ArticlePDF Available

Critical Review of Diversity in Jatropha curcas for Crop Improvement: A Candidate Biodiesel Crop

Authors:

Abstract

Major bottleneck in cultivation and commercialization of Jatropha curcas as biodiesel crop has been lack of high yielding varieties or hybrids for oil content and yield. Therefore, assessment of diversity at genotypic and molecular lever assumes greater significance as it is pre-requisite for any sound breeding programme. The diversity within the species of J. curcas as well as among species is also helpful in evolving high yielding varieties. Therefore, in this review an attempt has been made to gather research finding on species identity, taxonomy, geographical distribution and ecological requirement. Diversity has been assessed with available literature for oil content, yield and other agro-morphological traits for effective utilization in genetic improvement programme by means of conventional breeding, interspecific hybridization and biotechnological approaches. The word Jatropha derived from Greek word jatros meaning physician or doctor and trophe means nutrition or food indicating wide spectrum utilization in ethnomedicine in ancient times. Jatropha curcas is hardy plant with high adaptability due to its phenotypic plasticity and potential to grow under arid and semi-arid conditions. Recently, it received attention of the researchers and policy makers as alternative source of biodiesel. Biodiesel is expanding very fast because of demand, policy support and technological availability. Government of India launched ―National Mission on Biodiesel with a view to find a cheap and renewable liquid fuel based on vegetable oils (Shukla 2005). The shortage of raw material to produce biodiesel is major constraint (Wani et al. 2006). The oil-bearing species ranges from 100 to 300, and of them 63 belongs to 30 families and hold good promise for biodiesel production. Many developing countries using edible oil for production of biodiesel. However, India has dearth of edible oil (6.31 million tonnes) for consumption and cannot afford to use edible oils for production of biodiesel. In this back drop, Jatropha curcas has been identified as potential biodiesel crop with additional criteria to meet greening wastelands without compromising the food, fodder security and improve livehoods in arid regions of the country (Reddy et al. 2008). J. curcas also meets the American and European biodiesel standards (Tiwari et al. 2007). Botanical description J. curcas, a large shrub grows up to 3-4m high. Leaves are 3-5 lobed, cordiform, stipules deciduous.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences 2011, 2(2): 193-198
Critical Review of Diversity in Jatropha curcas for Crop Improvement: A
Candidate Biodiesel Crop
Ashok Surwenshi, Vinod Kumar*, U K Shanwad and B R Jalageri
University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur 584 102, Karnataka, India
*National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Regional Station, Hyderabad 500 030, Andhra Pradesh, India
e-mail: surwenshi@gmail.com
A B S T R A C T
Major bottleneck in cultivation and commercialization of Jatropha curcas as biodiesel crop has been lack
of high yielding varieties or hybrids for oil content and yield. Therefore, assessment of diversity at
genotypic and molecular lever assumes greater significance as it is pre-requisite for any sound breeding
programme. The diversity within the species of J. curcas as well as among species is also helpful in
evolving high yielding varieties. Therefore, in this review an attempt has been made to gather research
finding on species identity, taxonomy, geographical distribution and ecological requirement. Diversity has
been assessed with available literature for oil content, yield and other agro-morphological traits for
effective utilization in genetic improvement programme by means of conventional breeding, interspecific
hybridization and biotechnological approaches.
Key words: Jatropha curcas, Genetic improvement, Biodiesel
The word Jatropha derived from Greek word jatros
meaning physician or doctor and trophe means nutrition
or food indicating wide spectrum utilization in
ethnomedicine in ancient times. Jatropha curcas is
hardy plant with high adaptability due to its phenotypic
plasticity and potential to grow under arid and semi-arid
conditions. Recently, it received attention of the
researchers and policy makers as alternative source of
biodiesel. Biodiesel is expanding very fast because of
demand, policy support and technological availability.
Government of India launched ―National Mission on
Biodiesel with a view to find a cheap and renewable
liquid fuel based on vegetable oils (Shukla 2005). The
shortage of raw material to produce biodiesel is major
constraint (Wani et al. 2006). The oil-bearing species
ranges from 100 to 300, and of them 63 belongs to 30
families and hold good promise for biodiesel
production. Many developing countries using edible oil
for production of biodiesel. However, India has dearth
of edible oil (6.31 million tonnes) for consumption and
cannot afford to use edible oils for production of
biodiesel. In this back drop, Jatropha curcas has been
identified as potential biodiesel crop with additional
criteria to meet greening wastelands without
compromising the food, fodder security and improve
livehoods in arid regions of the country (Reddy et al.
2008). J. curcas also meets the American and European
biodiesel standards (Tiwari et al. 2007).
Botanical description
J. curcas, a large shrub grows up to 3-4m high.
Leaves are 3-5 lobed, cordiform, stipules deciduous.
Inflorescence is complex, monoecious with protandry.
First branching is racemose and subsequent branches
are cymes. Inflorescence is a cyathium which appears as
a single flower. Each cyathium is surrounded by
involucres of five connate bracts and between these;
large glands are present which bear a petaloid
appendage. Cymes are up to 12cm in length, flowers
greenish white and unisexual (Ratha-Krishnan and
Paramathama 2009). The inflorescence is axillary 178
paniculate polychasial cymes formed terminally on
branches and 179 are complex, possessing main and co-
florescences with paracladia (Divakar et al. 2010). In
the middle of the cyathium, there is a single female
flower with tricarpellary gynoecium. In the axil of each
bract are present a number of male flowers with a single
stamen and joined half way up to the stalk in scorpioid
cymes. Calyx segments 5, nearly equal, elliptic or
obviate. Corolla is campanulate, lobes 5, connate, hairy
inside, exceeding the calyx, each lobe bear inside a
gland at the base (Divakar et al. 2010). The oldest
flower is nearest to the centre and thus the maturation is
centrifugal. Normally the male to female ratio varies
from 16/27: 1 to 108: 1. Generally flowers between
September and January and second flowering in June is
also reported. The inflorescence, once it begins
flowering, flowers daily, and the flowering lasts for 11
days. Cross pollinating by insects encouraged by
hermaphrodite 13. Staminate, slightly fused petal-based,
stamens 5 + 5, 5 outer filaments only basally united,
inner 5 completely united; pistillate petals are free or
basally slightly united. Fruits ellipsoid, mostly trilobed,
hardly tetralobed, dehiscing loculicidally; seeds
193 www.rjas.info
Research Review
compressed ovoidellipsoid by 1 cm, caruncle minute
and weights about 0.417 to 0.575 g. Propagated by
seeds or by cuttings (Ratha-Krishnan and Paramathama
2009). This 50 years of rotation species can yield 2-4
tonnes of seed/ ha with 30-42% of oil content after three
years of planting (Raina et al. 1987). Commonly it is
known as physic nut and other synonymous names
associated are Purging nut, Barbados nut, Purgeernoot,
big-purgenut, black vomiting nut (Makkaretal 1998),
Curcasbean, Purgeerboontjie, Purgingnuttree,
(http://www.inchem.org), Bubble bush, Fig nut, Pig nut,
Poison nut.
The main bottleneck in cultivation of J. curcas are
lack of improved hybrid/ variety, locally available
inferior planting material, less number of female
flowers, early maturity, resistance to lodging, resistance
to pest and disease, reduced plant height and high
natural ramification of branches. Therefore, success of
genetic improvement of J. curcas depends on collection
of large number of germplasm from diverse agro-
ecological regions and existence of genetic variability
for desired trait in the collected germplasm. The present
study was an attempt to review the recent advances
made in assessment of diversity and genetic
improvement of J. curcas as potential biodiesel crop,
which will facilitates the breeder to utilize the available
literature for further improvement of J. curcas for oil
and yield under varying agro-ecological region.
Overview of diversity studies
The systematic work on germplasm exploration,
characterization, utilization and documentation has been
at nascent stage. Whatever the provincial variability is
recorded it is due to genotype and environmental
interaction. Priority should be given to assess intra- and
inter-accessional variability in the available germplasm,
selection of pure lines and then multiplication.
Existence of natural hybrid complexes between J.
curcas-canascens in Mexico (Dehgan and Webster
1978), J. integerrimahastata complex in Cuba and
West Indian islands (Pax 1910) and J. curcas
gossypifolia (J. tanjorensis) in India (Prabhakaran and
Sujatha 1999). Sudheer (2008) reported that highest
interspecific genetic divergence (0.419) was found
between J. glandulifera and J multifida. The least
interspecific genetic divergence (0.085) was found
between J. gossipifolia and J. tanjorensis.
Sun et al. (2008) reported that existence of low
variation in microsatellite simple sequence repeat (SSR)
markers within populations of Jatropha even in its
natural distribution (Mexico). Studies based on genetic
markers uncovered only modest levels of diversity in
India indicating that the gene pool applied at a large
scale may rest on a fairly fragile genetic foundation
(Basha et al. 2007 and Ranade et al. 2008). Tatikonda et
al. (2009) studied the diversity of 48 accessions from
India based on AFLP markers and found 680
polymorphic fragments, which provided discriminative
power for the classification of germplasm accessions
into five major clusters. Ganesh Ram, (2007) studied 5
accessions of Jatropha and 7 Jatropha species and found
that highest genetic similarity co-efficient (0.85) was
measured between TNMC 1 and TNMC 6. Cluster
analysis indicated that three distinct clusters one
comprising all the accessions of J. curcas while second
cluster included six species viz J. ramanadensis, J.
gossypifolia, J. podagrica, J. tanjorensis, J. villosa and
J. integerrima. The J. gladulifera formed the third
cluster. The latter species has genetic distinctness and
wider geographical distribution in India compared to
other seven species studied. Makkar et al. 1997,
reported large variations in contents of crude protein,
crude fat, neutral detergent fiber and ash on 18 different
provenances of Jatropha from countries in West and
East Africa, the Americas and Asia. Indonesian
accessions recorded variation for oil content ranging
from 36.06-53.08% as reported by Hasman (2007). In
China, Li Kun et al. (2007) studied variation in
Jatropha curcas in different regions and reported that
maximum seed weight (698.9g) was recorded from
Liuku of Lujiang river and minimum seed weight of
500.7g was recorded from extensive heat regions of
Yuanmou basin. The oil content of seed ranged from
53.3 (Yuanmou basin)-64.25% (Taoyuan of Yongsheng
country) which is considered as hot region. Heller
(1992) conducted multi-location field trials in 13
provenances from 1987 and 1988 in two countries of
the Sahel region: Senegal and Cape Verde. Significant
differences in the vegetative trait were recorded except
leaf shape among the various provenances at all
locations.
A total of 1855 candidate plus trees were identified
by National Vegetable Oil Development Board
(NOVOD). Beside this, around 5000 accessions were
collected through network of various inter institutional
research initiatives with an oil content ranging from 26-
42.7% (Punia 2007). The production of quality planting
material (30-40% oil content with 3-5 tonnes seed yield/
ha) under micro mission was undertaken by Department
of Biotechnology, Government of India. Kumar et al.
(2008) recorded that female flower/ inflorescence
showed maximum variation while it was narrow
number of male flowers/ inflorescence. This may be due
to intracellular and extracellular activity at different
development stages. They also reported that strong
correlation existed between plant height and branch
length, number of branches and collar diameter which
help in the selection of superior genotypes.
Wide variation in 100 seed weight (57-79 g) and oil
content (3037%) for accession collected from Andhra
Pradesh, India (Rao et al. 2008). Kaushik et al. (2006)
reported that accessions from Uttaranchal recorded high
percentage (73%) of high yielding plants. Kaushik et al.
(2007), explored the variability in the accessions
collected from the state of Haryana-India and found
wide variation in 100 seed weight (49-69g) and oil
Surwenshi et al.
194 www.rjas.info
content 352 (28-39%). Wani et al. (2006) recorded
variation in Indian accessions for oil content (27.8-
38.4%) and 100 seed weight (44-77g). On-farm trial
conducted involving 103 accessions over a period of
five years at RARS; Tirupati revealed that mean seed
yield ranged from 39g to 1312g per plant with an oil
content ranging from 20 to 30%. Similar trails were
conducted at ICRISAT, Patancheru and it was found
that 100 seed weight ranged from 49.2 to 77.2g with an
oil content ranging from 27.8 to 38.4%.
Phenotypic variation in plant height (34-225cm),
number of primary branches (1-14), plant spread (14-
161), number of cluster per plant (1-20) and oil content
(21.5-39.8%), from accessions collected from states of
Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh was reported by Sunil
et al. (2008). The same author based on DIVA-GIS
analysis reported that Prakasam district of Andhra
Pradesh had higher CV value for oil content (29-36%).
The richness in oil content using rarefaction method of
DIVA-GIS showed that Ranga reddy found to be the
potential area for germplasm with high oil content.
Kumar et al. (2008) studied the intraspecific variation
for various morphological traits and found that plant
height ranged from 140.95 to 175.30cm, collar diameter
(4.70 to 6.27cm), number of branches (4.75 to 7.93) and
branch length (102.06 to 132.96cm). Rao et al. (2007)
observed four clusters with phylogeo-graphic patterns
of genetic diversity among 32 high yielding candidate
plus trees of J. curcas for seed traits. Gohil and Pandya
(2008) analyzed diversity based on phenotypic traits of
nine jatropha genotypes and suggested that for varietal
improvement, hybridization among the genotypes of
divergent clusters (clusters-III, IV and V) may be done
in order to obtain better results in terms of variability
and diversity. Kaushik et al. (2007) subjected 24
diverse accessions to non-hierarchical Euclidian cluster
analysis for seed traits and found that crossing between
accessions of clusters IV and VI will yield wide
spectrum of variability in subsequent generations. To
increase genetic species diversity and add new alleles,
inter-specific cross-pollination between J. curcas and
other Jatropha species to develop new hybrids with
higher yield potential and resistance to diseases. Among
all the crosses, the cross between J. curcas and J.
integerrima produced successful hybrids with more
seed set, while the other crosses failed to produce seeds
due to existence of cross ability barriers as reported by
Parthiban et al. 2009.
Parthiban et al. (2009) attempted crosses between
Jatropha curcas and other Jatropha species and
identified 27 distinct hybrid progeny clones. Clones
such as FC RI HC 3 (55.26%), FCRI HC 15 (48.50%),
FCRI HC 13 (37.01%) exhibited superiority in terms of
oil content. Other progenies such as FCRI 22 (357.48g),
FCRI HC 21 (328-07g), FCRI HC 10 (325.01g), FCRI
HC 18 (305.43g), FCRI HC 12 (255g), FCRI HC 20 (
252.26g) and FCRI HC 27 (250g) recorded maximum
seed yield, early flowering at 9 months after planting.
These clones can be promoted and utilized effectively
as biofuel crop. Gujarat Agricultural University released
first variety of J. curcas (SDAUJ I, Chatrapati), for
commercial cultivation in India. Regional Agricultural
Research Station (RARS), Tirupati of Acharya N G
Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad, Andhra
Pradesh India has released variety of J. curcas for
cultivation in Rain Shadow Districts of Andhra Pradesh.
Crop improvement
The sound breeding programme depends upon the
availability of genetic variability for desired trait.
Collection, characterization and evaluation of
germplasm for oil and yield and agro-morphological
trait are in nascent stage. The major activity of genetic
improvement is selection and breeding. As J. curcas is
often cross-pollinated crop and exploitation of genetic
variation may be carried out through mass selection,
recurrent selection, mutation breeding, heterosis
breeding and inter-specific hybridization.
Domestication
In the tropics there are number of woody and non-
woody perennial species that have provided many
products of ethnomedicine and other daily needs. Such
Diversity in Jatropha curcas for Crop Improvement
195 www.rjas.info
useful plants are virtually undomesticated.
Domestication of crop plants has been continuous
process as result today’s major food crops are the
product of years of artificial selection and breeding. The
domestication of tree species is a dynamic process from
background socioeconomic studies, the collection of
germplasm, genetic selection and improvement to the
integration of domesticated species in land-use.
Domestication is an ongoing process in which genetic
and cultivation improvements are continuously refined.
In genetic terms, domestication is accelerated and
human-induced evolution. Domestication, however, is
not only about selection and breeding. In nature, the
forces of the environment naturally select the fittest
trees in the population. In artificial selection, we choose
those trees that offer the best combination of
adaptability, growth, quality and quantity products, and
disease resistance. It integrates the four key processes of
the identification, production, management, and
adoption of tree resources.
Farmer’s access to good performing and well-
adapted Jatropha accessions with a wide genetic base
seems the most logical domestication strategy for small-
scale farmer systems. A wide genetic base increases the
sustainability of production. Other requirements for
implementation of this domestications strategy are
(Lengkeek 2007, Akinnifesi 2008, Leakey and
Akinnifesi 2008, Akinnifesi et al. 2006, Leakey et al.
2003). Researchers and farmers should disseminate
their agronomic findings on land suitability, agronomy
and integrated pest management, for example; Farmers
will need to team up with other production chain
partners to have a guaranteed offset of their production.
Without market access, farmers should not embark
on joint domestication programs on Jatropha. The next
step will be to establish domestication and breeding
programs with farmers, researchers, extension workers
and, preferably, private enterprises aiming at small-
scale farming and participatory on-farm involvement, as
carried out for fruit trees in west and southern Africa; A
well-designed domestication program will include an
exit strategy for all actors, both the farmers and their
buyers. This exit strategy provides a route towards
independence of all project actors after the project
implementation period; Part of a well-designed program
will be training in seed-collection practices, in order to
prevent narrowing of the genetic base of subsequent
Jatropha generations, and postharvest handling to
ensure viability; Without such basic practices, selection
for favorable traits, such as production, oil content and/
or seed size, will not yield benefits; selection may,
depending on the heritability of the selected traits, give
an initial positive response due to selection of superior
genotypes, but this positive effect could be lost in
subsequent generations, due to a narrowing of the
genetic base (Lengkeek 2007).
Mass selection and recurrent selection
The individual superior plants are selected based on
phenotypic performance and bulk seed is used to
produce the next generation crop for genetic
improvement. To gain genetic improvement for desired
trait, there must be positive offspring-parent regression
which depends on degree of environmental effects in
the parental population. Mishra (2008) devised paired
comparison method for selecting plus phenotypes of J.
curcas with emphasis on seed and oil yield which can
overcome the problem of inbreeding depression by
controlling pollen source and environment effect and
reduced population size. Evaluation trials in J. curcas to
study degree of variability was undertaken by Montes et
al. (2008) involving 225 lines collected from Asia,
Africa and Latin America revealed that low genetic
variability in African and Indian accessions and high
genetic variability in Gautemala and Latin American
lines. This confirmed the studies on evaluation of J.
curcas for phenotypic and genotypic by Basha and
Sujatha (2007). However, wild J. curcas is available in
tropical America, Africa and South Asia as reported
Heller (1996), Dehgan and Webster (2007).
In J. curcas recurrent selection is advantageous to
overcome the deficiencies of mass selection. Heterosis
breeding and improving specific combining ability aids
in isolation superior inbred from the population and
subjected to recurrent selection for further utilization in
the development of hybrid and synthetic varities. This
method increases the frequency of desirable genes
within a population while maintaining variability for
continued selection. Development of open pollinated
varieties using mass selection and recurrent selection
method is under testing in India. After obtaining the
required data on seed yield, oil content and oil quality,
disease and insect pest resistance, the best performing
genotypes will be released as new varieties of jatropha
by adopting the standard procedure as reported by Punia
(2007).
Mutation and heterosis
Mutation breeding in tree crop is preferred due to
demerits of conventional breeding such as time
consuming, unpredictable results, long juvenile phase,
Surwenshi et al.
196 www.rjas.info
high heterozygosity and fear of loss of unique genotype.
Mutation breeding work carried out in Thailand using
fast neutrons and isolated dwarf or early flowering
mutants from the M3 generation, but the potential
productivity of these variants under intensive
cultivation conditions was not proved (Sagakuchi and
Samabhi 1987). Dwimahyani and Ishak (2004) used
induced mutations in J. curcas for improvement of
agronomic characters with irradiation dose of 10 Gy
and identified mutant plants with early maturity, 100
seeds weight (30% over control) and better branch
growth. In India, mutation breeding using chemical and
physical mutagens has been initiated to create genetic
variation for various traits and developed mutants are
being characterized using DNA markers (Punia 2007).
Mutation studies undertaken at National Botanical
Research Institute (NBRI), Lucknow, India has led to
induction of cotyledonary 514 variabilities in J. curcas
(Pandey and Datta 1995). The mutants themselves may
not be 515 suitable for direct release, but they do
provide the necessary alleles for developing superior
cultivars with desirable traits.
Heterosis in tree species is evident in many hybrids
and perhaps best example is Eucalyptus and Populus. J.
curcas is often cross-pollinated; heterosis can be
exploited by using inbred lines as parent for production
of hybrid variety. Improvement of seed yield and oil
can be achieved by selection of superior germplasm and
release as cultivar. However, little work has been done
in J. curcas for exploitation of heterosis. Paramathma et
al. (2006) explained the inter-specific hybridization
utilizing J. curcas as the female parent and J.
integerrima as the male parent with wide range of
variation for vegetative, flowering and fruiting
characters in F1 hybrids.
Inter-specific hybridization
Main breeding objective in J. curcas would be seed
and oil yield per unit area which depends on more
number of pistillate flowers per inflorescence, number
of capsule per shrub, 1000 seed weight, oil content of
seed and plants per hectare. Studies on phylogenetic
significance of interspecific hybridization in jatropha by
Dehgan (1984) confining to identification of
crossability barriers and morphological characterization
revealed that all F1 hybrids, except J. curcas × J.
multifida, were more vigorous than the parental species.
The species that could be crossed unilaterally with J.
curcas as female parent include J. macrorhiza, J.
capensis, J. cathartica, J. multifida, J. podagrica, J.
cordata, and J. cinerea. Interspecific hybridization has
immense scope for improving the genetic architecture
and agronomic attributes of J. curcas Sujatha (2006).
Basha and Sujatha (2009) produced artificial hybrids
between J. curcas and all Jatropha species used in the
study with the exception of J. podagrica without any
crossability barriers. Evaluation of backcross inter-
specific derivatives of cross involving J. curcas and J.
integerrima indicate scope for pre-breeding and genetic
enhancement of J. curcas through inter-specific
hybridization (Sujatha and Prabhakaran 2003, Parthiban
et al. 2009). Parthiban et al. (2009) made crosses
between J. curcas with other species. Cross between J.
curcas and J. integerrima was successful as it evolved
hybrids with more seed set and other hybrids failed to
produce seeds due to existence of crossability barriers.
CONCLUSION
J. curcas is known for its wide spread distribution
and adaptability under varying eco-geographical
conditions. However, there are several bottleneck in the
commercial exploitation of J. curcas as biodiesel plant
due lack of improved varieties for seed and oil yield
thus making cultivation of J. curcas as risky enterprise.
Apart from agronomic, socioeconomic and institutional
constraints, planned crop improvement programs are
lacking globally. Hence, J. curcas can be improved
through assessment of variation in wild sources and
selection of superior/ elite genotypes and application of
mutation, alien gene transfer through inter-specific
hybridization and biotechnological interventions to
bring the change in the desired traits. Enhancement of
productivity can achieved by evolving hybrids/ varieties
bearing more number of pistillate flower by exploiting
heterosis thus by increasing seed and oil yield per unit
area so as to make it profitable venture.
LITERATURE CITED
Basha S D and Sujatha M. 2007. Inter and intrapopulation variability of Jatropha curcas (L.) characterized by
RAPD and ISSR markersand development of population-specific SCAR markers. Euphytica 156(3): 375-386.
Basha S D, Sujatha M. 2009. Genetic analysis of Jatropha species and interspecific hybrids of Jatropha curcas using
nuclear and organelle specific markers. Euphytica 168: 197-214.
Dehgan B and Webster G L. 1978. Three new species of Jatropha from western Mexico. Madrono 25: 30-39.
Dehgan B. 1984. Phylogenetic significance of interspecific hybridization in Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae). Systemic
Botany 9(4): 467-478.
Dwimahyani I and Ishak. 2004. Induced mutation on Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) for improvement of agronomic
characters variability.
Heller J. 1996. Physic nut Jatropha curcas L. promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected
crops. Institute of Plant Genetic and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben/ International Plant Genetic Resource
Institute, Rome, Italy.
Diversity in Jatropha curcas for Crop Improvement
197 www.rjas.info
Mishra D K. 2008. Selection of candidate plus phenotypes of Jatropha curcas L. using method of paired
comparisons. Biomass Bioenergy
Montes L R, Azurdia C, Jongschaap R E E, Van Loo E N, Barillas E, Visser R and Mejia L. 2008. Global evaluation
of genetic variability in Jatropha curcas 2008.
Pandey R K, Datta S K. 1995. Gamma ray induced cotyledonary variabilities in Jatropha curcas L. Journal of
Nuclear Agricultural Biology 24: 62-66.
Paramathma M, Reeja S, Parthiban K T, Malarvizhi D. 2006. Development of interspecific hybrids in jatropha. In:
Singh B, Swaminathan R, Ponraj V, editors. Proceedings of the biodiesel conference toward energy
independencefocus on Jatropha, June 910, Rashtrapati Bhawan, Hyderabad, India, pp 136-142.
Parthiban K T, Kumar R S, Thiyagarajan P, Subbulakshmi V, Vennila S and Rao M G. 2009. Hybrid progenies in
jatropha a new development. Current Science 96(6): 815-823.
Pax F. 1910. EuphorbiaceaeJatropheae. In: Engler A, editor. Leipzig: Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann; Das
Pflanzenreich IV 147: 42.
Prabakaran A J and Sujatha M. 1999. Jatropha tanjorensis Ellis and Saroja, a natural interspecific hybrid occurring
in Tamil Nadu, India. Genet Resource Crop Evolution 46: 213-218.
Punia M S. 2007. Current status of research and development on jatropha (Jatropha curcas) for sustainable biofuel
production in India. In: USDA Global Conference on Agricultural Biofuels. Research and Economics 20-22
1021 August, Minneopolis, Minnesota.
Raina K Ashok and Gaikwad B R. 1987. Journal of Oil Technology Association India XIX: 81-85.
Ratha Krishnan P and Paramathama M. 2009. Potentials and Jatropha species wealth of India. Current Science
97(7): 1000-1004.
Reddy B V S, Ramesh S, Ashok Kumar A, Wani S P, Ortiz R and Ceballos H. 2008. Bio-fuel crops research for
energy security and rural development in developing countries. Bioenergy Resource 1: 248-258.
Sakaguchi S and Somabhi M. 1987. Exploitation of Promising Crops of Northeast Thailand Siriphan Offset.
Thailand: Khon Kaen.
Shukla S K. 2005. Experiences of Chattisgarh biofuel development authority. Biofuels India 3(4): 12-13.
Sujatha M and Prabakaran A J. 2003. New ornamental jatropha through interspecific hybridization. Genetic
Resource Crop Evolution 50: 75-82.
Sujatha M. 2006. Genetic improvement of Jatropha curcas L. possibilities and prospects. Indian Journal of
Agroforestry 8(2): 58-65.
Tiwari A K, Kumar A and Raheman H. 2007. Biodiesel production from Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) with high free
fatty acids: an optimized process. Biomass Bioenergy 31: 569-575.
Wani S P, Osman M, D’silva E and Sreedevi T K. 2006. Improved livelihoods and environmental protection through
biodiesel plantations in Asia. Asian Biotechnology Develop Review 8(2): 11-29.
198 www.rjas.info
Surwenshi et al.
... Multilocation trials are being conducted with an aim of releasing improved varieties of Jatropha. Few varieties have been released so far such as SDAUJ I (Chhatrapati, first variety of J. curcas released by Indian Council of Agricultural Research) and another variety by Acharya N. G. Ranga Agriculture University, Hyderabad for commercial cultivation in the semi-arid and arid regions of Gujarat along with Rajasthan and for rain shadow districts of Andhra Pradesh, respectively (Surwenshi et al., 2011). But till date, promising varieties are being developing, if improved varieties are developed, which can achieve its potential in terms of oil yield per hectare in marginal land. ...
Article
Full-text available
Energy security is one of the prime concerns of any developing/developed nation and India ranks sixth in the world in terms of energy demand. The Indian economy is expected to grow at a rate of over 6 per cent per annum. The petroleum imports are expected to rise to 166 MT by 2019 and 622 MT by 2047, hence there is a growing need for energy security. Jatropha curcas has the potential to become a significant source of renewable energy if improved varieties are developed which can achieve its potential in terms of oil yield per hectare in marginal land. For vegetative multiplication, we have successfully carried out air layering in Jatropha curcas through siddhast technique, where a stem is induced to form roots using Rooter Strand while branch is still intact on the parent plant. Virtually no extra water is required to be given to the parent tree to produce a rooted plant. Here, we examined the competency of eight Rooter Strands vis-à-vis two conventional techniques of air layering i.e. tourniquet and gootee. Results showed that time for root initiation did not vary with treatments. In branches tied with Rooter Strand rooting started in minimum 3 weeks; the average root initiation period with Rooter strand was 4.56-6.66 weeks of installation. However, both conventional techniques T9 and T10 required 8.05 weeks and 6.40 weeks, respectively, to start root initiation. Significantly better rooting observed as compared with tourniquet technique and highest 100 per cent rooting was recorded in Rooter Strand-2, 31 and 41 along with control. Significant difference also observed among all the treatments representing Rooter Strand showed usually 83 per cent or higher for survival percent. This technique is very easy and does not require much skill. This technique has the advantages of air layering i.e. less need for physical inputs (water, electricity, infrastructure, etc). It reduces water consumption up to 90 per cent and electricity 100 per cent as compared to tissue culture. Thus, this technique is very conservative from cuttings and much faster than normal procedure of air layering for producing true-to-type plant material and can be adopted for multiplication of superior varieties of this species for their large-scale deployment for biodiesel production to ensure sustainable development with least water requirement.
... In this context, J. curcas (Euforbiaceae), native to Central America and found under the most diverse edaphoclimatic conditions, has significant economic value because of the high oil content in the seed (20 to 45%) that has excellent physical chemical quality (Sousa et al., 2012;Matos et al., 2013). The J. curcas species has not yet been domesticated t and there are few agronomic data, such as spacing recommendations, for plant densities that ensure high yields (Surwenshi et al., 2011). Adequate spacing is essential because it determines the economically viable yield. ...
Article
Recommendations for J. curcas plants were studied for adequate crop spacing, and to increase the number of female and hermaphrodite flowers and fruit yields. The study was carried out in an experimental field in Brazil,using four-year-old adult plants in a 5 x 3 factorial in a completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments included five doses of the growth regulator kinetin (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 mg L-1 at the volume of 330 ml per plant) in a single application to six plants and three planting spaces (3×3, 3×2, 3×1 m). The results showed that the applied kinetin doses did not interfere in the production index of J. curcas, but population density exerted a significant influence on the vegetative and reproductive development of the J. curcas plants in the 3x3 spacing, where competition for essential growth resources (water, light and nutrients) seems to have been less intense and the plants were more vigorous. Cropping J. curcas plants in 3 × 3 spacing is recommended to obtain vigorous plants with a high number of branches, inflorescences and high grain yield. Applying kinetin at concentrations lower than 12 mg L-1 did not interfere in the sexual expression of J. curcas flowers. Further studies with higher kinetin doses in 3 × 3 m spacing are necessary to elucidate and recommend new management practices.
... Jatropha curcas is a hardy plant that has the potential to grow under both arid and semi-arid conditions [7]. It belongs to the family of Euphorbiaceae [8] [9]. ...
... The male to female flower ratio in the accessions evaluated varied from 11.85:1 to 33.17:1. Previous studies also showed high variation in flowering traits and flower sex ratios which were 29:1 (Raju andEzradanam 2002), 24.5:1 (Chang-Wei et al. 2007), 16:1-108:1 (Surwenshi et al. 2011) and8.8:1-72.8:1 (Nietsche et al. 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Jatropha curcas L., an important oilseed crop of the family Euphorbiaceae is valued for its oil as a fuel oil and biodiesel/aviation fuel feedstock. The adaptability and robustness of the plant makes it eminently suitable for integrating into small farm agroforestry systems and as an intercrop, especially in marginal and drought-stressed areas. Profitable cultivation of the crop is hampered by the lack of cultivars with stable and high yield. Variance components, heritabilities and genetic associations of yield and its determinants were estimated in 57 accessions from nine countries. The accessions exhibited significant variation and the coefficient of variation showed higher PCV than GCV for all the traits. Broad sense heritability and genetic advance were high for seed yield and height from base to branching and low for kernel oil content. Pearson correlation coefficients showed positive significant correlation of fruit shape and number of female flowers per inflorescence with seed yield. Cluster analysis based on 20 mixed traits grouped the accessions into five clusters with all the non-toxic accessions forming a separate cluster while the toxic accessions were grouped in four clusters. Seed yield recorded over 5 years indicated a significant yield increase by the 5th year and the high yielding toxic accessions, JP47 and JP40 gave average seed yields (g plant⁻¹) of 2574 and 1613 and maximum yields (g plant⁻¹) of 2943 and 1940, respectively. This is a significant step towards identification of trait specific genotypes with high seed yield, high test weight, pistillate nature, dual purpose edible types, which could be successfully utilized for genetic improvement of the crop through selection and hybrid breeding.
... The success of any genetics and breeding program depends on the collection of planting material (germplasm) from different agro-vegetational zones and the presence of genetic diversity in the population. These will enable the selection and breeding of plant with desired traits (Surwenshi et al., 2011;Ranade et al., 2008). Morphological and yields traits have previously been used as a descriptors for genetic relationship however, they have failed to reveal the accurate and exact taxonomical relationship existing among populations due to the high influence of environmental factors. ...
Article
Full-text available
Molecular characterization and evaluation of germplasm was carried out using 10 Inter simple sequences repeat (ISSR) on 48 accessions of Jatropha curcas (L) collected from three states (Kelantan, Selangor and Terengganu) in Peninsular Malaysia. The stem cuttings of these J. curcas accessions were collected, raised in the nursery and then transferred to the experimental site at University Agricultural Park. The 48 J. curcas accessions were grouped into three different populations based on the state from where they were collected. Percentage polymorphism in these three populations ranged from 90.75% (Terengganu) to 100% (Kelantan). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 94 % of the total variation was observed within the populations while variation among the populations accounted for the remaining 6%. A dendrogram produced by Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) based on Nei's genetic distance grouped the whole germplasm into 11 distinct clusters. Based on the information from this dendrogram, accessions that are far from each other by virtue of genetic origin and diversity index are strongly recommended to be use as parent for crossing. This will bring about greater genetic diversity, thus resulting into increase in selection gain. This will also lead to high productive index in terms of increase in fruit yield per hectare, oil yield, seed weight and other yield components. Therefore, accessions, B-01-03, T-01-09, B-04-01 and T-01-01 could be crossed with accessions D-04-02, B-05-05, B-01-04, and D-01-06 for the improvement of J. curcas in future breeding program.
... The number of male and female flowers per inflorescence varies greatly among jatropha accessions; from 25 to 238 for male flowers, and from 1 to 19 for female flowers. The male to female flower ratio varies from 16 : 1 to 108 : 1 (Surwenshi et al., 2011). ...
Conference Paper
Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is a species in the Euphorbiaceae that has been identified as a potential bioenergy crop. The seeds contain oil of high quality already proven suitable for biodiesel and jet fuel use. However, jatropha is still non-domesticated. Breeding and genetic programs are limited. Key to any successful breeding program is the identification of genetic diversity. Efforts on introduction, collection, characterization, documentation, and preservation of genetic material are required. The evaluation of morphological and reproductive characteristics in previous studies with jatropha revealed a considerable amount of genetic variability that can be utilized to optimize characteristics directly related to yield. The objective of this study was to specifically evaluate the reproductive characteristics of 15 jatropha accessions in South Florida. For each accession, plant sexuality, inflorescence type, flower initiation, total number of flowers per inflorescence, number of male and female flowers per inflorescence, male:female flower ratio, fruit initiation, total number of fruits, number of fruits per branch, fruit set, fruit fresh weight, fruit yield, seed ripening, total number of seeds, number of seeds per fruit, seed fresh weight, seed dry weight, seed yield, seed length, thickness and width,100-seed weight, and oil content were evaluated. Number of inflorescences and inflorescence set were evaluated for two flowering span periods, while remaining characteristics were evaluated during three different seasons; spring, summer, and fall. Data was submitted to analysis of variance and the phenotypic correlation between pairs of floral, fruit, and seed components was evaluated for all jatropha accessions. Two flowering spans were identified throughout one year of evaluations, March through May, and August through November, respectively. Seeds ripened within 90 days and a 3-month harvest period was identified for each flowering span. There was significant variability among accessions for flowering characteristics, flowering spans and the interactions between them. The total number of flowers ranged from 68 to 225 for the first flowering span, and from 73 to 155 for the second flowering span. Maximum female flowers were 10 to 15, for the first and second flowering spans, respectively. Summer season favored female-type inflorescences, while Spring and Fall favored middle-type inflorescences. Significant differences were also observed for number of fruits per bunch and fruit set between flowering spans. Seed and oil characteristics also differed significantly. Phenotypic correlations were significant for all traits. The variability found in this study for jatropha accessions if of high importance for germplasm selection and application in crop improvement programs.
... Jatropha is considered as the most potential biodiesel source in the tropic and subtropic due to its drought-tolerance and non-edible oil. Nevertheless, a major limitation to commercialize this plant is the lack of high yielding varieties for oil content and yield [33]. Genetic improvement of jatropha is still limited, although urgently needed; this is due mainly to low genetic variability among the existing jatropha accessions as reported in India [34], China [12,35], and Brazil [36]. ...
... In J. curcas, microsatellites have been recently developed [7,8] and used in constructing a linkage map [8], and studying genetic diversity within and among populations [7,9,10]. Results of studies on genetic diversity of J. curcas are controversial [11]. Some reported no genetic variation at microsatellite loci [8,10,12], while some reported limited variation [13,14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Genetic variation in the genome of a given species is the basis for natural selection and genetic improvement through selective breeding. We applied 29 microsatellites located on 11 linkage groups to study genetic variation in 276 accessions of J. curcas collected from nine locations in five countries in South America, Asia and Africa to initiate a breeding program. To our surprise, we did not detect any genetic diversity at all 29 microsatellites loci. All the 276 accessions were homozygous at all loci and shared the same genotype at each locus, suggesting no microsatellite variation in the genome of Jatropha curcas. This result is quite unusual, and may have a profound influence on the breeding strategies and genome study of this species.
Chapter
The objective of this chapter was to present the agronomic and industrial advantages of three new varieties of Jatropha that were developed in Mexico in order to meet the demand of the industry and the producers. It is discussed the importance of genetic resources and particularly of genetic diversity to develop new improved varieties. Based on agronomic and industrial characteristics, promissory genotypes were selected and variety trials were established in 4 tropical environments of Mexico to evaluate agronomic behavior. The main selection criteria used were grain yield, oil content, growth habit, and high presence of female flowers. It was found that the number of inflorescences in the plant and the number of female flowers are good predictor of yield because it was found positively correlated with the yield (0.83 and 0.78, respectively). In a population of 312 plants of various origins, plants with the presence of male and female flowers predominate with 75.5%, followed by flowering plants completely pistillate whose presence reaches 22.75% of the population, and plants with male flowers and hermaphrodites are 1.75%. Jatropha exhibits great variation in yield over the years presenting various types of behavior. It can be observed that there are genotypes with early and sustained production as México-JC 59 and genotypes with late and sustained production as México-JC 41. Also can be noted the genotype México-JC 88 produced late and sustained production but with very low yield. The best genotypes of this clonal trials were two clones with 100% female flowers and one clone with predominant of male flowers, but also with the presence of female flowers. The females were registered with the names of “Gran Victoria” and “Doña Aurelia,” and the clone with the biggest percentage of male flowers was denominated as “Don Rafael.” Jatropha is a plant with a tendency to cross-pollination, that is the reason the new varieties should not be spread by seed, but it ought to be done by methods of vegetative reproduction such as cuttings or in vitro propagation.
Article
Full-text available
Soaring prices of fossil fuels, geo-political issues and environmental pollution associated with fossil fuel use has led to worldwide interest in the production and use of bio-fuels. Both the developed and developing countries have developed a range of policies to encourage production of combustible fuels from plants that triggered public and private investments in bio-fuel crop research and development, and bio-fuels production. In this article, we discuss the potential benefits of bio-fuels in increasing the farmers’ incomes, reducing environment pollution, the crop options and research and development interventions required to generate feedstocks to produce bio-fuels to meet projected demand without compromising food/fodder security in developing countries.
Article
The existing Jatropha curcas in the country exhibit varying degrees of success in terms of seed oil yield and susceptiblity to pest and diseases. Hence, an intensive hybridization programme has been attempted between Jatropha curcas and other Jatropha species to develop new hybrids with higher yield potential and resistance to diseases. Among the interspecific crosses, the cross between J. curcas and J. integerrima produced successful hybrids with more seed set, while the other crosses failed to produce seeds due to existence of crossability barriers. The F1 hybrids exhibited vigorous growth, but the fruit was small in size indicating J. integerrima characters. Hence backcross was attempted and the progenies showed unique characteristics of fruit, seed and oil yield.
Article
Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) is an oil bearing species with multiple uses and considerable potential as a biodiesel crop. The present communication deals with the method of selecting plus phenotypes of J. curcas for exploiting genetic variability for further improvement. Candidate plus tree selection is the first and most important stage in any tree improvement programme. The selection of candidate plus plants (CPPs) is based upon various important attributes associated with the species and their relative ranking. Relative preference between various traits and scoring for each trait has been worked out by using the method of paired comparisons for the selection of CPP in J. curcas L. The most important ones are seed and oil yields.
Article
Increasing energy demand and spiraling oil prices are the cause of financial strain on countries and also causing environmental degradation. Use of non-edible oil as biodiesel provides a win-win proposition for the densely populated Asian countries. Perennials such as Pongamia pinnata and Jatropha curcas have offered an excellent opportunity to remedy the problems of environmental protection and oil crisis. Strategies for rehabilitating degraded lands and improving livelihoods through biodiesel plantations based on field experiences are discussed. Although technology, policy support, and the demand for biodiesel are increasing, the main constraint is supply of raw material. Validated and good quality data on agronomic practices, yield potential, diseases and pests occurrence, water requirement and management for block plantations are not available. There is an urgent need to undertake research on all aspects of biodiesel plantations.
Article
Interspecific hybridization has been successful between two economically important species of Jatropha, viz., J. curcas and J. integerrima. The interspecific hybrids exhibited morphological intermediacy for various vegetative characteristics but produced flowers with three distinct colours. Backcrossing of the F1 hybrids resulted in a number of flower colours varying from dark pink through green to white enhancing the ornamental value of the genus. Hybridity was confirmed through PCR amplification using random primers. The various propagation methods for these new ornamental Jatrophas are discussed.
Article
Jatropha tanjorensis Ellis & Saroja, a species found abundantly in Tanjore, Pudukottai, Trichirapalli and Ramnad districts of Tamil Nadu state, India and grown as a fence plant showed intermediacy in phenotypic characters of J. curcas L. and J. gossypifolia L. A detailed survey at its place of occurrence supplemented with data employed from cytological and peroxidase isozyme studies revealed that J. tanjorensis is a natural interspecific hybrid between these two species. Since there was no seed set, propagation through tissue culture using leaf discs was attempted.