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Abstract

We review research on the neural efficiency hypothesis of intelligence, stating that brighter individuals display lower (more efficient) brain activation while performing cognitive tasks [Haier, R.J., Siegel, B.V., Nuechterlein, K.H., Hazlett, E., Wu, J.C., Paek, J., Browning, H.L., Buchsbaum, M.S., 1988. Cortical glucose metabolic rate correlates of abstract reasoning and attention studied with positron emission tomography. Intelligence 12, 199-217]. While most early studies confirmed this hypothesis later research has revealed contradictory evidence or has identified some moderating variables like sex, task type, task complexity or brain area. Neuroscientific training studies suggest that neural efficiency also seems to be a function of the amount and quality of learning. From integrating this evidence we conclude that neural efficiency might arise when individuals are confronted with tasks of (subjectively) low to moderate task difficulty and it is mainly observable for frontal brain areas. This is true for easier novel cognitive tasks or after sufficient practice allowing participants to develop appropriate (efficient) strategies to deal with the task. In very complex tasks more able individuals seem to invest more cortical resources resulting in positive correlations between brain usage and cognitive ability. Based on the reviewed evidence we propose future empirical approaches in this field.

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... Formally, QE is defined as "the final fixation or tracking gaze that is located on a specific location or object in the task environment within 3 • of visual angle (or less) for a minimum of 100 ms" (Vickers, 2016, p. 119). In a comprehensive review of intelligence and the NEH, " Neubauer and Fink (2009) reported 29 studies in support of the hypothesis, while 18 provided mixed support and nine had contradictory results" (Vickers and Williams, 2017, p. 5). According to Neubauer and Fink (2009), a possible reason for the contradictory results is the variability in task difficulty across the studies they reviewed. ...
... In a comprehensive review of intelligence and the NEH, " Neubauer and Fink (2009) reported 29 studies in support of the hypothesis, while 18 provided mixed support and nine had contradictory results" (Vickers and Williams, 2017, p. 5). According to Neubauer and Fink (2009), a possible reason for the contradictory results is the variability in task difficulty across the studies they reviewed. That is, some studies incorporated tasks that may not have been demanding enough to find support for the NEH. ...
... . . . In addition, Neubauer and Fink (2009) concluded that the neural efficiency was mostly observed for low-to-moderately difficult tasks and in the frontal lobe of the brain. However, for moderate-to-complex tasks, individuals utilized more cortical resources, leading to the result of positive correlations between brain operation and cognitive ability (Gevins and Smith, 2000;Neubauer et al., 2004;Papousek and Schulter, 2004). ...
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[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2021.698555.].
... The Neural Efficiency hypothesis (Neubauer & Fink, 2009) also requires specific consideration when asking the question about intelligence-relevant processes. The basis for this theory was formed by early neurobiological studies, which used positron emission tomography (PET) and electroencephalography (EEG) and revealed lower brain activation in more intelligent individuals' brains during performing cognitive tasks (PET: Haier et al., 1988; EEG: e.g., Grabner et al., 2004;Jausovec & Jausovec, 2000). ...
... In contrast, most following fMRI studies reported a positive association between intelligence and brain activation. Those studies together with a large amount of EEG investigations contributed finally to the specification of the Neural Efficiency hypothesis and the identification of significant moderator variables (e.g., gender, task difficulty; Neubauer & Fink, 2009). ...
... A similar picture emerges against the background of the Neural Efficiency hypothesis. However, at least some possible interactions between task content and gender have been discussed (Neubauer & Fink, 2009): A negative correlation between brain activity and intelligence emerged for men especially when the task included figural-spatial content, whereas for women the use of linguistic content promoted neural efficiency . Last but not least, functional connectivity studies support the relevance of global 14 process-related network characteristics (e.g., robustness: Santarnecchi et al., 2016;dynamics: Hilger et al., 2020a) rather than the relevance of specific content-related communication pathways. ...
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Human intelligence represents one of the most investigated and validated constructs in psychological research. The validity of intelligence tests is, however, regularly questioned, especially when it comes to cross-cultural research. Although various alternatives and further developments of intelligence assessments have been proposed (e.g., culture-fair tests), there are still many fundamental measurement issues in cross-cultural research in need for a solution. The present article addresses this topic from the perspective of cognitive psychology and neuroscience to propose a process-oriented and biologically-inspired approach of intelligence assessment as a potential solution. We demonstrate the importance of elementary cognitive processes (e.g., working memory capacity, attention, information processing speed) underlying individual differences in intelligence and emphasize that the distinction between contents and processes plays a central role in the assessment of intelligence. From a cognitive and neuropsychological perspective, it can be assumed that especially processes lend themselves to cross-cultural comparison research, whereas contents should be understood as being rather culturally specific. We discuss three different approaches to improve the comparability of intelligence assessments across different cultures and argue that future intelligence research should combine knowledge from different scientific disciplines to identify such intelligence-relevant cognitive processes. Finally, we evaluate the potential of a process-oriented and biologically inspired intelligence assessment against the background of its current possibilities and its challenges.
... This decrease, referred to as event-related desynchronization (ERD; Pfurtscheller & Aranibar, 1977), is suggested to reflect increasing cortical activation (Neuper & Pfurtscheller, 2001) or the release from inhibition (Klimesch, 2012). In line with the neural efficiency hypothesis of intelligence (Neubauer & Fink, 2009), multiple studies observed a negative association between intelligence and ERD (see Neubauer & Fink, 2009, for an overview), and interpreted this as support for the assumption that more intelligent individuals show less task-evoked cortical activation than less intelligent ones when performing the same task with the same or even more success. In their overview, Neubauer and Fink (2009) identified a couple of moderating influences on this association (task demands, brain regions, sex, and learning effects). ...
... This decrease, referred to as event-related desynchronization (ERD; Pfurtscheller & Aranibar, 1977), is suggested to reflect increasing cortical activation (Neuper & Pfurtscheller, 2001) or the release from inhibition (Klimesch, 2012). In line with the neural efficiency hypothesis of intelligence (Neubauer & Fink, 2009), multiple studies observed a negative association between intelligence and ERD (see Neubauer & Fink, 2009, for an overview), and interpreted this as support for the assumption that more intelligent individuals show less task-evoked cortical activation than less intelligent ones when performing the same task with the same or even more success. In their overview, Neubauer and Fink (2009) identified a couple of moderating influences on this association (task demands, brain regions, sex, and learning effects). ...
... In line with the neural efficiency hypothesis of intelligence (Neubauer & Fink, 2009), multiple studies observed a negative association between intelligence and ERD (see Neubauer & Fink, 2009, for an overview), and interpreted this as support for the assumption that more intelligent individuals show less task-evoked cortical activation than less intelligent ones when performing the same task with the same or even more success. In their overview, Neubauer and Fink (2009) identified a couple of moderating influences on this association (task demands, brain regions, sex, and learning effects). For example, the negative relationship between intelligence and ERD was primarily found for tasks with moderate task demands (see also Nussbaumer, Grabner, & Stern, 2015). ...
Article
The scientific study of the biological basis of intelligence has been contributing to our understanding of individual differences in cognitive abilities for decades. In particular, the ongoing development of electrophysiological, neuroimaging, and genetic methods has created new opportunities to gain insights into pressing questions, allowing the field to come closer towards a comprehensive theory that explains how genotypes exert their influence on human intelligence through intermediate biological and cognitive endophenotypes. The aim of this article is to provide a focused overview of empirical benchmark findings on biological correlates of intelligence. Specifically, we summarize benchmark findings from electrophysiological, neuroimaging, and genetic research. Moreover, we discuss four open questions: (1) The robustness of research findings; (2) the relation between neural parameters and cognitive processes; (3) promising methodological developments; and (4) theory development. The aim of this paper is to assemble the most important and robust findings on the biological basis of intelligence to stimulate future research and to contribute to theory development.
... In the creative idea generation stage, the participants were asked to perform two types of tasks: (1) a generation of original ideas task and (2) a control generation of characteristics task (6 items each). The generation of original ideas task was adapted from the classic divergent thinking test, the alternative uses task, and the generation of characteristics task, which is also a typical control task of describing attributes of conventional objects used in creativity neuroimaging research (Fink & Benedek, 2014;Fink et al., 2007;Fink et al., 2010;Fink et al., 2009). The specific procedure was as follows (see Figure 1): a fixation point (20 s) was first presented, followed by an affective picture (6 s) and a signal stating 'speak out original uses for the object' (3 s). ...
... According to neurological efficacy theory, neural efficiency could distribute energy resources to complete creative thinking tasks (Neubauer & Fink, 2009). When the task difficulty is moderate or low, neurological efficacy (lower activation in the relevant brain areas) might arise (Mart ın-Loeches et al., 2001;Neubauer & Fink, 2009). ...
... According to neurological efficacy theory, neural efficiency could distribute energy resources to complete creative thinking tasks (Neubauer & Fink, 2009). When the task difficulty is moderate or low, neurological efficacy (lower activation in the relevant brain areas) might arise (Mart ın-Loeches et al., 2001;Neubauer & Fink, 2009). In the present study, the results of selfreported difficulty revealed that the generation of original ideas task/generation of characteristics task/evaluation of originality task/evaluation of characteristics task difficulties were subjectively moderate. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to explain previous inconsistent results regarding the effects of positive affect on creative cognition based on the motivational dimensional model of affect theory and provide the underlying neural correlates of the effects of different approach-motivation intensities of positive affect on creative processes (creative idea generation and creative idea evaluation) using the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) technique. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to three groups (high-approach-motivated positive affect (HAM), low-approach-motivated positive affect (LAM) and affectively neutral state (NS)) to complete corresponding tasks in creative idea generation and creative idea evaluation stages. In the creative idea generation stage, the results indicated that the LAM group achieved a higher performance in flexibility and originality than the NS group. However, compared with the NS group, the LAM group exhibited a lower sensitivity in the creative idea evaluation stage. The fNIRS technique provides an ideal approach with high ecological validity for exploring the issue of affect and creativity. In current study, fNIRS results showed that the HAM group exhibited significantly more activation in the bilateral frontal lobe than the LAM group and NS group in the creative idea generation stage. This result could reflect individuals attempting to overcome a narrowed attentional scope state through the activation of bilateral frontal cortical resources in the creative process. In the creative idea evaluation stage, compared with the NS group, the LAM group showed significant deactivation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which is a brain area associated with executive, controlled processing. Moreover, the approach-motivation intensity altered the connectivity between the left prefrontal cortex and left superior temporal gyrus in the creative idea generation stage. Thus, the influences of positive affect on creative cognitive processes (both creative performance and hemodynamic responses) were modulated by the approach-motivation intensity in the creative idea generation and creative idea evaluation stages.
... Some studies showed that people with high intelligence demonstrate lower ERD when performing a task [11,54,55]. The Neural Efficiency hypothesis proposes that participants with higher intelligence are more efficient and thus can complete a task with less resources [56]. However, other studies observe the opposite effect, showing that ERD is increased in individuals with high intelligence when performing a task [57][58][59]. ...
... Differences in parietal cortex activation (expressed in both ERD; [57] and in blood oxygenated level-dependent signal [55,60]) for individuals who scored high and low on intelligence tests are proposed to vary by difficulty level. Specifically, the neural efficiency effect is observed in easy tasks, whereas for difficult tasks that require higher cognitive effort, the opposite effect is observed [56]. ...
... Since subjective task difficulty was analyzed, it was suggested that the effect was driven by an individual's reaction to subjective difficulty rather than by difficulty level. The authors suggested that this dependency should be explained by the level of motivation to perform difficult tasks, which differs between high-performing and control participants [56,61]. This assumption is also consistent with findings showing a trend towards a decrease in cortical activation at the most difficult levels for less intelligent participants [57], which is unlikely to be explained by the achieved ceiling effect. ...
Article
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Cognitive effort is intrinsically linked to task difficulty, intelligence, and mental toughness. Intelligence reflects an individual’s cognitive aptitude, whereas mental toughness (MT) reflects an individual’s resilience in pursuing success. Research shows that parietal alpha oscillations are associated with changes in task difficulty. Critically, it remains unclear whether parietal alpha oscillations are modulated by intelligence and MT as a personality trait. We examined event-related (de)synchronization (ERD/ERS) of alpha oscillations associated with encoding, retention, and recognition in the Sternberg task in relation to intelligence and mental toughness. Eighty participants completed the Sternberg task with 3, 4, 5 and 6 digits, Raven Standard Progressive Matrices test and an MT questionnaire. A positive dependence on difficulty was observed for all studied oscillatory effects (t = −8.497, p < 0.001; t = 2.806, p < 0.005; t = −2.103, p < 0.05). The influence of Raven intelligence was observed for encoding-related alpha ERD (t = −2.02, p = 0.049). The influence of MT was observed only for difficult conditions in recognition-related alpha ERD (t = −3.282, p < 0.005). Findings indicate that the modulation of alpha rhythm related to encoding, retention and recognition may be interpreted as correlates of cognitive effort modulation. Specifically, results suggest that effort related to encoding depends on intelligence, whereas recognition-related effort level depends on mental toughness.
... These indicators reflect the result of cognitive processing, but cannot effectively describe the process of cognitive processing. Notably, although the participants achieved the same final scores on the flight simulation task, there may be individual differences in the amount of cognitive resources invested (Neubauer & Fink, 2009). The application of eye-tracking technology and eye movement indicator provides beneficial information for the study of cognitive process, and it is highly respected by researchers (Laeng & Sulutvedt, 2014;van de Merwe et al., 2012). ...
... However, for easy tasks, the pupil size of people who perform well are smaller than those who perform poorly. This is because the people who perform well are more efficient in the way they employ resources, and they employ fewer resources to complete the task (Neubauer & Fink, 2009). Although there are inconsistent findings in existing studies, these results reveal that pupil dilation can effectively reflect the EF of individuals, which provides indirect support for pupil dilation as an indicator of flight ability. ...
... Among the flight cadets, the smaller the cognitive loadinduced pupil dilation, the better the flight ability. This finding is consistent with the neural efficiency hypothesis of intelligence (Neubauer & Fink, 2009). This hypothesis suggests that when an individual with high ability is faced with a task of low to moderate difficulty, the neural efficiency is enhanced (lower level of brain activation), that is, individuals successfully complete the task with reduced cognitive effort (Neubauer & Fink, 2009). ...
Article
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Previous studies suggested that the degree of pupil dilation distinguishes between different levels of flight cadets, particularly, in terms of task performance. In other words, pupil dilation is heavily influenced by cognitive load, and, therefore, may reflect flight ability. However, few researches paid attention to this correlation. In this study, we analyzed the eye movement performances of 40 flight cadets and 17 pilots performing a simulated airplane panel task, and assessed the flight ability and executive function (EF) of flight cadets. Based on our analysis, there was a marked negative correlation between cognitive load-induced pupil dilation and flight ability and training success. Moreover, considering the correlation between executive function and flight ability, upon adjustment of EF, pupil dilation still retained a unique predictive effect. Our results revealed that cadets who use less cognitive resources to complete tasks tend to have better flight abilities. Given these evidences, pupil dilation, caused by cognitive load, can serve as a potential indicator for pilot selection.
... Vor dem Hintergrund der Prozessfrage ist zudem die Theorie der Neuronalen Effizienz von Bedeutung (Neubauer & Fink, 2009). Die Basis hierfür bildeten frühe neurobiologische Studien zu Intelligenz, die unter Verwendung der Positron-Emissions-Tomographie (PET) und der Elektroenzephalographie (EEG) eine global geringere Aktivierung des Gehirns von intelligenteren Personen beim Ausführen kognitiver Aufgaben aufzeigten (PET: Haier et al., 1988;EEG: z. ...
... Im Gegensatz dazu beobachteten fMRT-Studien primär einen positiven Zusammenhang zwischen Intelligenz und Gehirnaktivierung und trugen nachfolgend zur Spezifizierung der Neuronalen Effizienzhypothese und zur Identifikation signifikanter Moderatorvariablen bei (z. B. Geschlecht, Aufgabenschwierigkeit; Neubauer & Fink, 2009). Doch auch hier verbietet die starke Heterogenität der verwendeten Aufgaben (und somit der involvierten kognitiven Prozesse) die klare Identifikation des einen kognitiven Prozesses, welcher sich besonders gut dazu eignet, mögliche intelligenzabhängige Unterschiede in neuronaler Aktivität abzubilden. ...
... Zwar umfasst die P-FIT auch frühe perzeptuelle Verarbeitungsstufen inklusive der damit assoziierten visuellen und sprachbezogenen Gehirnregionen (Jung & Haier, 2007), so treten diese jedoch in aktuellen meta-analytischen Arbeiten deutlich in den Hintergrund und weichen einem dominanten Muster von Arealen, welche primär mit höheren Verarbeitungsprozessen assoziiert werden (siehe Basten et al., 2015). Ebenso erlauben die heterogenen Inhalte der in der (revidierten) P-FIT zusammengefassten funktionellen Studien keine klaren Rückschlüsse auf eine Differenzierung zwischen intelligenzre- Ein ähnliches Bild ergibt sich auch vor dem Hintergrund der Theorie der Neuronalen Effizienz, jedoch werden hier mögliche Wechselwirkungen zwischen Aufgabeninhalten und Geschlecht diskutiert (Neubauer & Fink, 2009). Ein negativer Zusammenhang zwischen Gehirnaktivität und Intelligenz trat bei Männern insbesondere dann zum Vorschein, wenn die Aufgabe figural-räumliche Inhalte umfasste, während bei Frauen die Verwendung sprachlicher Inhalte neuronale Effizienz förderte . ...
Article
Die menschliche Intelligenz ist eines der am besten erforschten und validierten Konstrukte innerhalb der Psychologie.Dennoch wird die Validität von Intelligenztests im gruppen- und insbesondere kulturvergleichenden Kontext regelmäßig und berechtigter-weise kritisch hinterfragt. Obwohl verschiedene Alternativen und Weiterentwicklungen der Intelligenzdiagnostik vorgeschlagen wurden (z. B.kulturfaire Tests), sind fundamentale Probleme in der vergleichenden Intelligenzdiagnostik noch immer ungelöst und die Validitäten ent-sprechender Verfahren unklar. In dem vorliegenden Positionspapier wird diese Thematik aus der Perspektive der Kognitionspsychologie undder kognitiven Neurowissenschaften beleuchtet und eine prozessorientierte und biologisch inspirierte Form der Intelligenzdiagnostik alspotentieller Lösungsansatz vorgeschlagen. Wir zeigen die Bedeutung elementarer kognitiver Prozesse auf (insbesondere Arbeitsgedächt-niskapazität, Aufmerksamkeit, Verarbeitungsgeschwindigkeit), die individuellen Leistungsunterschieden zu Grunde liegen, und betonen,dass der Unterscheidung zwischen Inhalten und Prozessen eine zentrale, jedoch oft vernachlässigte Rolle in der Diagnostik allgemeinerkognitiver Leistungsunterschiede zukommt. Während aus kognitions- und neuropsychologischer Sicht davon ausgegangen werden kann,dass sich insbesondereProzessefür interkulturelle Vergleiche eignen, solltenInhalteals stärker kulturspezifisch verstanden werden. Daraufaufbauend diskutieren wir drei verschiedene Ansätze zur Verbesserung interkultureller Vergleichbarkeit der Intelligenzdiagnostik sowiederen Grenzen. Wir postulieren, dass sich die Intelligenzforschung im Austausch mit verschiedenen Disziplinen stärker auf die Identifikationvon generellen kognitiven Prozessen fokussieren sollte und diskutieren das Potenzial zukünftiger Forschung hin zu einer prozessorientiertenund biologisch inspirierten Intelligenzdiagnostik. Schließlich zeigen wir derzeitige Möglichkeiten auf, gehen aber auch auf etwaige Heraus-forderungen ein und beleuchten Implikationen für die zukünftige Intelligenzdiagnostik und -forschung.
... The Neural Efficiency hypothesis (Neubauer & Fink, 2009) also requires specific consideration when asking the question about intelligence-relevant processes. The basis for this theory was formed by early neurobiological studies, which used positron emission tomography (PET) and electroencephalography (EEG) and revealed lower brain activation in more intelligent individuals' brains during performing cognitive tasks (PET: Haier et al., 1988; EEG: e.g., Grabner et al., 2004;Jausovec & Jausovec, 2000). ...
... In contrast, most following fMRI studies reported a positive association between intelligence and brain activation. Those studies together with a large amount of EEG investigations contributed finally to the specification of the Neural Efficiency hypothesis and the identification of significant moderator variables (e.g., gender, task difficulty; Neubauer & Fink, 2009). ...
... A similar picture emerges against the background of the Neural Efficiency hypothesis. However, at least some possible interactions between task content and gender have been discussed (Neubauer & Fink, 2009): A negative correlation between brain activity and intelligence emerged for men especially when the task included figural-spatial content, whereas for women the use of linguistic content promoted neural efficiency . Last but not least, functional connectivity studies support the relevance of global 14 process-related network characteristics (e.g., robustness: Santarnecchi et al., 2016;dynamics: Hilger et al., 2020a) rather than the relevance of specific content-related communication pathways. ...
Article
Full-text available
Human intelligence represents one of the most investigated and validated constructs in psychological research. The validity of intelligence tests is, however, regularly questioned, especially when it comes to cross-cultural research. Although various alternatives and further developments of intelligence assessments have been proposed (e.g., culture-fair tests), there are still many fundamental measurement issues in cross-cultural research in need for a solution. The present article addresses this topic from the perspective of cognitive psychology and neuroscience to propose a process-oriented and biologically-inspired approach of intelligence assessment as a potential solution. We demonstrate the importance of elementary cognitive processes (e.g., working memory capacity, attention, information processing speed) underlying individual differences in intelligence and emphasize that the distinction between contents and processes plays a central role in the assessment of intelligence. From a cognitive and neuropsychological perspective, it can be assumed that especially processes lend themselves to cross-cultural comparison research, whereas contents should be understood as being rather culturally specific. We discuss three different approaches to improve the comparability of intelligence assessments across different cultures and argue that future intelligence research should combine knowledge from different scientific disciplines to identify such intelligence-relevant cognitive processes. Finally, we evaluate the potential of a process-oriented and biologically inspired intelligence assessment against the background of its current possibilities and its challenges.
... Intriguingly, AON activation continues to decrease as familiarity and experience accrue as effects of neural efficiency. The concept of neural efficiency was originally suggested to describe the economy of recruiting frontal brain regions and inter-regional connectivity while performing cognitive tasks in bright versus ordinary individuals (for a review, see Neubauer & Fink, 2009). It is considered to represent more efficient cortical functioning and a strengthening of essential couplings, as well as a pruning of unnecessary couplings based on reduced utilization of resources and improvement in information processing. ...
... These results were partially concordant with the nonlinear model proposed by Gardner et al. (2017) depicting the AON engagement (high-low-high-low) with increasing movement familiarity during action observation and execution though the completely untrained individuals were not tested (see Introduction). Our results further extend this model, while also invoking predictive coding (Kilner et al., 2007a(Kilner et al., , 2007b and neural efficiency (Neubauer & Fink, 2009), to action anticipation associated with varying levels of expertise reflected by a mixture of visual/perceptual familiarity of the observed action and motor familiarity during the response. In other words, the framework of predictive coding is not necessarily constrained to cases where the observed action can be mapped onto one's own motor system based on same motor experience; it can be more flexibly applied to cases where the observed action is familiar based on visual/perceptual experience that is used to interpret and represent the goal of the observed action for one's complementary action. ...
Article
To assess whether the brain processes of action anticipation are modulated differently by perceptual and motor experiences, baseball batters, pitchers, and non-players were asked to predict the fate of pitching actions (strike or ball) while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results showed both batters (perceptual experts of pitching action) and pitchers (motor experts) were more accurate than non-players. Furthermore, batters demonstrated higher perceptual sensitivity in discriminating strikes than non-players. All groups engaged the action observation network, putamen, and cerebellum during anticipation, while pitchers showed higher activity than non-players in the left premotor cortex, which has been implicated in the internal simulation of observed action. Only batters exhibited differences in strike versus ball pitches in their left ventral extrastriate cortex, which might be associated with the processing of relevant visual information conveyed by the observed pitcher’s movement kinematics and pitch trajectory. Moreover, all groups showed higher activity selectively in the striatum, thalamus, sensorimotor cortices, and cerebellum during correct predictions than during incorrect ones, with most widespread activation in batters, reinforcing the greater involvement of the sensorimotor system in perceptual experience. Our findings demonstrate that perceptual experience might enhance action anticipation ability to a greater extent than motor experience, with overlapping but specific neural underpinnings.
... Motor psychologists used the "neural efficiency" hypothesis to explain the result (Babiloni et al., 2010;Li and Smith, 2021). Neural efficiency refers to the phenomenon in which task execution becomes an automatic and neural activity in specific brain regions decreases as skill levels increase (Neubauer and Fink, 2009;Karim et al., 2017). Meanwhile, long-term motor training promoted the formation of internal models in the brain that enabled athletes to perform tasks in a relatively stable and efficient manner (Imamizu et al., 2000). ...
... In contrast, novices performed the same task needing to find usable information and invalid information, which led to more visual information systems being activated to process and analyze information. Therefore, we believed that the primary mechanism for decreased activation in the expert's occipital lobe was that experts had higher neural efficiency, which implied task-specific brain function plus sparing (Neubauer and Fink, 2009;Ludyga et al., 2016). This suggested that visual information processing played a key role in motor decision-making behavior. ...
Article
Full-text available
Decision-making is an advanced cognitive function that promotes information processes in complex motor situations. In recent years, many neuroimaging studies have assessed the effects of long-term motor training on athletes’ brain activity while performing decision-making tasks, but the findings have been inconsistent and a large amount of data has not been quantitatively summarized until now. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the neural mechanism of long-term motor training affecting the decision-making function of athletes by using activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis. Altogether, 10 studies were included and comprised a total of 350 people (168 motor experts and 182 novices, 411 activation foci). The ALE meta-analysis showed that more brain regions were activated for novices including the bilateral occipital lobe, left posterior cerebellar lobe, and left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) in decision-making tasks compared to motor experts. Our results possibly suggested the association between long-term motor training and neural efficiency in athletes, which provided a reference for further understanding the neural mechanisms of motor decision-making.
... De hersenen en intelligentie: hoe efficiënter, hoe hoger de intelligentie Uit onderzoek waarin technieken als EEG, PET-scans en fMRI worden gebruikt om de samenhang tussen de prestaties op intelligentietaken te relateren aan neurale efficiëntie (zie Neubauer & Fink, 2009) komt een tweetal conclusies naar voren. Op de eerste plaats dat intelligentie het resultaat is van een verspreid neuraal netwerk in de hersenen. ...
... Ook zijn het type intelligentietaak dat moet worden uitgevoerd en het geslacht van invloed. Neurale efficiëntie wordt vooral gezien bij het presteren op een redeneertaak waar het fluïde redeneervermogen (on the spot een probleem oplossen) ten opzichte van gekristalliseerde intelligentie werd gemeten, en meer bij mannen dan vrouwen (Neubauer & Fink, 2009 Om dit IQ te kunnen meten is het dus van groot belang dat de verwachte score van vergelijkbare individuen bekend is, dat wil zeggen dat intelligentietests genormeerd moeten worden (zie ook hoofdstuk 4). Het normeren van psychologische tests dient te gebeuren door een representatieve steekproef uit een welomschreven populatie te nemen. ...
Chapter
Intelligentie Het aantal eigenschappen waarop mensen van elkaar verschillen is groot. In dit boek staan tot nu toe vooral persoonlijkheidseigenschappen als extra versie, neuroticisme en dergelijke centraal die een persoon uniek maken. Mensen ver-schillen uiteraard ook op andere eigenschappen. Zo is de een goed in sport en de ander meer vaardig in kunstzinnige uitingen als muziek of schilderen. We weten ook dat sommigen intelligenter zijn dan anderen, beter spreken in het openbaar, beter kunnen rekenen of sneller een probleem kunnen oplossen waarmee ze plots worden geconfronteerd. In dit hoofdstuk staan we stil bij de vraag of de verschillen in intellectuele eigen-schappen verband houden met persoonlijkheidseigenschappen. Er zal eerst stil worden gestaan bij de vraag wat intelligentie is en waarom dit in een boek over persoonlijkheid aan de orde komt. Daarna wordt intelligentie in een historisch perspectief gedefinieerd, om uiteindelijk te komen tot een beschrijving van de huidige visie op intelligentie. Vervolgens wordt aandacht besteed aan de biolo-gische basis van intelligentie, wordt beschreven op welke wijze intelligentie kan worden onderzocht in psychologisch onderzoek en wordt een overzicht gegeven van de meest gebruikte intelligentietests in Nederland. Ten slotte wordt nog specifiek ingezoomd op de intelligentie van een aantal specifieke groepen. 6.1 Wat is intelligentie? Intelligentie is een concept waar heel veel verschillende betekenissen aan worden gegeven. In het dagelijks leven gaan veel mensen ervan uit dat het onderscheid maakt tussen slimme en minder slimme mensen en veronder stellen we dat intelligente mensen beter kunnen leren en meer succes zullen hebben in het uitoefenen van hun beroep. Ook vinden we dat sommige diersoorten intelligent gedrag kunnen vertonen. Zo gebruiken mensapen als bonobo's stokjes als instrument bij het eten van termieten uit een termietenheuvel, en vinden we huisdieren soms slim als zij een balletje in de struiken weten terug te vinden. In televisieseries worden dieren als honden, paarden of dolfijnen als intelli-gente helden afgebeeld. In 1955 wordt de term artificiële intelligentie voor het eerst gebruikt om aan te geven dat ook machines intelligent gedrag kunnen vertonen. Doorgaans worden daar natuurlijk computers mee bedoeld, maar de laatste jaren worden ook relatief eenvoudige huishoudelijke apparaten uitgerust met een chip en functioneren ze in alledaagse communicatie intelligent. Maar
... In adults, studies performed using frequent, short physical activity breaks have been inconsistent, showing positive, negative, and no effects on cerebral blood flow [31][32][33][34] and on cognition [35][36][37][38]. Decreases in cerebral blood flow, with favorable effects on cognitive performance, have been seen in adult populations and suggest a potential neural efficiency adaptation [23,24,39,40]. This suggests that after performing physical activity, efficiency in performing the cognitively demanding task increases so that less resources are required [39]. ...
... Decreases in cerebral blood flow, with favorable effects on cognitive performance, have been seen in adult populations and suggest a potential neural efficiency adaptation [23,24,39,40]. This suggests that after performing physical activity, efficiency in performing the cognitively demanding task increases so that less resources are required [39]. However, it remains unknown if a similar adaptation occurs in adolescents. ...
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Background Physical activity breaks are widely being implemented in school settings as a solution to increase academic performance and reduce sitting time. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms suggested to improve cognitive function from physical activity and the frequency, intensity, and duration of the breaks remain unknown. This study will investigate the effects of frequent, short physical activity breaks during prolonged sitting on task-related prefrontal cerebral blood flow, cognitive performance, and psychological factors. Additionally, the moderating and mediating effects of arterial stiffness on changes in cerebral blood flow will be tested. Methods This is a protocol for a randomized crossover study that will recruit 16 adolescents (13–14 years old). Participants will undergo three different conditions in a randomized order, on three separate days, involving sitting 80 min with a different type of break every 17 min for 3 min. The breaks will consist of (1) seated social breaks, (2) simple resistance activities, and (3) step-up activities. Before and after the 80-min conditions, prefrontal cerebral blood flow changes will be measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (primary outcome), while performing working memory tasks (1-, 2-, and 3-back tests). Arterial stiffness (augmentation index and pulse wave velocity) and psychological factors will also be assessed pre and post the 80-min interventions. Discussion Publication of this protocol will help to increase rigor in science. The results will inform regarding the underlying mechanisms driving the association between physical activity breaks and cognitive performance. This information can be used for designing effective and feasible interventions to be implemented in schools.
... La evidencia más consistente relacionada con la disminución de la VPI en estas pacientes, muestra que principalmente, este enlentecimiento se asocia a componentes centrales de orden superior, como la memoria de trabajo (Seo et al., 2012), los procesos de inhibición (Veldhuijzen et al., 2012), la fluidez verbal (Leavitt & Katz, 2008 o el tiempo de planificación (Reyes del Paso et al., 2012). Además, a pesar de la existencia de un rendimiento conductual eficaz en este tipo de tareas, equiparado en algunas de ellas a participantes sin patología Peláez et al., 2019), se han observado mayores patrones de activación neural en los pacientes con fibromialgia (Fernandes-Magalhaes et al., 2022;, que han sido relacionados con una menor eficiencia y un mayor tiempo de respuesta a la hora de realizar distintas actividades Neubauer et al., 2002). Recientemente, algunos autores han relacionado estos déficits cognitivos, con la sintomatología afectiva característica de las pacientes (Galvez-Sánchez et al., 2018;Mercado et al., 2021). ...
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Growing evidence indicates that cognitive slowness in fibromyalgia patients constitutes one of the main concerns. This slowing, together with the physical and affective symptomatology that characterises them, significantly affects their quality of life. The main objective of the present study was to design and apply a cognitive training program to test its effects on the improvement of speed processing information (SPI) in fibromyalgia, and how this improvement influences other clinical symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia. 22 patients took part of this rehabilitation program. It consisted of 8 sessions including several types of tasks: cancellation, visual search, association and verbal fluency tasks. Before starting the training program, an individualized neuropsychological assessment of the SPI was performed through standardized tests. Additionally, different self-reported clinical questionnaires were applied to assess physical (pain and fatigue) and affective (anxiety, depression, catastrophic thoughts and impact of the disease on instrumental activities) symptomatology. This evaluation was administered again once the program was completed, as well as five months later, as a follow-up. ANOVAs showed a significant improvement in all neuropsychological assessment tests. In addition, both the depressive states and the impact of the disease on the instrumental activities were improved. These effects remained stable after five months. The application of this neuropsychological rehabilitation program has shown to be effective for improving SPI processes in patients with fibromyalgia. Moreover, this improvement of IPV had a direct impact on depressive symptomatology and instrumental activities of daily living, suggesting a strong relationship between cognitive and affective symptoms in the course of the disease.
... In these studies, groups with low performances showed high theta power throughout the experiment, regardless of the level of difficulty. The neural efficiency hypothesis-that is, at equal performance, a higher neural activation is a sign of less efficient neural processing (Neubauer & Fink, 2009)could explain this phenomenon. The hypothesis surmises that a high theta power for low performers in a lowdemand condition reflects a greater recruitment in neural resources and therefore, less efficient neural processing. ...
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Cognitive workload (CWL) is a fundamental concept in the assessment and monitoring of human performance during cognitive tasks. Numerous studies have attempted to objectively and continuously measure the CWL using neuroimaging techniques. Although the electroencephalogram (EEG) is a widely used technique, the impact of CWL on the spectral power of brain frequencies has shown inconsistent results. The present review aimed to synthesize the results of the literature and quantitatively assess which brain frequency is the most sensitive to CWL. A systematic literature search following PRISMA recommendations highlighted three main frequency bands used to measure CWL: theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (8–12 Hz), and beta (12–30 Hz). Three meta‐analyses were conducted to quantitatively examine the effect of CWL on these frequencies. A total of 45 effect sizes from 24 studies involving 723 participants were computed. CWL was associated with significant effects on theta (g = 0.68, CI [0.41, 0.95]), alpha (g = −0.25, CI [−0.45, 0.04]), and beta (g = 0.50, CI [0.21, 0.79]) power. Our results suggests that theta, especially the frontal theta, is the best index of CWL. Alpha and beta power were also significantly impacted by CWL; however, their association seemed less straightforward. These results are critically analyzed considering the literature on cerebral oscillations. We conclude by emphasizing the need to investigate the interaction between CWL and other factors that may influence spectral power (e.g., emotional load), and to combine this measure with other methods of analysis of the central and peripheral nervous system (e.g., functional connectivity, heart rate). Our study provides the first quantitative synthesis of the impact of cognitive workload (CWL) on EEG spectral power. Our meta‐analysis and moderator analysis reveal that the theta frequency of the frontal cortex is the most sensitive index of CWL, while alpha and beta frequencies are also sensitive to increasing load.
... Les interprétations possibles de ces résultats, c'est-à-dire la réduction de l'activité cérébrale après un programme d'entraînement, proviennent souvent des prémisses de la théorie de l'efficacité neuronale (c.-à-d.., neural efficiency theory, Curtin et al., 2019 ;. La théorie de l'efficacité neuronale a été énoncée pour la première fois en 1988 quand (Neubauer & Fink, 2009) et la complexité de la tâche . ...
Thesis
En situations d’écoute multilocuteurs, l’intelligibilité de la parole est souvent dégradée et l’effort d’écoute élevé. La demande supplémentaire de ressources cognitives sollicitées afin de comprendre peut compromettre l’efficacité de certains travailleurs comme les militaires. Par ailleurs les militaires, du fait de leur travail, peuvent avoir des troubles de l’audition dont l’impact sur l’effort d’écoute est mal connu. Dans cette thèse, trois études portant sur l’étude de l'effort d'écoute seront présentées. La première étude a quantifié l’activité cérébrale de jeunes normo-entendants avant et après un entraînement à une tâche d’écoute multilocuteurs. Les locuteurs étaient placés à des différents niveaux d’intensité sonore. Les résultats ont illustré le rôle central du contrôle inhibiteur dans la compréhension d’un locuteur cible et l’efficacité de l’entraînement dans la réduction des ressources cognitives employées présupposant une possible diminution de l’effort d’écoute. La seconde étude, avec des jeunes normo-entendants, a utilisé la séparation spatiale des locuteurs confirmant le rôle du contrôle inhibiteur dans la compréhension en situations multilocuteurs. La troisième étude a été réalisée avec une population de militaires illustrant une diminution de l’effort d’écoute ressenti avec un meilleur contrôle inhibiteur. Ces effets n’étaient pas liés ni à l’état auditif dégradé ni à la motivation investie dans la tâche d’écoute. Ainsi, la séparation spatiale et l’entraînement à l’utilisation des indices de différence d’intensité sonore entre les voix des locuteurs, pourrait permettre une réduction de l’effort d’écoute qui reste à confirmer en situation écologique.
... Hence, working memory is negatively affected or at least requires more attentional resources. Previous results from our group (73)(74)(75) as well as other (76) show that increased demands for intellectual performance in difficult tasks engage neural networks, according to a neural efficiency hypothesis (77). As a result, cognitive activities that differently depend on representations in LTM are negatively affected. ...
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Introduction: Cognitive impairments in epilepsy are not well-understood. In addition, long-term emotional, interpersonal, and social consequences of the underlying disturbances are important to evaluate. Purpose: To compare cognitive function including language in young adults with focal or generalized epilepsy. In addition, quality of life and self-esteem were investigated. Patients and Methods: Young adults with no primary intellectual disability, 17 with focal epilepsy and 11 with generalized epilepsy participated and were compared to 28 healthy controls. Groups were matched on age (mean = 26 years), sex, and education. Participants were administered a battery of neuropsychological tasks and carried out self-ratings of quality of life, self-esteem, and psychological problems. Results: Similar impairments regarding cognitive function were noted in focal and generalized epilepsy. The cognitive domains tested were episodic long-term memory, executive functions, attention, working memory, visuospatial functions, and language. Both epilepsy groups had lower results compared to controls (effect sizes 0.24–1.07). The total number of convulsive seizures was predictive of episodic long-term memory function. Participants with focal epilepsy reported lower quality of life than participants with generalized epilepsy. Lowered self-esteem values were seen in both epilepsy groups and particularly in those with focal epilepsy. Along with measures of cognitive speed and depression, the total number of seizures explained more than 50% of variation in quality of life. Conclusion: Interestingly, similarities rather than differences characterized the widespread cognitive deficits that were seen in focal and generalized epilepsy, ranging from mild to moderate. These similarities were modified by quality of life and self-esteem. This study confirms the notion that epilepsy is a network disorder.
... Evidence from cognitive neuroscience has shown that the frontal cortex is a major hub for storage and executive processes [87]. Individuals are thought to better regulate their working memory resources and exhibit significantly less brain activation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) while performing tasks within their area of expertise [88]. Similarly, dual processing theory suggests that with experience and proficiency, slow, analytical decision-making evolves into less-effortful, intuitive judgements [89]. ...
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Purpose: To map the current literature on functional neuroimaging use in medical education research as a novel measurement modality for neurocognitive engagement, learning, and expertise development. Method: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, ERIC, and Web of Science, and hand- searched reference lists of relevant articles on April 4, 2019, and updated the search on July 7, 2020. Two authors screened the abstracts and then full-text articles for eligibility based on inclusion criteria. The data were then charted, synthesized, and analyzed descriptively. Results: Sixty-seven articles published between 2007 and 2020 were included in this scoping review. These studies used three main neuroimaging modalities: functional magnetic reso- nance imaging, functional near-infrared spectroscopy, and electroencephalography. Most of the publications (90%, n = 60) were from the last 10 years (2011–2020). Although these studies were conducted in 16 countries, 68.7% (n = 46) were from three countries: the USA (n = 21), UK (n = 15), and Canada (n = 10). These studies were mainly non-experimental (74.6%, n = 50). Most used neuroimaging techniques to examine psychomotor skill development (57%, n = 38), but several investigated neurocognitive correlates of clinical reasoning skills (22%, n = 15). Conclusion: This scoping review maps the available literature on functional neuroimaging use in medical education. Despite the heterogeneity in research questions, study designs, and outcome measures, we identified a few common themes. Included studies are encouraging of the potential for neuroimaging to complement commonly used measures in education research and may help validate/challenge established theoretical assumptions and provide insight into training methods. This review highlighted several areas for further research. The use of these emerging technologies appears ripe for developing precision education, estab- lishing viable study protocols for realistic operational settings, examining team dynamics, and exploring applications for real-time monitoring/intervention during critical clinical tasks.
... However, many studies have found that the efficiency hypothesis could not explain all empirical results and tried to find moderating factors to explain the inconsistence (Neubauer & Fink, 2009). For example, considering task difficulty is an important factor influencing resource allocation, some studies examined the role of task difficulty in the relationship between Gf and resource allocation. ...
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To clarify the effects of individual differences in fluid intelligence (Gf) on attentional resource allocation, the present study proposes a new hypothesis (i.e., the integrated control hypothesis) based on previous studies and provides preliminary empirical evidence through a pupillometry study. The results showed that both task type and task difficulty play crucial roles in the relationship between Gf and attentional resource allocation when participants perform visuospatial-domain tasks. In particular, in the exploitation task, higher Gf individuals allocated fewer attentional resources than those with average Gf at all the difficulty levels. In contrast, in the exploration task, those with higher intelligence allocated equivalent resources in the low- and medium-difficulty trials and more resources in the high-difficulty trials; this phenomenon was more significant among the male subjects. In conclusion, this study suggests that high Gf individuals tend to control their attention state in tasks with diverse demands, allowing them to dynamically optimize the use of attentional resources and flexibly adapt to changing conditions.
... In the history of sports science, exploring the physiological differences among athletes at different competitive levels has always been a topic of interest (Doppelmayr et al., 2008;Luchsinger et al., 2016;Lu et al., 2020). From the perspective of "neural efficiency, " several studies have demonstrated that professional athletes can perform better with less energy expenditure on neural activity (Neubauer and Fink, 2009;Callan and Naito, 2014;Chang, 2014). This is manifested as reduced neural activity in specific brain regions, thereby making the brain less controlled and more automated (Debarnot et al., 2014). ...
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It is not only difficult to be a sports expert but also difficult to grow from a sports expert to a sports elite. Professional athletes are often concerned about the differences between an expert and an elite and how to eventually become an elite athlete. To explore the differences in brain neural mechanism between experts and elites in the process of motor behavior and reveal the internal connection between motor performance and brain activity, we collected and analyzed the electroencephalography (EEG) findings of 14 national archers and 14 provincial archers during aiming and resting states and constructed the EEG brain network of the two archer groups based on weighted phase lag index; the graph theory was used to analyze and compare the network characteristics via local network and global network topologies. The results showed that compared with the expert archers, the elite archers had stronger functional coupling in beta1 and beta2 bands, and the difference was evident in the frontal and central regions; in terms of global characteristics of brain network topology, the average clustering coefficient and global efficiency of elite archers were significantly higher than that of expert archers, and the eigenvector centrality of expert archers was higher; for local characteristics, elite archers had higher local efficient; and the brain network characteristics of expert archers showed a strong correlation with archery performance. This suggests that compared with expert archers, elite archers showed stronger functional coupling, higher integration efficiency of global and local information, and more independent performance in the archery process. These findings reveal the differences in brain electrical network topologies between elite and expert archers in the archery preparation stage, which is expected to provide theoretical reference for further training and promotion of professional athletes.
... Another possible reason of increased frontal alpha amplitude may be due to "neural efficiency". NFT could cause the neurons of the frontal region to integrate information over space and time repeatedly, causing "neural efficiency" [44]. Neural efficiency hypothesizes that neural activation is decreased in experts. ...
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Much of the work in alpha NFT has focused on evaluating changes in alpha amplitude. However, the generation mechanism of training-induced alpha activity has not yet been clarified. The present study aimed to identify sources of training-induced alpha activity through four temporal/spectral analytic techniques, i.e., the max peak average (MPA), positive average (PA), negative average (NA) and event-related spectral perturbation average (ERSPA) methods. Thirty-five healthy participants were recruited into an alpha group receiving feedback of 8–12-Hz amplitudes, and twenty-eight healthy participants were recruited into a control group receiving feedback of random 4-Hz amplitudes from the range of 7 to 20 Hz. Twelve sessions were performed within 4 weeks (3 sessions per week). The control group had no change in the amplitude spectrum. In contrast, twenty-nine participants in the alpha group showed significant alpha amplitude increases exclusively and were identified as “responders”. A whole-head EEG was recorded for the “responders” after NFT. The epochs of training-induced alpha activity from whole-head EEG were averaged by four different methods for equivalent current dipole source analysis. High agreement and Cohen’s kappa coefficients on dipole source localization between each method were observed, showing that the dipole clusters of training-induced alpha activity were consistently located in the precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and middle temporal gyrus. The residual variance (goodness of fit) for dipole estimation of the MPA was significantly smaller than that of the others. Our findings indicate that the precuneus, PCC and middle temporal gyrus play important roles in enhancing training-induced alpha activity. The four averaging methods (especially the MPA method) were suitable for investigating sources of brainwaves. Additionally, three dipoles can be used for dipole source analysis of training-induced alpha activity in future research, especially the training sites are around the central regions.
... PFC activation and indices of ECG were not correlated to task performance in the study. This dissociation between performance and nervous system activity was also found by other studies (Ayaz et al., 2012;Causse et al., 2017) and can be explained by the neural efficiency hypothesis of intelligence, which states that intelligent individuals show higher brain activation efficiency when performing cognitive tasks (Neubauer & Fink, 2009). However, SDNN was negatively correlated with subjective mental workload in the low task load condition, while PFC activation was positively correlated with HR and subjective mental workload in the medium task load condition. ...
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Background Pilots must process multiple streams of information simultaneously. Mental workload is one of the main issues in man–machine interactive mode when dealing with multiple tasks. This study aimed to combine functional near‐infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and electrocardiogram (ECG) to detect changes in mental workload during multitasking in a simulated flight. Methods Twenty‐six participants performed three multitasking tasks at different mental workload levels. These mental workload levels were set by varying the number of subtasks. fNIRS and ECG signals were recorded during tasks. Participants filled in the national aeronautics and space administration task load index (NASA‐TLX) scale after each task. The effects of mental workload on scores of NASA‐TLX, performance of tasks, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation were analyzed. Results Compared to multitasking in lower mental workload conditions, participants exhibited higher scores of NASA‐TLX, HR, and PFC activation when multitasking in high mental workload conditions. Their performance was worse during the high mental workload multitasking condition, as evidenced by the higher average tracking distance, smaller number of response times, and longer response time of the meter. The standard deviation of the RR intervals (SDNN) was negatively correlated with subjective mental workload in the low task load condition and PFC activation was positively correlated with HR and subjective mental workload in the medium task load condition. Conclusion HR and PFC activation can be used to detect changes in mental workload during simulated flight multitasking tasks.
... The neural efficiency hypothesis was initially developed based on the research evidence that brighter individuals indicated lower brain activation when performing cognitive tasks. 45,46 Findings of the reviewed studies expanded the neural efficiency hypothesis to the field of sport performance. Compared with novices or non-athletes, athletes recruited fewer neural resources while conducting comparable performance in the general tasks and superior performance in the sport-specific tasks. ...
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Background/objective Investigating the neural mechanisms underlying sport performance has been a research focus in the field of sport science. The current review aims to identify distinct characteristics between athletes and non-athletes at behavioral and neural levels. Further analysis was conducted as to potential reasons that contributed to the differences. Methods Literature was searched through PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane, EBSCO, and Web of Science for EEG studies that compared athletes with non-athletes or novices in behavioral performance and brain function. Results The process of literature search and selection identified 16 studies that satisfied the predetermined inclusion criteria. Theta, alpha, and beta frequency bands were employed as the primary EEG measures of cortical activities in the included studies. Athletes indicated significant advantages over controls in behavioral performance, Hedges′g=0.42,p=0.02, and brain function, Hedges′g=0.49,p=0.03. Moderator analysis on behavioral performance indicated a large effect size in sport-related performance, Hedges′g=0.90,p=0.01, but a small, non-significant effect size in general tasks, Hedges′g=0.14,p=0.44. Conclusions Superior performance in sport-related tasks mostly contributed to athletes’ significant advantage in behavioral performance. Additionally, favorable profiles of brain function associated with athletes included neural efficiency, increased cortical asymmetry, greater cognitive flexibility, and precise timing of cortical activation. Applying EEG technique to sport has shown promising directions in performance improvement and talent identification for young athletes.
... Another explanation is that decreased activity of certain regions in experienced musicians reflects increased neural efficiency (Grabner et al., 2006) as improvisation would necessitate simultaneity in the execution of diverse cognitive and motor tasks and sequences. In comparison to the inexperienced musician, the skilled musician is better equipped to deal with such processes, which may explain the decreased metabolic activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex (Neubauer and Fink, 2009). Thus, increased functional connectivity among the numerous areas involved in those processes may indicate increased neural efficiency as a result of practical experience: if neural connections were more gradually consolidated in non-improvising musicians, this favors a more efficient information exchange among the structures of a larger net. ...
Article
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The confluence of creativity in music performance finds itself in performance practices and cultural motifs, the communication of the human body along with the instrument it interacts with, and individual performers’ perceptual, motor, and cognitive abilities that contribute to varied musical interpretations of the same piece or melodic line. The musical and artistic execution of a player, as well as the product of this phenomena can become determinant causes in a creative mental state. With advances in neurocognitive measures, the state of one’s artistic intuition and execution has been a growing interest in understanding the creative thought process of human behavior, particularly in improvising artists. This article discusses the implementation on the concurrence of spontaneous (Type-1) and controlled (Type-2) processing modes that may be apparent in the perception of non-improvising artists on how melodic lines are perceived in music performance. Elucidating the cortical-subcortical activity in the dual-process model may extend to non-improvising musicians explored in the paradigm of neural correlates. These interactions may open new possibilities for expanding the repertoire of executive functions, creativity, and the coordinated activity of cortical-subcortical regions that regulate the free flow of artistic ideas and expressive spontaneity in future neuromusical research.
... While we cannot make claims about the brain activity in our sample, we still can see that for professional SIs, cognitive load did not ascend as much as in non-professionals from listening to interpreting a speech. Furthermore, brain efficiency has been shown to be most prominent in tasks with a low to moderate difficulty level (Neubauer & Fink, 2009;Nussbaumer, Grabner, & Stern, 2015). In this context, Dunst and her team (2014) pointed out the importance of subjective task difficulty while measuring two groups of participants with different levels of intelligence that were instructed to complete two tasks differing in difficulty. ...
Article
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Simultaneous interpretation is a complex task that is assumed to be associated with a high workload. To corroborate this association, we measured workload during three tasks of increasing complexity: listening, shadowing, and interpreting, using electroencephalography and self-assessments in four groups of participants with varying experience in simultaneous interpretation. The self-assessment data showed that professional interpreters perceived the most workload-inducing condition, namely the interpreting task, as less demanding compared to the less experienced participants. This higher subjectively perceived workload in non-interpreters was paralleled by increasing frontal theta power values from listening to interpreting, whereas such a modulation was less pronounced in professional interpreters. Furthermore, regarding both workload measures, trainee interpreters were situated between professional interpreters and non-interpreters. Since the non-interpreters demonstrated high proficiencies and exposure in their second language, too, our findings provide evidence for an influence of interpretation training on experienced workload during simultaneous interpretation.
... efficiency. Gender, task difficulty, and training are known to be influential factors of neural efficiency 46 . On the other hand, if neural activity increases with improved task performance, it can be interpreted as an increase in neural activity to achieve higher task performance. ...
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Hearing a groove rhythm (GR), which creates the sensation of wanting to move to the music, can also create feelings of pleasure and arousal in people, and it may enhance cognitive performance, as does exercise, by stimulating the prefrontal cortex. Here, we examined the hypothesis that GR enhances executive function (EF) by acting on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (l-DLPFC) while also considering individual differences in psychological responses. Fifty-one participants underwent two conditions: 3 min of listening to GR or a white-noise metronome. Before and after listening, participants performed the Stroop task and were monitored for l-DLPFC activity with functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Our results show that GR enhanced EF and l-DLPFC activity in participants who felt a greater groove sensation and a more feeling clear-headed after listening to GR. Further, these psychological responses predict the impact of GR on l-DLPFC activity and EF, suggesting that GR enhances EF via l-DLPFC activity when the psychological response to GR is enhanced.
... Stark et al. showed in their research that higher correct rates were associated with weaker activation (Hong et al., 2016b), which consumes less synchronization coupling between regions. This result shows inhibition between the hippocampus and the default mode network, which is in line with the neural efficiency hypothesis (Neubauer and Fink, 2009). Light modulated at 40 Hz maintains cognitive ability and also requires fewer neural resources to be used, indicating a more efficient information processing mechanism, thus indicating that modulating the frequency of light may be an effective method to optimize neurocognitive function. ...
Article
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Research on light modulation has typically examined the wavelength, intensity, and exposure time of light, and measured rhythm, sleep, and cognitive ability to evaluate the regulatory effects of light variables on physiological and cognitive functions. Although the frequency of light is one of the main dimensions of light, few studies have attempted to manipulate it to test the effect on brain activation and performance. Recently, 40-Hz light stimulation has been proven to significantly alleviate deficits in gamma oscillation of the hippocampus caused by Alzheimer’s disease. Although this oscillation is one of the key functional characteristics of performing memory tasks in healthy people, there is no evidence that 40-Hz blue light exposure can effectively regulate brain activities related to complex cognitive tasks. In the current study, we examined the difference in the effects of 40-Hz light or 0-Hz light exposure on brain activation and functional connectivity during a recognition memory task. Through joint augmentation of visual area activation, 40-Hz light enhanced brain areas mostly in the limbic system that are related to memory, such as the hippocampus and thalamus. Conversely, 0-Hz light enhanced brain areas mostly in the prefrontal cortex. Additionally, functional connection analysis, with the hippocampus as the seed point, showed that 40-Hz light enhanced connection with the superior parietal lobe and reduced the connection with the default network. These results indicate that light at a frequency of 40 Hz can change the activity and functional connection of memory-related core brain areas. They also indicate that in the use of light to regulate cognitive functions, its frequency characteristics merit attention.
... Notably, in contrast with the neural efficiency hypothesis, an emerging body of evidence suggests that both automatic and controlled cognitive processes are implicated in the skilled execution of complex motor tasks (see Bortoli et al., 2012;Vecchio et al., 2012). Furthermore, previous research has shown that both increased and decreased neural activity may be needed for the execution of complex cognitive and motor tasks (see Neubauer & Fink, 2009;Vickers & Williams 2017). Given this emerging evidence, Bertollo et al., (2016;2020) have recently proposed the neural proficiency hypothesis, which posits that skilled performance requires not only the downregulation of task-irrelevant neural networks, but also the upregulation (i.e., neutral recruitment) of task-relevant brain networks. ...
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We examined whether practice in an open skill video-game task would lead to changes in performance, attention, motivation, perceived effort, and theta, alpha, and beta waves. Specifically, we were interested on whether potential performance gains from practice would be primarily explained by the neural efficiency (i.e., cortical idling) or the neural proficiency hypothesis (i.e., mix of heightened and reduced activation across the cortex). To this end, we asked 16 novice participants (8 males and 8 females; Mage = 23.13 years) to play a Nintendo Wii video-game shooting task, namely Link’s Crossbow Training. Pre-test scores, which were followed by an acquisition phase, were compared to post-test scores. Performance and subjective data were recorded for each trial and EEG data was continuously recorded using the portable EEGO System. Our findings revealed that performance increased while attention decreased at post-test, thereby confirming that practice leads to performance gains and reduces attentional overload. No changes in motivation or perceived effort were observed, perhaps because effort is a gestalt multidimension construct and video-gaming is an inherently motivating activity. EEG frequency analysis revealed that, for the most part, performance gains were accompanied by increased cortical activity across frequencies bands, thus lending primary support to the neural proficiency hypothesis. Accordingly, neurofeedback interventions to aid motor learning should teach performers not only how to silence their brains (i.e., quiescence state linked to automaticity and “flow”) but also how to amplify task-relevant brain networks.
... Such individuals process cognitive information with astounding speed and need an environment providing sufficient stimulation to keep their cognitive system alert and functioning optimally (cf. Geake, 2009;Geake & Dodson, 2005;Gross, 2000;Jung & Haier, 2007;Neubauer & Fink, 2009). If enough information is not available, which is frequently the case for intellectually extreme children in a normal classroom, or for intellectually gifted employees in an organisation void of proper talent management, they tend to become unfocussed, restless and exceedingly bored. ...
Article
The significance of illusion as a positive force in everyday life has been underestimated in both societal discourse and in empirical science. The objective of this study is to provide a synthesis of many academic disciplines’ understanding of illusion and reality by proposing a taxonomy of functional and dysfunctional subjective realities as based on the assumption that the human mind is adaptive in an evolutionary sense and likely to be a quantum entanglement system. Assumptions and discussions needed to construct the taxonomy are generally based on empirical research drawing from evolutionary theory, neurology, biology, anthropology, psychology, psychiatry, physics and other disciplines. The purpose of the proposed taxonomy is heuristic, serving as a base for further studies drawing particular attention to the fact that, by evolutionary processes, Homo sapiens have been made dependent on multiple subjective realities where illusion and reality are not necessarily opposites. The article is concluded by discussing possible reasons for why illusions as a positive force in human behaviour has been neglected in comparison to the dysfunctions of the human mind of which research abound.
... Thus, a more efficient neuronal processing resulting in lower energy usage is linked to better visual and cognitive performance (Babiloni et al., 2010;Leisman et al., 2016). This neuronal efficiency is further based on the limited amount of the brain's metabolic resources (Dietrich, 2006) potentially leading to the possibility that higher neural efficiency in visual processing frees up working space with a larger amount of energy that can be used for cognitive processing (Neubauer and Fink, 2009). The distinct correlations of the subfunctions underlying the large correlation between visual-and executive function total are further described based on the classification of visual functions by Burris et al. (2018). ...
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Visual and cognitive skills are key to successful functioning in highly demanding settings such as elite sports. However, their mutual influence and interdependencies are not sufficiently understood yet. This cross-sectional study examined in a cross-sectional study design the relationship of between visual skills and executive functions in elite soccer players. Fifty-nine male elite soccer players (age: 18-34 years) performed tests assessing visual clarity (left-, right- and both eyes), contrast sensitivity, near-far quickness, and hand-eye coordination. Executive functions measures included working memory capacity, cognitive flexibility, inhibition and selective attention. Overall, visual abilities were largely correlated with the executive functions. Near-far quickness performance showed a large correlation with an executive function total score as well as with cognitive flexibility, working memory, and especially selective attention. Visual clarity and contrast sensitivity were moderately correlated with the cognition total score. Most consistent correlations of the executive functionswith the visual functions were present for working memory. , specifically with the visual clarity of the right- and both eyes and near-far quickness. These findings present an overall vision-cognition relationship but also very specific linkages among subcategories of these functions, especially by indicating meaningful relations between near-far quickness, selective attention and cognitive flexibility. Further studies are needed to investigate the neuropsychological mechanisms accounting for the correlations and possible improvements of the executive functions by training specific visual skills.
... variability beyond mere-scaling variability (Wagenmakers and Brown, 2007; and is thus suitable for comparing variability even of individuals who differ very much in their average cognitive speed (Jensen and Rohwer, 1966;Neubauer and Fink, 2009). Miller and Ulrich (2013) have recently developed the individual-differences in response time (IDRT) model which is based on classical test theory and introduces the analysis of standard psychometric criteria (i.e., reliability, convergent vs. discriminant validity, stability) within an RT modeling framework (cf. ...
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Here we present a systematic plan to the experimental study of test–retest reliability in the multitasking domain, adopting the multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) approach to evaluate the psychometric properties of performance in Düker-type speeded multiple-act mental arithmetic. These form of tasks capacitate the experimental analysis of integrated multi-step processing by combining multiple mental operations in flexible ways in the service of the overarching goal of completing the task. A particular focus was on scoring methodology, particularly measures of response speed variability. To this end, we present data of two experiments with regard to (a) test–retest reliability, (b) between-measures correlational structure, (c) and stability (test–retest practice effects). Finally, we compared participants with high versus low performance variability to assess ability-related differences in measurement precision (typically used as proxy to “simulate” patient populations), which is especially relevant in the applied fields of clinical neuropsychology. The participants performed two classic integrated multi-act arithmetic tasks, combining addition and verification (Exp. 1) and addition and comparison (Exp. 2). The results revealed excellent test–retest reliability for the standard and the variability measures. The analysis of between-measures correlational structure revealed the typical pattern of convergent and discriminant relationships, and also, that absolute response speed variability was highly correlated with average speed (r > .85), indicating that these measures mainly deliver redundant information. In contrast, speed-adjusted (relativised) variability revealed discriminant validity being correlated to a much lesser degree with average speed, indicating that this measure delivers additional information not already provided by the speed measure. Furthermore, speed-adjusted variability was virtually unaffected by test–retest practice, which makes this measure interesting in situations with repeated testing.
... Some researchers have suggested that the decline in the cortical activation of brain areas should be combined with the evaluation of functional connectivity or coupling of brain areas to evaluate the neural efficiency of individual brains [72]. Therefore, this study further analyzed the functional connectivity of brain networks among brain regions and found that there was an extremely strong correlation between the degree of brain neural activation and the degree of change in the content of cerebral blood oxygen. ...
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Objective: To investigate the intervention effect of orienteering exercises on the spatial memory ability of college students of different genders and its underlying mechanism. Methods: Forty-eight college students were randomly screened into experimental and control groups, 12 each of male and female, by SBSOD scale. The effects of 12 weeks of orienteering exercises on the behavioral performance and brain activation patterns during the spatial memory tasks of college students of different genders were explored by behavioral tests and the fNIRS technique. Results: After the orienteering exercise intervention in the experimental group, the male students had significantly greater correct rates and significantly lower reaction times than the female students; left and right dorsolateral prefrontal activation was significantly reduced in the experimental group, and the male students had a significantly greater reduction in the left dorsolateral prefrontal than the female students. The degree of activation in the left and right dorsolateral prefrontals of the male students and the right dorsolateral prefrontals of the female students correlated significantly with behavioral performance, and the functional coupling between the brain regions showed an enhanced performance. Discussion: Orienteering exercises improve the spatial memory ability of college students, more significantly in male students. The degree of activation of different brain regions correlated with behavioral performance and showed some gender differences.
... These mixed results could be partly due to the differences in the tasks. Researchers have found that neural efficiency could be modulated by task difficulty and other factors 37 . There are situations where better performing individuals may display the same amount of or even more brain activation 38 . ...
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The present study aimed to identify behavioral and neurophysiological correlates of dyslexia which could potentially predict reading difficulty. One hundred and three Chinese children with and without dyslexia (Grade 2 or 3, 7- to 11-year-old) completed both verbal and visual working memory (n-back) tasks with concurrent EEG recording. Data of 74 children with sufficient usable EEG data are reported here. Overall, the typically developing control group (N = 28) responded significantly faster and more accurately than the group with dyslexia (N = 46), in both types of tasks. Group differences were also found in EEG band power in the retention phase of the tasks. Moreover, forward stepwise logistic regression demonstrated that both behavioral and neurophysiological measures predicted reading difficulty uniquely. Dyslexia was associated with higher frontal midline theta activity and reduced upper-alpha power in the posterior region. This finding is discussed in relation to the neural efficiency hypothesis. Whether these behavioral and neurophysiological patterns can longitudinally predict later reading development among preliterate children requires further investigation.
... www.nature.com/scientificreports/ (ERP) 6,11,19 . Another avenue for investigating cognitive efficiency and effort is pupillometry. ...
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Throughout the history of modern psychology, the neural basis of cognitive performance, and particularly its efficiency, has been assumed to be an essential determinant of developmental and individual differences in a wide range of human behaviors. Here, we examine one aspect of cognitive efficiency—cognitive effort, using pupillometry to examine differences in word reading among adults (N = 34) and children (N = 34). The developmental analyses confirmed that children invested more effort in reading than adults, as indicated by larger and sustained pupillary responses. The within-age (individual difference) analyses comparing faster (N = 10) and slower (N = 10) performers revealed that in both age groups, the faster readers demonstrated accelerated pupillary responses compared to slower readers, although both groups invested a similar overall degree of cognitive effort. These findings have the potential to open up new avenues of research in the study of skill growth in word recognition and many other domains of skill learning.
... Combining the performances of table tennis athletes and nonathlete controls at baseline, the results suggest that this difference may be related to table tennis athletes' advanced "neural efficiency" due to prolonged training [54,55]. The neural efficiency hypothesis states that individuals with excellent performance display lower (more efficient) brain activation while performing cognitive tasks [56]. A recent meta-analysis pointed to neural efficiency as one of the prominent neural processing characteristics found in athletes, with athletes having better behavioral performance compared to novices or nonathletes while recruiting fewer neural resources to perform motor and cognitive tasks [57]. ...
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Excellent response inhibition is the basis for outstanding competitive athletic performance, and sleep may be an important factor affecting athletes’ response inhibition. This study investigates the effect of sleep deprivation on athletes’ response inhibition, and its differentiating effect on non-athlete controls’ performance, with the aim of helping athletes effectively improve their response inhibition ability through sleep pattern manipulation. Behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) data were collected from 36 participants (16 table tennis athletes and 20 general college students) after 36 h of sleep deprivation using ERP techniques and a stop-signal task. Sleep deprivation’s different effects on response inhibition in the two groups were explored through repeated-measures ANOVA. Behavioral data showed that in a baseline state, stop-signal response time was significantly faster in table tennis athletes than in non-athlete controls, and appeared significantly longer after sleep deprivation in both groups. ERP results showed that at baseline state, N2, ERN, and P3 amplitudes were lower in table tennis athletes than in non-athlete controls, and corresponding significant decreases were observed in non-athlete controls after 36 h of sleep deprivation. Table tennis athletes showed a decrease in P3 amplitude and no significant difference in N2 and ERN amplitudes, after 36 h of sleep deprivation compared to the baseline state. Compared to non-athlete controls, table tennis athletes had better response inhibition, and the adverse effects of sleep deprivation on response inhibition occurred mainly in the later top-down motor inhibition process rather than in earlier automated conflict detection and monitoring.
... Such disparity may be in-part explained by the 568 concept of 'neural efficiency'. Experts consistently demonstrate more spatially localized and less 569 intense brain activity during sensorimotor task performance when compared to less-skilled 570 individuals (Neubauer & Fink, 2009). However, Mizuguchi and Kanosue (2017) propose that brain 571 activity is increased during AO, MI, and physical execution of sensorimotor tasks during initial stages 572 of motor learning, with activity in motor regions of the brain reducing for physical execution and 573 increasing for AO and MI of the task as learning progresses. ...
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Motor simulation interventions involving motor imagery (MI) and action observation (AO) have received considerable interest in the behavioral sciences. A growing body of research has focused on using AO and MI simultaneously, termed ‘combined action observation and motor imagery’ (AOMI). The current meta-analysis adopted a two-pronged approach by collating and synthesizing existing motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude data from transcranial magnetic stimulation studies and movement outcome data from behavioral studies to quantify changes in corticospinal excitability and motor skill performance for AOMI compared to AO, MI and control conditions. AOMI had a positive effect compared to control and AO but not MI conditions for both MEP amplitudes and movement outcomes. No methodological factors moderated the effects of AOMI, indicating a robust effect of AOMI across the two outcome variables. The results of this meta-analysis are discussed in relation to existing literature on motor simulation and skill acquisition, before providing viable directions for future research on this topic. Highlights Motor imagery (MI) and action observation (AO) can be combined (AOMI) This meta-analysis collates neurophysiological and behavioral evidence for AOMI AOMI had positive neurophysiological effects compared to AO and control but not MI AOMI had positive behavioral effects compared to AO and control but not MI The positive effects of AOMI were maintained across all moderators
... The NEH was first proposed in a PET study by Haier et al. (1992) revealing significant Glucose Metabolic Rate (GMR) changes correlating with a score on a "Tetris"-based learning task leading to the hypothesis of a more efficient energy consumption in experts' brains compared to novice (Haier et al., 2004). The NEH has been extensively tested in the context of cognitive tasks like memory tasks (Ruff et al., 2003;Grabner et al., 2004Grabner et al., , 2006 or intelligence (Neubauer et al., 2002;Neubauer and Fink, 2009). ...
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In the past years motor imagery (MI) turned out to be also an innovative and effective tool for motor learning and improvement of sports performance. Whereas many studies investigating sports MI focusing on upper or lower limbs involvement, knowledge about involved neural structures during whole-body movements is still limited. In the present study we investigated brain activity of climbers during a kinesthetic motor imagery (KMI) climbing task with different difficulties by means of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Twenty healthy participants were split into two groups according to their climbing skill level. The aim of the current study is investigating neural correlates of a whole-body sports MI task with an additional focus on skill level dependency. Climbing experts and non-experts imagined bouldering an “easy” and “difficult” route from a first-person perspective while hemodynamic responses were recorded simultaneously. We found significant differences between the two climbing routes, easy and difficult within participants as well as between the two groups of different climbing skill levels. Overall beginners showed increased hemodynamic responses compared to experts in all defined regions of interest (ROI) supporting the claim of the neural efficiency hypothesis (NEH). Even though climbing is a complex, coordinated movement of upper and lower limbs we found a stronger activation focus of the upper limbs, especially of the dominant hand-area, while the foot area seems to be deactivated or inhibited simultaneously. Summarizing, these findings provide novel insights into brain activation during the imagery of a whole-body movement and its relation to climbing expertise.
... EEG studies in older adults also revealed connectivity in the alpha band associated with individual creativity, but the power spectrum did not actually show any relationship with creative ability [63], so it seems that age is an important factor to be considered. Events related to alpha band desynchronization and synchronization are especially sensitive to the performance of cognitive tasks and higher cognitive abilities [64,65]. In general, studies show that a lower alpha power is observed during the performance of simple association creativity tasks than during the performance of more demanding creative idea generation tasks, with alpha being more synchronized with divergent thinking than with other creative ideation tasks [59]. ...
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The present research aims at examining the power spectrum and exploring functional brain connectivity/disconnectivity during concentration performance, as measured by the d2 test of attention and creativity as measured by the CREA test in typically developing children. To this end, we examined brain connectivity by using phase synchrony (i.e., phase locking index (PLI) over the EEG signals acquired by the Emotiv EPOC neuroheadset in 15 children aged 9- to 12-years. Besides, as a complement, a power spectrum analysis of the acquired signals was performed. Our results indicated that, during d2 Test performance there was an increase in global gamma phase synchronization and there was a global alpha and theta band desynchronization. Conversely, during CREA task, power spectrum analysis showed a significant increase in the delta, beta, theta, and gamma bands. Connectivity analysis revealed marked synchronization in theta, alpha, and gamma. These findings are consistent with other neuroscience research indicating that multiple brain mechanisms are indeed involved in creativity. In addition, these results have important implications for the assessment of attention functions and creativity in clinical and research settings, as well as for neurofeedback interventions in children with typical and atypical development.
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Adverse life events can inflict substantial long-term damage, which, paradoxically, has been posited to stem from initially adaptative responses to the challenges encountered in one’s environment. Thus, identification of the mechanisms linking resilience against recent stressors to longer-term psychological vulnerability is key to understanding optimal functioning across multiple timescales. To address this issue, our study tested the relevance of neuro-reproductive maturation and senescence, respectively, to both resilience and longer-term risk for pathologies characterised by accelerated brain aging, specifically, Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Graph theoretical and partial least squares analyses were conducted on multimodal imaging, reported biological aging and recent adverse experience data from the Lifespan Human Connectome Project (HCP). Availability of reproductive maturation/senescence measures restricted our investigation to adolescent (N =178) and middle-aged (N=146) females. Psychological resilience was linked to age-specific brain senescence patterns suggestive of precocious functional development of somatomotor and control-relevant networks (adolescence) and earlier aging of default mode and salience/ventral attention systems (middle adulthood). Biological aging showed complementary associations with the neural patterns relevant to resilience in adolescence (positive relationship) versus middle-age (negative relationship). Transcriptomic and expression quantitative trait locus data analyses linked the neural aging patterns correlated with psychological resilience in middle adulthood to gene expression patterns suggestive of increased AD risk. Our results imply a partially antagonistic relationship between resilience against proximal stressors and longer-term psychological adjustment in later life. They thus underscore the importance of fine-tuning extant views on successful coping by considering the multiple timescales across which age-specific processes may unfold.
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The aim of this study is to analyse selected theories of crime of an integrated nature (biosocial), functioning in criminology, from the perspective of explaining the conditions of the phenomenon of female crime. It was pointed out that single-factor theories older than integrated theories (anthropological, biological, sociological, psychological), assuming in their assumptions only one category of variables, occurring in the analysis of the course of female criminal activities, did not contribute sufficiently to the explication of the studied, negative phenomenon, giving the inducement to search and develop a different category of theory. Therefore, the article attempts to determine whether the integrated (multi-factorial) theories, presented on the example of the considerations of two criminologists: A. Walsh and D.W. Denno, taking into account the findings of the former single-factor concepts, allow to find a comprehensive solution to the doubts, concentrating around the issue of conditions and specificity of the development of the phenomenon of female crime, which for several decades has occupied the activity of criminologists in Poland and worldwide.
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This qualitative study aimed to explore the use of mindfulness in the practice of coaching supervision and the perceived contribution mindfulness makes to the nature and quality of supervision. Major constructs and dynamics of mindfulness in supervision and insights into the perceived benefits of mindfulness practice are considered. Fifteen in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with experienced coaching supervisors and analysed using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Four major themes emerged with respect to the present and presence, attention and noticing, awareness, non-judgmental, and eight related subthemes. The challenges and applications for supervisors are explored, including mindfulness training to develop effective mindfulness coaching supervision. A coach supervisor interactive mindfulness framework is proposed to facilitate an understanding of the dynamics and content of the supervisor-supervisee relationship.
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Guilt plays a role in various forms of psychopathology. However, different types of guilt might be involved in different mental disorders. Obsessive-compulsive (OC) patients are prone to a type of guilt in which the violation of an internalized moral norm is necessary and sufficient, whereas data suggest that depression might be linked to more interpersonal types of guilt. However, the extent to which a specific guilt phenomenology is involved in each condition is yet to be determined. Here we assessed the association between different types of guilt and different diagnostic groups. Two clinical samples (33 OCD and 35 non-OCD) filled in the Moral Orientation Guilt Scale (MOGS) along with other OCD and depression measures. Regression was employed to test group differences in the MOGS subscales and to test the influence of MOGS subscales on OCD and depression levels. Results confirm that different types of guilt might be implicated in different psychopathological conditions. Specifically, moral norm violation guilt is more present in OC patients than in other disorders. Depression seems to be associated with different guilt feelings depending on the psychopathological condition, specifically in non-OC patients, with types of guilt involving a “victim”, supporting the accounts viewing interpersonal guilt as involved in the emergence of depressive symptomatology and hyper-altruistic behavior as a vulnerability factor for depression.
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A brief review of current research into the problem of cognitive neuroefficiency revealed a large array of conflicting data. Some studies provide evidence of lower energy consumption and faster cognitive activity in respondents with high IQ, while others show higher energy consumption and slower speed. Other datasets indicate that respondents with high intelligence are more reflexive than those with low intelligence. The heterogeneity of the samples is indicated as a key reason for the inconsistency of the data. This study aimed to compare behavioral and electroencephalographic data in groups of respondents homogeneous in terms of (a) sex, (b) age, and (c) manifestations of the cognitive style Impulsivity-Reflexivity. The study sample consisted of three age groups: 92 people aged 13.73 ± 0.45 years (44.5% of men), 123 people aged 15.46 ± 0.66 years (52% of men), 36 people aged 21.11±2.87 years (44.4% of men). The diagnostic procedure included the collection of behavioral data (Cognitive Personality Style Questionnaire CPS-Q, Raven’s SPM, Amtrhauer’s Intelligence Structure Test, Rusalov’s Personality Formal Dynamic Properties Questionnaire) and data on the bioelectrical activity of the cerebral cortex at rest and during the detection of similar figures J. Kagan. Comparative data analysis (U-test; H-test) showed that women demonstrate significantly higher intelligence indicators, detect similar figures with greater accuracy, but at the same time expend more energy in terms of the EEG power spectrum, compared with men. Significant differences in intelligence and Impulsivity-Reflexivity among age groups were not found. However, a significant decrease in the EEG power spectrum was revealed under electrodes O1, C3, Oz, Pz, CP4 while solving Kagan’s tasks from the younger to the older age group. A paradoxical result was obtained when comparing groups of respondents significantly different in terms of the Impulsivity-Reflexivity of the Kagan test. Significant differences in the EEG power spectrum, CPS-Q Impulsivity and Reflexivity scales, and intelligence were not found. A hypothesis was put forward about the false discriminant validity of the Kagan test for respondents with low IQ.
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Background: Aging disrupts the optimal balance between neural nodes underlying orienting and attention control functions. Previous studies have suggested that age-related changes in cognitive process are associated to the changes in the myelinated fiber bundles, which affected the speed and actions of the signal propagation across different neural networks. However, whether the age-related difference in allocentric and egocentric spatial coding is accounted by the difference in white-matter integrity is unclear. In this study, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we sought to elucidate whether age-related differences in white matter integrity accounts for the difference in nodes to the distributed spatial coding-relevant brain networks. Material and method: Older (n = 24) and younger (n = 27) participants completed the structural DTI and fMRI scans during which they engaged in a cue-to-target task to elicit allocentric or egocentric processes. Results and conclusion: Efficient modulation of both allocentric and egocentric spatial coding in fronto-parietal attention network (FPAN) requires structure-function interaction. Allocentric task-modulated connectivity of the fronto-parietal network (FPN) and dorsal attention network (DAN) with the temporal lobe was influenced by the aging differences of the white-matter tracts of the posterior and superior corona radiata (PCR and SCR), respectively. On the other hand, aging difference of the superior longitudinal fasciculus mainly influenced the egocentric-task-modulated connections of the DAN and FPN with frontal regions and posterior cingulate cortex. This study suggested that functional connections of the FPAN with near and far task-relevant nodes vary significantly with age and conditions.
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The relationship between intelligence and brain electrical activity has long aroused the interest of many researchers. Quantified EEG and event-related potentials have contributed significantly to the development of this topic. Conversely, movement-related potentials have contributed little for both adults and children. This study analyses possible relationships between intelligence and movement-related potentials. One hundred and ten normally developing boys performed a skilled performance task (SPT) that required adaptive programming, learning proper timing and performance improvement by providing real time knowledge of results and feedback. The EEG was recorded with Ag/AgCl electrodes over Fpz, Cz, Pz, right and left precentral (RPC, LPC), P3 and P4. Intelligence was tested using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-III-R). Linear and multiple linear regressions were used to test the association between intelligence quotients (IQ) and readiness potential or Bereitschaftspotential (BP) and skilled performance positivity (SPP). BP onset was significantly and positively related to verbal IQ, and BP amplitude was significantly related to all three IQs (verbal, performance and full) in all cerebral areas. Children with higher IQ had a greater BP amplitude. SPP latency was significantly and negatively related to age but not to IQ, while SPP amplitude was significantly and negatively related to all three IQs and smaller in children with higher IQ. BP and SPP amplitudes seem to reflect the efficiency of cognitive processes associated with the task.
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Evidence for the relationship between individual alpha frequency (IAF) and cognitive ability (general intelligence) is inconclusive, and the role of alpha rhythm in shaping cognition is hotly debated. This study aimed to provide more conclusive evidence. EEG was recorded during three resting state sessions, a vigilance session, and a short-term visual memory task. Six respective IAF estimates were calculated for a total of 153 participants. Participants also completed the battery of 17 tests measuring four main dimensions of cognitive ability: fluid reasoning, working memory, visual discrimination, and processing speed. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the factors reflecting fluid reasoning, working memory, and visual discrimination, as well as the higher-order factor reflecting general intelligence, were unrelated to the IAF factor. At the same time, IAF positively correlated with processing speed, sharing 5.5% of variance. The EEG findings were replicated in another sample (N = 94) using MEG data and a different cognitive-ability assessment. Overall, the study implies that brains with higher IAFs do run faster, but it does not make them smarter. The study clarifies the so far equivocal relationship between the individual frequency of the dominating alpha rhythm and cognitive functioning.
Chapter
Intelligence, defined as the capacity to solve problems through cognition, is strongly related to the brain and its functions. Neuroscience can therefore help to elucidate its natural history, biological constraints, and the causal mechanisms leading to the emergence of intelligence. Indeed, comparative approaches between species have identified brain regions and network properties of particular importance. Within the human species, several structural and functional determinants of intelligence have been identified. This pertains also to the “nature–nurture” problem, i.e., how far intelligence can be influenced by external factors. Our understanding of biological mechanisms and constraints is far from complete, but clearly indicates that favorable conditions are necessary and efficient to help people develop their full potential. Converging with other sciences and social practices neurobiological results indicate that intellectual development should be supported as early as possible, including a rich environment, variable cues and challenges, and reliable, close human relationships.
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The human brain is the most complicated and fascinated system and executes various important brain functions, but its underlying mechanism is a long-standing problem. In recent years, based on the progress of complex network science, much attention has been paid to this problem and many important results have been achieved, thus it is the time to make a summary to help further studies. For this purpose, we here make a brief but comprehensive review on those results from the aspect of brain networks, i.e., from the angle of synchronization and complex network. First, we briefly discuss the main features of human brain and its cognitive functions through synchronization. Then, we discuss how to construct both the anatomical and functional brain networks, including the pathological brain networks such as epilepsy and Alzheimer’s diseases. Next, we discuss the approaches of studying brain networks. After that, we discuss the current progress of understanding the mechanisms of brain functions, including the aspects of chimera state, remote synchronization, explosive synchronization, intelligence quotient, and remote propagation. Finally, we make a brief discussion on the envision of future study.
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Background Walking within the community requires the ability to walk while simultaneously completing other tasks. After a stroke, completing an additional task while walking is significantly impaired, and it is unclear how the functional activity of the brain may impact this.Methods Twenty individual in the chronic stage post-stroke participated in this study. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to measure prefrontal, pre-motor, sensorimotor, and posterior parietal cortices during walking and walking while completing secondary verbal tasks of varying difficulty. Changes in brain activity during these tasks were measured and relationships were accessed between brain activation changes and cognitive or motor abilities.ResultsSignificantly larger activations were found for prefrontal, pre-motor, and posterior parietal cortices during dual-task walking. Increasing dual-task walking challenge did not result in an increase in brain activation in these regions. Higher general cognition related to lower increases in activation during the easier dual-task. With the harder dual-task, a trend was also found for higher activation and less motor impairment.Conclusions This is the first study to show that executive function, motor preparation/planning, and sensorimotor integration areas are all important for dual-task walking post-stroke. A lack of further brain activation increase with increasing challenge suggests a point at which a trade-off between brain activation and performance occurs. Further research is needed to determine if training would result in further increases in brain activity or improved performance.
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This study explored how the neural efficiency and proficiency worked in athletes with different skill levels from the perspective of effective connectivity brain network in resting state. The deconvolved conditioned Granger causality (GC) analysis was applied to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of 35 elite athletes (EAs) and 42 student-athletes (SAs) of racket sports as well as 39 normal controls (NCs), to obtain the voxel-wised hemodynamic response function (HRF) parameters representing the functional segregation and effective connectivity representing the functional integration. The results showed decreased time-to-peak of HRF in the visual attention brain regions in the two athlete groups compared with NC and decreased response height in the advanced motor control brain regions in EA comparing to the nonelite groups, suggesting the neural efficiency represented by the regional HRF was different in early and advanced skill levels. GC analysis demonstrated that the GC values within the middle occipital gyrus had a linear trend from negative to positive, suggesting a stepwise "neural proficiency" of the effective connectivity from NC to SA then to EA. The GC values of the inter-lobe circuits in EA had the trend to regress to NC levels, in agreement with the neural efficiency of these circuits in EA. Further feature selection approach suggested the important role of the cerebral-brainstem GC circuit for discriminating EA. Our findings gave new insight into the complementary neural mechanisms in brain functional segregation and integration, which was associated with early and advanced skill levels in athletes of racket sports.
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Does the structure of an adult human brain alter in response to environmental demands? Here we use whole-brain magnetic-resonance imaging to visualize learning-induced plasticity in the brains of volunteers who have learned to juggle. We find that these individuals show a transient and selective structural change in brain areas that are associated with the processing and storage of complex visual motion. This discovery of a stimulus-dependent alteration in the brain's macroscopic structure contradicts the traditionally held view that cortical plasticity is associated with functional rather than anatomical changes.
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From among five tests of fluid intelligence employed in this study, two (Swaps and Triplet Numbers) were designed to investigate increases in complexity and difficulty. This was accomplished by manipulating the number of steps needed to reach a solution. The increase in task difficulty is related to changes in the overall performance levels that are reflected in arithmetic means. The complexity of a task is related to the increase in correlation with measures of fluid intelligence or in the increase in factor loadings on a fluid intelligence factor. Both these tendencies are present in the results of this study.A metacognitive process of self-confidence was assessed by asking participants to indicate how confident they were that the item they have just answered was correctly solved. A metacognitive process of self-evaluation was assessed by estimating the number of correctly solved items at the end of each test. The analyses of the overall performance also indicate that an “easy/difficult” distinction provides a reasonable account of the calibration data that show over- and underconfidence. Exploratory and confirmatory analyses indicate the presence of a relatively strong self-confidence factor. Confirmatory analysis also indicates the presence of a self-evaluation factor.
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Tested the 2-process theory of detection, search, and attention presented by the current authors (1977) in a series of experiments. The studies (a) demonstrate the qualitative difference between 2 modes of information processing: automatic detection and controlled search; (b) trace the course of the learning of automatic detection, of categories, and of automatic-attention responses; and (c) show the dependence of automatic detection on attending responses and demonstrate how such responses interrupt controlled processing and interfere with the focusing of attention. The learning of categories is shown to improve controlled search performance. A general framework for human information processing is proposed. The framework emphasizes the roles of automatic and controlled processing. The theory is compared to and contrasted with extant models of search and attention. (31/2 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A 2-process theory of human information processing is proposed and applied to detection, search, and attention phenomena. Automatic processing is activation of a learned sequence of elements in long-term memory that is initiated by appropriate inputs and then proceeds automatically--without S control, without stressing the capacity limitations of the system, and without necessarily demanding attention. Controlled processing is a temporary activation of a sequence of elements that can be set up quickly and easily but requires attention, is capacity-limited (usually serial in nature), and is controlled by the S. A series of studies, with approximately 8 Ss, using both reaction time and accuracy measures is presented, which traces these concepts in the form of automatic detection and controlled search through the areas of detection, search, and attention. Results in these areas are shown to arise from common mechanisms. Automatic detection is shown to develop following consistent mapping of stimuli to responses over trials. Controlled search was utilized in varied-mapping paradigms, and in the present studies, it took the form of serial, terminating search. (60 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Presents findings of a task force established by the American Psychological Association to report on the issues of what is known and unknown about intelligence. Significant conceptualizations of intelligence are reviewed, including the psychometric approach, theories of multiple forms of intelligence, cultural variations, theories of developmental progressions, and biological approaches. The meaning of intelligence test scores, what they predict, and how well they predict intelligence is discussed. Genetic factors and intelligence, focusing on individual differences, conventional IQ tests, and other tests intended to measure cognitive ability, are described. Environmental factors such as social and biological variables are discussed, and sex and ethnic group differences are addressed. Recommendations for future research are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Presents findings of a task force established by the American Psychological Association to report on the issues of what is known and unknown about intelligence. Significant conceptualizations of intelligence are reviewed, including the psychometric approach, theories of multiple forms of intelligence, cultural variations, theories of developmental progressions, and biological approaches. The meaning of intelligence test scores, what they predict, and how well they predict intelligence is discussed. Genetic factors and intelligence, focusing on individual differences, conventional IQ tests, and other tests intended to measure cognitive ability, are described. Environmental factors such as social and biological variables are discussed, and sex and ethnic group differences are addressed. Recommendations for future research are presented.
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The theoretical framework presented in this article explains expert performance as the end result of individuals' prolonged efforts to improve performance while negotiating motivational and external constraints. In most domains of expertise, individuals begin in their childhood a regimen of effortful activities (deliberate practice) designed to optimize improvement. Individual differences, even among elite performers, are closely related to assessed amounts of deliberate practice. Many characteristics once believed to reflect innate talent are actually the result of intense practice extended for a minimum of 10 yrs. Analysis of expert performance provides unique evidence on the potential and limits of extreme environmental adaptation and learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In studying physiological correlates of human intelligence, new brain imaging techniques like positron emission tomography (PET) and electroencephalography (EEG) mapping methods focus on the level and topographical distribution of cortical activation. Actually, there is strong empirical evidence that more intelligent individuals display a more focused cortical activation during cognitive performance resulting in lower total brain activation than in less intelligent individuals (i.e., neural efficiency hypothesis). Former studies have used only single, homogeneous tasks and most of the studies have been performed using males. Therefore, here the influence of different task content and of sex on the relationship between intelligence and cortical activation has been tested. In a sample of 26 males and 25 females, we administered verbal, numerical, and figural versions of a well-known elementary cognitive task, the so-called Posner task. Our results suggest a comparatively low cortical activation in brighter as compared to less intelligent individuals but this expected neural efficiency pattern interacted with sex and task content: In the verbal Posner task, the females were more likely to produce cortical activation patterns in line with the neural efficiency hypothesis, whereas in the figural task, primarily the males displayed the expected inverse relationship between IQ and cortical activation.
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