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Identifying and solving transportation problems is one of the chief tasks confronting governments in developing countries like Pakistan. Despite large expenditures on urban transport systems, the current transportation problems in developing nations continue to worsen because of bad planning, lack of governance, and corruption. Therefore, developing countries like Pakistan, have a major crisis on their hands. Urban transport problems in Pakistan are mostly managed by building larger and better roads, but building roads is not the solution. Road projects need to be part of an over-all transportation plan that includes traffic management and bigger and better transit systems and public transport. The principles of sustainable transport encourage utilization of low cost public transport capable of performing well in mixed land use and densely–populated Pakistani cities. This article highlights the core problem of continuing failure by Pakistani government to develop and manage their public transport systems to provide a high level of mobility, equity, and environmental sustainability.
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ISSN 1833-3850 E-ISSN 1833-8119
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Transportation Problems in Developing Countries Pakistan:
A Case-in-Point
Muhammad Tahir Masood, Ph.D., P.E. (Corresponding author)
Professor, Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Islamabad, Pakistan
Tel: 11-92-342-5522-342 E-mail: dr.tahirmasood@comsats.edu.pk
Azhar Khan, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
E-mail: azhar_khan@comsats.edu.pk
Hasnain A. Naqvi, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
E-mail: h.a.naqvi@comsats.edu.pk
Received: June 8, 2011 Accepted: July 5, 2011 Published: November 1, 2011
doi:10.5539/ijbm.v6n11p256 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v6n11p256
Abstract
Identifying and solving transportation problems is one of the chief tasks confronting governments in developing
countries like Pakistan. Despite large expenditures on urban transport systems, the current transportation
problems in developing nations continue to worsen because of bad planning, lack of governance, and corruption.
Therefore, developing countries like Pakistan, have a major crisis on their hands. Urban transport problems in
Pakistan are mostly managed by building larger and better roads, but building roads is not the solution. Road
projects need to be part of an over-all transportation plan that includes traffic management and bigger and better
transit systems and public transport. The principles of sustainable transport encourage utilization of low cost
public transport capable of performing well in mixed land use and densely–populated Pakistani cities. This
article highlights the core problem of continuing failure by Pakistani government to develop and manage their
public transport systems to provide a high level of mobility, equity, and environmental sustainability.
Keywords: Developing countries, Transportation modes, Transportation policy, Transportation problems, Safety
issues, Road rage, Traffic management, Over-population
1. Introduction
Exchange of goods and persons as well as the personal right of freedom both are values and benefits for
themselves. Therefore, transport and mobility are constitutional elements of cities which need to be organized in
a sustainable manner. Past research indicates that traffic growth will continue because of increasing mobility
needs caused by economic and social activities, spatial and residential structures as well as individual behavior
patterns.
Furthermore, the emergent type of urbanized or city-regions is both cause and effect of increasing mobility since
regional facilities (malls, leisure parks, industrial areas or production sites) and events (sport, culture, fairs)
generate regional or even inter-regional traffic. This development is ongoing and can only be structurally formed
in a long-term perspective. Cities and regions otherwise suffer from this traffic pressure in form of noise, air
pollution, traffic jams and accidents, but also in form of increasing infrastructure costs, less available land for
other purposes and loss of “Urbanity” in terms of nearby supplies and possibilities. A permanent task for cities is
to reduce the urban sprawl and the traffic impacts in order to improve the quality of life and the safety for
inhabitants and road users. How to do this is an important research problem. A basic policy and research
orientation could be green/zero emission and safe transport including a lot of single measures inter alia transport
system dimensions (infrastructure, vehicles and operations) and land use patterns. Another important point is to
raise the efficiency in terms of costs, time and natural resources as well as to improve the organizational and
financial structures. Raising efficiency also includes avoiding traffic, integrating cycling and walking as an
adequate means of mobility as well as reducing daily routes which could be best done with an orientation of
short distances and function mingled quarters. The requirements of pedestrians as the most important road-users
within the cities must set the standard for the design of streets and squares. Public transport has to be affordable
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and accessible to all population groups and especially to those who do not have any cars or individual motorized
vehicles. A huge task of future mobility and transport will be the adaptation especially to elderly people’s needs.
So, multi-modal transportation facilities are a basic requirement for community growth and development in a
country. With the huge capital investment required to finance urban projects, the consequences of ill planning
and corrupt practices have become more acute than ever. Providing successful solutions to complex mobility
problems confronting urban areas require collaboration by many professionals, particularly transportation
planners and traffic engineers. An inability to provide effective traffic solution management in the face of rapid
population growth is resulting in undesired consequences for Pakistan and other developing countries.
Pucher et al. highlights the rapid growth of neighboring India’s urban population and resulting enormous strains
on all transportation systems. Burgeoning travel demands far exceed the limited supply of transportation
infrastructures and services. Public transport, in particular, has been completely overwhelmed. Most bus and
train services are overcrowded, undependable, slow, inconvenient, uncoordinated, and dangerous. Moreover, the
public ownership and operation of most public transport services have greatly reduced productivity and inflated
costs. India’s cities and that of Pakistan, desperately need improved and expanded public transport service.
Unfortunately, meager governmental financial assistance and lack of supportive policies, such as traffic priority
for buses, place public transport in a continually deteriorating situation (Pucher). Pakistan is in a similar, or even
worse, situation than India. Acute transportation sector problems are only compounded by ill-planned
urbanization and enormous strains on economic development due to population explosion.
Identifying and solving transportation problems is one of the chief tasks confronting governments in developing
countries like Pakistan. Despite large expenditures on urban transport systems, ranging from 15 to 25% of their
total annual expenditures, the current transportation problems in developing nations continue to worsen (Khisty).
The continuing expansion of the cities like Karachi, Lahore, and Islamabad/Rawalpindi makes the daily
movement of people and goods an ever-increasing complex problem. Urban growth causes multiple
transportation demands on inadequate facilities. Rather than depending upon highways and major roads, cities
depend largely upon their street systems for transportation services. Unfortunately, these systems are being
overtaxed to meet increasing service demands for private automobile traffic, commercial traffic and public
transportation. In order to address increasing urbanization and vexing problems of congestion, both short and
long term strategies need to be employed. . Care and professional competence in planning and operation of
highways, airports, railways, waterways, public transit, and goods terminals, is an increasing demand of society.
The purpose of this paper is not only to identify the basic traffic and transportation problems in developing
countries, particularly Pakistan, but also to provide a critical overview of the causes of such problems and to
suggest practical solutions based on multi-modal transport system (See Figure 1). Also, the paper identifies
several factors including the importance of governance, capacity building, and urban planning in providing
adequate, efficient, and effective public transport in Pakistan.
2. Transport and Economic Development
Everyone recognizes that, in todays world, transportation is a key element of the global economy. It has changed
the face of employment, trade, family life and health care, bringing benefits that were unimaginable 100 years
ago. However, the price we are paying in form of road crash mortality and morbidity for such benefits is too high.
The shock and grief these events cause are all too well-known throughout the world. Their impact is particularly
higher in poorer countries, where 90% of the road fatalities occur (Ahmed).
According to Nandi, an Ideal Transport System is a fully integrated safe transport network which supports social
and economic regeneration and ensures good access for all which, is operated to the highest standards to protect the
environment and ensure quality of life. Long run strategy should be to manage for the growth of transport
demand to provide for the efficient movement of people and goods (Paavan). Transportation network of any
country is of vital importance to its development and affects all sectors through economic linkages. It ensures safe
and timely travel encourages business activities and cuts down transportation costs while granting produces access
to markets for their goods. A reliable transportation network also provides swift access to labor force and hence
generates employment opportunities. It has been widely recognized that economies with better road and
communication networks are positioned more advantageously in terms of overall competitiveness as compared to
economies having poor networks. Enhancements in transportation and telecommunication benefit industry,
agriculture, and other services sectors as well as improving the standard of living of the general public, it is
therefore, crucial that investments be made to develop and maintain an efficient network of transportation and
telecommunication to ensure cost efficient integration of markets both domestically and internationally.
It is widely acknowledged that transport has a crucial role to play in economic development. More specifically, it
has been recognized that the provision of a high quality transport system is a necessary precondition for the full
participation of remote communities in the benefits of national development (Carapetis):
Adequate, reliable and economic transport is essential, although not in itself
sufficient, for the social and economic development of rural areas in
developing countries
The direct impact of transport on production at remote locations is derived from three effects (Carapetis, see
Figure 2):
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Lowering of production costs;
Increased producer prices; and
Encouragement of investment.
Urban transport problems in Pakistan are managed by building larger and better roads. By contrast, the principles
of sustainable transport encourage using low cost public transport that could perform well in mixed land use and
high density Pakistani cities. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical overview of public transport policy
in Pakistan from the British India period through to recent years. This overview highlights the core problem of
the continuing failure of Pakistani cities to develop and manage their public transport systems in such a way as to
provide a high level of mobility, equity, and environmental sustainability. The paper identifies several factors,
including the importance of governance, capacity building, and urban planning in providing adequate, efficient,
and effective public transport in Pakistan.
3. Transportation Issues
The transport in general and the road transport in particular in Pakistan is facing critical impediment. Some of
these problems are:
Absence or inadequacy of clear-cut policy on the part of the Government
Lack of modern multi-modal transportation system
Non-availability of effective and adequate private sector for transportation sector
Unrealistic regulations of transport
Lack of adequate finances for public sector
Population growth resulting in increased transportation needs and over-supply of vehicles
Lack of credit facilities for the private sector
Serious road safety problems
Absence of efficient mechanism for accident compensation
Proliferation of smaller vehicles
Lack of coordination among transport related agencies
Improper administration of student concession
Lack of transport for students particularly females
Overall transportation shortage for female population
Cumbersome labor laws
Poor fleet maintenance arrangement
Inadequate institutional arrangement for proper planning of transport
Lack of quality manpower for management and operation
Absence or inadequacy of traffic management techniques
Environmental pollution
Inadequate involvement of transportation professionals in planning transportation policies and projects.
4. Critical Issues
Some of the critical issues impacting development of transport in Pakistan are discussed as follows:
4.1 Policies
This is foremost among the critical issues affecting transportation development. In Pakistan, we are continuously
having a controversy amongst the professionals and policy makers over the inter-modal distribution of traffic.
The role and suitability of various types of modes which form the basis for the national transport system is an
important factor. Every mode has its own role. Railway is designed and suited for long hauls. In Pakistan it is
understood that 80% of railway hauls is 50 Km or less. In short hauls railway is inefficient and uneconomical.
Railway system is to be planned and established on the number of long hauls both for carrying passengers and
freight. As a result of political pressures railway, in the past, is forced to open new stations and maintain some
uneconomical ones. Similarly some of the railway lines were laid by the British before 1947 for military during
World War II or for some other purposes. Today these tracks may have to be maintained by the railway on
political or social grounds even they are financially uneconomical. In developing countries, we think that
transport has to be regulated and the government must always interfere but these regulations need to be
constructive. In Pakistan, we cannot expect that the public sector will take care of all the transport needs of the
nation. It does not happen in the developed countries and cannot be expected to work in underdeveloped and
developing countries. Private sector plays very important part in hauling passengers and freight in the urban and
rural areas and between the cities. In the past, 80% of the load was taken by the private sector while the public
sector took 20% only. Now, public sector is hardly taking any load. Control on the fares is another problem
which is adversely affecting the efficiency of the private sector. During the past few years, the cost of tires,
tubes, gas and parts, etc., has increased many times whereas fare increases are only a fraction of this. To say, the
fares for various urban bus transport are generally 35 - 60% lower than what would be a reasonable level. It has
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thus become difficult for any private entrepreneur to even recover the cost by operating within the confines of
the law, i.e., no over-loading and no overcharging, etc. The outcome is inefficiency, violation of safety rules,
corruption and violation of laws.
4.2 Vehicle Mix
In the past, the public transport like Omni-buses in cities operated with government subsidies providing it as a
social service. Due to mismanagement and ill planning, the public transport like Omni-Bus in Lahore, failed in
all the cities. One of the suggestions to solve the transport problems in a city is always to eliminate rickshaws
and minibuses, etc. Then, there is a demand for underground rail (subways) facilities in all major cities. This is
primarily due to lack of understanding of the role of various modes of urban transport. The elimination of
rickshaws, Suzukis and minibuses would be very undesirable due to the fact that the transport system of any city
is like a tree. It has a trunk, main branches, secondary branches, tertiary branches and leaves, all performing
useful functions and required in their own right. Urban transportation system based on large buses would be like
a tree without branches and leaves. Beside, using a bus, where a small Suzuki and a rickshaw can do the job,
would be very wasteful. Every mode from walking and cycling to buses is part of the hierarchy of an urban
transport system and must be put to its optimum use. Basic and the oldest mode of transport is our feet which we
continue to use even today. Bicycle is next, then come the motorcycle followed by small vehicles like Suzukis,
then are van pickups and last are the trucks, buses, trains and planes. For a balanced and economical viable
transport system in developing countries, there will be a need to plan a system with a mix of vehicles. In the past,
due to political pressure, a bus route was some time extended to a locality where the number of passengers might
be very few. Similarly, air service is introduced by the government without proper feasibility study and because
some strong politician wants it.
4.3 Underground Rail
In the past, there has been a lot of controversy in the press in Pakistan and other developing countries about
going for the option of having underground or on-ground light rail train system. On the face of it, underground
system presents a very attractive solution to the transport needs of big cities. The supporters of underground rail
systems often overlook the initial capital cost of such a project. Studies have shown that the capital cost is
approximately over 100 million US dollars per Km with a minimal construction length requirement of 150 Km
due to scale economics. For example, the underground rail investment for Karachi, Pakistan’s largest city, would
be USD 15 billion. Most of the underground systems (e.g. Paris, London) depend heavily on the government
subsidies with a direct correlation between traffic volume and subsidy costs to operate them. In planning circles,
there is complete unanimity that further construction of underground facilities is not economically feasible for
Pakistani cities.
4.4 Research and Development
This is another transportation critical issue. Some people say that Pakistan is too poor to do research. It is
otherwise. If Pakistan was rich like Saudi Arabia she may not bother about research and development because
then she could buy the latest technology and use it. In fact the developing countries need research more than any
developed or rich country so that they can devise ways and means to plan and operate their transport system
efficiently and economically using their indigenous resources. Pakistan’s plans are based on assumptions
whereas they unlike the advanced nations, have to be based on indigenous resources.
4.5 Management
Today we are living in the age of specialty. A person who may not have the requisite qualifications and
experience of transportation may be appointed to make policy or manage projects in this sector. This negates the
basic principle of good management. It is proposed that a person in a particular system should be allowed to
make it a career job. He/she must have the relevant transportation qualifications and be familiar with the
principles and techniques of good management before they are asked to make the policy or manage a
transportation project. Universities should run professional degree programs in management, city planning, and
transportation to produce professionals to meet the demand of organizations.
4.6 Policy of Maintenance
Pakistan has been receiving a lot of financial assistance for various projects from International Donor Agencies
like USAID, ADP and World Bank, etc. Some agencies like, USAID would interfere in our existing road
construction and maintenance policy. US built a good Inter-state highway system but when it started falling apart
only then they thought of the importance of maintenance of roads and bridges. Foreign concepts have been
imported for Pakistan without realizing that we still need 50-75% more roads before we start spending our
resources on the maintenance of existing roads. We need to do maintenance but we need more roads as well. In
the past few years, National Highway Authority has done some projects like Motorways that have somewhat
helped ease the road problems; still we need more inter-city roads in Pakistan.
4.7 Lack of Adequate Finances
Funds to finance the transportation projects have always been short in the underdeveloped and developing
countries. We need adequate funds to finance construction of new projects and maintenance of the old ones. The
fund supply needs to be regular and adequate. Concept of further cooperation between the private sectors within
and without the country should be looked into and applied to plan and implement transportation projects.
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4.8 Safety Issues
This is another critical issue of transportation. Particularly, the road safety situation has already deteriorated to
extremely dangerous levels and Pakistan now ranks as one of the highest accident rate countries in the world.
Airline safety-record is better. Road conditions, inadequate signage, lack of driver education and training, and
law enforcement within the cities and between cities are the major causes of accidents. Corruption in traffic
police is a major safety issue and we all are aware of this problem. Providing better pay and more benefits along
with enforcement police cars and radar equipment may help in the police efficiency and reduce corruption.
Traffic education in the schools and media campaigns could also help in improving the safety on the roads
(World Bank)
4.9 Unusual Transportation
Due to shortage of public transport, people resort to what is called novel/unusual use of transport (See Figures 3
and 4). In fact, people are forced to violate safety laws and take risk of losing their lives or getting injured
because, there is shortage of public transportation and they have no other choice (Marcofolio.net).
4.10 Integration of Transport Modes
The road transport, railways and even airline need to plan and operate integrated projects. Paris transport system
provides a good example where you can travel on one ticket by the underground (metro), buses and railways.
The present level of technological development and the State-of-the-art of transport planning make a number of
remedial options available for every problem. However, the critical requirement is the precise diagnosis of the
problem itself. This needs understanding of the critical issues of transport by all concerned with planning and
operation of transport system.
4.11 Lack of Planning and Corruption in Public and Private Sector
Lack of adequate planning combined with corruption is among the factors responsible for the failure of the
development of an efficient public transport system in Pakistan. The role of the private sector, lack of capacity
among public transport organizations, negligence in the development of high-capacity public transport, and
failure to utilize existing land use patterns for the development of reliable and efficient public transport have
been identified as major factors required to develop an efficient transport system for the country. The importance
of governance, capacity-building including investment, and urban planning to provide adequate, efficient, and
effective public transport in Pakistan are critical for the national development.
5. Future Plans to Resolve the Transportation and Traffic Problems
Urban transport problems in Pakistan are managed by building larger and better roads. By contrast, the principles
of sustainable transport encourage using low cost public transport that could perform well in mixed land use and
high density Pakistani cities. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical overview of public transport policy
in Pakistan from the British India period through to recent years. This overview highlights the core problem of
the continuing failure of Pakistani cities to develop and manage their public transport systems in such a way as to
provide a high level of mobility, equity, and environmental sustainability. The paper identifies several factors,
including the importance of governance, capacity building, and urban planning in providing adequate, efficient,
and effective public transport in Pakistan. institutions, and provide alternative sources of financing for road
safety measures (Imran).
Pakistan needs to make the future comprehensive transportation policy based on realistic short and long term
plans. It is understood that during the past ten years or so a lot of work has been done in the transportation sector
whereby cities like Karachi, Lahore, and Islamabad have taken various steps to improve the streets and roads and
mitigate the traffic problems including police efficiency. But more needs to be done by implementing future
projects under short and long term plans by using integrated mode approach and modern technology and
involving private investors from within and without the country. Continue improving the existing streets and
roads and adding more roads, but that is not a comprehensive and long term solution. Pakistan’s population in
the cities as well as in the country is growing and more vehicles are being added every day. There is a need to
make long term plans to build Light Rail Vehicle (LRV) trains in our cities and use the concept of Park & Ride
as is being used in many cities in the world. Houston is the fourth largest US city which is growing fast. People
in this city had been pro-roads and automobiles. Public transport use had been minimum. Texans always
opposed LRV or Mono-rails but now they have finally realized the need for a train service. Seven and a half
miles of LRV (Siemens built it) connecting Downtown with Texas Medical Center opened in January 2004 and
it has proved a success carrying 40,000 riders a day. Now the feasibility studies on four more lines connecting
Downtown with the two big airports and activity/commercial centers have been completed and they are in the
planning and design phases (See Figure 5).
5.1 LRV Train
Here for example, two sketches (not to scale) have been prepared to propose a LRV system for Islamabad and
explain the concepts. The exact LRV line alignments, number and location of LRV stations and number and
location of Park & Ride lots should be determined after a feasibility study that can be done in two parts –
preliminary and then comprehensive. The studies should be done by the government (self-funded or through
international donors), but actual project construction and operation of the system could be done by international
investors in collaboration with local financiers:
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5.1.1 Option I
Plan a LRV line from the new airport to Islamabad Secretariat (call it Rawalpindi – Islamabad Secretariat
Corridor) and to south Rawalpindi (call it Mall Road Corridor). LRV Authority should provide free and secure
Park & Ride lot at each station where people park their cars/motorcycles and ride LRV. People without cars
should use private minivans and buses running from the neighborhoods to LRV stations. This option is
convenient but the traffic will be heavy due to cars and motorcycles going to the rail stations. (See Figure 6).
5.1.2 Option II
In the second option, proposed LRV lines are the same but the P&Rs are proposed in the neighborhoods away
from the LRV stations. No cars and motorcycles should be allowed on roads leading to the LRV stations. Only
public transport (minivans, buses, and coasters) should be allowed to transport passengers from P&R lots to the
LRV stations. This option will help in reducing the traffic congestion and environmental pollution inside the two
cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad (See Figure 7).
6. Other Technologies
Other technology that can be studied is Monorail (See Figure 8) which has advantages and disadvantages as
compared to LRV technology. The rail line alignment and concept should remain more or less the same for both
the technologies. Comparison of the two technologies viz-a-viz for the twin cities is a good topic for the next
article.
7. Islamabad – Rawalpindi
A city needs a comfortable, reliable, and safe transportation system that is environmentally acceptable.
Government Bus System failed years ago. Currently, the twin cities do not have a proper bus service. Private
sector operates minivans and Suzukis, etc., that cannot cope with the public demand. Huge number of motor
cycles and yellow cabs have been introduced in the system but, common citizens cannot afford the taxi fares.
Islamabad population which is about 1 million plus and the annual growth is six percent. Rawalpindi population
is more than 2.5 million with a growth rate of about 3.5 percent. More than 150,000 vehicle ply on Islamabad
roads and an average of more than 5000 to 6,000 vehicle are added every month. Supply of public transport
cannot keep up with fast increasing demand. The result is traffic congestion, accidents, and environmental
pollution. In the past, the local governments in the two cities had planned to provide CNG buses that would be
environmentally friendly, but the programs have not been introduced so far. The following short term and long
term measures are proposed for the twin-cities:
CDA and Rawalpindi local government have improved the roads and should continue improving the
roads in the two cities. Where possible, provide new bicycle tracks and walkways and improve the existing
ones.
Identify and deal with the HOT Spots in the two cities that cause traffic jams and accidents.
Improve further the functioning of traffic police – training, better benefits, more vehicles, and better
technology to do enforcement.
Plan a multi-modal transport system.
Implement the plan for the new international airport as soon as possible.
Conduct a feasibility study and introduce LRV or Monorail Technologies between the two cities.
This should be a 5-7 years plan. Like telecommunication sector, national and international investors
should be should be encouraged to join in this project. They should be involved in planning, designing, and
operating the LRV/Monorail system in the twin-cities.
Expand and improve the research facilities at the Pakistan National Research Center and Military College
of Engineering (Transportation Center). Establish a Multi-modal Transportation Research Center at
COMSATS Institute of Technology.
8. Conclusion
The rapid and often unplanned and uncoordinated growth of cities has seriously compromised existing
transportation systems and significantly increased the challenge of creating future transportation systems
especially in developing countries. It is indeed in developing countries that the greatest growth in motor vehicles
has been seen in the past few years and is expected in the future, primarily in urban areas. The environmental and
social impacts are significant and directly related to quality of life and urban productivity. These impacts include
congestion, energy consumption, air pollution, and traffic crashes. Thus, urban transportation issues are of
foremost importance to support the mobility requirements in these growing cities and require new approaches.
However, urban transport is a political rather than a technical issue. The technical aspects are relatively simple.
The difficult decisions relate to the type of city we want and the way we want to live (UNITAR).
Transportation network of any country is of vital importance to its development and affects all sectors through
economic linkages. It ensures safe and timely travel encourages business activities and cuts down transportation
costs while granting produces access to markets for their goods. A reliable transportation network also provides
swift access to labor force and hence generates employment opportunities. It has been widely recognized that
economies with better road and communication networks are positioned more advantageously in terms of overall
competitiveness as compared to economies having poor networks. Enhancements in transportation and
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telecommunication benefit industry, agriculture, and other services sectors as well as improving the standard of
living of the general public, it is therefore, crucial that investments be made to develop and maintain an efficient
network of transportation and telecommunication to ensure cost efficient integration of markets both
domestically and internationally (Khan).
Today, Pakistan is surmounted by huge problems like terrorism, corruption, political instability, ill-planned
urbanization, and uncontrolled population growth (3.25 crore in 1947 in the former West Pakistan rose to 18.7
crore in 2011) to name a few. These problems in turn have serious adverse impacts like danger for economic
development, low per capital income, low rate of saving, problems for education sector, housing problems, food
shortage and high market prices, unemployment, and transportation and environmental problems (AZY).
In this paper, we discussed the transportation sector and did a critical review to identify some of solutions to the
problems. In the past few years, efforts have been made to improve transportation in Pakistan and mitigate the
traffic problems in our cities, but much more is still needed to be done. The traffic problems are growing in the
twin cities (Rawalpindi and Islamabad), Karachi, and other cities due to flagrant violation of traffic rules. City
traffic departments and local governments have tried to improve the roads by widening them, putting signs,
marking the pavements, and installing signals. But, most of the drivers do not follow the traffic rules and drive
their vehicles off the lanes and ignore red light signals. The drivers using full lights, vehicles having smoking
emitting engines, horn blowing, illegal parking, picking up of passengers by taxis, rickshaws and minivans in the
middle of roads, aggressive driving, lack of driver education, driving without a license, and lack of proper
enforcement are some of the traffic issues that need to be addressed. Karachi and Lahore have many traffic
issues, but our observation is that the twin cities may be worst. It may be easier and safer to drive in Karachi than
other Pakistani cities. Traffic enforcement has improved over time, but still traffic police needs better pay, better
training, and more resources. Also, serious steps need to be taken to eradicate corruption in the traffic police
department. Short and long term transportation plans should be based on sound government policies prepared by
transportation and other professionals. Keep improving and expanding the road system by using modern
technologies like High Speed Rail between cities and LRV or Monorail in the big cities of Karachi, Lahore, and
Islamabad-Rawalpindi as part of the long term transportation plans. Mass transit study for Islamabad-Rawalpindi
is had been planned by some foreign consultants but it was never completed to give some realistic plan. Such a
study was meant to consider and evaluate all transportation modes including underground rail. They may
consider the underground option to make the study look good and comprehensive, but underground rail is very
expensive to build and operate. LRV should come out to be the most viable option. Government should
encourage and invite the private investors (within and without the country) to invest in our long term plans to
improve and operate our inter and intra cities transportation.
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http://www.unescap.org/ttdw/Publications/TFS_pubs/pub_2017/pub_2017_ch3.pdf (January 23, 1979)
Federal Highway Administration. (2011). [Online] Available:
http://www.tfhrc.gov/trnsptr/feb05/images/college.jpg (The Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center website
http://www.tfhrc.gov is now http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/research/ (May 13, 2011)
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(January 1, 2009)
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Nandi, S. (2008). The Role of Transport in Economic Development. Indian Institute of Management Lucknow:
[Online] Available: http://www.scribd.com/doc/2423416/Role-of-Transport-in-Economic-Development (April 2,
2008)
Paavan. (2006). Major Problems facing Pakistan. [Online] Available:
cozay.com/PROBLEMS-FACING-PAKISTAN-TODAY.php (January 1, 2006)
Pucher, John, Korattyswaroopam, Nisha, and Ittyerah, Neenu. (2004). The Crisis of Public Transport in India:
www.ccsenet.org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol. 6, No. 11; November 2011
Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education 263
Overwhelming Needs but Limited Resources. India Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 7, No. 4.
Sladek, Deborah. (2004). Metro Rail: Houston, Texas. TEXAS EXPLORER: Travel Guide to The Lone Star
State, photography by George Hosek. [Online] Available: http://www.texasexplorer.com/MetroRailHouston.htm.
(June 30, 2004)
Tully, Sarah. (2007). New monorail arrives at Disneyland. The Orange County Register. [Online] Available:
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Figure 1. Transportation Modes
Figure 2. Relationship between Transport and Economic Development Model (Adapted: Carapetis)
Greater demand for transport
Increased investment in
transport
More profitable transport
Services
Lower producer costs
Higher producer prices
Improved
transport
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ISSN 1833-3850 E-ISSN 1833-8119
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Figure 3. Unusual Transport Modes (Marcofolio.net)
Figure 4. Unusual Transport Modes (Marcofolio.net)
Figure 5. LRV Train opened between Downtown and Texas Medical Centre (7.5 miles) in January 2004 (Sladek)
(Photo by M. Tahir Masood)
www.ccsenet.org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol. 6, No. 11; November 2011
Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education 265
Figure 6. Option I
Figure 7. Option II
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ISSN 1833-3850 E-ISSN 1833-8119
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Figure 8. Monorail in Disneyland, USA
Permissions for Pictures:
Figure 1. Federal Highway Administration: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/research
Figure 3. Marcofolio.net: http://www.linuxfocus.org/common/cc/
Figure 4. Marcofolio.net: http://www.linuxfocus.org/common/cc/
Figure 5. Sladek, Deborah: http://www.texasexplorer.com/MetroRailHouston.htm., Photograph by M. Tahir
Masood
Figure 8. Tully, Sarah: htt p://www.monorails.org/tmspages/archive012508.htmly
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Ahmed, Aizaza. (2007). Road Safety in Pakistan. National Road Safety Secretariat, Ministry of Communications. Government of Pakistan. [Online] Available: http://www.unescap.org/ttdw/common/Meetings/TIS/EGM%20Roadsafety%20Country%20Papers/Pakista n_Roadsafety.pdf (June 2, 2007)
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The Supply and Quality of Rural Transportation: Transportation and Economic Development. ESCAP workshop on rural roads, Dhaka. [Online] Available: http://www.unescap.org/ttdw/Publications Federal Highway Administration
  • S Carapetis
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  • H Howe
Carapetis, S., Beenhakker, H., and Howe, H. (1979). The Supply and Quality of Rural Transportation: Transportation and Economic Development. ESCAP workshop on rural roads, Dhaka. [Online] Available: http://www.unescap.org/ttdw/Publications/TFS_pubs/pub_2017/pub_2017_ch3.pdf (January 23, 1979) Federal Highway Administration. (2011). [Online] Available: http://www.tfhrc.gov/trnsptr/feb05/images/college.jpg (The Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center website http://www.tfhrc.gov is now http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/research/ (May 13, 2011)
The Role of Transport in Economic Development
  • S Nandi
Nandi, S. (2008). The Role of Transport in Economic Development. Indian Institute of Management Lucknow: [Online] Available: http://www.scribd.com/doc/2423416/Role-of-Transport-in-Economic-Development (April 2, 2008) Paavan. (2006). Major Problems facing Pakistan. [Online] Available: cozay.com/PROBLEMS-FACING-PAKISTAN-TODAY.php (January 1, 2006)
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  • John Pucher
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  • Nisha
  • Ittyerah
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Pucher, John, Korattyswaroopam, Nisha, and Ittyerah, Neenu. (2004). The Crisis of Public Transport in India: www.ccsenet.org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol. 6, No. 11; November 2011
Metro Rail: Houston, Texas. TEXAS EXPLORER: Travel Guide to The Lone Star State, photography by George Hosek
  • Deborah Sladek
Sladek, Deborah. (2004). Metro Rail: Houston, Texas. TEXAS EXPLORER: Travel Guide to The Lone Star State, photography by George Hosek. [Online] Available: http://www.texasexplorer.com/MetroRailHouston.htm. (June 30, 2004)
New monorail arrives at Disneyland. The Orange County Register
  • Sarah Tully
Tully, Sarah. (2007). New monorail arrives at Disneyland. The Orange County Register. [Online] Available: http://www.monorails.org/tmspages/archive012508.html.
The Supply and Quality of Rural Transportation: Transportation and Economic Development. ESCAP workshop on rural roads
  • S Carapetis
  • H Beenhakker
  • H Howe
Carapetis, S., Beenhakker, H., and Howe, H. (1979). The Supply and Quality of Rural Transportation: Transportation and Economic Development. ESCAP workshop on rural roads, Dhaka. [Online] Available: http://www.unescap.org/ttdw/Publications/TFS_pubs/pub_2017/pub_2017_ch3.pdf (January 23, 1979) Federal Highway Administration. (2011). [Online] Available: http://www.tfhrc.gov/trnsptr/feb05/images/college.jpg (The Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center website http://www.tfhrc.gov is now http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/research/ (May 13, 2011)