Uptake of permethrin from impregnated clothing
University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Institute for Occupational, Social, and Environmental Medicine, Obere Zahlbacher Strasse 67, 55131 Mainz, Germany. Toxicology Letters
(Impact Factor: 3.26).
08/2009; 192(1):50-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2009.06.863
In order to examine exposure and health risks which can arise from permethrin-impregnated clothing, a controlled trial was conducted. In a study group consisting of 187 volunteers in total, a subgroup of 86 persons was equipped with permethrin-impregnated battle dress uniforms (BDU) for 28 days. One hundred and one persons served as a control group, wearing non-impregnated BDUs throughout the entire study period of 56 days. Internal exposure of all participants was assessed by determination of urinary permethrin metabolites (cis-DCCA, trans-DCCA and 3-PBA) on day 0, 14 and 28 of the wearing period and 28 days after termination of wearing. Exposure levels in the control group ranged within background exposure of the general German population at all four dates of sampling (medians Sigma DCCA+3-PBA were 0.09, 0.13, 0.23 and 0.10mug/l, respectively). For the group equipped with impregnated BDUs this applied to day 0 (0.31mug/l) only, while the following measurements revealed considerably higher metabolite concentrations (31.39, 22.01 and 1.44mug/l, respectively), especially while wearing impregnated clothing. Due to these results a substantial uptake of permethrin from impregnated BDUs has to be assumed. However, since calculations reveal a maximum permethrin uptake clearly below the acceptable daily intake (ADI), health impairments are rather unlikely.
Available from: Steve Lindsay
- "Permethrin is registered with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and approved by WHO for use in fabrics and clothing. Although the insecticide will transfer from the fabric to the skin, there is little evidence of adverse effects, and when used at appropriate concentrations, insecticide-treated clothing is deemed safe
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There is an urgent need to protect children against dengue since this age group is particularly sensitive to the disease. Since dengue vectors are active mainly during the day, a potential target for control should be schools where children spend a considerable amount of their day. School uniforms are the cultural norm in most developing countries, worn throughout the day. We hypothesise that insecticide-treated school uniforms will reduce the incidence of dengue infection in school-aged children. Our objective is to determine the impact of impregnated school uniforms on dengue incidence.
A randomised controlled trial will be conducted in eastern Thailand in a group of schools with approximately 2,000 students aged 7–18 years. Pre-fabricated school uniforms will be commercially treated to ensure consistent, high-quality insecticide impregnation with permethrin. A double-blind, randomised, crossover trial at the school level will cover two dengue transmission seasons.
Practical issues and plans concerning intervention implementation, evaluation, analysing and interpreting the data, and possible policy implications arising from the trial are discussed.
clinicaltrial.gov. Registration number: NCT01563640
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ABSTRACT: Reports on Gulf War illness (GWI) implicated the use of the pesticide permethrin (PER), and the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), in its etiology, as well as pyridostigmine bromide (PB), which was given as a prophylactic treatment against nerve agent exposure. Using Affymetrix microarrays the genomic response of human neuronal SHSY-5Y cells to 10 days of exposure to these agents was characterized and profiles of gene modulation unique to each treatment were demonstrated. In particular, a significantly greater impact of PER was observed compared to the other treatments. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis knowledgebase was used to analyze the genomic datasets and attribute functional consequences to the effects of related genes, which were significantly up- or down-regulated in response to different treatments. Canonical pathways shown to be significantly modulated at the genomic level in response to exposure included cellular mechanisms, which might contribute to the clinical presentation in GWI patients and thus be targeted for further investigation as potential targets for therapeutic intervention.
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