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Wreck of the 1st -Century AD Lyon Saint-Georges 8 (Rhône, France): A Ferry or a Ligther from the River Saône ?

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During a preventive archaeological excavation executed by INRAP as required by the Ministry of Culture were discovered in 2003, in Lyon (France), in an ancient right bank of the river Saône, near the confluence with the river Rhône, six Gallo-Roman (Ist to IIIrd c. AD) wrecks of barges. At the time of the Xth ISBSA (Mainz 2006), we had made a presentation which had highlighted some architectural characteristics particular to these barges « bottom-based » built. These characteristics had been interpreted like « archaeological fingerprints » specific to a regional sub-group of the « bottom-based » shipbuilding Romano-Celtic tradition so called « Rhône-Saône» sub-group. The wreck Lyon Saint-Georges 8 is the only one of the six Gallo-Roman wrecks to being full « plank built ». In addition to its structure lighter than that of the five barges « jointed-monoxylous built », the wreck Lyon Saint-Georges 8 has different form and proportions, in particular a reduced depth. The subject of the communication is to describe the characteristics of the wreck Lyon Saint-Georges 8 and to interpret them from a mainly functional point of view in relation to the nautical environment (problem of the navigability of a sector of the Saône especially), and to some Gallo-Roman harbor installations on the Rhône. Two functional hypothesis will be considered: that of the wreck like a ferry and that of the wreck like a lighter.
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BETWEEN CONTINENTS
Proceedings of the Twelh Symposium on Boat and Ship Archaeology
Istanbul 2009
Edited by
Nergis Günsenin
ISBSA 12
Sponsored and Hosted by the
Istanbul Research Institute of the Suna and İnan Kıraç Foundation
Under the auspices of the Underwater Technology Program at Istanbul University’s
Vocational School of Technical Sciences in partnership with
the Faculty of Letters, Department of Restoration and Conservation of Artefacts
OFFPRINT
BETWEEN CONTINENTS
Proceedings of the Twelh Symposium on Boat and Ship Archaeology
Istanbul 2009
ISBSA 12
Edited by
Nergis Günsenin
© 2012 Ege Yayınları
ISBN No: 978-605-4701-02-5
Published by
Ege Yayınları
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“View of the Naval Shipyards of Constantinople
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Aydın Tibet
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With special thanks to
To the memory of
Ole Crumlin-Pedersen (1935-2011)
and
Claude Duthuit (1931-2011)
Crumlin-Pedersen founder of the Viking Ship Museum at Roskilde heralded a whole
new area of archaeological eldwork and remained a seminal and inspirational
gure in nautical archaeology. Duthuit not only acted as director of the Institute
of Nautical Archaeology (INA), but made lifelong contributions to the eld. It is
thanks to his dedication and his passion that several excavation eorts, including
those at Cape Gelidonya, have come to life.
Contents
List of Contributors ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... x
Preface .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... xiii
Keynote address: A Brief History of Nautical Archaeology in Turkey by George F. Bass ..................................................................................... xvii
A. N   M
1. Between the Seabed and the Public: Data Collection for a Virtual Museum from the Underwater Survey
at Kaş, Turkey
Güzden Varinlioğlu and Elif Denel ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1
2. Pharaonic Ship Remains of Ayn Sukhna
Patrce Pomey ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7
3. Middle Bronze Age Boat of Mitrou, Central Greece
Aleydis Van de Moortel .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 17
4. Iron Age Phoenician Shipwreck Excavation at Bajo de la Campana, Spain: Preliminary Report from the Field
Mark E. Polzer .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 27
5. Kızılburun Column Wreck Preliminary Hull Analysis: Maximum Results from Minimum Remains
John D. Littleeld .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 37
6. Tantura E: Hull Construction Report
Eyal Israeli and Yaacov Kahanov ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 43
7. A 16th -Century Wreck Found near the Island of Mljet, Croatia
Igor Mihajlović, Igor Miholjek and Mladen Pešić ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 49
8. Akko 1 Shipwreck: e Archaeological Find and its Historical Context
Deborah Cvikel ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 59
B. N  N E
9. A 15th -Century Bulk Carrier, Wrecked o Skaö, Western Sweden
Staan von Arbin .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 67
10. Barcode Project: Fieen Nordic Clinker-Built Boats from the 16th and 17th Centuries in the City Centre
of Oslo, Norway
Jostein Gundersen ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 75
11. Loss and Rediscovery of the Swedish ‘Prinsessan Hedvig Sophia’ in the Baltic Sea near Kiel, Germany
Jens Auer and Martin Segschneider ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 81
12. Investigation of the Wreck Site of the 18th -Century Russian Warship ‘St. Alexander’ near
the Tarkhankutski Lighthouse (Crimea, Ukraine)
Oleg A. Zolotarev and Viktor D. Kobets ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 87
vi Contents
13. Identication of the 18th -Century ShipwreckW-27 on the Basis of a Comparative Analysis of
Archaeological and Archival Sources
Tomasz Bednarz ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 93
C. T B S  Y
14. ‘City’ Harbours from Antiquity through Medieval Times
Nergis Günsenin ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 99
15. Byzantine Shipwrecks at Yenikapı
Ufuk Kocabaş ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 107
16. Hull Characteristics of the Yenikapı 12 Shipwreck
Işıl Özsait Kocabaş ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 115
17. Preliminary Report on the Yenikapı 17 Shipwreck
Evren Türkmenoğlu ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 121
18. Ethnicity and Sphere of Activity of the Crew of the 11th -Century Serçe Limanı Ship:
Some Tentative Observations
Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 127
D. M  B S S  S
19. Byzantine Ship Grati in the Kilise Mescidi of Amasra
Kostas A. Damianidis .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 135
20. Roman Ships Carrying Marble: Were ese Vessels in Some Way Special?
Carlo Beltrame and Valeria Vittorio .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 141
21. Between East and West in the Roman Empire: Skippers and Shipowners from the Eastern Mediterranean
omas Schmidts .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 149
22. 14th -Century Galley Fleet from the Black Sea: e Case of Codex 5 in the Hellenic Institute of Venice
Yannis D. Nakas ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 157
23. Reections on the Grati of Haghia Sophia at Trebizond (Trabzon), Turkey
Lucien Basch ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 165
24. İnebolu Boat: Last Surviving Black Sea Ship of ‘Shell-First’ Construction and the Evolution of Boatbuilding
in the Western Black Sea Coast of Anatolia
Hüseyin Çoban .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 171
E. O S
25. Design and Construction of a Black Sea Ottoman Ship
Kroum N. Batchvarov .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 175
26. Technological Developments in the Imperial Dockyard (Tersane-i Amire): Anchor Manufacture for the Galleons
of the Ottoman Navy
Yusuf Alperen Aydın ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 183
27. A Lesser Known Branch in the Ottoman Imperial Dockyard: Tîr-i Güverte
Metin Ünver ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 189
F. S C
28. Wreck of the 1st -Century AD Lyon Saint-Georges 8 (Rhône, France): A Ferry or a Ligther from the River Saône?
Marc Guyon and Eric Rieth .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 195
29. Arles-Rhône 3: Architectural and Paleobotanical Study of a Gallo-Roman Barge from the 1st Century
in the Rhône River
Sabrina Marlier, Sandra Greck, Frédéric Guibal and Valérie Andrieu-Ponel ............................................................................................................ 203
viiContents
30. Introductory Note to a 1202 Genoese Trading Ship (navis)
Furio Cicilliot ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 211
31. 15th -Century EP1-Canche Wreck (Pas-de-Calais, France): A Fluvio-Maritime Coaster of Cog Tradition in the
North of France?
Eric Rieth .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 217
32. Drogheda Boat: A Story to Tell
Holger Schwetzer ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 225
33. Regional Characteristics of the Iberian-Atlantic Shipbuilding Tradition: Arade 1 Shipwreck Case Study
Vanessa Lourero ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 233
34. Use of Pine Sheathing on Dutch East India Company Ships
Wendy Van Duvenvoorde ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 241
35. Early Modern and Pre-Industrial Archaeological Inland Ship Finds from Poland
Waldemar Ossowsk ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 253
G. E A
36. Sea Stallion from Glendalough: Testing the Hypothesis
Søren Nelsen .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 261
37. Travel Speed in the Viking Age: Results of Trial Voyages with Reconstructed Ship Finds
Anton Englert ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 269
38. Waterways from the Varangians to the Greeks: Some Results of Experimental Study on Medieval Navigation
Petr E. Sorokn ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 279
39. Reconstruction and Sailing Performance of an Ancient Egyptian Ship
Cheryl Ward, Patrck Couser, Davd Vann, Tom Vosmer and Mohamed M. Abd el-Magud ................................................................ 287
40. Jewel of Muscat: e Reconstruction of a 9th -Century Sewn-Plank Boat
Tom Vosmer ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 293
41. Design and Recreation of a 17th -Century Taiwanese Junk: Preliminary Report
Jeng-Horng Chen ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 297
H. R M
42. Development of an Adaptive Method for the Rescue of 15 Shipwrecks from a Construction Site
in Oslo Harbour: Need for Speed
Hlde Vangstad ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 305
43. Recent Advances in Post-Excavation Documentation: Roskilde Method
Morten Ravn .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 313
44. ree-Dimensional Recording and Hull Form Modelling of the Newport (Wales) Medieval Ship
Ngel Naylng and Toby Jones .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 319
45. Well Preserved or Well Recorded: Approaches to Baltic Sea Shipwrecks Exemplified by the Dalarö-Wreck Project
Nklas Erksson and Patrk Höglund .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 325
46. Hypothetical Reconstruction of the Dramont E Shipwreck
Perre Poveda ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 331
47. Reconstruction of the Oseberg Ship: Evaluation of the Hull Form
Vbeke Bscho ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 337
V A-P
Aix-Marseille Université-CNRS, Europôle Méditerranéen
de l’Arbois, BP 80, 13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04, France
valerie.andrieu@univ-cezanne.fr
S  A
Bohusläns museum, Box 403, SE-451 19 Uddevalla, Sweden
staan.arbin@vgregion.se
Y A. A
Istanbul University, Faculty of Letters, Department of History,
Ordu Cad., Laleli 34459, Istanbul, Turkey
yaa@istanbul.edu.tr
J A
University of Southern Denmark, Maritime Archaeology
Programme, Niels Bohrs Vej 9, 6700 Esbjerg, Denmark
auer@hist.sdu.dk
L B
Avenue Armand Huysmans 206, bte 9, 1050 Bruxelles,
Belgium
sophie.basch@skynet.be
G F. B
Distinguished Professor Emeritus at Texas A&M University,
and Founder and Chairman Emeritus of the Institute of
NauticalArchaeology, USA
gass@tamu.edu
K N. B
University of Connecticut, Academic Building 116 C, 1084
Shennecossett Road
Groton, Connecticut 06340, USA
kroum.batchvarov@uconn.edu
T B
Polish Maritime Museum, Ołowianka 9-13, 80751, Gdańsk,
Poland
t.bednarz@cmm.pl
C B
Dipartimento di Studi Umanistici, Università Ca’ Foscari Venezia,
Dorsoduro 3484/D 30123, Venezia, Italy
beltrame@unive.it
V B
e Viking Ship Museum,Vindeboder 12, 4000 Roskilde,
Denmark
vb@vikingeskibsmuseet.dk
J-H C
Department of Systems and Naval Mechatronic Engineering,
National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Rd., Tainan 70101,
Taiwan
chenjh@mail.ncku.edu.tw
F C
via Guidobono 38/3, 17100 Savona, Italy
buranco@libero.it
D C
Department of Maritime Civilizations and Leon Recanati Institute
for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905, Israel
dcvikel@research.haifa.ac.il
P C
Sunnypowers Limited, 1 rue Saint Blaise, Bagneres de Bigorre,
65200, France
patcouser@yahoo.co.uk
H Ç
Bartın 74300, Amasra, Turkey
info@cobandenizcilik.com
K A. D
Deligiorgi 51-53, 10437Athens, Greece
kostasdamia@gmail.com
E D
American Research Institute in Turkey, Şehit Ersan cad. 24/9,
Çankaya, Ankara 06680, Turkey
elifdenel@gmail.com
F H.  D, Jr.
Emeritus Professor of Nautical Archaeology,
Texas A&M University and Institute of Nautical Archaeology
6200 Pelham Court, Bryan, 77802-6059, Texas, USA
fredvand@suddenlink.net
List of Contributors
ixList of Contributors
W  D
Department of Maritime Archaeology, Shipwreck Galleries,
Western Australian
Museum, 47 Cli Street, Fremantle, WA 6160, Australia
wendy.vanduivenvoorde@museum.wa.gov.au
A E
e Viking Ship Museum,Vindeboder 12, 4000 Roskilde,
Denmark
ae@vikingshipmuseum.dk
N E
Södertörn University, SE-141 89 Huddinge, Sweden
niklas.eriksson@sh.se
S G
Arkaeos association, 1 boulevard Longchamp, 13001 Marseille,
France
sandragreck@arkaeos.fr
F G
Aix-Marseille Université-CNRS, Europôle Méditerranéen de
l’Arbois, BP 80, 13545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 4, France
frederic.guibal@univ-cezanne.fr
J G
e Norwegian Maritime Museum, Bygdøynesveien 37, 0286
Oslo, Norway
jostein.gundersen@marmuseum.no
M G
Inrap, 12, rue Louis Maggiorini, 69500 Bron, France
marc.guyon@inrap.fr
N G
Istanbul University, Vocational School of Technical Sciences,
Underwater Technology Program, Avcılar 34320, Istanbul, Turkey
ngunsenin@superonline.com
P H
Swedish National Maritime Museums, BOX 27 131, 10252,
Stockholm, Sweden
patrik.hoglund@maritima.se
E I
Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa,
Haifa 31905, Israel
eyal1@zahav.net.il
T J
Newport Medieval Ship Project, Newport Museum and Heritage
Service, Newport Ship Centre, Unit 22, Maesglas Industrial Estate,
Newport, Wales, NP20 2NN, United Kingdom
toby.jones@newport.gov.uk
Y K
Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa,
Haifa 31905, Israel
yak@research.haifa.ac.il
V D. K
Kiev State University of Taras Shevchenko, Ukrania
kobets@univ.kiev.ua
U K
Istanbul University, Faculty of Letters, Department of
Conservation of Marine Archaeological
Objects, Ordu Cad., Laleli 34459, Istanbul, Turkey
ufukkocabas@gmail.com
I Ö K
Istanbul University, Faculty of Letters, Department of
Conservation of Marine Archaeological
Objects, Ordu Cad., Laleli 34459, Istanbul, Turkey
isilkocabas@yahoo.com.tr
J D. L
Nautical Archaeology Program, Department of Anthropology,
Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4352, USA
jlittleeld@tamu.edu
V L
Rua das Janelas Verdes, nº 4-4º, 1200-691, Lisbon, Portugal
van.loureiro@gmail.com
M M. A--M
Supreme Council of Antiquities of Egypt, National Maritime
Museum, 270 Tariq El-Gueish, Alexandria, Egypt
momaguid@yahoo.com
S M
Conseil Général des Bouches-du-Rhône - Direction de la Culture
Musée Départemental Arles Antique, Presqu’île du Cirque
Romain
BP 205 - 13635 Arles Cedex, France
sabrina.marlier@cg13.fr
I M
Department for Underwater Archaeology, Croatian Conservation
Institute, Cvijete Zuzorić 43
HR – 10000 Zagreb, Coratia
imihajlovic@h-r-z.hr
I M
Department for Underwater Archaeology, Croatian Conservation
Institute, Cvijete Zuzorić 43
HR – 10000 Zagreb, Coratia
imiholjek@h-r-z.hr
A   M
Department of Classics, 1101 McClung Tower, University of
Tennessee, Knoxville,
TN 37996, USA
avdm@utk.edu
Y D. N
Isaia Salonon 13, 11475 Gyzi, Athens, Greece
jnak77@yahoo.com
N N
School of Archaeology, History and Anthropology, University of
Wales, Trinity Saint David, Lampeter, Ceredigion, Wales, SA48
7ED, United Kingdom
n.nayling@tsd.ac.uk
S N
e Viking Ship Museum,Vindeboder 12, 4000 Roskilde,
Denmark
sn@vikingeskibsmuseet.dk
x
W O
Polish Maritime Museum, Ołowianka 9-13, 80751, Gdańsk,
Poland
w.ossowski@cmm.pl
M P
International Centre for Underwater Archaeology in Zadar
Božidara Petranovića 1
HR-23000 Zadar, Coratia
mpesic@icua.hr
M E. P
Archaeology M405, e University of Western Australia
35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
markpolzer@gmail.com
P P
Centre Camille Jullian, CNRS , Université de Provence, 5 rue du
Château de l’Horloge,1390 Aix-en-Provence, France
pomey@mmsh.univ-aix.fr
P P
Bureau d’archéologie Navale, B032, MMSH, 5 rue du Château de
l’Horloge
BP 647 13094, Aix-en-Provence Cedex 2, France
pierre.poveda@gmail.com
M R
e Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde, Vindeboder 12, 4000
Roskilde, Denmark
mr@vikingeskibsmuseet.dk
E R
CNRS (LAMOP), Musée National de la Marine, Palais de Chaillot
75116 Paris, France
e.rieth.cnrs@gmail.com
T S
Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Forschungsbereich und
Museum für Antike Schiahrt, Neutorstraße 2b, 55116 Mainz,
Germany
schmidts@mufas.de
H S
Martime Archaeology Programme, University of Southern
Denmark, Niels Bohr Vej 9, 6700 Esbjerg, Denmark
holger.schweitzer37@gmail.com
M S
Archaeological State Oce Schleswig-Holstein, Schloss
Annettenhöh, Brockdor-Rantzau Str. 70
24837 Schleswig, Germany
martin.segschneider@alsh.landsh.de
P S
Institute of the History Material Culture, Russian Academy of
Science, St. Petersburg, Dvorzovaja nab. 18., 191186, Russia
petrsorokin@yandex.ru
E T
Istanbul University, Faculty of Letters, Department of
Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects
Ordu Cad., Laleli 34459, Istanbul, Turkey
evrentu@istanbul.edu.tr
M Ü
Istanbul University, Faculty of Letters, Department of History,
Ordu Cad., 34459 Laleli, Istanbul, Turkey
munver@istanbul.edu.tr
H V
e Norwegian Maritime Museum, Bygdøynesveien 37, 0286
Oslo, Norway
hilde.vangstad@marmuseum.no
D V
University of San Francisco, 33 East Las Palmas Ave.,
Fremont, CA 94539, USA
david@davidvann.com
G V
Sualtı Araştırmaları Derneği, Gazi Mustafa Kemal Bulvarı,
Akıncılar Sokak, 10/1
Maltepe, Ankara, Turkey
sanalmuze@sad.org.tr
V V
via G. , Marconi 66/a, 36016 iene (VI), Italy
vale.vitt@tiscali.it
T V
Ministry of Foreign Aairs, PO Box 812, Postal Code 100,
Muscat, Sultanate of Oman
foxlake@omantel.net.om
C W
Director, Center for Archaeology and Anthropology,
Department of History
Coastal Carolina University, P.O. Box 261954,
Conway, SC 29528-6054, USA
cward@coastal.edu
O A. Z
18-35 Lenınsky Village, Leninsky District, Tula Region, Russia
oazis66@list.ru
List of Contributors
Preface
e island of Tatihou in France was the site of the
rst ISBSA meeting I attended in 1994. Encircled by
seminal gures in our eld, it was the most inspir-
ing event of my academic career. At the time, it be-
came clear that the attendees were eager to hold one
of their future meetings in Turkey. eir wish was the
driving force that nally led me to this special day.
Positioned between two continents, Istanbul was
the perfect place to hold the Symposium. roughout
history, the exchange of goods and cultures between
east and west, as well as north and south, was realized
in the waters o the Anatolian coast, with the Black
Sea to the north, the Sea of Marmara to the north-
west, the Aegean Sea to the west, and the Mediterra-
nean Sea to the south. Given the vast area of interest,
we invited participants to focus on the four seas and
address their pivotal role not only for Turkey but also
for the rest of the world.
e Turkish coastline had already been the
site of pioneering underwater excavations since the
1960s. Indeed, nautical archaeology was initiated
in Turkey under G. F. Bass and further developed
under the auspices of the Institute of Nautical
Archaeology (INA). Today, the development of
nautical archaeology and boat and ship archaeology
on an international level far surpasses the initially
limited eld of underwater archaeology. Moreover,
the discovery of the harbour of eodosius, one of
the most outstanding archaeological events of our
era, has further enriched our eld and added yet
anotherdimensionto our symposium.
e excavations in the harbour are still ongoing.
irty-six shipwrecks dating from the 5th to the 11th
centuries have been excavated. eir study will make
an enormous contribution to our understanding
of ship construction and the transition from shell-
rst to skeleton-rst techniques. It will also allow
us to re-examine Byzantine trade and the economy
of the period. Furthermore, the remains revealing
settlements dating back to 6500 BC, will shed new
light on our understanding of the history of the an-
cient peninsula.
Fig. 1. Group photograph of the participants of ISBSA 12 (Photo: Engin Şengenç).
Prefacexii
e ISBSA 12 was held under the auspices of the
Underwater Technology Program at Istanbul Uni-
versity’s Vocational School of Technical Sciences in
partnership with the Faculty of Letters, Department
of Restoration and Conservation of Artefacts. It was
sponsored and hosted by the Istanbul Research In-
stitute of the Suna and İnan Kıraç Foundation and
was held at the Foundation’s Pera Museum on 12-16
October, 2009.
More than 200 participants from 24 countries
attended the Symposium where 50 papers, 25 post-
ers, and various lms were presented (Fig. 1). is
also allowed numerous young scholars to present
their work and contribute to ongoing debates in our
eld and even launch new areas of research based
on recent discoveries. e papers for the sympo-
sium were selected by the ISBSA committee from
among a multitude of excellent proposals. e
mission of the ISBSA is focused on ship construc-
tion. While related subjects are welcome, the main
thrust has traditionally been a discussion of the
ship itself.
It is our hope that the conference theme which
has helped bring together numerous scholars from
around the world, will also bring together the two
sub-elds of archaeology which have until recently
remained separate. It is believed that a genuine the-
matic and methodological dialogue between land
and underwater archaeology can only enrich the
eld and uncover the mysteries of past civilizations.
“Between Continents” will thus re-map our eld and
reset its intellectual boundaries.
Following the Symposium, an excursion to
Amasra on 16-18 October oered the opportunity
to visit workshops that still continue the traditional
art of shipbuilding in Tekk eönü and Kurucaşile in
the Black Sea Region. Participants learned methods
of ship construction directly from the local ship-
builders. e Shipbuilding Program at the Kurucaşile
Technical High School, the Amasra Castle, and the
Amasra Archaeological Museum were among the lo-
cal sites included in the itinerary (Fig. 2). Hüseyin
Çoban was pivotal to the success of this excursion;
his hospitality and his immense knowledge of tradi-
tional shipbuilding enriched our trip.
Like many other scholars in our eld, I owe my
presence here today to George Bass who not only
accepted our invitation to attend the symposium
but also graciously delivered the keynote address.
Frederick van Doorninck, Jr., the late Claude
Duthuit, Don Frey and Robin Piercy from the
Institute of Nautical Archaeology further enriched
Fig. 2. Group photograph of the participants of the Amasra excursion.
Preface xiii
this symposium withtheir presence. It was a genuine
honour to have them in our midst. As in all scholarly
disciplines the master - apprentice relationship is
central to our eld. is was made amply clear during
the course of this symposium.
However, our eld is based not only on scholarly
research. e constant interaction between nature
and humans is an inextricable part of it: sailing on
a ckle sea, working in the hostile underwater envi-
ronment, and living in oen dicult conditions are
among the challenges that make our eld so special.
May God save sailors and nautical archaeologists
for future research and many more symposia!
Acknowledgments
I would like to express my sincere thanks to Suna,
İnan and İpek Kıraç, founders of the Suna and İnan
Kıraç Foundation, and Özalp Birol, General Director
of the Suna and İnan Kıraç Foundation Culture and
Art Enterprises; they made it possible for us to hold
the meeting at the Pera Museum. e hospitality of
the museum sta was also central to the success of
this meeting.
My thanks also go to Gülru Tanman of the
Istanbul Research Institute whose help and friendship
made it easier to navigate through a complexity
of organisational issues. Erkan Bora, also of the
Istanbul Research Institute, deserves special thanks
for his assistance, not only during the Symposium,
but also during the excursion to Amasra. Else Snitker
welcomed everyone with her endless energyand
friendly, familiar countenance.
I want to express my gratitude to Zeynep Kızıltan,
directress of the Istanbul Archaeological Museums,
who made it possible for us to visit the Yenikapı
excavation site.
Commandant Ali Rıza İşipek generously opened
storerooms of the Istanbul Naval Museum, which is
presently under construction. anks to him, partici-
pants had the opportunity to see the sultans’ kayıks
and the famous kadırga.
e Setur Travel Company team contributed to a
remarkable organisation.
My heartfelt thanks also go to Carlo Beltrame,
Ronald Bockius, Anton Englert, and Fred Hocker,
who shared their invaluable experience as previous
ISBSA organisers.
I would also like to acknowledge Ayşın Akyor for
providing much needed editorial help with the Eng-
lish text.
Finally, my sincere thanks go to Rezan Benatar for
her valuable intellectual and editorial contributions.
She not only helped create a seamless text but also at-
tempted to make rather complex material intelligible
to the reader.
e success of a symposium is always determined
by the contributions of its participants. I would like
to sincerely thank each and every one of them for an
intellectually stimulating exchange.
is volume is published by Ege Yayınları which
has a long-standing commitment to archaeological
research. I would like to thank its owner Ahmet
Boratav for his interest in our work. My thanks also
go to Hülya Tokmak for her patience with the layout
of the manuscript.
28. Wreck of the 1st -Century AD Lyon Saint-Georges 8
(Rhône, France):
A Ferry or a Ligther from the River Saône?
Marc Guyon and Eric Rieth
Introduction
It is in Lyon (Rhône, France), on the level of a fossil
right bank of the river Saône which was excavated,
between October 2002 and June 2004, a group of 16
wrecks dated from the 1st century AD to the 18th cen-
tury (Fig. 28.1). ese wrecks, located on the place
of the future Parc Saint-Georges, are included in an
harbour site whose the land excavation was carried
out by the Inrap (Institute of Preventive Archaeolog-
ical Research) at the request of Ministry of Culture.
is archaeological operation of important scale was
directed by Grégoire Ayala (Inrap). e excavation
of the wrecks was carried out under the responsi-
bility of Marc Guyon (Inrap). e publication of a
monograph devoted to the 16 wrecks was published
in 2010, under the direction of Eric Rieth (CNRS),
in the volume 16 of the collection Archaeonautica
(CNRS Editions).
At the time of the 11th ISBSA in Mainz (Germany),
September 2006, we have presented a communica-
tion entitled: “e Gallo-Roman wrecks from Lyon
Parc Saint-Georges (France): new archaeological
data on Ancient inland ‘bottom-based shipbuilding’”
(Guyon & Rieth 2009). e main objective of the
communication was to highlight, starting from the
study of the 6 Gallo-Roman wrecks with joint-mon-
oxylous and plank-built structure, a certain number
of architectural characteristics considered like ‘n-
gerprints’ signicant of a regional ‘bottom-based’
shipbuilding tradition particular to the hydrographi-
cal basin ‘Rhône-Saône’. ese ‘architectural nger-
prints’ were interpreted as revealing architectural
practices specic to Mediterranean maritime ship-
yards. It is one of these wrecks of the regional ship-
building tradition ‘Rhône-Saône’, the Ep. 8 wreck of
group II (with a plank-built structure), which is the
subject of thispaper.
Fig. 28.1. Topography of the archaeological site.
Marc Guyon and Eric Rieth196
e Ep. 8 Wreck: Description
e Ep. 8 wreck is laid out obliquely compared to the
shore line of the fossil right bank of the river Saône
according to the same north south orientation that
the 5 other Gallo-Roman wrecks (Ep. 2, Ep. 3, Ep. 4,
Ep. 5, Ep. 7). Within the limits of the ancient harbour
site of Parc Saint-Georges, the Ep. 8 wreck is located
at the level of its northeastern end. e other Gallo-
Roman wrecks are located more in the west in rela-
tion to the geomorphological evolution of the right
bank of the Saône between the second half of the 1st
century AD (dating of the Ep. 8 wreck) and the sec-
ond half of the 3rd century AD (dating of the Ep. 7
wreck, the most recent of the Gallo-Roman wrecks).
From a stratigraphic point of view, the Ep. 8 wreck
belongs to the stratigraphic sequence 211 of the har-
bour site. With this sequence are associated the re-
mains of a small wooden wharf located near the Ep. 8
wreck. e use of this wharf is contemporary of that
of the Ep. 8 wreck (Fig. 28.2).
e wreck is preserved over an over-all-length of
17.40 m corresponding to its original length, a maxi-
mum breath of 2.80 m and a maximum height of 0.59
m (Fig. 28.3). e at-bottom includes 5 oak carvel
planks. e 3 central planks have a breath between
0.57 and 0.61 m and an average thickness of 0.07 m
more important than the 2 lateral planks of 0.36 to
0.45 m breath and 0.055 m average thickness. e
bottom planks have the characteristic to be pre-as-
sembled by means of iron nails and unpegged tenons.
e iron nails, with an average length of 0.20m, are
driven tangentially from the interior of the bottom in
the edges of the planks according to an average inter-
val of one nail every 0.50 m.
Before the nailing, a tetrahedron notch was car-
ried out in the purpose of avoiding cracking of wood
during the nailing and, also, integrating the head of
the nail in the thickness of the wood. e unpegged
tenons, with an average length from 0.10 to 0.11 m, a
breath of 0.10 m and an average thickness from 0.010
to 0.013 m, are inserted in mortises dug in the edge
of the bottom planks. e interval of the tenons was
not precisely dened1 (Fig. 28.4).
is pre-assembly of the bottom planks is mainly
intended to maintain in place the planks and to avoid
their longitudinal moving and their lateral spacing
during the rst constructive sequences of the build-
ing process which are determining within the frame-
work of the ‘bottom-based’ shipbuilding.
e 27 oak frames preserved are laid out with an
average interval of 0.38 m. eir molded dimensions
are situated between 0.16 and 0.27 m and their sided
dimensions between 0.07 and 0.10 m. Some frames,
e.g. Vu10, Vu 21, seem to have their horizontal branch
and their two vertical arms completely shaped in a
single oak plank. So compared to a ‘composite’ (multi
elements) frame including a L shaped oor timber
(one horizontal branch and one vertical arm) and
an assembled vertical arm (opposite extremity of the
oor timber), the realization of the frame particular
to the Ep. 8 wreck appears more economic in terms
of working times. But it is not so economic on the
level of the raw material loss during the shaping.
Moreover, lines of weakness, even of rupture, could
Fig. 28.2. Location of the Ep. 8 wreck and wharf.
28. Wreck of the 1st -Century AD Lyon Saint-Georges 8 (Rhône, France): A Ferry or a Ligther from the River Saône? 197
Fig. 28.3. Drawings and photos of the Ep. 8 wreck.
Fig. 28.4. Drawing and sections of the pre-assembly of the bottom planks.
Marc Guyon and Eric Rieth198
be created on the level of the angle between the hori-
zontal branch and the two vertical arms of the frame.
e split according to the wooden bers of the frame
Vu 7, for example, is an obvious illustration of this
problem of degradation of wood (Fig. 28.5).
e assembly of the frames to the bottom and the
sides is carried out by large iron nails driven from
inboard. ese nails are clenched by turning their
emerging point through 90 degrees on the extern
face of the bottom and of the sides.
Every side consists of an oak strake (with 2 planks
per strake) with a thickness of 0.05 to 0.06 m and a
maximum breath of 0.61 m. e lower base of the
side strake covers the edge of the at-bottom accord-
ing to the system of the so called ‘integrated’ at-
bottom (Beaudouin 2001: 22). At this level of bilge,
a nail with lost point is inserted from the outside of
the side planks in the edge of the lateral plank of the
bottom.
An oak stringer of 0.21 m maximum breath and
0.07 m thickness is nailed in the top of the frames.
is piece of longitudinal reinforcement has 3 notch-
es between the frame space M 19 and M 23.
e water tightness of the seams of the bottom
planks is carried out by an impregnated pitched tis-
sue and, punctually (frame space M 9 and M 10), by
small boards nailed on the interior face of the bottom
planks according to the technique known in France
as the palâtrage2.
Last characteristic: in the space frame M 3, 4
mortises were arranged in small wooden blocks
nailed along the frame Vu 2, or directly in the frame
Vu 2.
e Ep. 8 wreck:
Restitution of the Building Process
Let us examine, aer the description of the main
characteristics of the wreck, its building process. Five
principal sequences were identied and reconstruct-
ed starting from the archaeological data (Fig. 28.6):
• Building of the bottom planks starting with the
central plank and adding, symmetrically on both
sides, the lateral planks. ese planks, whose
joints were luted with an impregnated pitched tis-
sue, are pre-assembled by unpegged tenons and
Fig. 28.5. e frame particular to the Ep. 8 wreck.
28. Wreck of the 1st -Century AD Lyon Saint-Georges 8 (Rhône, France): A Ferry or a Ligther from the River Saône? 199
tangentially iron nails. e orientation of the tan-
gential nailing is symmetrical on both sides of the
central bottom plank.
• Shaping, installation and xing the frames to the
bottom planks. e point of the nails inserted
from the inside is clenched on the extern face
of the bottom planks during a later constructive
sequence.
• Pose of the side strake according to the technique
of the so called ‘integrated’ bottom and nailing of
the lower base of the strake in the edge of the lat-
eral bottom plank.
• Nailing of the side strake to the vertical arms of
the frames and clenching the point of the nails on
the extern face of the side planking3.
• Pose and nailing of the stringer.
e two main particular characteristics of these se-
quences of ‘bottom-based’ shipbuilding are the pre-
assembly of the bottom planks and the luting of the
seams with an impregnated pitched tissue, two char-
acteristics considered as ‘architectural ngerprints’
of the ‘Rhône-Saône’ shipyards.
is operational process of the plank-built Ep.
8 wreck is similar, in its conceptual principle, with
that of the joint-monoxylous Gallo-Roman wrecks of
the Parc Saint-Georges. e main dierence is at the
level of the building practices and results in a greatest
number of building sequences in relation to a greater
complexity of the operational process.
e Ep. 8 Wreck:
Restitution of Dimensions and Shape
Let us consider the question of dimensions and
shape of the hull. e general good preservation of
the architectural remains in longitudinal, lateral
and transversal plans allows to propose, with a part
of approximation relatively reduced, a reconstruc-
tion of the main dimensions and shape of the hull
(Fig. 28.7).
Length (L) 17,40 m
Breath (B) 3,20 m
Height (H) 0,59 m
Ratio l/L 1/5,4
Ratio H/l 1/5,4
Ratio H/L 1/29,5
e most remarkable characteristic is the low
height of the hull. On the level of the shape, the hull
of the Ep. 8 wreck presents a plan of ‘polygonal/ rec-
tangular’ type, according to the typology established
by Béat Arnold (Arnold 1992: 74), with a distinct dif-
ferentiation of the breath of each extremity. In lateral
view, the hull has a at and horizontal bottom on ap-
proximately 13 m length and a fore bent swim bow,
with an attenuated curve. e swim bow is 4.40 m
length. Its maximum rising with the at bottom is
0.74 m. e a part of the hull is closed by a vertical
transom. e cross section is characterized by a at
bottom with risen lateral planks, hard bilge and recti-
linear and opened sides.
If one compares the dimensions and the recon-
structed shape of the Ep. 8 wreck (group II with
plank-built structure) with those of the Ep. 4 wreck
(group I with joint-monoxylous structure), several
important dierences can be noted:
Length (L) 28 m
Breath (B) 4,85 m
Height (H) 1,35 m
Ratio l/L 1/5,7
Ratio H/l 1/3,6
Ratio H/L 1/20,7
Fig. 28.6. Reconstitution of the building process of the
Ep. 8 wreck.
1
2
3
4
5
Marc Guyon and Eric Rieth200
If the dimensions of the wreck Ep. 4 are denitely
larger, one observes however that the lengthening
ratio l/L is relatively close, index of a similar choice
of basic lengthening proportions. On the other hand,
the depth ratio is somewhat dierent and, by con-
trast, underlines the low height of the Ep. 8 wreck.
A hull’s plan of ‘polygonal/octagonal type’
(Arnold1992: 74), two extremities with symmetri-
cal swim bow and a at bottom on all the length of
thetransversal section: it is as many morphological
characteristics which dierentiate the Ep. 4 wreck
of the Ep. 8 wreck. If one adds the dierences in-
structure -plank-built for the Ep. 8 wreck and joint-
monoxylous for the Ep. 4 wreck-, one arrives at the
conclusion that each of the two boats (representative
of two architectural families of the same regional
‘Rhône-Saône’ shipbuilding tradition) corresponds
to a specic technical choice dened in terms of
structure, shape, proportions and, in all probability,
functions.
e Ep. 8 wreck: Lighter or Ferry?
It is this functional aspect which we now will
examine.
In the case of the Ep. 4 wreck, with a maximum
load capacity about 55 tons with a dra of 0.85 m4,
a function of transport of heavy and regular freight
on long distance and river sectors with varied char-
acteristics of navigability5, would seem to be the
most coherent techno-economic answer, from the
point of view of the wooden supply, labour and ship-
ping operation investments. In the case of the Ep. 8
wreck, on the other hand, the answer appears much
less obvious.
Let us consider initially the question of the
shape of the hull. e most signicant morphologi-
cal characteristic is the dissymmetry between the
fore swim bow and the a vertical transom. One of
the nearest wrecks of comparison is, from the mor-
phological point of view, that of Krefeld-Gellep, in
Germany, discovered in 1972 and dated from the
13th-14th centuries (Ellmers 1996 : 62-63). is me-
dieval plank-built wreck is interpreted like a barge
of transport (‘cargo vessel’) ‘bottom-based’ built
with a length of 15 m, a breath of 3.36 m and a depth
of 0.82 m (restored dimensions). e weight of the
light hull was estimated about 5 tons for a maximum
load capacity about 7 tons, values probably rather
close to those, in the course of calculation, of the
Ep. 8 wreck.
Fig. 28.7. Reconstitution of dimensions and shapes of the Ep. 8 and the Ep. 4 wrecks.
28. Wreck of the 1st -Century AD Lyon Saint-Georges 8 (Rhône, France): A Ferry or a Ligther from the River Saône? 201
e shape of the hull of the Krefeld-Gellep 72
wreck appears comparable with those of the Ep. 8
wreck. On the other hand, the proportions are a lit-
tle dierent with a lengthening ratio reduced (B/L:
1/4.5) and a more important depth. Moreover, the
position of the mast-step of the Krefeld-Gellep 72
wreck and that, reconstructed as an hypothesis, of
the Ep. 8 wreck are dierent: before the middle of the
overall length of the hull for the medieval wreck and
in the third fore part for the Gallo-Roman wreck.
Let us return to the dierence of depth and height
of the hull: it does not mean necessarily a dierence
in function. us, the sewn-planks built wreck of
Ljubljana (ancient Laibach), in Slovenia, dated from
the second half of the 2nd -beginning of the 1st cen-
turies BC, has a length of almost 30 m, a maximum
breath of 4.80 m and a reconstructed depth of 0.50
m, depth lower than that of the Ep. 8 wreck (Gas-
pari 1998). In spite of this reduced depth, the wreck
of Ljubljana is interpreted like that of a cargo barge
adapted to a navigation in very shallow water. Its
maximum load capacity was estimated about 40 tons
for a dra of about 0.4 m.
In this perspective, the Ep. 8 wreck could be in-
terpreted as a cargo barge of dierent category that
of the Ep. 4 wreck: a barge for light cargoes trans-
ported on short distances. e Ep. 8 wreck could also
be interpreted as a boat adapted to a nautical space -a
sector of the river Saône- much less varied than that
of the barges of the Ep. 4 wreck type. In this hypoth-
esis, the Ep. 8 wreck could have been designed as a
barge used for the local redistribution of cargoes in
relation with the urban and peri-urban space of the
Gallo-Roman Lyon/Lugdunum, capital of the Gaule
Lyonnaise and important commercial town.
e second interpretation would be to consider
the Ep. 8 wreck like a ferry intended to be used for a
service of passage between the two banks of the ‘old’
and ‘new’ river Saône. According to this hypothesis,
the morphological dissymmetry of the hull -fore
swim bow and a vertical transom- supposes a side
loading and unloading. e reduced height of the
sides would facilitate in fact these lateral transfer op-
erations limited to people and animals. e loading
and unloading by the sides of harnessed carts ap-
pear, indeed, impracticable or, at least, very dicult.
In addition, the morphological dissymmetry of the
hull implies a particular system of ferry: that with
a traille (a cable connecting in height one bank to
the other), or with a traille and a traillon (secondary
cable connected to the traille) (Fig. 28.8). In this
conguration,the fore swim bow would be associ-
ated with the auto-propelling function of the ferry
steered prow upstream against the current. Either the
mast6 of the ferry comes to rest against the traille, ei-
ther the traillon, slipping on the traille, can be directly
tied to the prow of the ferry without a mast function-
ally useless. With the a vertical transom is associ-
ated the steering function. Via a long steering oar, the
ferry ‘sails’ in oblique along the traille between the
two banks.
Until the beginning of the 20th century, such fer-
ries of dimensions, proportions and shapes similar to
Fig. 28.8. Drawing representing the crossing of a river with a ferry with a traille or with a traille and a traillon.
Fig. 28.9. Postcard from the 19th century.
Marc Guyon and Eric Rieth202
those of the Ep. 8 wreck were in service in the hydro-
graphical basin ‘Rhône-Saône’ (Fig. 28.9).
Lighter? Ferry? e Ep. 8 wreck could be also in-
terpreted, according to a third hypothesis of its use,
as a multi-functional boat, becoming according to
the local (urban and peri-urban) economic require-
ments, sometimes a ferry, sometimes a lighter. e
dierentiated shape of the extremities -fore swim
bow, a vertical transom- appears perfectly adapted
to this versatility of functions.
Conclusion
At the end of this study, we did not answer in a -
nal way the question put in the title: “... A Ferry or a
Ligther from the River Saône?”. A part of uncertainty
remains. Research in progress on the evaluation and
comparison of the hydrostatic characteristics of the
two wrecks representative of the Gallo-Roman boats
of the Parc Saint-Georges, the Ep. 8 and Ep. 4 wrecks,
should provide precise data on the tare weight, the
load capacity, the dierent dra according to various
displacements…One can suppose it: this new infor-
mation would come to supplement our knowledge of
the history of these Gallo-Roman boats, and should
thus make it possible to better dene their function
within the framework of the regional economy of wa-
ter transport during the 1st century AD.
Notes
1 It was impossible to observe systematically the reparti-
tion of the unpegged tenons owing to an absence of a
full dismantling of the wreck.
2 According to F. Beaudouin (Beaudouin 1985 : 138), the
... palâtrage consiste à clouer à l’ intérieur du bateau, sur
tous les points structurels (coutures entre les planches) ou
accidentels, gerces ou nœuds du bois, des feuilles de bois
ou de métal, les palâtres, maintenant un tapis continu de
feutre ou de mous s e ”.
3 e sequences 3 and 4 could be also combined in a
same sequence.
4 e hydrostatic characteristics were calculated by the
naval architect Marc Ginisty (mg@m-g-m.fr).
5 For a denition of the concept of ‘navigability’, see
Serna 1996.
6 e main archaeological data is a small mortise hol-
lowed in the upper face of the frame Vu 19. In this
mortise, the tenon of the mast-foot could be inserted.
ere is no archaeological data relating to a mast-part-
ner. So, the hypothesis of a mast for the traille must be
considered with some caution.
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Beaudouin, F., 1985, Bateaux des euves de France. Edi-
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ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
During the building of an underground car park in Lyon, on the level of a fossil bank of the River Saône, archaeological rescue operations were carried out by the French Institute of Preventive Archaeological Research (Institut National de Recherches Archéologiques Préventives; INRAP) on commission of the Ministry of Culture. Field works, directed by Grégoire Ayala (INRAP), took place from October 2002 to June 2004. Inside a cofferdam an area of approx. 4000m2 was investigated to a depth of 10m according to the traditional methods of terrestrial archaeology. Within a few months, 16 wrecks were uncovered and documented under the direction of Marc Guyon (INRAP).
Batellerie gallo-romaine sur le lac de Neuchâtel
  • References Arnold
References Arnold, B., 1992, Batellerie gallo-romaine sur le lac de Neuchâtel. Archéologie neuchâteloise 13.2. Saint- Blaise.
Les épaves du Parc Saint- Georges. I er -XVIII e siècles
  • E Rieth
Rieth, E. (dir.), 2010, Lyon. Les épaves du Parc Saint- Georges. I er -XVIII e siècles. Analyse architecturale et études complémentaires. Archaeonautica 16. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Editions. Paris.
A Ferry or a Ligther from the River Saône?
  • Marc Guyon
F. Shıp Constructıon 28. Wreck of the 1 st -Century AD Lyon Saint-Georges 8 (Rhône, France): A Ferry or a Ligther from the River Saône? Marc Guyon and Eric Rieth.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 195
Roman Barge from the 1 st Century in the Rhône River Sabrina Marlier
  • Arles-Rhône Sandra Greck
  • Frédéric Guibal
  • Valérie Andrieu-Ponel
Arles-Rhône 3: Architectural and Paleobotanical Study of a Gallo-Roman Barge from the 1 st Century in the Rhône River Sabrina Marlier, Sandra Greck, Frédéric Guibal and Valérie Andrieu-Ponel............................................................................................................ 203
The Earliest Ships. The Evolution of Boats into Ships
  • D Ellmers
Ellmers, D., 1996, Celtic Plank Boats and Ships, 500 BC-AD 1000. In A.-E. Christensen & R. Gardiner (eds), The Earliest Ships. The Evolution of Boats into Ships. Conway Maritime Press, 52-71. London.
  • A Gaspari
Gaspari, A., 1998 (1999), Das Frachtschiff aus Lipe im Mor von Laibach (Ljubljana), Jahrb. Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum 45: 527-550. Mainz.
Quelques réflexions à propos du concept de navigabilité des rivières au Moyen Age en France
  • V Serna
Serna, V., 1996, Quelques réflexions à propos du concept de navigabilité des rivières au Moyen Age en France. In F. Ciciliot (ed.), Navalia Archeologia e Storia, 105-115. Savona.
Les bateaux garonnais Essai de nautique fluviale (II) Les Cahiers du Musée de la Batellerie 45
  • F Beaudouin
Beaudouin, F., 2001, Les bateaux garonnais. Essai de nautique fluviale (II). Les Cahiers du Musée de la Batellerie 45. Conflans-Sainte-Honorine.