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UNDERSTANDING SUSTAINABILITY INNOVATIONS: POINTS OF INTERSECTION BETWEEN THE MULTI-LEVEL PERSPECTIVE AND SOCIAL PRACTICE THEORY

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UNDERSTANDING SUSTAINABILITY INNOVATIONS:
POINTS OF INTERSECTION BETWEEN
THE MULTI-LEVEL PERSPECTIVE
AND SOCIAL PRACTICE THEORY
Tom Hargreaves, Noel Longhurst and Gill Seyfang
3S Working Paper 2012-03
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Science, Society and Sustainability (3S) Research Group
School of Environmental Sciences
University of East Anglia
Norwich Research Park
Norwich NR4 7TJ UK
info@3S.uea.ac.uk
www.3S.uea.ac.uk
Established in early 2011, and building on a
tradition of leading environmental social science
research at UEA, we are a group of faculty,
researchers and postgraduate students taking
forward critical social science approaches to
researching the social and political dimensions of
environment and sustainability issues.
The overall aim of the group is to conduct
world-leading research that better understands,
and can potentially transform, relations between
science, policy and society in responding to the
unprecedented sustainability challenges facing our
world. In doing this our approach is:
INTERDISCIPLINARY, working at the interface
between science and technology studies, human
geography and political science, as well as linking
with the natural sciences and humanities;
ENGAGED, working collaboratively with publics,
communities, civil society organisations, government
and business; and REFLEXIVE, through being
theoretically informed, self-aware and constructively
critical. Our work is organised around ve
interrelated research strands:
KNOWLEDGES AND EXPERTISE
PARTICIPATION AND ENGAGEMENT
SCIENCE, POLICY AND GOVERNANCE
TRANSITIONS TO SUSTAINABILITY
SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION
3S researchers working across these strands focus
on a range of topics and substantive issues including:
climate change, energy, emerging technologies
(such as biotechnologies and geoengineering),
natural hazards, responses to the economic and
nancial crisis, and grassroots actions and social
movements on sustainability.
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.!!
... According to Hargreaves et al. (2012) sustainability is a challenge that, in order to be assimilated by society, requires innovation, considering a systemic level to fundamentally change the way things are done, as well as respecting the needs of society. They also defend that, considering the nascent field of innovation studies for sustainability, attention is focused on two theoretical approaches, both sharing concern with the change of the sociotechnical system, which are the MLP and SPT. ...
... Research based on multilevel MLP) and practice theory (SPT), can reveal more than one track, analogously are two paths with parallel or perpendicular dimensions, which interconnect and have dependence. Regime and practices are seen as overlapping and closely interlinked entities that support each other and coevolve (Hargreaves et al., 2012). Hargreaves et al. (2012) also suggest that niches, regimes, and landscapes in particular systems, their interactions and impacts on daily practices, and how practices and systems of practices intersect with the dynamics between niches, regimes and landscape. ...
... Regime and practices are seen as overlapping and closely interlinked entities that support each other and coevolve (Hargreaves et al., 2012). Hargreaves et al. (2012) also suggest that niches, regimes, and landscapes in particular systems, their interactions and impacts on daily practices, and how practices and systems of practices intersect with the dynamics between niches, regimes and landscape. An interesting way to do this monitoring is to look at the intersections defended by Shove (2003) from his Intersection Diagram (see Figure 1). ...
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The world is sensitive to unbridled consumption that impacts on sustainability. Eco-innovation has been shown to be an approach that seeks to understand sustainable innovations as an alternative to the economic development of societies. The main contribution of this paper is to describe how the system of eco innovation practices was developed in the process of socio-technical transition to sustainability in a construction company. From a qualitative approach we describe how eco-innovation practices are developed in a construction company with socio-technical theory and social practice theory. This analysis allowed us to understand how eco-innovation practices are developed, considering points that delay or stimulate the transition to sustainability. The results showed some intersections with niche, regime and landscape, many of them stimulating sustainability and others slowing down. We also included an amplification of the theory by showing that the intersections that stimulate are more organized in practices, and those that delay find strong barriers in the regime.
... Social psychology based research, drawn from work on Health Behavior Change (Prochaska and Velicer, 1997), aimed to establish the connection between information and awareness, attitudes and values and behaviors and built environments. Heuristics from this work included 'stages of change,' 'self-efficacy,' 'small steps lead to big steps,' and 'spill-over effect' (Kasser, 2011;Hargreaves et al. 2012). ...
... In this paper we focus on and attempt to integrate three distinct strands of thought relating to sustainability transitions that have been prominent in the 'theories of change' area of the transition design framework. Two of these, social practice and socio-technical transitions theories are well established and have a large body of research behind them, and some work is already underway to integrate them (Hargreaves et al., 2012;Cohen and Ilieva, 2015;Seyfang, 2010). The third, the Domains of Everyday Life framework, has been developed more recently (Kossoff, 2011a(Kossoff, , 2011b. ...
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The Craft Your Future project brings together educational institutions, students, local authorities, creative centers and (social) companies in the creation of a strategy that helps regions use intangible cultural heritage to increase their attractiveness, boost local economies and build a future based on these regional resources. The Craft Your Future strategy is based on the vision that young people are the source of tomorrow’s economy and, therefore, should lead the design of future strategies. The development of student leadership skills, proactivity and business mentality will drive change and innovation.
... Une multitude de désignations existe dans la littérature foisonnante sur ces initiatives. Les travaux qui s'inscrivent dans les Sustainability Transitions Studies, mobilisent les notions d'« innovations sociales transformatives » (Avelino et al., , 2020Haxeltine et al., 2016 ;Kunze et Avelino, 2015 ;Pel et al., 2017), de grassroots innovations for sustainability (Feola et Butt, 2017 ;Martiskainen, 2017 ;Seyfang et Haxeltine, 2012 ;Seyfang et Smith, 2007b ;Smith et al., 2016Smith et al., , 2017 ou encore de sustainability innovations (Hargreaves et al., 2012). Au sein des courants critiques, elles sont désignées comme alternatives to development (Escobar, 1995), grassroots movements (Esteva et Prakash, 1998), utopies réelles (Wright, 2017) nowtopias , prefigurative social movements (Monticelli, 2018) ou alternatives tout court (Temper et al., 2018). ...
Book
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Ce volume se comprend comme une contribution au défi qui se pose aux Sciences sociales et humaines d’appréhender les transformations sociétales profondes - conçues comme nécessaires pour faire face aux crises multiples contemporaines. Le chapitre 1 part de l’axiome que la transition des sociétés (post)industrielles vers la soutenabilité consiste en un changement sociétal d’ordre ontologique, et argumente que les SHS doivent se doter d’outils conceptuels « en-dehors » de l’épistème moderne afin de se mettre en capacité d’observer et d’analyser les signes éventuels de l’émergence d’autres ontologies. Pour ce faire, il propose d’enrichir les cadres conceptuels des Sustainability Transitions Studies avec des outils conceptuels a-normatifs dont se dote la Critical Development Geography contemporaine. Ainsi, le chapitre 2 analyse l’évolution des approches et concepts de la Critical Development Geography dans son double effort d’analyser les changements sociétaux et l’altérité dans les Suds. Il retrace sa sortie successive du cadre normatif moderne, notamment à partir des années 1990, et montre le potentiel de certaines notions comme celles de l’hybridité, des conflits ontologiques et des territorialités divergentes pour appréhender des ontologies en dehors de l’épistème moderne. Le chapitre 3 explore ensuite les cadres conceptuels desquels se dotent les Sustainability Transitions Studies, jeune champ de recherche international et interdisciplinaire qui s’attache à l’étude et la conceptualisation de transitions sociétales vers la soutenabilité. Il met en lumière certaines faiblesses conceptuelles qui empêchent de cerner les transformations sociétales profondes et les conditions de leur émergence. Le chapitre 4 propose un assemblage conceptuel au croisement entre ces deux champs de recherche, permettant de saisir le caractère ontologique et spatial de dynamiques de transformations à partir d’innovations sociales par le bas. Ces propositions conceptuelles s’appuient sur une exploration-démonstration à partir d'une étude de cas d’innovations sociales en moyenne montagne en France et en Italie.
... This assumption has allowed researchers to consider the different positions and powers of actors in a specific system. The micro, meso, and macro levels offer different forms of stabilities where actors, networks, and their alignment determines the change in the socio-technical systems leading to the adoption of a certain technology or spread of an everyday practice [24,25]. ...
Article
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In the face of pressing environmental challenges, governments must pledge to achieve sustainability transitions within an accelerated timeline, faster than leaving these transitions to the market mechanisms alone. This had led to an emergent approach within the sustainability transition research (STR): Accelerated policy-driven sustainability transitions (APDST). Literature on APDST asserts its significance in addressing pressing environmental and development challenges as regime actors like policymakers enact change. It also assumes support from other incumbent regime actors like the industries and businesses. In this study, we identify the reasons for which incumbent industry and business actors might support APDST and whether their support can suffice for implementation. We examine the actor strategies by drawing empirical data from the Indian national government policy of mandatory leapfrog in internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle emission control norms, known as Bharat Stage 4 to 6. This leapfrogging policy was introduced to speed up the reduction of air pollutants produced by the transport sector. A mixed-methods approach, combining multimodal discourse analysis and netnographic research, was deployed for data collection and analysis. The findings show that unlike the status quo assumption in STR, many incumbent industry and business actors aligned with the direction of the enacted policy due to the political landscape and expected gains. However, the degree of support varied throughout the transition timeline and was influenced by challenges during the transitioning process and the response of the government actors. The case suggests we pay more attention to the actors’ changing capacities and needs and consider internal and external influences in adapting the transition timelines. This study contributes to the ongoing discussion on the implementation of APDST, by examining the dynamism of actor strategies, and provides an overview of sustainability transitions in emerging economies.
... Social psychology based research, drawn from work on Health Behavior Change (Prochaska and Velicer, 1997), aimed to establish the connection between information and awareness, attitudes and values and behaviors and built environments. Heuristics from this work included 'stages of change,' 'self-efficacy,' 'small steps lead to big steps,' and 'spill-over effect' (Kasser, 2011;Hargreaves et al. 2012). ...
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El siguiente documento tiene como objetivo proporcionar algo de la historia y la teoría del diseño que se está utilizando en la Escuela de Diseño de la Universidad Carnegie Mellon en su esfuerzo por constituir la práctica del Diseño para la Transición. Explica cómo la profesión y la disciplina del diseño están experimentando una rápida expansión y transformación que permiten un rico conjunto de marcos para el Diseño para la Transición. Este artículo argumenta que los diseñadores no solo pueden y deben aprender de los estudios para la transición, sino que el diseño puede contribuir recíprocamente a través de nuevos enfoques para enmarcar problemas relacionados con el cambio sociotécnico dentro del contexto de ecosistemas complejos.
... In this paper we focus on and attempt to integrate three distinct strands of thought relating to sustainability transitions that have been prominent in the 'theories of change' area of the transition design framework. Two of these, social practice and socio-technical transitions theories are well established and have a large body of research behind them, and some work is already underway to integrate them (Hargreaves et al., 2012;Cohen and Ilieva, 2015;Seyfang, 2010). The third, the Domains of Everyday Life framework, has been developed more recently (Kossoff, 2011a(Kossoff, , 2011b. ...
Article
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El desafío central de la era actual es la transición hacia la sostenibilidad. Esta transición debe definirse en los términos más amplios posibles. Es un proyecto que es a la vez político, social, económico, cultural, científico y tecnológico: cada dimensión de los asuntos humanos se ve desafiada por la necesidad de transición y, a medida que varios temas alcanzan puntos críticos (cambio climático, inequidad, agotamiento de recursos, pérdida de biodiversidad, etc.) aumenta la urgencia con la que esto debe suceder. La Escuela de Diseño de la Universidad Carnegie Mellon ha respondido a este desafío mediante la introducción de lo que ha llamado “Diseño para la Transición” en los planes de estudio en los niveles de pregrado, posgrado y doctorado (Irwin 2015) y que “toma como premisa central la necesidad de transiciones sociales hacia futuros más sostenibles y argumenta que el diseño tiene un papel clave que desempeñar en estas transiciones” (Irwin et al. 2015b: 1).
... It studies the conditions for the dissemination of technological innovations in niches in existing socio--technical regimes. Regimes are defined as "the rule-set or grammar embedded in a complex of engineering practices, production process technologies, product characteristics, skills and procedures, ways of handling relevant artefacts and persons, ways of defining problems; all of them embedded in institutions and infrastructures" [9]. When a major change alters the way particular societal functions are fulfilled, it is conceived as regime shift [5]. ...
Conference Paper
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Based on the middle-range theory in the field of socio-technical transitions, the Multi-Level Perspective (MLP), the paper considers the practice of 'sustainable' building guided by building environment assessment tools (LEED, BREEAM or la Procedure HQE) as a niche activity under the mainstream construction regime. The MLP views transitions as a result of the interplay between three analytical levels: Niches (for radical innovations), socio-technical regimes and socio-technical landscapes. This perspective reveals how structuring effects reflect upon practices and thus how practices (re)produce structures. Where regimes tend to produce 'normal' innovation process pattern, niches refer to activities mostly protected from the structuring effects of regimes. In this framework, higher levels are more stable than lower ones and transitions are the shifts from one regime to another. In Turkey, although the number of certified buildings in one of these assessment tools remains small, these tools have gained significant appeal in marketing the projects. Regardless of the inadequacies of these tools in encouraging professionals towards environmentally sensitive buildings, their assessment methodology and criteria are seen to be highly influential on orienting the local discourse on sustainability. Considering the call for attaining a regenerative paradigm for a sustainable built environment, such an orientation might favor only one type of structure, by relinquishing others and, maybe more fruitful alternatives. Following the MLP, this paper discusses how such a niche activity interacts with the overarching construction regime in Turkey. It examines if such a niche-regime translation occurs and dwells upon possible counterproductive consequences for the future.
... Practice comprises competence, meaning, materials, and the interplays among people, instead of the behaviours driven by the attitudes of individuals. According to practice theory, a new practice is formulated and spread in association with the changes in the systems of provision [11][12][13][14]21], or is shaped through the transfer of the competence, meaning, or materials from existing practices to another [49,50]. For instance, the spread of daily bathing was the result of the changes in the knowledge and belief on health, sanitation and appropriateness, as well as the development of the water system. ...
Article
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The recognition of the urgent need for more sustainable lifestyles dates from the late 20th century, originating in concerns about resource depletion and climate change. Research and policy measures have evolved since then, paying increasing attention to systemic change over individual behaviour. However, as individual behavioural change is constrained by the systems within which choices are made, more study is needed to understand better how systemic changes occur. Drawing on the experiences of the Sustainable Lifestyles and Education Programme of the UN-led One-Planet Network in collaborating with small collective actions for sustainable lifestyles, the paper analyses the needs and approaches for sustainable lifestyles and opportunities for the local actors to grow their capacities in developing ways of living sustainably. These experiences show that the pursuit of sustainable lifestyles is not a one-shot change in behaviour. It is a continuous process where actors identify and tackle locally specific opportunities for responsible and sustainable ways of living, and through a process of mutual learning and experimentation gradually shape shared visions of sustainable living. Systemic changes for sustainable living are ultimately neither about simply improving people’s awareness or attitudes or replacing some components of the external systems. They are the creation of capacities and aspirations of people actively and continuously engaging to shape alternative systems of living.
... Society-led innovation: beyond the individual entrepreneurship wave, the potential of co-creative schemes for social innovation and entrepreneurship is increasingly realised. While the multi-dimensionality of social innovation (Hargreaves et al., 2012) and the roles of diverse actors (Ettorre et al., 2015) become evident, the social value of non-business innovation is gaining recognition (Swann, 2014). In mass flourishing, Phelps (2013) provides an alternative account of the economic momentum of modernity, based on the extent that a sense of improvement pervaded public perception. ...
Article
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Knowledge markets are defined as value exchange systems where the quantity, quality and terms of interactions amongst agents are determined primordially by the dynamic properties of intellectual capital creation and exchange. Such properties include the attributes of knowledge-based value production as well as a distinctive ethos and organisational design. Based on this definition, an array of ten types of knowledge markets is introduced, with a synthetic characterisation for each category. First level types are: intellectual capital dealing, open dealing, crowd dealing, cooperative dealing, non-monetary dealing, social dealing, alternative currencies plus incentive regimes, alternative banking, open knowledge labs and emerging knowledge markets. Each category is broken down into subtypes, each subtype in turn characterised and/or exemplified. The typology description is accompanied by an extensive and updated literature review. The resulting map of knowledge markets may contribute to understand the uniqueness of these novel value-generation arrangements and capitalise on their transformative power.
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Discussing how the way different actors in the property market are informed by different perspectives and agendas, stemming from different practices and how this, in turn, leads to different ways of acting is an important issue. It is such a diversity in ways that triggered this research. The author's experience in the design and construction process of an apartment block in Bağ-lıca, Ankara, built with the build-and-sell system, disclosed the impact of estate agents' expertise in reading the market on architectural design and construction processes. This paper explored how estate agents foresee their role in this system by talking with the agents about their work. By considering the build-and-sell system as practice, the paper shared the findings of the content analysis of eight semi-structured interviews with executives involved in the build-and-sell system and mostly working in Bağlıca, Ankara, as estate agents, architects, and builders-and-sellers and two interviews with architects working in the municipality. The findings show that estate agents are a node, a bridge among builders, landowners, and architects in certain areas while considering themselves as design-decision supporters/consultants for many builders. The paper discusses how estate agents' knowledge, skills, and meanings interact with the constitutive elements of build-and-sell practices.
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Chapter
Despite the direction the mainstream policy framework for sustainable consumption has taken, the challenge laid down at Rio has not fallen on deaf ears. To recall, that objective was not only to promote greater efficiency in resource use, but also to realign development goals according to wider social and environmental priorities rather than narrow economic criteria, and to consider the possibilities of lifestyles founded upon values other than consumerism. This alternative approach to environmental governance and sustainable consumption is supported by a broad body of thought known collectively as the ‘New Economics’, which is elaborated in this chapter. It is founded on new conceptions of wealth and work, new uses of money, and an integral ethical stance; when it comes to consumption issues, it embodies what Jackson (2004b) terms an ecological critique of the utilitarian approach to understanding consumer motivation. Consuming more, simply put, does not necessarily make us happy, healthy, wealthy or wise. This view, for a long time considered taboo in policymaking circles, is finally starting to be heard in mainstream forums. The challenge for this broad church of interdisciplinary and alternative perspectives — and this chapter — is to provide a coherent theoretical foundation for policy and action.
Article
The challenges of sustainable development (and climate change and peak oil in particular) demand system-wide transformations in socio-technical systems of provision. An academic literature around co-evolutionary innovation for sustainability has recently emerged to attempt to understand the dynamics and directions of such socio-technical transformations and social change, which are termed 'sustainability transitions'. This literature has previously focused on market-based technological innovations. Here we apply it to a new context of social movements and social innovation, and examine the role of civil society-based social movements in a transition to a low-carbon sustainable economy in the UK. We present new empirical research from a study of the UK's Transition Movement (a 'grassroots innovation') and assess its attempts to grow and diffuse beyond the niche. Applying strategic niche management theory to this civil society context delivers theoretically-informed practical recommendations for this social movement to diffuse beyond its niche: to foster deeper engagement with resourceful regime actors; to manage expectations more realistically by delivering tangible opportunities for action and participation; and to embrace a communitybased, action-oriented model of social learning (in preference to a cognitive theory of behaviour change). Furthermore, our study indicates areas where theory can be refined to better explain the experience of grassroots innovations and social movements, namely through a fuller appreciation of internal niche processes, and integration with theories of social movements and social practices.
Article
Environment and Society examines the complex relationships between humans and nature from a new perspective, incorporating recent moves to situate sustainable development within a household and individual context. Through a series of theoretical and practical chapters, it builds a comprehensive account of the complex factors that underlie our everyday attitudes and behaviour towards the natural environment.