symptoms. The findings are useful for better understanding and prevention of WMSD.
... Already considered exhausting activities for neck, shoulders and wrist / hands in this same study were writing on the board, which is with the upper limb extended above the head, raised neck and generates repetition of movements. However, static postures and inadequate and repetitive movements in this population lead to musculoskeletal disorders[5,21,22]. Still, regarding the prevalent body regions, it is assumed that the male gender has a reduced symptomatological index in relation to the female due to the level of physical activity, in which it was found in the present research, that there are more physical activity practitioners among men. ...
... Four studies [17,18,45,47] discuss the impact of BMI on injury risk, and find associations between higher BMI and an increased risk of MSK disorders among occupational drivers. However, noting that higher BMI is, in general, associated with an increased risk of LBP, whether these disorders are due to occupational driving specifically cannot be assumed [60], as both BMI and prolonged sitting are associated with LBP in other occupations, from teaching [61] to textile work [62]. ...
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Several occupations require workers to spend long periods of time driving road vehicles. This occupational task is associated with musculoskeletal disorders. The purpose of this review was to collate, synthesize, and analyze research reporting on musculoskeletal disorders associated with occupational driving, in order to develop a volume of evidence to inform occupational disorder mitigation strategies. A systematic search of academic databases (PubMed, EBSCO host, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science) was performed using key search terms. Eligible studies were critically appraised using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal checklists. A Cohen’s kappa analysis was used to determine interrater agreement between appraisers. Of the 18,254 identified studies, 25 studies were selected and appraised. The mean critical appraisal score is 69% (range 38–100%), with a fair level of agreement (k = 0.332). The studies report that musculoskeletal disorders, most commonly lower back pain, is of concern in this population, particularly in truck, bus, and taxi drivers. Risk factors for these occupations include long hours in a sitting position, years in the profession, vehicle ergonomics, and vibration.
... With regard to this, various mechanical characteristics have been suggested as causes of LBP, including impaired muscle endurance (8), uncontrolled lumbopelvic motion (9)(10)(11), lower limbs range of motion deficit (12)(13)(14), and prolonged sitting and standing (15). Some mechanical risk factors of LBP have also been investigated in Iran (16)(17)(18)(19). Some of these contributing factors are also investigated in athletes who had LBP (4,20). ...
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Background. Low Back Pain (LBP) is a prevalent phenomenon in athletes and asymmetrical loading on the limbs has been proposed as a risk factor related to this disease. Objectives. The purpose of the present study was to compare the asymmetry of loading applied on the legs between men with and without LBP during gait. Methods. A total of 40 participants, comprising 20 men with non-specific LBP who practiced martial arts and 20 men without LBP, participated in the study. The participants walked in gait lab and forces applied on the legs were recorded in three dimensions using a force plate. Also, asymmetry of the forces applied on the dominant and non-dominant limbs was measured. Results. The Asymmetry Indexes (ASI) of the first, second, and third peaks of vertical forces were respectively 3.1%, 3.4%, and 4.1% for normal participants and 4.2%, 4.2, and 2.1 for the participants who had LBP (p>0.05). Conclusion. It can be concluded that martial arts athletes with LBP apply symmetrical loads on the lower extremities, similar to healthy people.
... No âmbito da saúde do trabalhador, diferentes profissões têm as prevalências e incidências investigadas por estarem mais propensas a causarem DC 1, [8][9] . Tais evidências devem ser consideradas preocupantes, devido esse quadro álgico acarretar assistência médica e causar limitações físicas que podem afastar o profissional do trabalho, afetar as condições socioeconômicas e prejudicar qualidade de vida 10,11 . ...
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Resumo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar a prevalência de indivíduos que praticam atividade física com dores nas costas e a prevalência de dores nas costas em cada modalidade de atividade física praticada por adultos. Foram utilizadas as informações dos indivíduos selecionados para responder o questionário individual da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS). A amostra do presente estudo foi composta 15043 indivíduos, com faixa de idade entre 18 e 59 anos de idade, praticantes de atividades físicas, que responderam todas as questões selecionadas. A análise estatística dos dados foi realizada de maneira descritiva, para análise da prevalência de indivíduos adultos ativos fisicamente com dores nas costas e, ainda, entre os praticantes de cada modalidade de atividade física relatada, com as respectivas frequências e intervalos de confiança. Nos resultados foram apresentados valores de 2055 (15,9%) indivíduos adultos praticantes de atividade física com dores nas costas. A prevalência em mulheres (19,6%) e em adultos de meia idade (24,2%) tende a ser maior que em homens (12,0%) e em adultos mais jovens (12,6%), respectivamente. A caminhada foi a atividade mais procurada e a prevalência de dores foi de 20,3%. Outras atividades que podem trazer benefícios às dores nas costas apresentaram prevalências consideradas altas, possivelmente por serem procuradas para fazerem parte do tratamento. Por modalidades específicas de atividade física, os valores de prevalência de dores nas costas são variados quando a população é dividida em grupos por sexo e idade. Entretanto, não é possível estabelecer uma relação de causalidade entre estas atividades físicas e a dor nas costas devido limitações dos dados coletados. Os valores das prevalências observados neste estudo devem ser considerados importantes para reflexões acerca de atividades físicas adequadas e à prescrição e controle de exercícios. Palavras-chave:atividade motora; coluna vertebral; dor nas costas; ; dor lombar Afiliação
... A recent study of 321 teachers in Israel found a high prevalence (9.3%) of fibromyalgia syndrome among Israeli teachers, correlated with high levels of stress, compared to population as a whole (2.4%) (Buskila, et al., 2019). Previous studies focused on specific pain syndromes among teachers, including lower back pain (Bandpei, et al., 2014) and neck pain (Verma & Madahavi, 2013;Rotermund, at al., 2015). Stress also causes headaches, insomnia, indigestion, and exhaustion (Chan, 1998;Cichon & Koff, 1980;Dunham 1992;Dworkin, et al., 1990). ...
Article
The teaching profession is highly stressful. Stress is a negative phenomenon that develops under conditions of uncontrollable, prolonged and increased pressure. In this study, our goal is (a) to investigate teachers' perception of the sources of stress in school in light of the neoliberal reforms and (b) to compare these sources of stress in primary school, middle school and high school teachers. We hypothesize that the demands and the workload to improve scores in standardized tests, increase the need of teachers to take work home. Therefore, home demands may conflict with school demands. Furthermore, the greatest pressure is on elementary and middle school teachers: Early efforts to improve student achievements in the lower grades would result in better-prepared students in high schools. Data about the sources of stress is based on a previous study of Buskila, Buskila, Giris and Ablin (2019) that investigated the connection between the effects of stress on teachers on somatic syndromes. Three hundred and twenty-one public school teachers working in the Ministry of Education (MOE) in Israel participated in the study. Findings of the mean of the entire samples revealed that the highest level of stress was caused by intense teaching schedule with insufficient breaks. The second cause was related to the composition of the students in the class, and the third was home demands conflicting with school demands. In the middle schools, the highest levels of stress are caused by school principals (M=5.98, SD=3.09) and second is in high school (M=5.00, SD=3.33). The highest level of stress caused by the superintendent is on primary school teachers (M=3.97, SD=3.33) and the second are the middle school teachers (M=3.79, SD = 2.95). The lowest stress level was in high school (M=2.68, SD=2.83). Three significance differences of stress were found among primary, middle, and high schools: The school principal is the highest source of pressure in the middle schools (P=.034), and the superintendent causes the highest level of stress in primary schools (P=.006). The third cause was in high school, related to physical school conditions (p=.002). These results are relevant to teachers, educators, and policy makers involved in planning and managing educational strategies and teachers' schedules. Identifying and preventing the sources of stress can facilitate better teaching conditions and a more effective and efficient atmosphere in school.
... Many of these mentioned various factors is rooted in unhealthy and high-risk behaviors which done by individuals specially teachers [11,12,22,23]. Reducing neck pain was possible if teachers could observe and maintain correct behaviors during their working and daily activities [7,24]. It seems that the main obstacles in training teachers to do preventive neck pain behaviors are lack of time required for on-the-job training, lack of ergonomic equipment in the workplace, lack of adequate rest time at work, and health care costs [22]. ...
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Background Neck pain is one of the most common work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). It has important social and economic consequences such as reduced productivity due to absenteeism, leave, and early retirement and financial losses due to medical expenses for the workforce especially teachers. This study aims to evaluate whether a model-based social media intervention could change the high-risk behaviors that cause work-related neck pain among teachers. Methods This is a randomized controlled trial that will be done in three steps. The first stage is a qualitative study to obtain the items and areas of the researcher-made questionnaire based on the health belief model (HBM), the second stage is the psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire, and the third stage is designing and implementation of model-based educational intervention in social media context. The study population is teachers who working in junior high school in the 19th district of education minister in Tehran, Iran, which are randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control. The intervention group receives training packages on social media, and the control group does not receive any training. The educational intervention tries to improve the knowledge, attitude, skills, and self-efficacy in adopting neck pain prevention behaviors among teachers. The study will also assess whether the intervention can promote preventive neck pain behavior among teachers. Discussion Work-related neck pain can have a negative impact on teachers’ health. This study is an attempt to investigate the impact of developed interventions in promoting preventive behavior regarding work-related neck pain through social media context. Trial registration Iranian registry of Clinical Trial (IRCT) IRCT20210301050542N1 . Registered on 16 March 2021 Ethics code: IR.MODARES.REC.1399.163
... Thus, considerable research has been focused on evaluating elements of burnout among school teachers (27)(28)(29) and strategies for stress-reduction have been implemented (30,31). In addition, previous studies have focused on specific pain syndromes common among school teachers, including low back pain (32), neck pain (26,33) etc. In the current study we have attempted to evaluate the prevalence of FMS among a sample of Israeli school teachers. ...
Article
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Objectives: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM), characterised by widespread pain and fatigue, has frequently been associated with stress in various models, including workplace related stress. In the current study we have evaluated the prevalence of FM symptoms among Israeli school teachers and have attempted to correlate such symptoms with work-related stress. Methods: Individuals, all currently employed as school teachers in Israel, were recruited to the study. Participants were asked to answer a questionnaire evaluating symptoms of FM, based on the current diagnostic criteria, which include the widespread pain index (WPI) and the symptom severity scale (SSS). Participants were further questioned regarding stressful experiences during their work and about post-traumatic symptoms as well as regarding work performance and motivation. Results: 321 participants were recruited (79.4% female, 20.6 male). 30 individuals (9.3%) of the sample fulfilled current criteria for a diagnosis of FM, with a rate of 11.4% among females and 1.5% among males. While specific symptoms such as fatigue and irritable bowel symptoms were negatively correlated with work performance, no significant difference was found between teachers with or without fibromyalgia regarding work attendance and performance. FM symptoms were strongly correlated with work-related stress and were strongly correlated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related symptoms. Motivation to work was significantly lower among teachers fulfilling FM criteria, but other performance-related parameters did not differ between teachers fulfilling or not fulfilling FM criteria. Conclusions: Fibromyalgia symptoms are highly prevalent among Israeli school teachers, and may be related to stress encountered in the classroom. These results are relevant both for physicians treating individuals involved in educational careers as well as for educators and decision-makers involved in planning and managing educational strategies.
... Other work-related factors include prolonged sitting and standing and time spent working on a computer or grading papers [16,[19][20][21]. There are many causes for the variation in LBP prevalence among teachers: different research methodologies, vague operational definition, unclear prevalence durations, diversity of study samples, and other sample sizes [22]. There are no published studies on the prevalence of LBP that includes both male and female Saudi teachers in different school levels. ...
... It is identified as pain remaining more than three months without unknown specific pathophysiology [1]. e incidence of a lifetime of chronic nsLBP is approximated to 84.8% [2]. Chronic nsLBP results in psychological and functional complications and disturbs the quality of life (QoL) [3,4]. ...
Article
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Objectives: Chronic nonspecific low back pain (chronic nsLBP) is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders leading to disabilities and physical inactivity. Laser therapy was used in chronic nsLBP treatment; however, no previous studies have assessed the impacts of high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) versus low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on chronic nsLBP. This study compared the effects of HILT versus LLLT on individuals suffering from chronic nsLBP. Methods: The study was a randomized control trial. Sixty individuals with chronic nsLBP were enrolled in this study between May and November 2019. All participants were clinically diagnosed with chronic nsLBP. They were assigned randomly into three groups, 20 in each group. The first group received a program of LLLT, the second group received a program of HILT, and the third did not receive laser therapy (control group). Pain severity, disability, lumbar mobility, and quality of life were assessed before and after 12-week intervention. Results: Both LLLT and HILT groups showed a significant improvement of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), visual analogue scale (VAS), lumbar range of motion (ROM), and European Quality of Life (EuroQol) scores (p > 0.05), while the control group did not show significant changes (p > 0.05). Comparison among the three study groups postintervention showed significant differences in the outcome measures (p > 0.05), while comparison between the LLLT and HILT groups showed nonsignificant differences (p > 0.05). Conclusion: There are no different influences of LLLT versus HILT on chronic nsLBP patients. Both LLLT and HILT reduce pain and disability and improve lumbar mobility and quality of life in chronic nsLBP patients.
... 2020; 9(1):e87240. 5 and monotonous activities, task requirements (concentration, attention, and effort), fatigue (due to the physical pressures, environmental factors (sound, vibration, etc.)), and interpersonal relationships can lead to an increase in SMWL (36). In this regard, the findings of the present study, in which workload was measured using the NASA-TLX method, showed a high level of workload in the assembly workers (69.78%), and also the subjects suffered from the pressures caused by SMWL. ...
... [5] CLBP patients can have symptoms of LBP for over 3 months, [6][7][8] and elder people, women, domestic workers, and people with higher body mass index are more likely to have CLBP. [9][10][11][12][13][14] Patients with CLBP may face heavy burden and suffer from long time incapacity, which is accompanied by repeated treatment and social support. [2,[15][16][17][18] Different methods can be applied for treatment and management of CLBP, including pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments. ...
Article
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Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a major health problem around the world. Two previous meta-analyses showed that the spa therapy has a positive effect on reducing pain among patients with LBP based on studies published before 2006 and studies published between 2006 and 2013. In recent years, more studies reported the effect of spa therapy on treating chronic low back pain (CLBP). Our study aimed to update the meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the effect of spa therapy on treating CLBP and to examine the effect of spa therapy based on different interventions. Methods: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched until May 2018 to identify RCTs about spa therapy among patients with CLBP. Summary effect estimates were calculated by using a random-effects model. The quality of each eligible study was evaluated by Jadad checklist. Results: Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review and were included in meta-analysis. There was a significant decrease in pain based on visual analogue scale (VAS) (mean difference [MD] 16.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] [9.57, 22.57], P < .00001, I = 88%, n = 966), and lumbar spine function in Oswestry disability index (ODI) (MD 7.12, 95% CI [3.77, 10.47], P < .00001, I = 87%, n = 468) comparing spa therapy group to control group. Methodological assessment for included studies showed that the study's quality is associated with lacking blinding. Conclusion: This updated meta-analysis confirmed that spa therapy can benefit pain reliving and improve lumbar spine function among patients with CLBP. Physiotherapy of subgroup analysis indicated that it can improve lumbar spine function. However, these conclusions should be treated with caution due to limited studies. More high-quality RCTs with double-blind design, larger sample size, and longer follow-up should be employed to improve the validity of study results.
... A recent study in Israel found a high prevalence (9.3%) of teachers with fibromyalgia syndrome related to stress at work, compared to the rest of the population (2.4%) (Buskila, Buskila, Giris, & Ablin, 2019). Other studies show back pain syndromes among teachers, including lower back pain (Bandpei, Ehsani, Behtash, & Ghanipour, 2014) and neck pain (Verma & Madahavi, 2017). Stress can also cause headaches, sleeping problems, digestive problems and fatigue (Chan, 1998;Cichon & Koff, 1980;Dunham, 1992;Dworkin, Haney, Dworkin, & Telschow, 1990). ...
... The findings of the study may imply that the difference of postural load may be the main reason for the difference of the prevalence of LBP among different types of workers. In addition, the results of the logistic regression model and SEM showed that job tenure and vibration were positively associated with LBP, which was consistent with previous studies [26,27,53]. A plausible hypothesis is that the higher risk of LBP in workers with longer employment length is a consequence of a longer time exposed to occupational risk factors compared to those who have less employment length [54]. ...
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Work-related musculoskeletal injuries are one of the major occupational health issues of the workers, especially low back pain (LBP). The aim of this study was to survey the prevalence of LBP among manufacturing workers and to identify associations of individual and work-related factors with LBP. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was performed with 1173 participating manufacturing workers. The questionnaire included individual factors, psychosocial and physical exposures, and musculoskeletal discomfort. It was analyzed by logistic regression and structural equation modeling (SEM). The 1-year prevalence of LBP among Chinese manufacturing workers was 33.6%. Logistic regression analysis showed that job tenure, awkward postures, vibration and job demand were positively—while social support and job control were negatively associated with LBP (p < 0.05). The SEM results indicated that, as shown in other studies, job types, job tenure, postural load, high job demand, low job control and vibration were directly associated with LBP, but also that job types, high job demand, low social support and vibration may have indirect effects on LBP—mediated by postural load.
... Mohseni et al. investigated the prevalence of OLBP among primary and high school teachers and found a significant relationship between OLBP and age, body mass index, length of employment, and job satisfaction. 4 Boughattas et al. evidenced the high prevalence of LBP among nurses and allowed bringing to light the role of individual and ergonomic physical factors in the genesis of LBP. 5 In recent decades, numerous research reports were produced on OLBP including many literature reviews, which also covered the research progress and status of OLBP. [6][7][8] These reviews have identified various topical issues, focused on emergent literature, and allowed for a better understanding of OLBP. ...
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This study aimed to explore the evolution tracks of occupational low back pain (OLBP) studies during 2000 ∼ 2020 through strict and systematic bibliometric analysis. The analysis began with data retrieval in Web of Science using defined search terms associated with OLBP. Bibliometric tools, including BibExcel and CiteSpace, were employed to conduct performance analysis and co-citation network analysis. Totally, 4,127 documents were identified from 2000 to 2020. The United States contributed the most publications. The leading journals mainly focused on medicine and ergonomics. The co-citation analysis illuminated the development of OLBP studies and the top three published keywords were musculoskeletal disorder, risk factors, and fear avoidance. This paper can help researchers have a broader and deeper understanding of OLBP studies, provide a general insight into aggregate performance in the OLBP field, and find further research directions.
... Thus, considerable research has been focused on evaluating elements of burnout among school teachers (27)(28)(29) and strategies for stress-reduction have been implemented (30,31). In addition, previous studies have focused on specific pain syndromes common among school teachers, including low back pain (32), neck pain (26,33) etc. In the current study we have attempted to evaluate the prevalence of FMS among a sample of Israeli school teachers. ...
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... Evidence also suggests that low back pain can occur due to minimum workplace support and low job satisfaction, therefore, it is a global health issue resulting in chronic pain, functional impairment, frequent sick leaves and absence from work. Consequently, this equates with high economic-related implications burden ed by less working hours, early retirements, less work force and reduced productivity (Bandpei MA, et al, 2014 ...
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Many occupations require standing for prolonged periods, which can be a major contributor to musculoskeletal problems and cause disturbances in different parts of the body, especially the lower back and lower extremities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of custom‐made insoles and exercise training on the lower limb and lower back discomfort in workers on a production line at a rubber tire factory. One hundred male workers (mean age 35.96 years, work experience of 10.62 years, standing time 6.58 hr) participated in this randomized controlled trial. The men were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (a) custom‐made insole plus lower limb exercises, (b) insoles only, (c) lower limb exercises only, and (d) no intervention. Discomfort level was recorded with a visual analog scale and a body map. The data were analyzed with analysis of covariance. The results showed a significant difference in discomfort levels between groups in the lower back (p = .001), thigh (p = .001), and knee (p = .001) areas. The combined insole and exercise group had less discomfort in the lower back, thigh, and knee. In the group that used the insole only without exercises, the discomfort level in the lower back area was reduced. The results indicate that the simultaneous use of insoles and exercises might be an effective intervention to reduce discomfort in the lower limbs and lower back in workers who remain standing for prolonged periods.
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Introduction: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are the most common and costly preventable occupational problem that office workers suffer from the discomfort associated with these disorders. The aims of this study were to a) investigate the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and b) continuously assess the trunk postures of office workers .Materials and Methods: Thirty-six office workers of a medical university participated in this cross-sectional study. Thirty-six office workers of a medical university participated in this cross-sectional study. The prevalence of LBP was determined using the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. Work trunk postures were measured using an inclinometer. Results: More than half of the subjects reported LBP. There was a significant relationship between LBP with age, work experience, working hours, and gender (p
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Introduction: Patients with non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) and movement control dysfunction demonstrate alternation in hip muscles flexibility and spinal movement patterns. Therapeutic modalities that augment hip muscles flexibility could help these patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of global postural reeducation (GPR) on pain and hip muscle flexibility in patients with NSLBP and movement control dysfunction. Materials and Methods: A total of 27 men with a mean age of 31.21±2.5147 years, height of 166.44±6.11 cm, and weight of 64.21±5.25 kg participated in this study. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to evaluate pain. The flexibility of hip muscles (rectus femoris, tensor fasciae latae, external rotators and hamstring) was measured using universal goniometer. All data were assessed at baseline and after the intervention. The Shapiro-Wilk test and paired t test were used for statistical analysis at significance level of P=0.05. Results: Our results revealed a decline in pain (P<0.004) and an increase in the flexibility of the hamstring muscles in the right (P<0.003) and left (P<0.003) legs. There were no statistically significant differences in the flexibility of rectus femoris muscle, external rotators, and tensor fasciae latae. Conclusion: The results suggest that GPR had a significant effect on the level of pain. Further, it affected the flexibility of hamstring muscles in legs. Using GPR is recommended for pain relief and improving the flexibility of hamstring muscles in patients with NSLBP.
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Resumo Introdução: A dor nas regiões lombar e/ou cervical estão entre as maiores queixas de dor entre professores. Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre desordens posturais e a presença de dor lombar e/ou cervical em professores de uma escola estadual de Guaíba/RS. Metodologia: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, com amostra composta por 24 docentes, de ambos os sexos, que apresentavam ou não dor na coluna vertebral. Para a coleta dos dados foi realizada uma avaliação postural e aplicado um questionário com questões referentes à idade, tempo de serviço, IMC, carga horária e intensidade da dor. Para a análise dos dados, a associação dos achados posturais e o local de dor foi obtida através do teste de qui-quadrado (p<0,05). Resultados: A média de idade foi de 45±8,85 anos, sendo a maioria do sexo feminino (62,5%). A dor mais prevalente foi na coluna cervical (33,3%), seguida de dor lombar (29,2%) e dor em ambas as regiões (20,8%). Observou-se que dos 16 pontos avaliados, houve associação entre o desalinhamento escapular e dor nas regiões cervical e lombar e entre a anteriorização da cabeça e a dor cervical. Conclusão: A alta prevalência de dor na coluna vertebral entre os participantes revela o quanto os professores estão expostos aos riscos posturais, o que favorece o surgimento de dores. Palavras-chave: Professores. Postura. Dor nas Costas. Fisioterapia. Abstract Background: Pain in the lumbar and/or cervical regions are among the major pain complaints in
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Introdução: A dor nas regiões lombar e/ou cervical estão entre as maiores queixas de dor entre professores. Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre desordens posturais e a presença de dor lombar e/ou cervical em professores de uma escola estadual de Guaíba/RS. Metodologia: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, com amostra composta por 24 docentes, de ambos os sexos, que apresentavam ou não dor na coluna vertebral. Para a coleta dos dados foi realizada uma avaliação postural e aplicado um questionário com questões referentes à idade, tempo de serviço, IMC, carga horária e intensidade da dor. Para a análise dos dados, a associação dos achados posturais e o local de dor foi obtida através do teste de qui-quadrado (p<0,05). Resultados: A média de idade foi de 45±8,85 anos, sendo a maioria do sexo feminino (62,5%). A dor mais prevalente foi na coluna cervical (33,3%), seguida de dor lombar (29,2%) e dor em ambas as regiões (20,8%). Observou-se que dos 16 pontos avaliados, houve associação entre o desalinhamento escapular e dor nas regiões cervical e lombar e entre a anteriorização da cabeça e a dor cervical. Conclusão: A alta prevalência de dor na coluna vertebral entre os participantes revela o quanto os professores estão expostos aos riscos posturais, o que favorece o surgimento de dores.
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Introduction: The global postural reeducation (GPR) method seems to be an effective method for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders; therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effect and durability of 6 weeks of GPR and lumbar stability exercises on movement control, pain and disability in men with chronic nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) with lumbar movement control dysfunction.Methods: Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 46 men with non-specific chronic low back pain (LBP) with lumbar movement control dysfunction were selected and randomly divided into three groups (two exercise groups - one control group). Training intervention groups practiced for six weeks, three sessions per week. Visual analogue scale (VAS), Roland Morris questionnaire, and movement control test were used to measure pain, level of physical disability, and lumbar movement control, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA was utilized to compare the effect and durability of the two training protocols on the dependent variables at a significant level.Results: Results from this research showed that both types of exercises reduced pain (P = 0.001) and improved disability index (P = 0.001) and lumbar movement control (P = 0.001). Our findings suggested that a GPR intervention for 6 weeks (P = 0.040) and inactivity for 4 weeks (P = 0.001) resulted in a greater improvement in disability compared to the lumbar stabilization exercises (LSEs). Conclusion: Both types of exercises seem to be effective in improving lumbar movement control, pain, and disability in people with movement control dysfunction after both training and inactivity. The GPR method improved disability more than the LSEs. Keywords: Low back pain, Global postural reeducation, Stabilization exercises, Disability, Motor control impairment
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Aim: To find out the occurrence of musculoskeletal pain and its associated risk factors in schoolteachers of Lahore. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and duration of Study: The study was done in different public and private schools of Lahore from December 2020 to May 2021. Methodology: In this observational study, 921 schoolteachers, fulfilling the eligibility criteria, from different school participated. The data was collected by using a self-administered Performa. Results: In the survey 921 participants participated among which 686(74.8%) were males and 232(25.2%) were females. Out of 921 participants, a high percentage 652(70.8%) had Musculoskeletal pain while 269(29.2%) reported no pain in any region. The frequency of pain in neck, upper extremity, low back and lower extremity in l was 157(17%), 258(28%), 153(16.6%) and 84(9.1%) in multiple sites of body. The frequency of participants with mild, moderate, severe and worst pain was 198(21.5%), 324(35.3%), 110(11.9%) and 20(2.2%) respectively. Conclusion: This study concluded that the Musculoskeletal pain affect schoolteachers and it is highly associated with history of trauma, the hours of standing and the back support while sitting while less association of overhead activities such as writing on board. Keywords: Musculoskeletal pain, schoolteachers, electronic devices, risk factors, MSK pain
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Introduction: The global postural reeducation (GPR) method seems to be an effective method for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders; therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effect and durability of 6 weeks of GPR and lumbar stability exercises on movement control, pain and disability in men with chronic nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) with lumbar movement control dysfunction.Methods: Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 46 men with non-specific chronic low back pain (LBP) with lumbar movement control dysfunction were selected and randomly divided into three groups (two exercise groups - one control group). Training intervention groups practiced for six weeks, three sessions per week. Visual analogue scale (VAS), Roland Morris questionnaire, and movement control test were used to measure pain, level of physical disability, and lumbar movement control, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA was utilized to compare the effect and durability of the two training protocols on the dependent variables at a significant level.Results: Results from this research showed that both types of exercises reduced pain (P = 0.001) and improved disability index (P = 0.001) and lumbar movement control (P = 0.001). Our findings suggested that a GPR intervention for 6 weeks (P = 0.040) and inactivity for 4 weeks (P = 0.001) resulted in a greater improvement in disability compared to the lumbar stabilization exercises (LSEs). Conclusion: Both types of exercises seem to be effective in improving lumbar movement control, pain, and disability in people with movement control dysfunction after both training and inactivity. The GPR method improved disability more than the LSEs.
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Background: Sedentariness is a substantial risk for many chronic diseases. We aimed to investigate the correlation of sedentary behavior and its indicators with low back pain (LBP) among adults and children. Methods: Original articles published up to April 28, 2020, using PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Scopus were evaluated. Odds ratio (OR, 95% CI) was considered the overall effect size for desired associations. Results: We reviewed 49 English articles with analytical observational study design, of which, 27 studies with cross sectional/survey design were retained in the meta-analysis. Among adults, sedentary lifestyle was a considerable risk factor for LBP (OR=1.24, 1.02-1.5); prolonged sitting time (OR=1.42, 1.09-1.85) and driving time (OR=2.03, 1.22-3.36) were the significant risk factors. Sedentary behavior was associated with LBP in office workers (OR=1.23). Moreover, excess weight (OR=1.35, 1.14-1.59) and smoking (OR=1.28, 1.03-1.60) were associated with LBP. Among children, sedentary lifestyle was a remarkable risk factor for LBP (OR=1.41, 1.24- 1.60); prolonged TV watching (OR=1.23, 1.08-1.41) and computer/mobile using and console playing time (OR=1.63, 1.36-1.95) were significant risk factors for LBP. Consumption of coffee, however, has yield conflicting results to be considered as a risk factor. Moreover, the researches on the correlation between sedentariness and high-intensity LBP are scarce and inconclusive. Conclusion: Sedentary behavior, whether in work or leisure time, associates with a moderate increase in the risk of LBP in adults, children and adolescents.
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This study aims to investigate the acute effect of sparring training applied to elite boxers on serum levels of electrolytes such as Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium, Chlorine, Chromium, Calcium.Methods: The research group consists of 22 elite male boxers of the national team, who took part in the study voluntarily, with the age 18.36 ± 6.18, body weight 65.23 ± 11.75 kg, height 174.18 ± 8.67 cm. Sparring training model including free lower-body strikes to the liver was applied to the participants. For the detection of serum electrolyte levels, blood samples were taken from antecubital region of each athlete before and after the training. Serum samples obtained were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes in laboratory and analyzed at COBAS C 501 analyzer through photometric method. SPSS 22.0 statistical program was used for the analysis of the data obtained. The normality distribution of the data was tested by Shapiro-Wilk test, descriptive statistics and Paired t-test, one of the parametric tests, were used for statistical analysis of normally distributed data. Results: Comparing the electrolyte values of elite boxers before and after training, it was found that there is a statistically significant difference in magnesium, chlorine and chromium values (p <0.05) and there is no significant difference in sodium, potassium and calcium values (p> 0.05). Conclusion:As a result of the research, it was concluded that the effect of boxing training specifically based on strikes to lower body on the parameters examined in this study is similar to the literature findings, hence sparring training does not have a significant effect on the parameters tested.
Chapter
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are among the most common and important occupational health problems in working populations with significant impact on quality of life and a major economic burden from compensation costs and lost income. MSDs decrease productivity at work due to absenteeism, presenteeism and sick leave. During the course of their work, teachers can be subjected to conditions that cause physical and psychosocial illness. Common MSDs among teachers include those affecting the lower back, neck and upper extremities. Research suggests that the aetiology of MSDs is complex and multifactorial in nature. Occupational factors including location of school, carrying heavy loads, prolonged computer use, awkward posture and psychosocial factors such as poor social work environment, high anxiety and low job satisfaction have been found to contribute to development of MSDs. Factors such as high supervisor support and regular physical exercise on the other hand have been found to have a protective effect against MSDs among teachers. The interventions for these conditions need to be contextualized for them to be effective and to take into consideration, the risk factors for these conditions and how they interact with each other.
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Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are important health problems due to their high incidence as well as their effects on the society and individuals. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the musculoskeletal disorders experienced by teachers, and to evaluate their relationship with certain factors causing musculoskeletal disorders. Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out on 416 teachers working in a provincial center using the face-to-face interview method. Results: Per this 64.9% of the teachers had musculoskeletal disorders, and the pain was mostly localized in the neck region with 55.5% . The work stress scores of the teachers were found to have a positive and significant correlation with musculoskeletal disorder scores and a negative significant correlation with the satisfaction with life scores (p≤0.001). In multiple regression analysis, the time spent sitting at a desk, time spent working in a standing position, time devoted to housework, shoe preference, work stress and life satisfaction were determined as effective predictors on musculoskeletal complaints. The model that was developed explained 22.5% of the variance (R2 = 22.5; p≤0.001). Conclusions: Due to the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among teachers, health-promoting actions are needed in order to raise the awareness of both administrators and teachers in improving working conditions as well as preventing musculoskeletal disorders.
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The purpose of this study was to analyze factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders and disability in elementary teachers. This is a cross-sectional study from a representative sample of Brazilian elementary teachers (n = 530). Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. Sociodemographic, work-related, and behavioural characteristics were the exposure variables. The outcomes were musculoskeletal symptoms, disability, and musculoskeletal disease. Musculoskeletal disease was used as an outcome, as well as an exposure variable when musculoskeletal symptoms and disability were the outcomes. Prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated by Poisson regression. Variables associated with musculoskeletal symptoms were: length of employment ≥20 years (PR = 1.41), perception of inappropriate infrastructure of schools (RP = 1.21), physical activity (PR = 0.80), and high stress (PR = 1.16) for upper limbs; high stress (PR = 1.23) and perception of inappropriate infrastructure of schools (RP = 1.16) for back/neck; common mental disorders (PR = 1.14 to 1.30), and musculoskeletal disease (PR = 1.19–1.62) for all regions of the body. Musculoskeletal disease (PR = 2.46 to 3.37) and perception of inappropriate infrastructure of schools (PR = 1.53 to 1.95) were associated to disability in all regions of the body. Length of employment >20 years was associated with disability in the upper limbs (PR = 2.06). Common mental disorders were associated with disability in the upper limbs (PR = 1.53) and back and neck (PR = 1.47) while sitting time >120 min/day was inversely associated with disability in the lower limbs (PR = 0.64). The predictors of musculoskeletal disease were length of employment ≥20 years (PR = 1.97), perception of inappropriate infrastructure of schools (PR = 1.57), strength and flexibility activities (PR = 1.66), TV viewing time ≥ 120 min (PR = 1.37), sports practice (PR = 0.39), and common mental disorders (PR = 1.39). Although the associations varied according to the outcome, common mental disorders, perception of inappropriate infrastructure of schools, high stress, and length of employment are variables to be considered in the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders in teachers. When analyzed as an exposure variable, musculoskeletal disease was the main predictor of musculoskeletal symptoms and disability.
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The article describes the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain according to sociodemographic and occupational variables among elementary school teachers. A cross-sectional study included all 4,496 school teachers of the municipal elementary education network of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. There was a high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in lower limbs (41. 1%), upper limbs (23. 7%) and back (41. 1%). The overall prevalence of musculoskeletal pain related to any of the three body segments was 55%. Musculoskeletal pain was more prevalent in the three body segments investigated: among women, the elderly, those with high-level school education, married, with three or more children, and who had worked over fourteen years as teachers. The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was associated with the following occupational variables: working over five years at the school, high level of physical exertion, not having a paid activity other than teaching, and reporting heat in the classroom. The findings draw attention toward the need to adopt public policies to improve the working conditions of teachers.
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Background School teachers represent an occupational group among which there appears to be a high prevalence of neck and/or shoulder pain (NSP) and low back pain (LBP). Epidemiological data on NSP and LBP in Chinese teachers are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for NSP and LBP among primary, secondary and high school teachers. Methods In a cross-sectional study of teachers from 7 schools, information on participant demographics, work characteristics, occupational factors and musculoskeletal symptoms and pain were collected. Results Among 893 teachers, the prevalence of NSP and LBP was 48.7% and 45.6% respectively. There was significant association between the level and prevalence of NSP and LBP among teachers in different schools. The prevalence of NSP among female teachers was much higher than that for males. Self-reported NSP was associated with physical exercise (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.86), prolonged standing (1.74, 1.03 to 2.95), sitting (1.76, 1.23 to 2.52) and static posture (2.25, 1.56 to 3.24), and uncomfortable back support (1.77, 1.23 to 2.55). LBP was more consistently associated with twisting posture (1.93, 1.30 to 2.87), uncomfortable back support (1.62, 1.13 to 2.32) and prolonged sitting (1.42, 1.00 to 2.02) and static posture (1.60, 1.11 to 2.31). Conclusions NSP and LBP are common among teachers. There were strong associations with different individual, ergonomic, and occupational factors.
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Age, sex and working with improper position, physically and psychologically strenuous work increase risk of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) in some professions. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of MSP and its characteristics among school teachers. Nine hundred teachers were evaluated. Pain characteristics, pain intensity, related factors, and activity limitation of the teachers with MSP were questioned. Coping strategies were also investigated. Comparison of the relevant data was done using Chi-Square Test. 463 (51.4%) teachers (269 female; 194 male; mean age= 38.08±9.2 yr.) reported MSP. Pain in neck, upper-back and shoulder region were common in female teachers (p<0.05). Meanwhile, female teachers expressed that the pain severity increases with the overhead reaching and more activity limitations. While male teachers preferred thermal spring therapy, females preferred to take pain killers. Females also took sick-leave report from health providers more frequently. Both female and male teachers with MSP showed moderate depression according to the Beck Depression Inventory a significant difference between gender was found (p=0.05). The female teachers reported more depressive symptoms. Gender, age, emotional status, and improper posture are significant risk factors in terms of developing MSP. Teachers were found to be at risk.
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Problem statement: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of low back pain and the associated risk factors among primary school teachers in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Approach: A cross sectional study was conducted in nine primary schools in the Klang Valley. The schools were selected randomly from a list obtained from the Ministry of Education. Two hundred and seventy two respondents who fulfilled the study criteria volunteered to participate in the study. A questionnaire was used to determine the demographic and occupational information. Information on low back pain was assessed using a Nordic Questionnaire, while the General Health Questionnaire was used to determine the mental health status. Results: The prevalence of low back pain was 40.4% among respondents. Lifting load (28.0%) was ranked as the main factor which contributed to low back pain, followed by prolonged sitting (25.2%). Poor mental health (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06-1.15) was the risk factor to low back pain. Conclusion: The prevalence of low back pain was 40.4% among primary school teachers in Klang Valley. Teachers with poor mental health status had higher risk of developing low back pain.
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This study aimed to investigate the subjective health complaints (SHC) in the teaching profession of Hong Kong. On the basis of the SHC inventory, a questionnaire was prepared for data collection through a mail survey. A total of 1710 usable questionnaires were returned by the primary or secondary school teachers. The results showed that 99.5% (n = 1702) of respondents suffered at least one type of the 39 single health problems on the total SHC scale during the preceding 30 days. The 10 most frequently reported health complaints among the teachers were tiredness, eyestrain, anxiety, sleep problems, voice disorder, shoulder pain, neck pain, headache, cold/flu, and lower-back pain. With the exception of the category of pseudoneurological complaints, primary school teachers showed a statistically higher prevalence in reporting problems in 6 of 7 subscales. The 5 most severe complaints were tiredness, eyestrain, sleep problems, shoulder pain, and voice disorder.
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Low back pain (LBP) is a common and costly problem in pregnancy. It is one of the main reasons for disability, absence from work, and responsible for huge direct and indirect economical impact. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of LBP during pregnancy. A cross-sectional study was carried out on Iranian pregnant women. Eleven hundred randomly selected pregnant women. A structured questionnaire including demographic, lifestyle, as well as prevalence and characteristics of LBP was used. Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry low back disability questionnaires were also used to assess the pain intensity and functional disability, respectively. After ethical approval from Medical Ethics Board at the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,100 pregnant women from 18 health centers in Sari district, at northern Iran. Point, last-month, last 6-month, last-year, and lifetime prevalence of LBP were 40.2%, 55.9%, 59.4%, 76.2%, and 84.1%, respectively. Prolonged standing and rest were found to be the most significant aggravating and relieving factors (76.3% and 87.7%, respectively). LBP was significantly correlated with history of previous LBP and LBP in previous pregnancy (p=.000 in both cases). The prevalence of LBP in pregnant women appears to be high and future research should focus on different preventive strategies during pregnancy.
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The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between physical and psychological risk factors on the one hand, and the occurrence of new episodes of back pain on the other hand. A prospective study was conducted with 12 months follow-up by means of self-administered questionnaires. The study took place in the Cargo Department of a major Dutch airline company. The subjects for this study were 270 workers involved in heavy physical work. Only workers without back pain at baseline were included. Self-reported back pain and sick leave due to back pain during the follow-up period were measured. Of the 238 workers included in the analysis, 73 (31%) developed a new episode of back pain during the follow-up period, and 27 (11%) subjects reported sick leave due to back pain. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the history of back pain was the best predictor for the occurrence of a new episode of back pain during follow-up (OR 9.8; 95% CI 2.8-34.4 for subjects who had back pain more than twice in the past year). Low job satisfaction was also associated with an increased risk for the occurrence of back pain during follow-up (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.01-1.4). Riding a forklift truck appeared to be a protective factor for the occurrence of back pain (OR 0.7; 95% CI 0.5-0.99). In this study the best predictors for the occurrence of back pain were the history of back complaints and low job satisfaction. Although it needs to be confirmed by future intervention studies, the results indicate that increasing job satisfaction may be a successful (co-)intervention for the prevention of back pain at the workplace.
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To determine whether physical and psychosocial load at work influence sickness absence due to low back pain. The research was a part of the study on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, stress, and health (SMASH), a 3 year prospective cohort study on risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. Workers from 21 companies located throughout The Netherlands participated in the part of this study on sickness absence due to low back pain. The study population consisted of 732 workers with no sickness absences of 3 days or longer due to low back pain in the 3 months before the baseline survey and complete data on the reasons for absences during the follow up period. The mean (range) period of follow up in this group was 37 (7-44) months. Physical load at work was assessed by analyses of video recordings. Baseline information on psychosocial work characteristics was obtained by a questionnaire. Data on sickness absence were collected from company records. The main outcome measure was the rate of sickness absences of 3 days or longer due to low back pain during the follow up period. After adjustment of the work related physical and psychosocial factors for each other and for other potential determinants, significant rate ratios ranging from 2.0 to 3.2 were found for trunk flexion, trunk rotation, lifting, and low job satisfaction. A dose-response relation was found for trunk flexion, but not for trunk rotation or lifting. Non-significant rate ratios of about 1.4 were found for low supervisor support and low coworker support. Quantitative job demands, conflicting demands, decision authority, and skill discretion showed no relation with sickness absence due to low back pain. Flexion and rotation of the trunk, lifting, and low job satisfaction are risk factors for sickness absence due to low back pain. Some indications of a relation between low social support, either from supervisors or coworkers, and sickness absence due to low back pain are also present.
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Related factors of low back pain (LBP) among school personnel were investigated. We designed a cross-sectional study employing questionnaires, which included a Japanese version of the Job Content Questionnaire. Subjects consisted of 3306 male and 3184 female school personnel in all public schools and kindergartens operated by Nagoya City, Japan. Prevalence of LBP in each work category was compared to that in general teachers of each gender after adjusting for age. Male teachers at schools for the handicapped and in classrooms for the handicapped showed significantly higher LBP prevalence. Among female participants, teachers at schools for the handicapped, physical education teachers, kindergarten personnel and school nurses displayed higher LBP prevalence. In work categories which demonstrated high LBP prevalence, low social support and low job satisfaction were related to LBP of school nurses despite low physical loads. High job demand and physical loads correlated to LBP in kindergarten personnel.
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Low back pain is the most common musculo-skeletal problem in the workplace. Data from low-income countries are scant. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for low back pain among office workers in Ibadan, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study design was utilized. Questionnaires were distributed among office workers in the civil service in Ibadan, Nigeria. Eight hundred and forty questionnaires were analysed, with a response rate of 66%. The 12 month prevalence of low back pain was 38% and the point prevalence was 20%. Low back pain was significantly associated with senior staff grade and smoking. Severity of low back pain was associated with sitting for >3 h. Only 16 respondents (5%) reported sickness absence due to back pain in the previous year. A total of 75 days were lost, a mean of 4.7 days per year. The occurrence of low back pain in this study is comparable with that reported in studies from more industrialized countries, but does not constitute a major cause of sickness absence in this group of workers.
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Although only a few studies have been published on teachers' health, certain ideas are widely accepted, such as for example, the preconceived notion that teachers suffer from an excessively high rate of mental health problems. The objective of this study is to compare teachers' mental and physical health to that of a control group. A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted among a sample of 3,679 teachers and 1,817 non-teachers aged 20 to 60 years old. No lifetime prevalence of any psychiatric disorder (with the exception of undifferentiated somatoform disorder in men) or mean scores of psychological distress were found to be significantly higher in teachers. However, multiple analyses, adjusted for all confounding variables, revealed a higher risk of lifetime anxiety disorders in male teachers. On the other hand, significant differences were observed for some physical ailments: a higher lifetime prevalence of rhinopharyngitis/laryngitis in both male and female teachers, of conjunctivitis and lower urinary tract infection in male teachers and of bronchitis, eczema/dermatitis and varicose veins in female teachers. No significant difference was found for chronic pain between the two groups. Teachers do not seem to have poorer mental health. However, their physical condition is characterized by a higher prevalence of health problems related to the ENT tract, and to a lesser extent, depending on the gender, to skin, eyes, legs and lower urinary tract.
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The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and risk factors for low back pain (LBP) in nursing personnel and to analyze how individual and occupational characteristics contribute to the risk of LBP. Following ethical approval, 1226 nurses were randomly recruited from 13 general hospitals in northern Iran. Different questionnaires were designed to cover personal and professional data, the prevalence, and associations of risk factors with LBP. Results indicated that prevalence of LBP in nurses was over 50%. Lifting was the most common mechanism for LBP (30.4%). Prolonged standing and rest were found to be the significant aggravating and relieving factors (57.6% and 59.2%, respectively). Absence from work because of LBP in the month before the questionnaire was completed was reported by 33.7% of the sample. The results demonstrate that the magnitude of LBP among nursing personnel appears to be high and therefore more resources should be allocated to prevent such an injury occurring in the nursing profession.
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Unlabelled: Valid and reliable assessment of pain is essential for both clinical trials and effective pain management. The nature of pain makes objective measurement impossible. Acute pain can be reliably assessed, both at rest (important for comfort) and during movement (important for function and risk of postoperative complications), with one-dimensional tools such as numeric rating scales or visual analogue scales. Both these are more powerful in detecting changes in pain intensity than a verbal categorical rating scale. In acute pain trials, assessment of baseline pain must ensure sufficient pain intensity for the trial to detect meaningful treatment effects. Chronic pain assessment and its impact on physical, emotional, and social functions require multidimensional qualitative tools and health-related quality of life instruments. Several disease- and patient-specific functional scales are useful, such as the Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities for osteoarthritis, and several neuropathic pain screening tools. The Initiative on Methods: Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials recommendations for outcome measurements of chronic pain trials are also useful for routine assessment. Cancer pain assessment is complicated by a number of other bodily and mental symptoms such as fatigue and depression, all affecting quality of life. It is noteworthy that quality of life reported by chronic pain patients can be as much affected as that of terminal cancer patients. Any assessment of pain must take into account other factors, such as cognitive impairment or dementia, and assessment tools validated in the specific patient groups being studied.
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Objective: To determine whether physical and psychosocial load at work influence sickness absence due to low back pain. Methods: The research was a part of the study on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, stress, and health (SMASH), a 3 year prospective cohort study on risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. Workers from 21 companies located throughout The Netherlands participated in the part of this study on sickness absence due to low back pain. The study population consisted of 732 workers with no sickness absences of 3 days or longer due to low back pain in the 3 months before the baseline survey and complete data on the reasons for absences during the follow up period. The mean (range) period of follow up in this group was 37 (7–44) months. Physical load at work was assessed by analyses of video recordings. Baseline information on psychosocial work characteristics was obtained by a questionnaire. Data on sickness absence were collected from company records. The main outcome measure was the rate of sickness absences of 3 days or longer due to low back pain during the follow up period. Results: After adjustment of the work related physical and psychosocial factors for each other and for other potential determinants, significant rate ratios ranging from 2.0 to 3.2 were found for trunk flexion, trunk rotation, lifting, and low job satisfaction. A dose-response relation was found for trunk flexion, but not for trunk rotation or lifting. Non-significant rate ratios of about 1.4 were found for low supervisor support and low coworker support. Quantitative job demands, conflicting demands, decision authority, and skill discretion showed no relation with sickness absence due to low back pain. Conclusions: Flexion and rotation of the trunk, lifting, and low job satisfaction are risk factors for sickness absence due to low back pain. Some indications of a relation between low social support, either from supervisors or coworkers, and sickness absence due to low back pain are also present.
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This article reviews the use of the visual analogue scale as a method of assessing pain in the everyday clinical situation. The advantages and disadvantages of this method of assessment are examined, and some practical issues regarding its use are considered.
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Although the prevalence of reported discomfort by computer workers is high, the impact of high computer workload on musculoskeletal symptoms remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms for office workers with high computer workload. The association between risk factors and musculoskeletal symptoms was also assessed. Two questionnaires were posted on the Web sites of 3 companies and 1 university to recruit computer users in Tainan, Taiwan, during May to July 2009. The 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire and Musculoskeletal Symptom Questionnaire were chosen as the evaluation tools for musculoskeletal symptoms and its associated risk factors. Chinese Health Questionnaire greater than 5 and computer usage greater than 7 h/d were used to as the cutoff line to divide groups. Descriptive statistics were computed for mean values and frequencies. χ(2) Analysis was used to determine significant differences between groups. A 0.05 level of significance of was used for statistical comparisons. A total of 254 subjects returned the questionnaire, of which 203 met the inclusion criteria. The 3 leading regions of musculoskeletal symptoms among the computer users were the shoulder (73%), neck (71%), and upper back (60%) areas. Similarly, the 3 leading regions of musculoskeletal symptoms among the computer users with high workload were shoulder (77.3%), neck (75.6%), and upper back (63.9%) regions. High psychologic distress was significantly associated with shoulder and upper back complaints (odds ratio [OR], 3.46; OR, 2.24), whereas a high workload was significantly associated with lower back complaints (OR, 1.89). Females were more likely to report shoulder complaints (OR, 2.25). This study found that high psychologic distress was significantly associated with shoulder and upper back pain, whereas high workload was associated with lower back pain. Women tended to have a greater risk of shoulder complaints than men. Developing an intervention that addresses both physical and psychologic problems is important for future studies.
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The purpose of this study was to systematically review prospective cohort studies to identify risk factors for the onset of low back pain (LBP) in office workers. Online searches were conducted on PubMed, CINAHL Plus with full text, ScienceDirect, PEDro, ProQuest, and Scopus databases from 1980 to November 2011 using the following keywords: low back pain paired with risk or prognostic factors and office or computer or visual display unit (VDU) or visual display terminal (VDT). The methodological quality of each study was assessed using a 21-item checklist, which was divided into 2 parts: the internal validity (11 items) and descriptive quality (10 items) of studies. Strength of evidence for risk factors associated with the development of nonspecific LBP was assessed by defining 5 levels of evidence based on the number of studies and the quality score of studies. Eighteen full-text articles were identified, and 15 were excluded. A total of 3 articles were judged to meet the selection criteria and were included in the methodological quality assessment. Risk factors were divided into 3 groups: individual, work-related physical, and work-related psychosocial risk factors. There was strong evidence that history of LBP is a predictor of the onset of LBP. Limited evidence was found that the combination of postural risk factors and job strain is associated with the onset of LBP. After review of 3 high-quality prospective studies on the association between risk factors and the onset of nonspecific LBP in office workers, few risk factors were found to predict the onset of LBP in office workers.
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The potential for musculoskeletal trauma among preschool workers has been largely unexplored in the United States. This case report describes an investigation conducted to identify and evaluate possible causes of back and lower extremity pain among 22 workers at a Montessori day care facility. Investigators met with and distributed a questionnaire to school employees, and made measurements of workstation and furniture dimensions. Investigators also recorded the normal work activities of school employees on videotape, and performed a work sampling study to estimate the percentage of time employees spend performing various tasks and in certain postures.Questionnaire results from 18 employees indicated that back pain/discomfort was a common musculoskeletal complaint, reported by 61% of respondents. Neck/shoulder pain, lower extremity pain and hand/wrist pain were reported by 33, 33 and 11% of respondents, respectively. Observation and analysis of work activities indicated that employees spend significant periods of time kneeling, sitting on the floor, squatting, or bending at the waist. Furthermore, staff members who work with smaller children (i.e. six weeks to 18 months of age) performed more lifts and assumed more awkward lower extremity postures than employees who work with older children (3–4 years of age). Analysis of two lifting tasks using the revised NIOSH lifting equation indicated that employees who handle small children may be at increased risk of lifting-related low back pain. Investigators concluded that day care employees at this facility are at increased risk of low back pain and lower extremity (i.e. knee) injury due to work activities that require awkward or heavy lifts, and static working postures. Recommendations for reducing or eliminating these risks by modifying the workplace and changing the organization and methods of work are presented.
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Low back pain (LBP) is a common and costly occupational injury among health care professionals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of LBP in surgeons and to analyze how individual and occupational characteristics contribute to the risk of LBP. A cross sectional study was conducted on 250 randomly selected surgeons including 112 general surgeons, 95 gynecologists and 43 orthopedists from 21 hospitals at northern Iran. A structured questionnaire including demographic, lifestyle, occupational characteristics as well as prevalence and risk factors of LBP was used. Visual analogue scale and Oswestry low back disability questionnaires were also used to assess the pain intensity and functional disability, respectively. Point, last month, last six months, last year and lifetime prevalence of LBP was 39.9%, 50.2%, 62.3%, 71.7% and 84.8%, respectively. The highest point prevalence was related to the gynecologists with 44.9%, and the lowest for general surgeons (31.7%). Age, body mass index, smoking, general health, having an assistant, job satisfaction, using preventive strategies and years of practice were found to be correlated with the prevalence of LBP (P < .05 in all instances except for age and job satisfaction). Prolonged standing, repeated movements and awkward postures were the most prevalent aggravating factors (85.2%, 50.2% and 48.4%, respectively). Rest was found to be the most relieving factor (89.5%). The results of this study demonstrate that the prevalence of LBP amongst surgeons appears to be high and highlights a major health concern. Further large scale studies, including other specialties and health professions such as physical therapy, chiropractic, and general medicine, should be performed.
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate standard measures of health behavior for association with back pain among college students using data from the standardized National College Health Assessment survey. This investigation evaluated potential risk factors among a population of students at a Colorado university. This cross-sectional study included 963 survey results that were assessed using backward selection logistic regression techniques to evaluate the associations between common college-life health behaviors and back pain occurrence within the past school year. Thirty-eight percent of college students surveyed reported having back pain within the past school year. Investigators found that univariate associations included multiple domains, but only psychosocial factors remained statistically significant in a final regression model and were associated with back pain. Feeling chronically fatigued (odds ratio, 3.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-13.86) and being in an emotionally abusive relationship (odds ratio, 2.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.69-4.57) were the factors most strongly associated with back pain in the final model. Psychosocial factors were identified to be associated with back pain. The prevalence of back pain among this younger population is of significant concern and warrants further investigation to identify contributing factors that may help in the development of interventions to reduce the epidemic of back pain within college students and lessen the burden upon college health providers.
Article
Work-related low back pain and cervicobrachial disorders have become increasingly common among nursing personnel with the increase in the number of social welfare institutions and workers. The aim of this study is to assess the burden on the low backs of personnel caring for children. We measured work content, working time, posture and muscular activity in 16 nursery workers in three different types of institutions for healthy and handicapped children. The working time and posture of 7 nursery teachers in a public nursery school for healthy children (A school), 7 nursing workers (4 nursery teachers and 3 nursery instructors) in a public daycare center for mentally and physically handicapped children (B center), and 2 nursery instructors in a private home for severely handicapped children (C home) were analyzed. The muscular activity of the erectores spinae muscle of three subjects was measured using a newly developed EMG monitor (portable EMG monitor, PEMM). The following results were obtained. The average length of a lesson or activity in A school was greater than that in B center and C home. The time required by care for meals was longest in C home. The arrangement and rearrangement times were longest in the classes of children aged 3-5 in A school. The time occupied for clerical work and other work was relatively longer, while recess including lunch time was approximately one hour. The most commonly observed posture was sitting on the floor in all kinds of classes, with this occurring most often in C home. Hazardous postures such as bending forward, squatting, and kneeling appeared in 11-18% (48-81 min) of a day's working time. The average muscular activity of the erectores spinae muscle of three subjects throughout a day was approximately 10% of the maximum isometric contraction (% maximum work load, %MWL), when muscular activities were measured by PEMM. The relatively high %MWL values (19-27%MWL) were obtained at a slightly bending posture and a kneeling posture, while lower (1-9%MWL) values were observed at a sitting posture. The %MWL values at a sitting posture varied according to such conditions as duration of sitting, back rest, weight on the arms, twisting of the trunk, and hip movement. The risky nature of the sitting posture are also discussed.
Article
A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted on cooks working for nursery schools in N city in order to verify epidemiological evidence of the work-relatedness of low back pain among them. After female workers aged 30 or more were selected from a study base of 2,799 workers in social welfare facilities, low back pain prevalence of cooks (n = 240) was compared with nursery school teachers (n = 955). Age-standardized prevalence ratios (PRs) of low back pain were 1.9 (95% CI: 1.5-2.5) in cooks compared with nursery school teachers. Among cooks, relative risks of low back pain increased with the increase in the number of lunches to be prepared and decreased with the increase in the number of cooks making lunches in a logistic regression model controlling age and body length. Low back pain was also found to be associated with self-estimated job stressors/ work load by logistic regression models. Multifactorial effects from ergonomic and psychosocial factors, and individual factors on the low back were suggested. From the viewpoint of epidemiological criteria for work-relatedness, it was concluded that the work-relatedness of low back pain among cooks in nursery schools was partially supported.
Article
The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) has become one of the principal condition-specific outcome measures used in the management of spinal disorders. This review is based on publications using the ODI identified from the authors' personal databases, the Science Citation Index, and hand searches of Spine and current textbooks of spinal disorders. To review the versions of this instrument, document methods by which it has been validated, collate data from scores found in normal and back pain populations, provide curves for power calculations in studies using the ODI, and maintain the ODI as a gold standard outcome measure. It has now been 20 years since its original publication. More than 200 citations exist in the Science Citation Index. The authors have a large correspondence file relating to the ODI, that is cited in most of the large textbooks related to spinal disorders. All the published versions of the questionnaire were identified. A systematic review of this literature was made. The various reports of validation were collated and related to a version. Four versions of the ODI are available in English and nine in other languages. Some published versions contain misprints, and many omit the scoring system. At least 114 studies contain usable data. These data provide both validation and standards for other users and indicate the power of the instrument for detecting change in sample populations. The ODI remains a valid and vigorous measure and has been a worthwhile outcome measure. The process of using the ODI is reviewed and should be the subject of further research. The receiver operating characteristics should be explored in a population with higher self-report disabilities. The behavior of the instrument is incompletely understood, particularly in sensitivity to real change.