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... My aim was not to get a random sample, but to use purposive sampling to illustrate adaptation actions across the entire state of Alaska [59, [60,75] [61,365] [62,447] [63,318]. This is important given the heterogeneity of communities and the ultimate goal of developing policies with state-wide applicability [64,2]. My desire to focus on many communities rather than a handful limited my ability to conduct a more participatory, decolonizing form of research, in which ANVs would set the research objectives and control the dissemination of results [65]. ...
... [30] [31] [32][33]. Research describes the historic resilience, adaptive capacity, and self-sufficiency of Alaska Natives[34,37] [35, 62] [36, 837][37,64] and how this has been eroded by colonization, the creation of dependencies on Western goods and services, ...
... Adaptive capacity has been applied in terms of communities as defined in Box 1 (e.g. Himes-Cornell and Kasperski, 2015), but it has also been applied to marine resources (Foo and Byrne, 2016) and even regulatory schemes (Melnychuk et al., 2014). ...
... (Heltberg et al., 2009, p. 89) Adaptive management: integrated assessments to facilitate learning and experimentation Differences in term usage can indicate differences in how concepts are operationalized, as well as confusion or discord between fields of research, as communication among fields with different lexicons is one of the many barriers to conducting interdisciplinary science (Holt et al., 2017). For example, a vulnerability assessment applied to either a fishing community (Cutter et al., 2003;Colburn et al., 2006;Himes-Cornell and Kasperski, 2015) or marine resources at risk of anthropogenic impact (Anthony et al., 2015;Hare et al., 2016;Comte and Pendleton, 2018) require vastly different data and assessment methods. It is therefore useful to have a look at how concepts have been operationalized within assessment frameworks of both fisheries and climate change adaptation fields, as assessment is the main information-simplifying tool used in adaptive management to support the experimental process that facilitates learning and improvement over time (Box 1). ...
Article
Supporting resilience is a common goal of natural resource management, but managing under changing conditions that requires adaptation is a modern challenge. A state-of-the-art framework for implementing an integrated ecosystem assessment (IEA), the NOAA IEA approach, is used as an example to demonstrate whether and how assessment in ecosystem-based management (EBM), as often implemented in fisheries, can be expected to facilitate planned adaptation. Using comparisons with another assessment framework developed for implementing a climate change adaptation project, the United Nations Development Programme-Global Environment Facility Adaptation Policy Framework (UNDP-GEF APF), this paper expands and operationalizes the concepts of managing for resilience versus change in EBM as presented by West et al.(2009). It first introduces a variety of terms from climate change adaptation literature to help institutionalize “planned adaptation” as a useful concept within fisheries, then presents an expanded map of adaptive management processes in EBM. Finally, it proposes steps for enhancing processes supporting planned adaptation in individual applications of EBM in fisheries. Steps include (i) recognizing interest and funding for adaptation planning as prerequisites, (ii) evaluating what information or actors are lacking to implement better planning, and (iii) determining what institutional processes within an adaptive management cycle need augmentation.
... However, climate vulnerability assessments have been increasingly applied to inform the management of harvested marine fish and invertebrate populations (Chin et al., 2010;Gaichas et al., 2014;Hare et al., 2016;Johnson & Welch, 2010;Pecl et al., 2014). These studies can provide necessary information for policymakers to increase the adaptive capacity of human communities affected by climate change (Colburn et al., 2016;Himes-Cornell & Kasperski, 2015), and assessment of the efficacy of adaption policies has been viewed as an ultimate stage in the evolution of climate vulnerability assessments (Füssel & Klein, 2006). Additionally, assessments of risk of marine fisheries to climate change are logical extensions of studies that assess the risk of marine fish stocks to overfishing (Hobday et al., 2011;Milton, 2001; Ormseth & Spencer, 2011;Patrick et al., 2010;Stobutzki, Miller, & Brewer, 2001). ...
... A similar approach was used to assess the socio-economic vulnerability in three Australian coastal communities (Metcalf et al., 2015) based on the results from trait-based vulnerability assessments of fish stocks in Australia (Pecl et al., 2014), and Mathis et al. (2015) analyzed the vulnerability of Alaska fishery sectors to ocean acidification based on dependence on sensitive target stocks. These methods can be applied in order to update existing studies of the social and economic vulnerability of Alaskan communities (Himes-Cornell & Kasperski, 2015) by considering climate projections and the projected impacts on natural populations. ...
Article
Trait‐based climate vulnerability assessments based on expert evaluation have emerged as a rapid tool to assess biological vulnerability when detailed correlative or mechanistic studies are not feasible. Trait‐based assessments typically view vulnerability as a combination of sensitivity and exposure to climate change. However, in some locations, a substantial amount of information may exist on system productivity and environmental conditions (both current and projected), with potential disparities in the information available for data‐rich and data‐poor stocks. Incorporating this level of detailed information poses challenges when conducting, and communicating uncertainty from, rapid vulnerability assessments. We applied a trait‐based vulnerability assessment to 36 fish and invertebrate stocks in the eastern Bering Sea (EBS), a data‐rich ecosystem. In recent years, the living marine resources of the EBS and Aleutian Islands have supported fisheries worth more than US $1 billion of annual ex‐vessel value. Our vulnerability assessment uses projections (to 2039) from three downscaled climate models, and graphically characterizes the variation in climate projections between climate models and between seasons. Bootstrapping was used to characterize uncertainty in specific biological traits and environmental variables, and in the scores for sensitivity, exposure, and vulnerability. The sensitivity of EBS stocks to climate change ranged from “low” to “high,” but vulnerability ranged between “low” and “moderate” due to limited exposure to climate change. Comparison with more detailed studies reveals that water temperature is an important variable for projecting climate impacts on stocks such as walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus), and sensitivity analyses revealed that modifying the rule for determining vulnerability increased the vulnerability scores. This study demonstrates the importance of considering several uncertainties (e.g., climate projections, biological, and model structure) when conducting climate vulnerability assessments, and can be extended in future research to consider the vulnerability of user groups dependent on these stocks. We conducted a trait‐based climate vulnerability assessment for groundfish, salmon, and crab stocks in the eastern Bering Sea, a data‐rich region, and leveraged existing downscaled climate projections, species distribution models, and (for some stocks) detailed biological studies. The vulnerability ranged from “low” to “moderate”; however, comparison with more detailed studies indicates that water temperature may have important effects on climate vulnerability for some stocks. We also demonstrate how several types of uncertainties (climate projections, biological, and model structure) can be analyzed and communicated, including bootstrapping of the results.
... A number of studies attempted to rank the vulnerability of Alaskan and other communities, largely based on physical factors (Alessa et al. 2008;Gorokhovich et al. 2014;Himes-Cornell and Kasperski 2015). The authors are concerned that there is no prize (i.e., award of assistance) for the winner of these beauty-pageantlike rankings. ...
... Alessa et al. (2008) addressed this challenge using proxy indicators (e.g., the number of indigenous people 50 or older as a proxy for traditional knowledge) (Alessa et al. 2008, p. 533). Himes-Cornell and Kasperski's (2015) study of physical vulnerability and adaptive capacity in 315 Alaskan communities compensated for a lack of erosion rate data by using communities' self-assessments of erosion vulnerability as documented by GAO (2009) and USACE (2009). Lyons et al. (2016) criticized this study, noting that qualitative factors suggest that some communities are much better off than those with higher quantitative assessments of vulnerability. ...
Article
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Using descriptive statistics, correlation analyses, one-way ANOVA, and an environmental justice lens, we considered the social and physical vulnerability factors associated with climate change and flood-related disaster declarations for Alaska Native Villages (ANVs), which are indigenous communities. We found that, on average, compared with communities not involved in disaster declarations, communities with disaster declarations between 1977 and 2014 had lower elevation, more exposure to erosion, less precipitation in summer and fall, larger populations, less population growth, a higher percentage of youth, larger household size, a higher percentage of Alaska Natives, more population below the poverty level, and lower per capita income. This finding is positive, because it suggests that, collectively, communities with greater vulnerability are getting more disaster declarations, which come with disaster aid. However, some of the most vulnerable communities may not be getting all the help they need. In particular, southwestern communities along the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers were statistically more likely to get disaster declarations than were ANVs that received attention in the media and the literature for their vulnerability.
... [36]). Proactive adaptations designed to respond to future risks were documented, for instance, in [37] and [38], and included initiatives focused on monitoring and evaluating climate-related threats and enhance the built environment to manage the risks and opportunities emerging from climatic stimuli (e.g. infrastructure projects for roads, railways, etc.), similar to 2004-2013. ...
... Adaptation is now firmly established as a central component of climate policy, with increasing interest in documenting if and how adaptation is occurring [20,33,34,41]. In response, adaptation tracking research has grown rapidly over the last decade, focusing on a diversity of regions [34,36,41], contexts [38,40,42], and sectors [43,44]. To our knowledge, this paper is the first to use a systematic tracking approach to examine progress in adaptation in the Arctic, the region witnessing the most dramatic climate change globally, using peer-reviewed articles as our data source. ...
Article
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Climate adaptation is a priority for Arctic regions which are witnessing some of the most rapid warming globally. Studies have documented examples of adaptation responses in the Arctic, but assessments evaluating if and how progress is being made over time remain scarce. We identify and examine adaptation progress in the Arctic using a systematic tracking methodology to compare adaptations documented during 2014–19 to those documented for the period 2004–2013 in a benchmark study by Ford et al (2014). Utilising the peer reviewed literature as out data source, we find no noticeable increase in reported adaptations across the two time periods, with the profile of adaptations undertaken remaining largely the same. The majority of documented adaptations continue to be reported in North America, are being undertaken most often in the subsistence-based hunting and fishing sector, are primarily developed in response to a combination of climatic and non-climatic stimuli, are reactive and behavioural in nature, and are mainly carried out at the individual/community scale. Climate change is observed, however, to have a more prominent role in motivating adaptation between 2014–19, consistent with intensifying climate-related exposures in the Arctic. There is limited evidence in the reported adaptations analysed that potential opportunities and benefits from the impacts of climate change are being targeted. The paper provides a general characterisation of adaptation across the Arctic and how it is evolving, and needs to be complimented in follow-up work by studies using alternative data sources on adaptation and research at national to regional scales.
... Il a été suggéré que le changement climatique pourrait être directement ou indirectement l'une des causes de la disparition d'espèces commerciales comme le saumon royal au large de l'Alaska (Conley et al., 2013). Le changement climatique peut avoir un impact négatif sur la pêche de subsistance dans les zones où celle-ci constitue une source importante d'alimentation (Himes-Cornell et Kasperski, 2015). Les réductions de coûts de pêche liés aux stocks de poisson accrus doivent être comparées aux frais plus élevés de carburant en plus des coûts supplémentaires liés à la navigation en Arctique de manière générale, et les forts coûts de surveillance et d'application pour limiter la pêche illégale, non déclarée et non réglementée (IUU) en Arctique (WWF, 2008). ...
... L'accent est souvent mis sur les populations autochtones et les résidents de l'Arctique qui dépendent fortement des ressources de subsistance fournies par leur environnement. Le recul et l'instabilité de la banquise en raison du changement climatique réduisent le potentiel de chasse de gibier et de mammifères marins et de pêche sous la glace (Ahlenius et al., 2005 p. 4 ;Himes-Cornell et Kasperski, 2015). Le développement économique génère aussi une concurrence accrue intra-et inter-industrie pour l'accès aux ressources dans un espace en 3 dimensions. ...
... When available and welldesigned, social and ecological vulnerability indicators (i.e., exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity) can represent different but complementary facets of social-ecological systems(Cinner et al. 2013a). This provides justification to our effort to identify indicators describing these different dimensions, and to compile them into aggregated measures of relative vulnerability (Chapters III-VI) or into a more nuanced understanding of the specific contributions to vulnerability (Chapters IV and VI).Although widely used, aggregated vulnerability analyses at any scale invariably make assumptions on transformation type, aggregation formula and weighting that are difficult to verify on the ground(Adger & Vincent 2005;Allison et al. 2009;Cinner et al. 2013a; Parravicini et al. 2014;Aretano et al. 2015;Himes-Cornell & Kasperski 2015). Despite recognition that inference and management decision based on (vulnerability) models require an understanding of the uncertainty induced by these assumption in model outputs, a surprisingly few number of studies actually considered this issue (but seeAllison et al. 2009 andCinner et al. 2013b for efforts to deal with some of these issue). ...
Thesis
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Contemporary sustainability science and practice must embrace the complexity of social-ecological systems and capitalize on the lessons learned from the recent theoretical and applied advances made in various disciplines. This can be accomplished in particular by incorporating this extensive knowledge into management and decision making through integrative and operational frameworks. Based on contrasting but complementary case studies (coral reef fishery in Moorea, French Polynesia; artisanal benthic fishery in Chile and global food systems), and drawing from the recent development in social-ecological science, we extended the use of the social-ecological vulnerability framework by (1) mapping human-nature dependencies in the context of resource-user interactions, (2) integrating the temporal dimension, (3) accounting for multiple drivers of change and (4) their impact on diverse entities of the system considered. This interdisciplinary work provided the foundation to represent key linkages in social-ecological systems, understand the underlying sources of unsustainability, and address these through a set of targeted and context-grounded management interventions and policy actions. This thesis provides a new perspective on human-nature linkages and has a number practical implications for managers, conservation planners, and policy-makers that seek to incorporate a social-ecological perspective to tackle sustainability issues from local to global scales.
... Coincident changes in biomass and species distributions can lead to heterogeneous effects on different fishing communities (Barange et al., 2018). The vulnerability of communities to shifts in available fish biomass can be broken down into three components: (i) exposure to the bio-physical effects of environmental change, (ii) dependence on spatially and temporally shifting resources, and (iii) adaptive capacity to offset negative impacts (Himes-Cornell and Kasperski, 2015). As species distributions shift, ports can experience differential losses and gains in landings of target species. ...
Article
Fishing communities are increasingly required to adapt to environmentally driven changes in the availability of fish stocks. Here, we examined trends in the distribution and biomass of five commercial target species (dover sole, thornyheads, sablefish, lingcod, and petrale sole) on the US west coast to determine how their availability to fishing ports changed over 40 years. We show that the timing and magnitude of stock declines and recoveries are not experienced uniformly along the coast when they coincide with shifts in species distributions. For example, overall stock availability of sablefish was more stable in southern latitudes where a 40% regional decline in biomass was counterbalanced by a southward shift in distribution of >200 km since 2003. Greater vessel mobility and larger areal extent of fish habitat along the continental shelf buffered northerly ports from latitudinal changes in stock availability. Landings were not consistently related to stock availability, suggesting that social, economic, and regulatory factors likely constrain or facilitate the capacity for fishers to adapt to changes in fish availability. Coupled social–ecological analyses such as the one presented here are important for defining community vulnerability to current and future changes in the availability of important marine species.
... 15: Tribes, KM 3). 98,159 New tools are being developed to quantify risks and vulnerabilities along the coast. For example, tools such as the Coastal Community Social Vulnerability Index 160 and the Coastal Economic Vulnerability Index 161 measure the social vulnerability of hurricane-or flood-prone areas to better quantify and predict how climate-driven changes are likely to impact marginalized groups. ...
Chapter
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The Coasts chapter of the Third National Climate Assessment, published in 2014, focused on coastal lifelines at risk, economic disruption, uneven social vulnerability, and vulnerable ecosystems. This Coastal Effects chapter of the Fourth National Climate Assessment updates those themes, with a focus on integrating the socioeconomic and environmental impacts and consequences of a changing climate. Specifically, the chapter builds on the threat of rising sea levels exacerbating tidal and storm surge flooding, the state of coastal ecosystems, and the treatment of social vulnerability by introducing the implications for social equity.
... Our results demonstrate that distinct social networks exist in Alaska fishing commun- ities that may increase community adaptive capacity in overcoming challenges related to fisheries, thus allowing their residents to continue participating in fishing activities (Himes-Cornell and Hoelting 2015;Himes-Cornell and Kasperski 2015;Kent and Himes-Cornell 2016;Reedy and Maschner 2014). We found that the main challenges for fishing communities in Alaska relate to fishery quotas and allocations, subsistence fishing, decline in salmon stocks and runs, and regulations and management, although communities expressed many other concerns (Table 3). ...
Article
Fishing community social networks function as channels for transfer of fishery knowledge, resources, and business transactions that help mitigate risks and shocks associated with altered access to fishery resources. Research on such networks in Alaska is limited despite their cultural importance and community reliance on fisheries. We contribute to scholarship of fishery social networks by assessing Alaska fishing community perspectives of challenges related to fisheries policy and management, and the existing social networks that aid in overcoming these challenges. Our findings show that the greatest challenges fishing communities face pertaining to fishery management are high costs of participating in catch share programs, restricted subsistence fishing activity due to decline in salmon, and complex regulations. Social networks exist for coping with these challenges; fishery information, and resources such as food, fuel and medicines are shared between communities. However, networks for accessing fishery support services are centralized in fewer larger communities and hubs such as Anchorage. Smaller and remote communities are the most compromised in this regard given the distance they must travel to access fishery support services. Leveraging social networks for sharing resources and improving fishery support services in smaller communities will increase their adaptive capacity and ability to maintain participation in Alaska fisheries.
... The study of adaptation and its socio-economic indicators/facilitators in marine fishing communities is recently being discussed in the literature (Allison and Ellis, 2001;Allison and Horemans, 2006;Blythe et al., 2014;Cinner et al., 2015;Divakarannair, 2007;Himes-cornell and Kasperski, 2015;Islam et al., 2014a;Iwasaki et al., 2009;Morzaria-Luna et al., 2014;Senapati and Gupta, 2017;Sievanen, 2014). In India, the studies have mostly been concentrated on small regional scales. ...
Article
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Understanding the factors associated with adaptation can be crucial for building community adaptive-capacity. This study aims to provide a country-level assessment of some of the factors driving adaptation responses in marine fishing, and is based on data from 2564 villages and 66 districts along the coastline of India. Mechanization, usage of Global Positioning System (GPS) and diversification are important adaptation responses in the community. This study employs an analytical framework to understand three types of factors influencing adaptation: vulnerability/risk, difference in the macro environment and community-level factors (human, economic and social capitals, such as education, poverty and cooperative membership). The results indicate that the different factors are not uniformly associated with the adaptation responses. Regions which are vulnerable and face greater cyclone risk have low adaptation. The macro-environment of the state as well as support through cooperatives can play a role in adaptation. The results also highlight the importance of higher levels of education for adaptation responses, such as, using advanced navigation technology (GPS) and diversifying into other professions. The study provides useful insights regarding the factors linked with adaptation responses in the community and can be helpful for designing interventions. The paper can complement findings from regional studies and emphasizes the need for future rigorous research on adaptation in marine fishing.
... Researchers have documented climate change impacts in various interior, west coast, and north coast ANVs from the vantage of Western science (Brown, Knapp, & Trainor, 2015;Carothers et al., 2014;Chapman, Kim, & Mark, 2009;Ignatowski & Rosales, 2013;Nichols, Berkes, Jolly, & Snow, 2004) as well as indigenous community knowledge (Cochran et al., 2013;Ignatowski & Rosales, 2013). Vulnerability assessments have sought to portray some ANVs as more vulnerable than others (Himes-Cornell & Kasperski, 2015;Alessa et al., 2008), without necessarily considering the context of each ANV and the qualitative factors that contribute to vulnerability (Huntington et al., 2009;Rosales & Chapman, 2015). ...
... Unfortunately, the poor and marginalized populations worldwide are expected to suffer the most from the adverse incidents occurring as a result of global warming. These communities do not have the necessary financial resources for ensuring an adequate preparation or for rebuilding what was destroyed (Kaswan 2015;Stout and Love 2018;Himes-Cornell and Kasperski 2015;Kim et al. 2018;Dzoga et al. 2018;Nadeau et al. 2017). Moreover, despite the calls for the reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions which is an urgent need if one wants to prevent global warming, the international community has acknowledged that such decrease is not sufficient to deal with all the potential damages. ...
Chapter
It has been argued that the international community could play an essential role in providing the necessary and adequate assistance to countries suffering from the negative consequences of climate change. Indeed, financing climate change projects represents one of the solutions that is currently being used by international organizations. As such, global donors are involved in multiple investments containing funding for climate change mitigation and adaptation projects. On the adaptation side, the focus is on increasing the resiliency of specific communities worldwide through the implementation of projects that are tailored to the needs and circumstances of each community. However, the countries in which these communities are located are either suffering from a state of underdevelopment or are having armed conflicts. One could mention, for instance, the projects that are being implemented in countries like Djibouti and Yemen where the communities are highly vulnerable to the effects of global warming. This chapter aims at analyzing whether climate change projects financed by the international community have contributed to the improvement of climate resilience of specific communities taking Djibouti and Yemen as case studies. This chapter is proposing concrete solutions for further developing climate resilience through projects financed for adaptation purposes.
... A new problem currently experienced globally is the progressive climate change whose impact on aquatic ecosystems and fishery resources is the subject of a growing body of scientific research carried out throughout the world (Islam et al. 2014, Linderholm et al. 2014, Williams et al. 2015, Himes-Cornell and Kasperski 2015, Kao et al. 2015. Climate change mitigation and adaptation are crucial challenges to be faced by the entire fishing industry in the 21st century. ...
Thesis
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(PL) Zmiany klimatyczne wywierają coraz większy wpływ na globalną, państwową i regionalną gospodarkę, gdyż pośrednio i bezpośrednio oddziałują na tak ważne segmenty, jak produktywność i efektywność rolnictwa czy energetyki, ale również na ochronę środowiska czy bezpieczeństwo ludności. Wpływ zmian klimatu na ekosystemy wodne i zasoby ryb stanowi przedmiot coraz liczniejszych badań naukowych prowadzonych w różnych częściach świata. łagodzenie zmian klimatu i adaptacja do jego zmian to kluczowe wyzwania, jakim musi stawić czoła w XXI w. cała branża rybacka. Gospodarkę rybacką na śródlądziu, w odróżnieniu od rybołówstwa morskiego, można nazwać niskoemisyjną, jednak globalne zmiany na pewno wpłyną i już wpływają na warunki jej prowadzenia. Do wdrożenia właściwych strategii zarządzania i zrównoważonej eksploatacji zasobów rybnych niezbędna jest podstawowa wiedza na temat zarządzanych wód. Gospodarka rybacka jest dość złożoną formą działalności zbudowaną z wielu elementów, takich jak: rybołówstwo komercyjne i rekreacyjne (wędkarstwo) oraz właściwie prowadzona gospodarka zarybieniowa. Gospodarka zarybieniowa musi spełniać trzy podstawowe warunki: musi być ekologicznie dopuszczalna (bezpieczna), a jednocześnie pożądana społecznie i ekonomicznie wykonalna. Efektywna gospodarka zarybieniowa jest kluczowym elementem gospodarki rybackiej, gdyż jednym z jej najważniejszych celów jest utrzymanie lub zwiększenie liczebności populacji cennych gospodarczo gatunków ryb do poziomu, który sprawia, że prowadzenie takiej gospodarki jest opłacalne ekonomicznie. Omawiana dysertacja nie bazuje na skomplikowanych modelach klimatycznych, ale na informacjach uzyskanych od rybackich użytkowników wód, którzy z racji specyfiki swego zawodu są z jednej strony najbliżej środowiska wodnego i jego zmian (a zatem pełnoprawnymi ich obserwatorami), a z drugiej żywotnie zainteresowani powstrzymaniem (jeśli takie występują) negatywnych skutków zmian klimatu na ichtiofaunę i prowadzenie gospodarki rybackiej. Odpowiednie zarządzanie zasobami ichtiofauny, czyli wyważona eksploatacja, zarówno w sposób komercyjny, jak i wędkarski oraz racjonalna gospodarka zarybieniowa, wraz z odbudową środowiska naturalnego, są głównymi zadaniami zrównoważonej gospodarki rybackiej prowadzonej w wodach śródlądowych. Zasadniczym celem prac badawczych składających się na przedmiotową rozprawę doktorską było określenie wpływu zmian klimatycznych i gospodarki zarybieniowej na efektywność gospodarki rybackiej. Prace badawcze podzielono ze względu na poruszoną tematykę. Pierwszy temat, z ogólnym tytułem wpływ zmian klimatycznych na gospodarkę rybacką, analizy przeprowadzono w oparciu o zebrane szczegółowe ankiety, wyplenione przez użytkowników, którzy prowadzą gospodarkę rybacką i wędkarską na jeziorach, oraz użytkowników, którzy prowadzą gospodarkę w zbiornikach zaporowych; w drugim temacie gospodarka zarybieniowa – problematyka odłowu tarlaków, badania przeprowadzono w oparciu o ankiety, które uzyskano od użytkowników rybackich, którzy prowadzą gospodarkę rybacką i wędkarską w jeziorach; w trzecim temacie wielkość i wartość odłowów rybackich oraz zarybień szczupakiem, wykorzystano informacje na temat podstawowych parametrów charakteryzujących analizowane podmioty oraz wielkości i wartości odłowów szczupaka, oraz ilości, rodzaju materiału zarybieniowego i jego wartości, liczby podmiotów zarybiających szczupakiem, wielkości zarybianej powierzchni, całkowitej wartości zarybień wszystkimi gatunkami ryb oraz wielkości i wartości złowionych tarlaków wszystkich gatunków ryb, zebrane przy pomocy kwestionariuszy statystycznych RRW-23 od podmiotów uprawnionych do rybactwa na wodach powierzchniowych płynących (jeziora, cieki, zbiorniki zaporowe); czwarty temat wielkości i wybrane cechy połowów rybackich i wędkarskich szczupaka w perspektywie długoterminowej, opisany został na bazie wieloletnich doświadczeń i badań prowadzonych w Zakładzie Bioekonomiki Rybactwa Instytutu Rybactwa Śródlądowego im. Stanisława Sakowicza; piąty temat ocena efektywności zarybień szczupakiem, podzielony został na dwa podtematy: a) ocena efektywności zarybień szczupakiem w jeziorach, w której analizę oparto na materiałach uzyskanych w Gospodarstwie Jeziorowym Sp. z o.o. w Ełku oraz wynikach badań cen ryb i materiału zarybieniowego, b) ocena efektywności zarybień szczupakiem w zbiornikach zaporowych, gdzie podmiotem uprawnionym do rybactwa w badanych zbiornikach zaporowych jest Okręg PZW w Katowicach. Zbiorniki te były systematycznie zarybiane szczupakiem, i mogły posłużyć jako przykład możliwości przeprowadzenia oceny efektywności zarybień przy wykorzystaniu metod statystycznych oraz informacji o zarejestrowanych przez wędkarzy odłowach i przeprowadzonych zarybieniach. Na podstawie uzyskanych wyników stwierdzono, że uprawnieni do rybactwa w znacznej większości zauważyli w ostatnich latach wpływ zmian klimatycznych na ichtiofaunę i rybackie gospodarowanie; gatunkiem, który według użytkowników rybackich najbardziej narażony jest na zmiany klimatyczne jest szczupak; zmiany klimatyczne najbardziej wpływają na wielkości połowów węgorza; ankietowani najbardziej obawiają się zjawiska dłuższego okresu przebywania kormoranów na akwenach; za najistotniejszy wpływ zmian klimatu na wybrane parametry hydrologiczne jezior respondenci wybrali niskie poziomy i wahania poziomów wód; użytkownicy zbiorników zaporowych uznali, że największy wpływ na populacje ryb nie mają zachodzące zmiany klimatyczne, ale sam zbiornik, który utrudnia migracje ryb; badanych respondentów charakteryzuje wysoka niechęć do potencjalnych zmian i innowacji w kwestii odłowu tarlaków; ilość wylęgu wprowadzana do wód obwodów rybackich w ostatnich latach wykazywała bardzo wyraźną tendencję wzrostową; w skali całego kraju odłowy wędkarskie szczupaka były 8-krotnie wyższe niż rybackie; zastosowanie rachunku korelacji wykazało, że wzrost dawek zarybieniowych szczupaka powodował wyraźne zwiększenie poziomu odłowów, ale po przekroczeniu granicznego poziomu zarybień nie następował wzrost, tylko nieznaczny spadek wydajności; w badaniach efektywności zarybień szczupakiem w jeziorach ełckich nie wykazano statystycznie istotnego związku z zarybieniami, lecz wykazano ekonomizację (dążenie do podnoszenia ekonomiczności) w tym zakresie gospodarowania szczupakiem. Określenie wpływu zmian klimatycznych, ale także gospodarki zarybieniowej na efektywność gospodarki rybackiej nie należy do zadań prostych, gdyż w odróżnieniu od badań laboratoryjnych, gdzie efekty badań widoczne są w stosunkowo krótkim czasie, w przypadku poruszanych w pracy doktorskiej zagadnień na efekty trzeba czekać dość długo. Z tego powodu zdecydowano się skorzystać z wieloletnich obserwacji uprawnionych do rybactwa, których praca zawodowa na tak różnych akwenach trwa czasem dłużej niż 30 lat, i warto podkreślić, jak wartościowe były te informacje. Przeprowadzone w ramach dysertacji doktorskiej badania, wobec znacznej liczby, złożoności i kompleksowego oddziaływania czynników wpływających na prowadzenie gospodarki rybackiej, nie pozwoliły na zidentyfikowanie wszystkich z nich, a tym bardziej na skwantyfikowanie ich wpływu na efektywność tej gospodarki. W związku z tymi ograniczeniami stworzono uproszczony schemat, na którym przedstawiono te z grupy czterech najważniejszych, a nauce znanych, elementów systemu (tj. przyrodniczych, społecznych, ekonomicznych i legislacyjnych), na których wpływ dzięki przeprowadzonym badaniom przynajmniej udało się zidentyfikować i wyrazić w formie pewników bądź wpływów bardzo prawdopodobnych. Wyniki tych badań mogą służyć jako odniesienie do przyszłych norm prowadzenia racjonalnej gospodarki rybackiej na wodach Skarbu Państwa i wprowadzania odpowiednich regulacji prawnych, które bardziej odpowiednio przygotują gospodarstwa rybackie na przyszłe, niestety nieuniknione, zmiany klimatyczne. (EN) Climate change is having an increasing impact on global, national and regional economies, as it directly and indirectly affects such important segments as agricultural or energy productivity and efficiency, but also on environmental protection or human security. The impact of climate change on aquatic ecosystems and fish resources is the subject of increasing scientific research in various parts of the world. Climate change mitigation and adaptation are the key challenges facing the entire fishing sector in the 21st century. Inland, as opposed to marine, fisheries management can be called low-carbon, but global changes will certainly affect and are already affecting the conditions under which it is conducted. Basic understanding of managed waters is required to implement appropriate management strategies and sustainable exploitation of fish resources. As a fisheries sector, fisheries management is a rather complex activity comprising a number of elements, such as commercial and recreational fishing (angling) and properly conducted stocking management. Stocking management must meet three fundamental conditions: it must be ecologically acceptable (safe), and at the same time socially desirable and economically viable. Effective stocking management is a critical component of fisheries management, since one of its most important objectives is to preserve or increase the population of economically valuable fish species to a level that makes such management economically profitable. This dissertation is not based on complex climate models, but on information collected from fisheries managers who, due to the specifics of their profession, are on the one hand closest to the water environment and its changes (and therefore rightful observers), and on the other are vitally interested in halting (if any) negative effects of climate change on fish fauna and fisheries management. Proper management of ichthyofauna resources, i.e. balanced exploitation, both commercially and by anglers, and rational stocking management, together with restoration of the natural environment, are the main objectives of sustainable fisheries management in inland waters. The primary aim of the research work for this dissertation was to determine the impact of climate change and stocking management on fisheries management efficiency. The study was divided according to the subject areas investigated. The first topic, with the general title of the influence of climate change on fisheries management, was analysed on the basis of detailed questionnaires collected from users who run fishing and angling management in lakes and from users who manage in dam reservoirs; the second topic, stocking management – the problem of spawners’ harvest, was based on questionnaires obtained from fishing users who manage fishing and angling in lakes; in the third topic, the volume and value of fishing catches and pike stocking, information was used on basic parameters characterizing the analysed fishing entities and the volume and value of pike catches, data on the quantity, type and value of stocking material, the number of entities stocking pike, the size of the stocked area, the total value of stocking with all fish species and the size and value of harvested spawners of all fish species; these data were collected using statistical questionnaires RRW-23 from entities authorised to fishing on flowing surface waters (lakes, rivers, dam reservoirs); the fourth topic, the size and selected characteristics of pike catches in the long-term perspective, was described on the basis of years of experience and research activities at the Department of Fishery Bioeconomics of The Stanisław Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute; the fifth topic, assessment of the effectiveness of pike stocking, was divided into two sub-themes: a) assessment of the effectiveness of pike stocking in lakes, in which the analysis was based on materials obtained from Gospodarstwo Jeziorowe Ltd in Ełk and resultsof studies on prices of fish and stocking material, b) evaluation of effectiveness of pike stocking in dam reservoirs, where the entity authorised to fishing in the investigated dam reservoirs is the Katowice District of Polish Angling Association. These dams were systematically stocked with pike and could serve as an example of how to assess stocking efficiency using statistical methods and information on anglers’ records of catches and stocking events. From the results, it was concluded that: fishery users have overwhelmingly reported the impact of climate change on ichthyofauna and fishery management in recent years; the species most affected by climate change according to fishing users is pike; climate change is having the highest impact on eel catches; respondents are most concerned about the longer residence time of cormorants in water bodies; respondents selected low water levels and fluctuations in water levels as the most important influence of climate change on selected hydrological parameters of lakes; in the opinion of dam users, the greatest impact on fish populations is not caused by climate change, but by the dam itself, which makes fish migration difficult; respondents are strongly averse to potential changes and innovations in the harvesting of spawners; the amount of pike stocking with larvae to the waters of the fishing zones in recent years has shown a very clear upward trend; at the scale of the whole country, anglers’ catches of pike were eightfold higher than commercial ones; application of the correlation calculus showed that an increase in the stocking rate of pike resulted in a clear increase in the level of catches, but when the limit of the stocking rate was exceeded there was no increase, only a slight decrease in the catch efficiency; studies on efficiency of pike stocking in Ełk lakes did not show statistically significant correlation with stocking rates, but showed economization (attempt to increase economy) in this area of pike management. Identifying the impact of climate change and stocking management on the effectiveness of fisheries management is not an easy task, because unlike in the case of laboratory studies, where the effects of research are visible in a relatively short period of time, in contrast to the issues discussed in the dissertation, one has to wait rather long for results. For this reason, it was necessary to make use of the many years of observations of authorised fisheries managers, whose professional work in such various waters sometimes lasted more than 30 years, and it is worth mentioning how valuable this information has been. The studies conducted as part of the dissertation, in the light of the large number, complexity and comprehensive impact of factors influencing fisheries management, did not make it possible to identify all of them, let alone quantify their influence on the effectiveness of fisheries management. In view of these limitations, a simplified diagram was created to present those of the four most important system elements known to science (i.e. natural, social, economic and law) whose impact could at least be identified and described as certainties or very likely. The results of this studies can serve as a reference for future standards of rational fishery management in waters belonging to the State Treasury and the introduction of appropriate legal regulations, which will more adequately prepare fishing entities for future, unfortunately unavoidable upcoming climate changes.
... In addition, the value of a quantitative process as compared to a more qualitative, expert-opinion-driven process will be tested as the quantitative approach is applied in the context of a management plan. Robust indicators of key sanctuary components and processes could serve as performance measures to show if management actions are guiding the sanctuary away from risk-related thresholds and toward reference points defined by goals and objectives (Sainsbury et al. 2000;Himes-Cornell and Kasperski 2015;Lederhouse and Link 2016). We should assume that additional recommendations and lessons learned will emerge from that real-world application of this approach to a management system. ...
... Community is defined broadly, ranging from very small, sparsely populated areas to very large urban areas. Resilience can pertain to such cases as indigenous coastal communities endeavoring to cope with sea-level rise and loss of sea ice upon which to hunt (Brinkman et al. 2016;Himes-Cornell and Kasperski 2015). Another example of a small-scale community is the capacity of a mountain community to recover from a flash flood that destroys the only road through town (Mitchell 2013) or compromises the town's water supply (Rael 2013). ...
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This paper presents the perspectives of data, informatics, and information scientists and practitioners regarding how data solutions can be developed for place-based community resilience. Data were collected from participants at an Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) meeting in 2015. Results show that to develop such data solutions, terminology related to community resilience must be further clarified to coordinate better with data and informatics systems, and institutional support of place-based community resilience must be prioritized. In addition, accessibility and usability of developed data solutions are crucial, and gaps along the information pathway must be filled to better connect data practitioners and community resilience practitioners. For access to full text, use this link: https://rdcu.be/3TBl or contact the author.
... Example of variables How information might be used Leadership, governance and institutions Whitney et al. 2017;Wongbusarakum & Pomeroy 2008;McLeod et al. 2016;Jones and d'Errico 2019 Presence of and access to institutions that support risk management and adaptation Effectiveness of community leaders in addressing climate hazards and adaptation planning Effectiveness of coastal management in achieving environmental and social goals (including policies, tools, rules and regulations, enforcement) Levels of participation and quality of decision-making processes Accountability of managers and governance bodies Understand strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, effectiveness and gaps of governance, leadership and institutions in natural resources (esp. fisheries) and climate adaptation Utilize local support from community leaders in adaptation work Understand level of stakeholder participation in management and decision-making Availability and access to resources/ assets/capitals (Whitney et al. 2017;Kalikoski 2010;Cinner 2013;Cinner 2018;Pollnac & Crawford 2000;IPCC 2007;Himes-Cornell and Kasperski 2015; Presence of material assets/possessions (e.g. general household material assets and fishery specific, e.g., boats, gear) Human capital (knowledge, skill) Financial capital (money, sources of credits) Natural capital Social capital Levels of trust Social cohesion or Ability to act collectively Social networks Gender and race relations Physical capital (infrastructure, housing, tools and technology, energy and water supplies, markets) Understand types and levels, and gaps of resources/assets/ capitals needed for adaptation and levels of access to them. ...
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This project investigated the availability, awareness, and gaps of socio-economic and biophysical information needed in the Pacific Island Region for effective coastal and fisheries management that takes human well-being into consideration. Main methods included secondary data review of existing socio-economic and biophysical data, online survey, and focus groups. Both of the latter methods were conducted with key individuals involved in monitoring efforts in the Pacific Island Region and in the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP), and included both current and possible data users. The project examined the NCRMP and non-NCRMP efforts in the Pacific Island Region. This document summarizes the main study results and provides recommendations regarding integrated monitoring efforts across the region and for regional socio-economic monitoring efforts.
... Two regional assessments of climate change, including sea level rise, have examined the projected impact on fishing communities in the Northeast Region (Colburn et. al. 2016) and Alaska (Himes, Cornell and Kasperski 2015). ...
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This report examines how a select group of commercial fishing communities in the Southeast rely on specific marine species and how those species are vulnerable to climate change. The objective of the community climate vulnerability indicators project is to forecast the possible effects of climate change on a coastal fishing community’s marine resource base and how that change may affect the businesses and people that work there. The following analysis contributes to that objective by providing a graphic presentation of species landed within coastal fishing communities in the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic from 2000 to 2018 and showing how community vulnerability is related to the mix and the diversity of landed species over time.
... One such suite of metrics, coastal community vulnerability indices, are generalized socio- economic vulnerability metrics for human communities that rely on the marine ecosystem. These metrics have had broad application for defining the risks to human communities from exogenous shocks such as disasters (hurricanes, oil spills, fishery collapses) and have been employed in the US Northeast and Southeast ( Jacob et al., 2012;Jepson and Colburn, 2013), Alaska (Himes-Cornell and Kasperski, 2015), at the US national level (http:// www.st.nmfs.noaa.gov/humandimensions/social-indi- cators/map), and in Mexico (Morzaria- Luna et al., 2014). ...
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The sustainable use of global marine resources depends upon science-based decision processes and systems. Informing decisions with science is challenging for many reasons, including the nature of science and science-based institutions. The complexity of ecosystem-based management often requires the use of models, and model-based advice can be especially difficult to convert into policies or decisions. Here, we suggest five characteristics of model-based information and advice for successfully informing ocean management decision-making, based on the Ocean Modeling Forum framework. Illustrated by examples from two fisheries case studies, Pacific sardines 'Sardinops sagax' and Pacific herring 'Clupea pallasii', we argue that actionable model-based output should be aspirational, applicable, parsimonious, co-produced, and amplifying.
... Example of variables How information might be used Leadership, governance and institutions Whitney et al. 2017;Wongbusarakum & Pomeroy 2008;McLeod et al. 2016;Jones and d'Errico 2019 Presence of and access to institutions that support risk management and adaptation Effectiveness of community leaders in addressing climate hazards and adaptation planning Effectiveness of coastal management in achieving environmental and social goals (including policies, tools, rules and regulations, enforcement) Levels of participation and quality of decision-making processes Accountability of managers and governance bodies Understand strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, effectiveness and gaps of governance, leadership and institutions in natural resources (esp. fisheries) and climate adaptation Utilize local support from community leaders in adaptation work Understand level of stakeholder participation in management and decision-making Availability and access to resources/ assets/capitals (Whitney et al. 2017;Kalikoski 2010;Cinner 2013;Cinner 2018;Pollnac & Crawford 2000;IPCC 2007;Himes-Cornell and Kasperski 2015; Presence of material assets/possessions (e.g. general household material assets and fishery specific, e.g., boats, gear) Human capital (knowledge, skill) Financial capital (money, sources of credits) Natural capital Social capital Levels of trust Social cohesion or Ability to act collectively Social networks Gender and race relations Physical capital (infrastructure, housing, tools and technology, energy and water supplies, markets) Understand types and levels, and gaps of resources/assets/ capitals needed for adaptation and levels of access to them. ...
Technical Report
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This project investigated the availability, awareness, and gaps of socio-economic and biophysical information needed in the Pacific Island Region for effective coastal and fisheries management that takes human well-being into consideration. Main methods included secondary data review of existing socio-economic and biophysical data, online survey, and focus groups. Both of the latter methods were conducted with key individuals involved in monitoring efforts in the Pacific Island Region and in the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP), and included both current and possible data users. The project examined the NCRMP and non-NCRMP efforts in the Pacific Island Region. This document summarizes the main study results and provides recommendations regarding integrated monitoring efforts across the region and for regional socio-economic monitoring efforts.
... While it is important that future governance regimes adopt decisions based on the precautionary approach (Farbotko and Lazrus 2012;Himes-Cornell and Kasperski 2015;Morzaria-Luna et al., 2014) protecting natural ecosystems also requires governance to be responsive, proactive, and flexible. For example, adaptive management needs to be implemented when addressing the rapid and drastic climate and human-driven change affecting reef areas (Armitage et al. 2009;GBRMPA 2009;Mathews and Turner 2017;Maynard et al. 2010;Townsend et al. 2008;Weeks and Jupiter 2013;Cinner et al. 2019) (Action 3, 38). ...
... An additional risk assessment focused specifically on climate change was also conducted for Alaska communities (Himes-Cornell and Kasperski 2015). A set of indices were developed to assess how much communities may be affected by the physical effects of climate change (e.g., sea level rise, melting permafrost, changes in sea-ice distribution). ...
Technical Report
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Large changes in climate are expected in the U.S. Gulf of Alaska (GOA) in the coming decades. Projected changes include warming of ocean waters, decreases in ocean pH, sea level rise, changes in ocean circulation and stratification, and potential concomitant changes in species distributions, ecosystem productivity, and food-web structure. While the nature of physical changes is clear, such as warming and ocean acidification, ecosystem responses to changing physical conditions are uncertain because it is unknown which of several forcing factors will be dominant. Directed research is needed to assess the degree of climate-driven change to critical ecosystem components, evaluate potential effects on marine species, and to determine risks to the ecosystem and fishing communities. This research will guide policies to reduce climate impacts, to manage human involvement in changed ecosystems, and to capitalize on any novel opportunities that may arise for marine resource-dependent human communities. This Regional Action Plan (RAP) outlines a framework to initiate this process.
... Ecological Hutto et al., 2015;Morrison et al., 2015;Okey et al., 2015;Stortini et al., 2015;Hare et al., 2016;Jones and Cheung, 2017;Crozier et al., 2019Social Cinner et al., 2012Himes-Cornell and Kasperski, 2015;Jacinto et al., 2015;Colburn et al., 2016;Blasiak et al., 2017;Ding et al., 2017;Monnereau et al., 2017;Sainsbury et al., 2018 Social-ecological: high-level, broad-scale social and/or economic assessments or fisheries production estimates Allison et al., 2009;Johnson and Welch, 2010;Bell et al., 2011;Perry, 2011;Barange et al., 2014 Social-ecological: effects of multiple environmental changes on a specific fishery or region Pecl et al., 2009;Mamauag et al., 2013;Maina et al., 2015;Chavez et al., 2017;Wabnitz et al., 2018;Silva et al., 2019 Social-ecological: effects of a single environmental change on a fishery or fisheries Cinner et al., 2012;Ekstrom et al., 2015 In particular, those developed to date lack a generalizable framework that accounts and allows for cascading (indirect) impacts on the broader ecological and social systems, multiple components in both the ecological and social systems (e.g., different fishing sectors and target species' life stages), and feedbacks among components. For example, CVAs typically scrutinize the direct effects of climate change on a focal fished species or fishery. ...
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Understanding and anticipating the effects of climate change on fisheries social-ecological systems (FSESs) is central to proactive fisheries management in a changing global climate. With fisheries management increasingly striving to consider interactions and feedbacks among people, targeted species, and the broader ecological and human communities, fisheries managers and participants need tools to help them assess these complex systems. We developed a new climate vulnerability assessment framework for analyzing the impacts of a climate-induced trend or event on a FSES. The framework divides the FSES into four interrelated and interacting domains: Ecological Community, Fished Species, Fishery, and Human Community. The framework provides a systematic approach to account for indirect as well as direct effects, links among subsystems, and multiple climate change-induced stressors. We demonstrate the framework’s utility by applying it to three case studies: the effects of a marine heatwave on the Dungeness crab FSES, the effects of a marine heatwave on the red sea urchin FSES, and the effects of long-term climate trends on North Pacific albacore. We found that the effects of a climatic trend or event on a FSES are often indirect and can trigger diverse and important feedbacks. These examples also showed that the climatic trend or event may cause changes in the temporal and spatial distribution of fishing effort and fished species that have a more significant impact on the FSES than changes to species abundance per se. Unlike other climate vulnerability assessment frameworks and applications, ours is designed to enable consideration of the range of feedbacks within and among both the ecological and human communities. As such, it is a valuable tool to guide the holistic examination and assessment of potential impacts to FSESs.
... This is especially true in rural communities, where residents live in close connection to and rely upon their environment. Environmental stresses affect subsistence practices, food availability, water quality, and infrastructure, among many other aspects of life (11)(12)(13)(14)(15). Many Alaskans connect with the One Health paradigm, i.e. the idea that the health of humans, animals, and the environment are inextricably linked (13,16,17). ...
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In this chapter, we present a model for an entry-level lab-based undergraduate environmental chemistry course delivered simultaneously by face-to-face and distance modalities. This course frames conceptual chemistry using the theme of Alaskan Arctic environmental issues in order to increase engagement and perceived relevance of chemical principles. Synchronously delivered lectures and guided discussions along with the incorporation of peer-mentored research projects encourage the development of a learning community among students in the course. Distance students participate in the same virtual and “kitchen” lab experiments as on-campus students, thus providing an educationally equivalent curriculum to all. In mixed teams of on-campus and distance students, all students participate in research projects to allow entry-level students to explore their interests in STEM fields. Students thereby begin to build an identity as a scientist and hopefully this course will serve as a mechanism to improve recruitment and retention of students, especially from traditionally underrepresented groups, in the chemical sciences and other STEM fields of study. Responses from the first course offering communicated positive attitudes toward the course content and methods.
... A number of studies have responded to the multi-dimen- sional nature of vulnerability in complex human-environ- ment contexts by combining, or integrating, multiple frameworks. In the marine context, for example, Himes- Cornell and Kasperski (2015) developed an integrated vul- nerability framework for analysing Alaska fishing commu- nities that considered exposure through a rapidly changing Alaskan environment, rapid local resource dependence changes and community adaptive capacity to climate change. Similarly, Colburn et al. (2016) developed a multi-dimensional framework to measure the vulnerability of US East coast fishing communities by analysing a series of new indicator under the context of climate change, and building on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin- istration's (NOAAs) existing Community Social Vulner- ability Indicators (CSVIs). ...
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Coastal communities are some of the most at-risk populations with respect to climate change impacts. It is therefore important to determine the vulnerability of such communities to co-develop viable adaptation options. Global efforts to address this issue include international scientific projects, such as Global Learning for Local Solutions (GULLS), which focuses on five fast warming regions of the southern hemisphere and aims to provide an understanding of the local scale processes influencing community vulnerability that can then be up-scaled to regional, country and global levels. This paper describes the development of a new social and ecological vulnerability framework which integrates exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity with the social livelihoods and food security approaches. It also measures community flexibility to understand better the adaptive capacity of different levels of community organization. The translation of the conceptual framework to an implementable method is described and its application in a number of “hotspot” countries, where ocean waters are warming faster than the rest of the world, is presented. Opportunities for cross-cultural comparisons to uncover similarities and differences in vulnerability and adaptation patterns among the study’s coastal communities, which can provide accelerated learning mechanisms to other coastal regions, are highlighted. The social and ecological framework and the associated survey approach allow for future integration of local-level vulnerability data with ecological and oceanographic models.
... Adaptive capacity and future resilience The communities of Kotzebue and Kivalina rely on coastal subsistence resources that are increasingly affected by climate change. Kivalina, in particular, is one of the most resourcedependent communities in Alaska and most exposed to climate change impacts (IAWG 2009, Himes-Cornell andKasperski 2015). Increasing adaptive capacity in these and other Arctic communities may require investing in a combination of mechanisms, both asset and non-asset based. ...
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Human access routes to coastal subsistence resources are being altered in Arctic regions as temperatures warm. The accessibility dimension of climate impacts on coastal resources is critical to food sovereignty and resilience of Indigenous Arctic communities, yet the issue of access is understudied relative to food availability. This issue also has implications for the role of governmental agencies in mediating resource access in a changing landscape. We examined the role of climate stressors in affecting access to customary and traditional foods (subsistence) by Indigenous (Iñupiat) communities within and near Arctic National Parklands. We apply access theory to better understand (1) the climate stressors that most impact access to coastal animals and harvest areas, (2) how they affect the availability and reliability of harvest of coastal species, and (3) the mechanisms that facilitate or constrain access to coastal subsistence resources. Our study employed a combination of expert interviews and synthesis of pre-existing environmental time series data in the communities of Kotzebue and Kivalina, Alaska. We found that chronic climate stressors (sea ice retreat, coastal erosion, and changes in weather) most impacted harvest access. To mediate these changes, harvesters ubiquitously reported the use of access mechanisms including capital, knowledge, technology, and social identity; social relations, authority, and time were also reported at high rates. Potential adaptations in these communities include increased reliance on technology and capital to access animals despite landscape changes (e.g., using boats in the absence of sea ice), switching species or relying on social networks for sharing resources when animals become harder to find, and exploring alternatives to harvesting (such as growing food) in response to increasing access challenges. Our findings highlight the stewardship and sovereignty of Indigenous communities as a basis for resilience in a rapidly changing environment.
... Mathis et al. (2015) considered community vulnerability, human reliance on marine harvests, and forecasts of ocean acidification to assess the ocean acidification risk for Alaska fisheries. Further considerations are addressed in a series of technical reports (e.g., Himes-Cornell et al., 2013) that are used as the basis for fisheries management plans, social and economic impact assessments of proposed fishing regulations, and climate impacts (Himes-Cornell & Kasperski, 2015;Himes-Cornell & Hoelting, 2015). ...
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In the United States, commercial and recreational fisheries contribute $214 billion USD in sales to the nation's economy and support over 1.8 million jobs. Climate variability and change are impacting the living marine resources that support these fisheries. Spanning over 70 degrees of latitude and several oceans and seas, the Exclusive Economic Zone of the United States and its Territories experiences different types and magnitudes of climate-related change. Some regions are warming at a rate much higher than predicted, while others are experiencing ocean acidification as severe as, or exceeding the general projections for 100 years from now. Climate-driven regime shifts have altered the species composition of the fisheries in some areas while other regions have not yet detected significant changes. This chapter highlights the current understanding of how climate change and variability has impacted, and will impact, fisheries and aquaculture across 6 regions of the United States Exclusive Economic Zone. With over 160 million people in the United States living within coastal communities, and fisheries and aquaculture contributing significantly to the social and economic well-being of the nation, a strong scientific understanding of how ocean ecosystems are changing, the mechanisms of these changes, and how to anticipate and account for future change is paramount to good stewardship of our living marine resources for current and future generations.
... A new problem currently experienced globally is the progressive climate change whose impact on aquatic ecosystems and fishery resources is the subject of a growing body of scientific research carried out throughout the world (Islam et al. 2014, Linderholm et al. 2014, Williams et al. 2015, Himes-Cornell and Kasperski 2015, Kao et al. 2015, Wo³os et al. 2017. Climate change mitigation and adaptation are crucial challenges to be faced by the entire fishing industry in the 21st century. ...
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The study of the impact of climate change on the fish fauna and fisheries management is a relatively young field of scientific research which has yielded very few analytical studies in the Central and Eastern European countries. This paper is the first attempt to examine the impact of this change on lake fisheries management, made based on an extensive and representative survey addressed at managers and owners of the entities authorised to use these waters for fishing and angling purposes. The conducted analyses enabled the determination of their opinions on the issues of climate change impact on the fish, selected hydrological and biological lake parameters, the possibility of use of fishing gear and its efficiency, the length of angling season, the amount of individual fish species caught by anglers and fishermen, and positive phenomena relating to climate change. Of all the phenomena arising from this change and perceived by the respondents surveyed, the growing population of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo (L.)), which is exerting increasing pressure on the fishery resources, and conducive to this change, is definitely at the head of the list. As regards the fish species, the pike (Esox lucius L.) is the most vulnerable to this change. The presented results prove that the managers under the study are aware of the ongoing changes and their impact on lake fisheries management, and of the challenges that they will have to face as early as in the coming decades of the 21st century.
... Vulnerability frameworks in different formulations have been empirically applied to a number of coastal communities in different regions of the world (e.g., Allison et al., 2009;Gough, 2012a;Cinner et al., 2013;Harding, 2013;Whitney et al., 2017;Sowman and Raemaekers, 2018). In the IPCC framework, vulnerability is assessed as a composite function of exposure to climate-driven impacts, sensitivity to climate impacts, and capacity to adapt (e.g., Allison et al., 2009;Cinner et al., 2013;Bennett et al., 2015;Himes-Cornell and Kasperski, 2015). Vulnerability assessments have to be sensitive to change in the ecological as well as the human domain for policy makers and managers to be able to prepare effectively for the consequences , which requires assessments of the linked social-ecological systems (Turner et al., 2003;McClanahan et al., 2008;McGinnis and Ostrom, 2014). ...
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Here we describe an interdisciplinary and multi-country initiative to develop rapid, participatory methods to assess the vulnerability of coastal communities and facilitate adaptation to climate change in data-poor regions. The methods were applied in Madagascar as a case study. The initiative centered on an exploratory research exercise in two communities in the south-west of Madagascar, a workshop held in Antananarivo in June 2016, combined with a component on communicating ocean science and climate change to stakeholders. It utilized innovative and rapid approaches to combine global and local skills and information on adaptation and resilience building, taking cognizance of national policies, and was based on the principles of a holistic, integrated and participatory approach. This paper summarizes the activities undertaken and assesses how effective they were in achieving the project goals, as well as presenting examples of the outputs obtained. The activities demonstrated the value of using existing high resolution global climate models for provision of information on future trends, and of including a traits-based ecological risk assessment as a standard component of vulnerability assessments. User-friendly qualitative modeling activities helped to consolidate holistic, integrated understanding of selected fisheries. The value of assessing the importance and resilience of supply chains and taking the local management measures and institutions into account were validated. The outcomes of the initiative reinforced the principle that the cumulative ecological and social impacts of individual stressors and drivers on marine-dependent communities must be addressed, including climate-change related stressors. Assessments of vulnerability and adaptation planning should be forward-looking and consider likely changes in the future. They must also be done with participation by local experts and stakeholders to ensure knowledge exchange, local capacity-building and ownership and that outputs are rooted in the local realities, are accepted as being legitimate, and reinforce and complement relevant legal frameworks and laws.
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25 The U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) encompasses approximately 3.4 million square nautical 26 miles of ocean and the U.S. coastline stretches for 12,383 miles. This vast area generates billions 27 of dollars annually as well as multiple other societal benefits. As climatic changes occur, these 28 benefits or ecosystem services may be significantly reduced or in some cases enhanced. These 29 services are also under an array of pressures including over-exploitation of natural resources, 30 pollution, and land-use changes that occur simultaneously in synergistic, multiplicative, or 31 antagonistic ways. This results in direct and indirect impacts that are often unpredictable across 32 spatial and temporal scales. Here, we discuss a set of indicators designed in close collaboration 33 with the U.S. National Climate Indicators System. Tracking the impacts via indicators will be 34 essential to ensure long-term health of the marine environment and sustain the benefits to 35 stakeholders who depend on marine ecosystem services. 36
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Because of the complexity and speed of environmental, climatic, and socio-political change in coastal marine social-ecological systems, there is significant academic and applied interest in assessing and fostering the adaptive capacity of coastal communities. Adaptive capacity refers to the latent ability of a system to respond proactively and positively to stressors or opportunities. A variety of qualitative, quantitative, and participatory approaches have been developed and applied to understand and assess adaptive capacity, each with different benefits, drawbacks, insights, and implications. Drawing on case studies of coastal communities from around the globe, we describe and compare 11 approaches that are often used to study adaptive capacity of social and ecological systems in the face of social, environmental, and climatic change. We synthesize lessons from a series of case studies to present important considerations to frame research and to choose an assessment approach, key challenges to analyze adaptive capacity in linked social-ecological systems, and good practices to link results to action to foster adaptive capacity. We suggest that more attention be given to integrated social-ecological assessments and that greater effort be placed on evaluation and monitoring of adaptive capacity over time and across scales. Overall, although sustainability science holds a promise of providing solutions to real world problems, we found that too few assessments seem to lead to tangible outcomes or actions to foster adaptive capacity in social-ecological systems.
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The World Ocean presents many opportunities, with the blue economy projected to at least double in the next two decades. However, capitalizing on these opportunities presents significant challenges and a multi-sectoral, integrated approach to managing marine socio-ecological systems will be required to achieve the full benefits projected for the blue economy. Integrated ecosystem assessments have been identified as the best means of delivering the information upon which marine resource management decisions can be made. By their nature, these assessments are inter-disciplinary, but to date have mostly focused on the natural sciences. Inclusion of human dimensions into integrated ecosystem assessments has been lagging, but is fundamental. Here we report on a Symposium, and the articles emmanating from it that are included in this Theme Set, that address how to more effectively include human dimensions into integrated ecosystem assessments. We provide an introduction to each of the main symposium topics (governance, scenarios, indicators, participatory processes, and case studies), highlight the works that emerged from the symposium, and identify key areas in which more work is required. There is still a long way to go before we see end-to-end integrated ecosystem assessments inclusive of all the major current and potential ocean use sectors that also encompass multiple aspects of human dimensions. Nonetheless, it is also clear that progress is being made and we are developing tools and approaches, including the human dimension, that can inform management and position us to take advantage of the multi-sectoral opportunities of sustainable blue growth.
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Community vulnerability is increasingly evaluated through quantitative social indices, typically developed using secondary data sources rather than primary data collection. It is necessary to understand the validity of these indices if they will be used to inform policy and decision making. This paper presents a ground-truthing effort to validate quantitative indices that characterize the well-being of Alaska fishing communities. We utilized ethnographic data collected from 13 representative communities and a capital assets framework to ground-truth the indices, in which qualitative ranks of vulnerability were compared against quantitative indices. The majority (73.8%) of ranks were in complete or moderate agreement and the results indicate that most of the indices are representative of community vulnerability; yet some variables utilized to create the indices could be modified to better reflect realities in Alaska. Indices of commercial fishery engagement and reliance appeared to be more reliable than socio-economic indicators, particularly for smaller fishing communities. We also confirmed that the indices do not capture political, or ecological factors that affect levels of community vulnerability. We conclude that quantitative indices of community vulnerability are useful rapid assessment tools; however, they should be validated, and complemented with ethnographic data prior to their implementation as policy making and management tools.
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The North Slope of Alaska contains arctic fish populations that are important for subsistence of local human populations, and are under threat from natural resource extraction and climate change. We designed and evaluated four quantitative PCR assays for the detection of environmental DNA from five Alaskan fish species present on the North Slope of Alaska: burbot (Lota lota), arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma), arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus), and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus). All assays were designed and tested for species specificity and sensitivity, and all assays detected target species from filtered water samples collected from the field. These assays will enable efficient and economical detection and monitoring of these species in lakes and rivers. This in turn will provide managers with improved knowledge of current distributions and future range shifts associated with climate and development threats, enabling more timely management.
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The World Ocean presents many opportunities, with the blue economy projected to at least double in the next two decades. However, capitalizing on these opportunities presents significant challenges and a multi-sectoral, integrated approach to managing marine socio-ecological systems will be required to achieve the full benefits projected for the blue economy. Integrated ecosystem assessments have been identified as the best means of delivering the information upon which marine resource management decisions can be made. By their nature, these assessments are inter-disciplinary, but to date have mostly focused on the natural sciences. Inclusion of human dimensions into integrated ecosystem assessments has been lagging, but is fundamental. Here we report on a Symposium, and the articles emmanating from it that are included in this Theme Set, that address how to more effectively include human dimensions into integrated ecosystem assessments. We provide an introduction to each of the main symposium topics (governance, scenarios, indicators, participatory processes, and case studies), highlight the works that emerged from the symposium, and identify key areas in which more work is required. There is still a long way to go before we see end-to-end integrated ecosystem assessments inclusive of all the major current and potential ocean use sectors that also encompass multiple aspects of human dimensions. Nonetheless, it is also clear that progress is being made and we are developing tools and approaches, including the human dimension, that can inform management and position us to take advantage of the multi-sectoral opportunities of sustainable blue growth.
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The concept of adaptive capacity has received significant attention within social-ecological and environmental change research. Within both the resilience and vulnerability literatures specifically, adaptive capacity has emerged as a fundamental concept for assessing the ability of social-ecological systems to adapt to environmental change. Although methods and indicators used to evaluate adaptive capacity are broad, the focus of existing scholarship has predominately been at the individual- and household- levels. However, the capacities necessary for humans to adapt to global environmental change are often a function of individual and societal characteristics, as well as cumulative and emergent capacities across communities and jurisdictions. In this paper, we apply a systematic literature review and co-citation analysis to investigate empirical research on adaptive capacity that focus on societal levels beyond the household. Our review demonstrates that assessments of adaptive capacity at higher societal levels are increasing in frequency, yet vary widely in approach, framing, and results; analyses focus on adaptive capacity at many different levels (e.g., community, municipality, global region), geographic locations, and cover multiple types of disturbances and their impacts across sectors. We also found that there are considerable challenges with regard to the `fit' between data collected and analytical methods used in adequately capturing the cross-scale and cross-level determinants of adaptive capacity. Current approaches to assessing adaptive capacity at societal levels beyond the household tend to simply aggregate individual- or household-level data, which we argue oversimplifies and ignores the inherent interactions within and across societal levels of decision-making that shape the capacity of humans to adapt to environmental change across multiple scales. In order for future adaptive capacity research to be more practice-oriented and effectively guide policy, there is a need to develop indicators and assessments that are matched with the levels of potential policy applications.
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The climate-driven redistribution of fisheries species is altering their availability to fishers, necessitating projections of species redistributions that directly relate to future fishing opportunities. We propose that a valuable proxy for fishing opportunity is the proportion of the year that target species are available to fishers, which can be approximated by the temporal persistence of suitable habitat in defined regions. Here, we quantify changes in temporal habitat persistence (months/year) within five eastern Australian bioregions over the period 2010–2060 for four coastal-pelagic fishes: bonito (Sarda australis), spotted mackerel (Scomberomorus munroi), Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) and dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus). When species were analysed collectively, a significant reduction in the temporal persistence of suitable environmental habitats was evident in the most equatorward (i.e. Tweed-Moreton) bioregion, while significant positive increases were found for poleward bioregions (e.g. Batemans and Twofold Shelf bioregions). The greatest increases in temporal habitat persistence were projected for bonito in the Batemans Shelf bioregion and Spanish mackerel in the Hawkesbury Shelf bioregion (+2.2 and + 1.5 months/year between 10-year averages centered on 2020 and 2050, respectively). By demonstrating temporal habitat persistence as a measure of fishing opportunity, we highlight the potential for this metric to be an effective means of communicating to fishing stakeholders the need to adapt to climate change.
Book
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How does culture interact with the way societies understand, live with and act in relation to climate change? While the importance of the exchanges between culture, society and climate in the context of global environmental change is increasingly recognised, the empirical evidence is fragmented and too often constrained by disciplinary boundaries. Written by an international team of experts, this book provides cutting-edge and critical perspectives on how culture both facilitates and inhibits our ability to address and make sense of climate change and the challenges it poses to societies globally. Through a set of case studies spanning the social sciences and humanities, it explores the role of culture in relation to climate and its changes at different temporal and spatial levels; illustrates how approaching climate change through the cultural dimension enriches the range and depth of societal engagements; and establishes connections between theory and practice, which can stimulate action-oriented initiatives.
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Se caracteriza la distribución de la tierra en el Caquetá y sus municipios aproximándose a la incidencia de concentración y fraccionamiento. Con un método mixto secuencial explicativo se analizan los componentes de la estructura agraria (EA) y la distribución predial por tamaño e indicadores, y se proponen agrupamientos supramunicipales. Se concluye que la EA departamental es bimodal con predominio de la mediana propiedad caracterizada por la historia de adjudicación de baldíos y la capacidad productiva de la tierra. Formas de ocupación y tenencia como las invasiones urbanas, deforestación y propietarios ausentes, deben considerarse en el modelo de ordenamiento departamental.
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Para enfrentar la situación el Gobierno mexicano está construyendo un Plan Estratégico de Cambio Climático para el Sector Agroalimentario, el cual en el caso de la pesca y acuacultura busca impulsar el manejo sustentable de los stocks y promover el aumento en la producción pesquera y acuícola, satisfaciendo así la demanda nacional e internacional de productos acuáticos. En buena medida, el éxito de las acciones dependerá de la capacidad con la que cuente México para lograr la adaptación eficiente de los residentes de la zona costera al cambio climático, y entre las necesidades más inmediatas esta reconocer el grado de vulnerabilidad que presentan las personas, y prever la posible respuesta de los recursos pesqueros y acuícolas a los cambios esperados en las condiciones oceanográficas. El presente estudio va en esa dirección y está generando información base que ayudará a definir los criterios para la priorización y toma de decisiones, que impulsen el buen desempeño de la pesca y la acuacultura en el contexto del cambio climático.
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The U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) encompasses approximately 3.4 million square nautical miles of ocean and a coastline of over 12,300 miles. Along with the Great Lakes, this vast area generates ~US 370 billion of U.S. gross domestic product, 617 billion in sales and 2.6 million jobs each year. These ocean and coastal ecosystems also provide many important non-market services including subsistence food provisioning, health benefits, shoreline protection, climate regulation, conservation of marine biodiversity, and preservation of cultural heritage. As climatic changes occur, these benefits or ecosystem services may be significantly reduced or in some cases enhanced. These services are also under an array of pressures including over-exploitation of natural resources, pollution, and land use changes that occur simultaneously in synergistic, multiplicative, or antagonistic ways. This results in direct and indirect impacts that are often unpredictable across spatial and temporal scales. Here, we discuss a set of indicators designed in close collaboration with the U.S. National Climate Indicators System. Tracking the impacts via indicators will be essential to ensure long-term health of the marine environment and sustain the benefits to stakeholders who depend on marine ecosystem services.
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Ocean governance is complex and influenced by multiple drivers and actors with different worldviews and goals. While governance encompasses many elements, in this paper we focus on the processes that operate within and between states, civil society and local communities, and the market, including industry. Specifically, in this paper, we address the question of how to move towards more sustainable ocean governance aligning with the sustainable development goals (SDGs) and the UN Ocean Decade. We address three major risks to oceans that arise from governance-related issues: (1) the impacts of the overexploitation of marine resources; (2) inequitable distribution of access to and benefits from marine ecosystem services, and (3) inadequate or inappropriate adaptation to changing ocean conditions. The SDGs have been used as an underlying framework to develop these risks. We identify five drivers that may determine how ocean governance evolves, namely formal rules and institutions, evidence and knowledge-based decision-making, legitimacy of decision-making institutions, stakeholder engagement and participation, and empowering communities. These drivers were used to define two alternative futures by 2030: (a) 'Business as Usual'-a continuation of current trajectories and (b) 'More Sustainable Future'-optimistic, transformational, but technically achievable. We then identify what actions, as structured processes, can reduce the three major governance-related risks and lead to the More Sustainable Future. These actions relate to the process of co-creation and implementation of improved, comprehensive, and integrated management plans, enhancement of decision-making processes, and better anticipation and consideration of ambiguity and uncertainty. Supplementary information: The online version of this article (10.1007/s11160-020-09631-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Technical Report
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As United States fisheries managers develop and modify fisheries management plans that set catch limits for the Nation’s commercially important fish stocks, the importance of including and weighing the social impacts associated with changes in management has gained increasing attention. In recognition of the potential for social impacts, social impact assessments have been made a requirement of the overall environmental impact assessment process under the National Environmental Policy Act. To date, there has not been a standardized way of conducting and presenting a fisheries social impact assessment (SIA). In addition, there is a need for a template that incorporates existing data streams and identifies potential new sources of information while being applicable to a wide range of fisheries management decisions. The objective of this Handbook is to provide technical advice for NOAA Fisheries and fishery management councils to streamline the SIA process while fully capturing relevant social impacts. The Handbook provides a primer on SIA in fisheries, the purpose of an SIA, key elements that should be included in SIAs, and common types of social impacts associated with particular management measures. It also reviews the legal requirements for conducting SIAs and provides a set of best practices and analytical tools for conducting SIAs. In addition, it describes the relationship of this Handbook to NMFS Guidance for Social Impact Assessment.
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Using a coast-wide survey of West Coast fishing vessel owners, we examine ties between community-level measures and individual resident fishers' responses about their dependence on fishing and their fishery-related social capital and identity. We find higher levels of fishing social capital and identity in communities with high fishing reliance, meaning higher levels of fishing activity per capita, but not in communities with high levels of fishing engagement, which measures fishing without regard to population. We also find that responses to questions aimed at measuring social capital, including familial connections to fishing, were associated with higher fishing reliance in fishers’ communities of residence. Higher social vulnerability measures for the community are correlated with higher measures of fishery-related social capital, as well as higher individual reliance on fishing income. Community median household incomes are also correlated with higher reported incomes for fishers. Lastly, fishers from communities with high fishery reliance and engagement measures tend to generate a lower proportion of their income from non-fishery sources and a greater percent of their income from fishing. We find evidence to support some community-level measures as representative of the socioeconomic realities and ties to fishing among resident fishers.
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We review recent trends and projected future physical and chemical changes under climate change in transition zones between Arctic and Subarctic regions with a focus on the two major inflow gateways to the Arctic, one in the Pacific (i.e. Bering Sea, Bering Strait, and the Chukchi Sea) and the other in the Atlantic (i.e. Fram Strait and the Barents Sea). Sea-ice coverage in the gateways has been disappearing during the last few decades. Projected higher air and sea temperatures in these gateways in the future will further reduce sea ice, and cause its later formation and earlier retreat. An intensification of the hydrological cycle will result in less snow, more rain, and increased river runoff. Ocean temperatures are projected to increase, leading to higher heat fluxes through the gateways. Increased upwelling at the Arctic continental shelf is expected as sea ice retreats. The pH of the water will decline as more atmospheric CO2 is absorbed. Long-term surface nutrient levels in the gateways will likely decrease due to increased stratification and reduced vertical mixing. Some effects of these environmental changes on humans in Arctic coastal communities are also presented.
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Extreme climate events are becoming more frequent and severe due to climate change. Vulnerability to extremes is the result of three components: exposure to hazards, sensitivity of the system, and capacity to adapt. A large-scale qualitative study of rural vulnerability to climate extremes in Argentina, Canada, and Colombia demonstrates the political-economic root causes of vulnerability in each context. Structural causes are difficult to identify using quantitative indices and deductive metrics alone, but qualitative approaches can help identify key drivers of vulnerability at a deeper level. Technology and diversification are insufficient to address such structural or “deep” vulnerability.
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A defining societal challenge in the era of climate change is ensuring consumption adequacy in subsistence communities. To understand the intricacies of this challenge, we have conducted an ethnographic study of a low-income community that relies on subsistence fishing to maintain consumption adequacy. Based on our data analysis, we advance a conceptualization of subsistence livelihood systems that models the tight coupling among its three constituent subsystems: the market system, the social system, and the environmental system. These three subsystems are highly interdependent and operate in concert to maintain consumption adequacy. We then show how climate change-induced environmental disruptions threaten consumption adequacy by disequilibrating livelihood systems in subsistence settings, as well as unpack the self-directed adaptation and mitigation strategies employed by the community in response to the threat of consumption inadequacy. These response strategies create feedback loops to either preserve or attenuate the tight coupling among the three subsystems.
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Climate change is already impacting coastal communities, and ongoing and future shifts in fisheries species productivity from climate change have implications for the livelihoods and cultures of coastal communities. Harvested marine species in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem support U.S. West Coast communities economically, socially, and culturally. Ecological vulnerability assessments exist for individual species in the California Current but ecological and human vulnerability are linked and vulnerability is expected to vary by community. Here, we present automatable, reproducible methods for assessing the vulnerability of U.S. West Coast fishing dependent communities to climate change within a social-ecological vulnerability framework. We first assessed the ecological risk of marine resources, on which fishing communities rely, to 50 years of climate change projections. We then combined this with the adaptive capacity of fishing communities, based on social indicators, to assess the potential ability of communities to cope with future changes. Specific communities (particularly in Washington state) were determined to be at risk to climate change mainly due to economic reliance on at risk marine fisheries species, like salmon, hake, or sea urchins. But, due to higher social adaptive capacity, these communities were often not found to be the most vulnerable overall. Conversely, certain communities that were not the most at risk, ecologically and economically, ranked in the category of highly vulnerable communities due to low adaptive capacity based on social indicators (particularly in Southern California). Certain communities were both ecologically at risk due to catch composition and socially vulnerable (low adaptive capacity) leading to the highest tier of vulnerability. The integration of climatic, ecological, economic, and societal data reveals that factors underlying vulnerability are variable across fishing communities on the U.S West Coast, and suggests the need to develop a variety of well-aligned strategies to adapt to the ecological impacts of climate change.
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Climate change is altering ecological systems throughout the world. Managing these systems in a way that ignores climate change will likely fail to meet management objectives. The uncertainty in projected climate change impacts is one of the greatest challenges facing managers attempting to address global change. In order to select successful management strategies, managers need to understand the uncertainty inherent in projected climate impacts and how these uncertainties affect the outcomes of management activities. Perhaps the most important tool for managing ecological systems in the face of climate change is active adaptive management, in which systems are closely monitored and management strategies are altered to address expected and ongoing changes. Here, we discuss the uncertainty inherent in different types of data on potential climate impacts and explore climate projections and potential management responses at three sites in North America. The Central Valley of California, the headwaters of the Klamath River in Oregon, and the barrier islands and sounds of North Carolina each face a different set of challenges with respect to climate change. Using these three sites, we provide specific examples of how managers are already beginning to address the threat of climate change in the face of varying levels of uncertainty.
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This paper compares two case studies in Alaska, one on commercial fishers of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands region and the other on moose hunters of Interior Alaska, to identify how governance arrangements and management strategies enhance or limit people's ability to respond effectively to changing climatic and environmental conditions. The two groups face similar challenges regarding the impacts of a changing climate on wild fish and game, but they tell very different stories regarding how and under what conditions these impacts challenge their harvest activities. In both regions, people describe dramatic changes in weather, land, and seascape conditions, and distributions of fish and game. A key finding is that the "command-and-control" model of governance in the Alaska Interior, as implemented through state and federal management tools such as registration hunts and short open seasons, limits effective local responses to environmental conditions, while the more decentralized model of governance created by the Limited Access Privilege systems of the Bering Sea allows fishers great flexibility to respond. We discuss ways to implement aspects of a decentralized decision-making model in the Interior that would benefit hunters by increasing their adaptability and success, while also improving conservation outcomes. Our findings also demonstrate the usefulness of the diagnostic framework employed here for facilitating comparative crossregional analyses of natural resource use and management.
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Mundy, P. R., and Evenson, D. F. 2011. Environmental controls of phenology of high-latitude Chinook salmon populations of the Yukon River, North America, with application to fishery management. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 68: 1155–1164. Phenologies of a number of anadromous fish species have been demonstrated to vary in concert with environmental factors that change with global warming, such as water and air temperatures. Anadromous fishery managers will need advice from models of phenology, or migratory timing, as functions of environmental factors in those harvest areas where annual migratory timing can vary sharply. Such models are also necessary to advise fishery managers on how and when global warming projections of the IPCC model ensemble should be factored into regulatory decisions. Specifically, we demonstrate that the annual timing of marine exit of Yukon River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at 63°N 165°W for 1961–2009 varied in close concert with modelled sea surface temperature, air temperature, and sea ice cover. The best linear model for 1961–2009 combines sea surface and air temperatures to explain 59% of the annual variability in migratory timing (ice cover is available only for 1970–2009). Changes in phenology of high-latitude Chinook salmon are expected in response to global warming. As average temperatures increase, the frequency of earlier migrations is expected to increase, making management of the fishery more challenging.
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The winter fishing season for eastern Bering Sea pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) is during the period of maximum seasonal sea-ice extent, but harvesters avoid fishing in ice-covered waters. Global climate models predict a 40% reduction in winter ice cover by 2050, with potential implications for the costs incurred by vessels travelling to and around their fishing grounds and the value of their catch. Additionally, it may open entirely new areas to fishing. Using retrospective data from 1999 to 2009, a period of extensive annual climate variation, the variation in important characteristics of the fishery is analysed. When ice is present, it restricts a portion of the fishing grounds, but in general, ice-restricted areas have lower expected profits at the time of restriction than the areas left open. Some areas show a change in effort in warm years relative to cold, but the global redistribution of effort attributable to ice cover is small. This is largely because the winter fishery is driven by the pursuit of roe-bearing fish whose spawning location is stable in the southern part of the fishing grounds.
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Climatological observations are available for Fairbanks, Interior Alaska, for up to 100 years. This is a unique data set for Alaska, insofar as it is of relatively high quality and without major breaks. Applying the best linear fit, we conclude that the mean annual temperature rose from -3.6°C to -2.2°C over the century, an increase of 1.4°C (compared to 0.8°C worldwide). This comparison clearly demonstrates the well-known amplification or temperature change for the polar regions. The observed temperature increase is neither uniform over the time period nor uniform throughout the course of a year. The winter, spring, and summer seasons showed a temperature increase, while autumn showed a slight decrease in temperature. For many activities, the frequencies of extremes are more important than the average values. For example, the frequency of very low temperatures (below -40°C, or -40°F) has decreased substantially, while the frequency of very high temperatures (above 26.7°C, or 80°F) increased only slightly. Finally, the length of the growing season increased substantially (by 45%) as a result of an earlier start in spring and a later first frost in autumn. Precipitation decreased for Fairbanks. This is a somewhat counter-intuitive result, as warmer air can hold more water vapor. The date of the establishment of the permanent snow cover in autumn showed little change; however, the melting of the snow cover now occurs earlier in the spring, a finding in agreement with the seasonal temperature trends. The records for wind, atmospheric pressure, humidity, and cloudiness are shorter, more broken, or of lower quality. The observed increase in cloudiness and the decreasing trend for atmospheric pressure in winter are related to more advection and warmer temperatures during this season.
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Haynie, A. C., and Pfeiffer, L. 2012. Why economics matters for understanding the effects of climate change on fisheries. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69: . Research attempting to predict the effect of climate change on fisheries often neglects to consider how harvesters respond to changing economic, institutional, and environmental conditions, which leads to the overly simplistic prediction of “fisheries follow fish”. However, climate effects on fisheries can be complex because they arise through physical, biological, and economic mechanisms that interact or may not be well understood. Although most researchers find it obvious to include physical and biological factors in predicting the effects of climate change on fisheries, the behaviour of fish harvesters also matters for these predictions. A general but succinct conceptual framework for investigating the effects of climate change on fisheries that incorporates the biological and economic factors that determine how fisheries operate is presented. The use of this framework will result in more complete, reliable, and relevant investigations of the effects of climate change on fisheries. The uncertainty surrounding long-term projections, however, is inherent in the complexity of the system.
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