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The Impacts of Tourism Development on the Archaeological Site of Petra and Local Communities in Surrounding Villages

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Abstract

This paper aims at exploring the different impacts of tourism development on the site of Petra in Jordan, also the perceptions of local community in Petra regarding these impacts. Although of the economic benefits gained by tourism, deterioration has been witnessed in this ancient city since damage to features of the archaeological site as well as adapting negative values by the local community took place. This paper sheds the light on these impacts, and presents some suggested implications to achieve a more sustainable tourism development in the site.
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The Impacts of Tourism Development on the Archaeological Site of
Petra and Local Communities in Surrounding Villages
Dr. Mairna Hussein Mustafa (Corresponding author)
Department of Sustainable Tourism Queen Rania Institute of Tourism and Heritage
The Hashemite University, P.O. Box 330127, Postal Code 13115, Zarqa, Jordan
Tel: 962-5-390-3333-5103 E-mail: mairna@hu.edu.jo
Professor Sultan N. Abu Tayeh
Faculty of Business Administration, Department of Management, Taibah University
P.O. Box 344 al-Madina al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia
Tel: 966-4-846-0008 E-mail: sultanabutayeh@yahoo.com
Received: March 8, 2011 Accepted: April 20, 2011 doi:10.5539/ass.v7n8p88
Abstract
This paper aims at exploring the different impacts of tourism development on the site of Petra in Jordan, also the
perceptions of local community in Petra regarding these impacts. Although of the economic benefits gained by
tourism, deterioration has been witnessed in this ancient city since damage to features of the archaeological site
as well as adapting negative values by the local community took place. This paper sheds the light on these
impacts, and presents some suggested implications to achieve a more sustainable tourism development in the
site.
Keywords: Petra, Tourism impacts, Sustainable development, Bedul local community
1. Introduction (About the Site and its Tourism Development)
Since its rediscovery on August 22nd 1812 by the Swiss traveler J. Burckhardt, who disguised himself as a
pilgrim seeking to make a sacrifice at the tomb of Aaron (Burckhardt 1822); explorers and tourists were attracted
to the red rose city of Petra. The magnificent features of the city as well as the encounters with the traditional
inhabitants of Petra (the Liyathnah and the Bedul) were recorded in the writings of several travelers (e.g.
Doughty 1888; Musil 1907; Murray 1939), followed then by a significant number of books and scientific works
of archaeologists who recorded the features and continuous discoveries in this ancient city (e.g. Harding 1959;
Hammond 1973; Bowersock 1983; McKenzie 1987; Browning 1989; Joukowsky 1998) (Auge & Dentzer 2006).
The great Nabataean capital and commercial center is carved in the red sandstone, Petra is located just outside
the town of Wadi Musa in southern Jordan, with a distance of 260 kilometers from Amman via the Desert
Highway and 280 kilometers via the King’s Highway. The archaeological park which includes the ancient city is
accessed through an outer Siq (path) in which significant features as Obelisk tombs and Djen Blocks can be seen,
then a natural gorge known as Siq with a length of 1200 m with the water channels system is still existing, as
well as niches and the two statutes of Dushara and al-Uzza gods. The Siq then widens upon the most magnificent
of all Petra’s monuments al-Khazneh (meaning Treasury in Arabic), which is carved out of solid rock with a
height of 40 m. the Siq continues through the ancient city were different features can be observed; these include
the Street of Facades, the Amphitheater which can accommodate more than 6000 spectators, the Royal tombs
(Urn Tomb, silk tomb, Corinthian Tomb and Palace Tomb), also the Mausoleum of Sextus Florentinius; that is in
addition to the colonnaded street leading to triple-arched Temenos Gateway which marked the entrance into the
courtyard or "temenos" of Qasr al-Bint, one of the main Nabataean temples in the city. Other remains include
Nymphaeum, the Great Temple Complex, Temple of the Winged Lions, Petra Church, Blue Church, a number of
high places (with their platforms for the purposes of giving animal sacrifices), al-Deir (the Monstery) with its
huge façade (50 meters wide and 45 meters high), a big number of tombs as the Lion tomb, Garden Tomb, Tomb
of the Roman Soldier, Triclinium (Feast Hall), as well as many other features (Map 1). In general, the remains of
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the city are dated to different periods within Hellenistic Period (2nd century B.C.) to Late Byzantine Period (6th
century A.D.) (Causle 2003; Teller 2006).
(Map 1 goes here)
Shoup (1985) is one of the very few references that gave a detailed history of tourism development in Petra; he
mentions that the economic benefits of tourism to the city of Petra were recognized since the early decades of the
20th century A.D. Before that, tourism in North Africa and Middle East was restricted by the Western
imperialism that extended its influence over these regions, thus movement of travelers and tourists was mainly
confined to the major cities and pilgrimage centers as Cairo and Jerusalem, traveling to Petra was difficult at that
time, that area was still remote to many travelers, of who some could reach the city by horse or camel from either
Jerusalem or Aqaba, bringing with them servants and guides with all necessary equipment since no facilities
existed during that time; moreover, some hostility by local tribes against foreigners was recorded, this situation
was to end when Transjordan government of Amir Abdullah extended its authority through the southern areas
and ended raiding among the tribes, which resulted in more security, also the pavement of roads and the
installation of electric and telephone lines. For Wadi Musa the nearest village to Petra, it was linked to the city of
Ma'an by telephone in 1926. The first hotel in Petra was built in the early 1920's by Thomas Cook Travel
Company near the Nabataean Temple of Qasr el-Bint, which became later in the 1940's known as Nazzal's Camp,
this small hotel provided the visitors with simple comforts, for the Bedouins of the area, many of them were
influenced by the West either through serving in the British-officered armed forces, being part of local workers
in archaeological teams supervised by archaeologists from abroad, or by contact with European and American
tourists. In the 1950's, the Jordanian government opened a rest house between Wadi Musa and Petra, members of
the Liyathnah tribe living there were employed there and later were contracted to offer horses to transport
tourists into Petra; moreover, they started to sell post cards, tour books, and souvenirs. On the other hand, the
Bedul tribe who were living in Petra itself began to sell real and fake antiquities, post cards, and souvenirs, some
of them could establish refreshments stands, and register their horses with the government as the Liyathnah did
(Shoup, 1985). There was a conflict between the Bedul and the Liyathnah caused by tourist competition and
differential access to education and market resources. The Bedul's involvement in tourism was traditional and
stable; it was limited to selling souvenirs and refreshments besides providing guide services for extended trips,
and a limited participation in the horse rental for tourists, which were actually dominated by the Liyathnah
(Kooring and Simms 1996). When Petra was listed as a World Heritage Site in 1985, the Bedouin tribes who had
settled in the area were forced to leave the caves they used as homes (Lubick 2004), even with the growth of
tourism, the Bedul continued goat pastoralism and rainfall farming of wheat and barley, their residence included
black tents of woven goat hair, numerous masonry structures in natural rock shelters, as well as empty Nabataean
tombs, this residence took place in the area within and around Petra. Umm Siehoun was built as the village for
the occupation the Bedul, providing better education and health care, but decreasing their access to traditional
pastoral and agricultural lands and the cash economy of tourism, consequently, many of them refused to move
out of the caves and rock shelters, more efforts were done by the Jordanian governments to move them by 1990,
only a very few tent camps remained in remote locations. A road to Petra from Umm Siehoun has re-established
their access to tourists; the relocation process had also its negative consequences. The Bedul were concentrated
in a very density settlement, their goat herding from the village increases the pressure on the already-depleted
rangelands immediately around Petra, and so more people got involved in the tourist trade to compensate for
economic losses in other areas and to support a growing population, many of these people realize the advantages
of Umm Siehoun settlement, but they want to keep settling in their tribal lands and to have more involvement in
tourism development (Kooring and Simms 1996).
The archaeological exploration, development and the management of the site were the responsibility of different
establishments and stakeholders; some of these include: Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities, the Department of
Antiquities, Petra Regional Authority, Local Governate of Petra, and Petra National Trust.
In the 1980's and 1990's, tourism and associated development has greatly increased in Petra, as well as the
number of visitors to the site. According to the statistics of the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities in Jordan
(MOTA), the numbers of tourists visiting Petra kept increasing yearly on high rates, to start from 120,338
visitors in 1989, to reach 766,938 tourists in 2009, of which 105,582 were Jordanians, and 661,356 were from
abroad. Table 1 shows the increase in the number of tourists during the period between 1989 and 2010.
(Table 1 goes here)
Petra has been listed as a World Heritage Site in 1985, although of the great economic benefits gained by
tourism to the site, the fact that great pressure and negative impacts caused by the increasing influxes of tourists
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since its discovery was not to be ignored by UNESCO, which considered it as an endangered site (UNESCO
1993). There are some potential economic, sociocultural and environmental negative impacts that are threatening
the future of the site in the absence of a sustainable management plan for the site. This research aims at exploring
these different tourism impacts through reviewing previous studies, also to understand the perceptions of local
community about such impacts, therefore interviews were made with 48 individuals are who working inside the
site of Petra.
2. Tourism Impacts
There are some potential economic, sociocultural and environmental impacts that are affecting the future of the
site in the absence of a sustainable management plan for it. This paper is aiming at exploring these impacts, also
suggesting implications to reduce negative effects caused by tourism development.
2.1 Economic Impacts
Tourism is considered as a main source of income to Jordan, according to the reports of Central Bank of Jordan
(CBJ), this sector is contributing to the GDP with a percentage of 14% (2008). MOTA statistics shows that
tourism receipts had reached 2067 million JD in the year 2009; while tourists' expenditures reached the value of
757.5 million JD for the same year. Part of tourists expenditure is characterized by entrance fees, 17,821,663 JD
(1 JD = 1.4 US $) were the entrance fees for the year 2010 in Petra, which is 40% more compared to fees gained
in 2009, this site is contributing with 81% of total tourism sites entrance fees in Jordan (Jordan Press Foundation,
4/3/2011). The number of tourists who visited Jordan in 2009 was 7,084,552, of which 766,938 tourists were
recorded for Petra, of them 229,782 tourists came by package tours.
Another economic impact is the increase in the number of tourism facilities and services; 38 accommodations of
different types are existing in Petra, these are distributed as follows: 6 five stars hotels, 2 stars hotels, 7 three star
hotels, 2 two star hotels, 8 one star hotels, 1 camp and 12 unclassified hotels. Moreover, tourists' nights in Petra's
different accommodations were 577,888 nights (forming 25.3% share of tourist nights in Jordan), with 1.93 as an
average length of stay. For occupancy rates of Petra accommodations, the statistical data of MOTA (2009)
shows that 19,527 rooms with 36,622 beds are daily available, the monthly total reached 593,904 rooms with
1,113,839 beds, the occupancy rate of these reached 233,923 rooms (39.4%) with 446,969 beds (40.1%).
Tourism is considered as a main contributor to the economy of tribes living around Petra, 1,657 individuals of
these tribes are employed in tourism services; these are distributed as follows: 1,088 in hotels, 118 in travel
agencies, 31 in tourist restaurants, 18 in car renting offices, 59 in souvenirs shops, and 343 as horse guides.
2.2 Environmental Impacts
The main negative environmental impact taking place in Petra is characterized by the consequences of tourists'
behavior while navigating in the site. The random climbing and movement on site's rock-cut features is leaving
drastic effects. According to Tom Paradise, a geomorphologist from the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville,
the fact that people are wearing shoes with soles that grab on everything instead of the rubber-soled working
boots or soft sneakers, is causing the quick disappearance and loss of rock carved features; moreover, parts of the
façade of the Khazneh [the Treasury] had lost sand because that’s where tour guides let people sit, he indicates
that this caused the loss of half a cubic meter of sandstone over a few years. Another threat facing Petra is the
rising level of humidity resulted by the crowds of the tourists present at the site, which is an obstacle facing the
preservation of sandstone. An indicator of deterioration is presence of the white deposits on the walls of carved
tombs, mainly the Treasury; according to Paradise, tests showed that the deposits are to be of stearic acid, when
people rest by leaning against the wall with sweating hands, they leave a scum of fat behind (Lubick 2004). He
also monitored two areas in Petra within a 10 years period, the Khazneh and Theatre; finding that touching,
leaning and rubbing the surface of Khazneh have receded the surface by 40mm in less than 10 years, for the
theater, markings of the stone masonry are continuously disappearing less than 5% of them can be seen now.
One of the activities causing deterioration of site features is the "donkey rides", the hooves of these animals are
causing erosion of sandstone, though, it can not be ignored that these are forming an important source of income
to locals (PNT 2010). Horse and camel rides are also causing a problem to the site since the dust raised by these
animals becomes encrusted on the sides of the Siq. The locals themselves are negatively affecting the site by
some of their behaviors, the stalls selling souvenirs and refreshments to the tourists are many in numbers, and
rudimentary in a way that disturbs the harmony of the site (UNESCO 1993). Some of the locals in Petra used to
break apart the sandstone from the site to grind it and fill sand bottles with it, these sand bottles are one of the
distinguished souvenirs sold to tourists (PNT 2010). Some graffiti is also to be seen on the rock cut Siq and
tombs of the city. Some littering can also be noticed although of the littering cans placed throughout the site.
Another significant issue to be considered is the uncontrolled urban development around the site. The area
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adjacent to the site is full at present with hotels and residential units, an area that was not fully survey or
excavated by the archaeologists, there is a possibility that more remains of the ancient site are to be uncovered in
the area stretching from the existing site up to and including parts of the village of Wadi Musa (UNESCO 1993).
The authors could notice that the areas surrounding three, two, and one star rated hotels are neglected, such areas
are used for dumping old furniture and material used in hotels. In addition to the danger caused by tourists and
tourism development, other natural factors are negatively affecting the site; one of these is the corrosion of lower
sections of facades by the wind which carries sand particles from the crumbling sandstone rock. Also, the water
that infiltrates into the rock by capillary action enables vegetation to grow in the interstices, consequently
resulting in the fracture of rock, and in worse cases rock fall (UNESCO 1993).
2.3 Socio-cultural Impacts
Commercialization of Bedouin culture was one of the results caused by the great interest of tourists in Petra
region; this was to affect booth Bedul tribe in Petra as well as 'Ammarin tribe in Baidah (5 km to the north of
Petra), tribesmen were aware of the tourist appeal of the traditional Bedouin tent, and so they started to set their
own camps where they built refreshments stands, women also started to sell different Bedouin items to tourists.
Another impact is seen in the change of values, the young Bedul try to imitate Westerners in dress and manners,
though, these Westerners are seen as corrupt with negative values as alcoholism and illegal relationships, which
indicates a kind of confusion over the values of the West and the strengths of ties to Bedouin culture by some of
the locals. A cultural change that took place after expansion of tourism development can be seen clearly in the
decline in traditional handicrafts, since the 1950's, few women have woven carpets or even their own tents,
tourists' interest in the in such items helped in the revival of these arts, consequently, some women started to
make small bags, carpets, miniature looms with partially finished panels still on them, and spindle whorls in
order to help in supporting their families (Shoup, 1985).
Some other negative impacts are characterized by child labor since many children are dropping out of school to
work in tourism, unfortunately, such impact is to be perceived as a positive one by most of the locals, the
different languages and working skills learnt by these children as well as gaining money are tempting many of
them to consider work in tourism as vendors and horse guides much more important than getting education at
schools. Also, sexual relationships by local adults with tourists, though, there are some long lasting marriage
relationships (one of the most famous marriage stories was the one of Marguerite van Geldermalsen, a tourist
from New Zealand who came to Petra in 1978, at that time she met Mohammad Abdullah, a local from Petra,
they got married and had 3 children, she was widowed in 2002 and then moved to Sydney, she published her
story in her famous book “Married to a Bedouin” in 2006). There are some positive cultural impacts of tourism
on Petra’s local community as financing the education of local residents; learning foreign languages by them and
influencing the interaction of locals with their own society (Hijazeen 2007).
3. Local and International Efforts to Reduce Negative Tourism Impacts in Petra
As a reaction to the rapid growth of tourism in Petra, consequently, the increase of different negative impacts
that took place by such development, the Jordanian government invited some international institutions to prepare
management plans for the site. Though, as stated by Akrawi (2000), such plans are still not implemented nor
endorsed by authorities. One of these plans is the US National Parks Service (NPS) “Master Plan for the
Protection & Use of the Petra National Park” in 1968, the plan focused the establishment of a National Park with
an independent park division and zoning, the plan also focused on the tourism development, archaeological
protection and preservation, social issues and administrative issues. One of the main recommendations of this
plan is the rehabilitation of the Nabataean hydraulic system to protect the antiquities and to reduce the damage
caused by flash floods. The social dimension aspect is addressed by recommending that the Bidul tribe of Petra
be relocated to a location outside the archaeological site to preserve its resources with providing the community
with agricultural lands to maintain their livelihood. Another plan is the UNESCO “Petra National Park
Management Plan” put in 1994, the plan focused on the different kinds of threats in the site, and suggested
recommendations and proposals to remedy these threats. These included zoning, archaeological conservation,
and conservation of biodiversity, Park infrastructure and personnel, physical planning, sustainable rural
development, mitigation measures, training and communication, research and monitoring, and the
implementation of the Management Plan. In 1996, US/ICOMOS “Management Analysis & Recommendations
for the Petra World Heritage Site” plan was developed; this plan addressed the maintenance of the management
values related to infrastructure in Petra. The US National Parks Service “Operating Plan” in 2000 is
distinguished by its comprehensive management policies, detailed operating procedures and standards, a training
plan, and the recommended position of the Petra Archaeological Park (PAP) within the organization of the
Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities (MOTA). Although of focusing on some issues related to local residents of
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Petra in these plans, as those of relocation and rural development, the aspect of their perceptions toward tourism
development was not one of the basic topics to be addressed, a fact that initiates the need to focus on the
perceived benefits and problems caused by the tourism to these residents, also capacity building that involves
them and all other stakeholders. The growth of tourism in any area or region cannot be achieved without the
support of its residents; consequently, the issue of perceived impacts of tourism was to have its significance in
empirical literature since 1970's (Ap & Crompton 1989). Directing tourism growth toward local needs, interests,
and limits can greatly enhance its value to the community, and help create a sustainable industry of a significant
economic value that will affect the lives of local residents; on the other hand, their attitudes and behavior can
clearly influence the satisfaction and overall experience of tourists (WTO & UNEP 2005).
In this research, the results of interviews that were made with 48 locals working at the site of Petra were
presented; these interviews aimed at understanding the perceptions of these individuals about different impacts
of tourism.
4. Understanding the Perceptions of Local Community of Petra about Tourism Impacts
The 48 individuals were interviewed by the first researcher and students of Tourism Department/ Hashemite
University for between 30-50 minutes. All the interviews were written on designated form that included 19
questions about possible impacts that have occurred after tourism development, the answers were then written
into reports, each report focused on a specific question. These reports were read by the first researcher and then
were translated into English and were put in 3 category headings that were generated from the data, these were
for the 3 types of impacts: economic, environmental and sociocultural. It should be mentioned that respondents
were not completely willing to give detailed answers particularly for economic and environmental impacts,
though they were more open to express their perceptions about sociocultural impacts of tourism.
44 males and 4 females responded to the interviewers, of these 4 were 20 or less years old, 27 were 21 to 30
years old, 9 were 31 to 40 years old 1 was 42 years old, 7 respondents did not give their ages. Of the 48
respondents, 13 had their elementary education, 24 finished high school, 1 had a community college degree, 8
had a Bachelor degree, and 1 had got a post graduate degree.
In general, the positive economic impact of tourism was perceived by most of the respondents, 45 of them
mentioned that tourism helped in generating income and job opportunities for the local community. Though,
some negative economic impacts were to be perceived as well, 47 of the respondents agreed that tourism
contributed to the increase in the price of lands and properties, a respondent stated:
Yes, this can be widely seen because of the big number of
investors in the region, of which some are from abroad.
Another said:
The wide spread of hotels and restaurants in Petra played a
significant role in increasing the price of lands.
Another negative impact to be perceived was the lack of services and amenities inside the site; one of the
respondents said:
The contribution of tourism cannot be seen since the income
generated by the tourism is not used in enhancing these services
and facilities.
Another respondent mentioned that improving amenities inside the site was for the benefit of tourists not the
locals.
For environmental impacts; it was noted that most of the respondents agreed that tourism contributed to
increasing environmental awareness among locals of Petra and its surrounding regions. They also said that most
international tourists have a positive behavior if compared to domestic tourists. For those who did not agree, they
had some valuable comments regarding this aspect; one said:
No contribution is seen since either awareness programs nor
does environmental signage exist at the site.
Some respondents suggested that more trash bins and signage should be placed at the site; also awareness
campaigns should be continuously conducted. For the contribution of tourism to increasing environmental
pollution, half of the respondents agreed about this, they said that littering is a major problem that is facing the
site, also touching monuments’ facades by tourists, especially during the high seasons. For those who disagreed,
they said that management of the site is providing it with a sufficient number of cleaning staff. 41 of the
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respondents agreed that tourism had a great influence on preserving the archaeological site and conserving its
monuments through revenues of tourism, though, there were some comments from some of the respondents that
more efforts should be done. One said:
Yes, sure… but most of these conservation works are by foreign
centers, the ones by Jordanian formal bodies are so limited.
Another commented that most of conservation is taking place in the Treasury and Museum areas, some of these
respondents are hoping for more efforts to enhance the cleanliness and conservation of the site.
Regarding the sociocultural impacts of tourism; these composed the majority of questions in the interviews. 30
respondents agreed that tourism contributed to the strengthening of social bonds among locals, many of these
respondents mentioned that this comes in the form of commercial collaboration between the small businesses
inside the site, especially those selling souvenirs to tourists. For those who disagreed, one said:
Working in tourism does not leave time to give concern to such
issue.
Another said:
Tourism has caused that many parents leave their families for
long periods of time.
It was noticed that 22 of the respondents agreed on the fact that tourism contributed to family disruption, but
not to the increase in cases of divorce; they justify that by the willingness of some male members in the family
to have girlfriends (mainly from American and European tourists). 45 of the locals in the sample agreed that
tourism contributed to increase the number of marriages between locals and foreigners; they mentioned that this
applies only to males in this society, some of them gave the example of Marguerite van Geldermalsen (Um
Rami) (mentioned previously in the sociocultural impact section); they also stated that many of these marriages
are between local men and tourist women particularly from New Zealand, Switzerland, Australia and Italy.
Some said:
Many of these young men get married from tourists for
immigration or getting job opportunity abroad.
The individuals of the sample were asked if tourism has any role in creating friendship relations between tourists
and locals; 46 of them agreed, but some of them stated that tour guides are more to have such friendship, others
mentioned that this helped in having repeated visits by these tourists. Another potential impact that respondents
were asked about was the contribution of tourism to enhancing the knowledge of local communities, most
respondents said that such knowledge was in languages spoken by tourists, few of them stated that knowledge
about history and antiquities of the site was mainly acquainted for answering the questions of tourists.
A question in the interview was if tourism helped in the spread of negative values and behaviors in the local
community of Petra; few respondents said that such Bedouin society stick to its own conservative values, the
majority of respondents had an opposite point of view, one stated:
Yes, tourists have different values that are different from ours
Another said:
Yes, alcohol drinking and illegal relationships, that's all because of
having no awareness
Some others mentioned that underage drinking and having girlfriends (usually from tourists) were all things that
came with tourism. Some individuals mentioned changes in the appearance, one of the respondents replied:
Partially, it can be seen in tearing Jeans and wear fashion
Another said:
There is a negative effect; some of the locals in Petra are imitating these
tourists by wearing earrings and having their hair longer with being braided.
It should be mentioned here that most of respondents confirmed that such negative values are only seen among
males, mainly those working at the site, they also consider such group as a minority. Though, few respondents
thought that wearing modern fashion clothes is not necessarily an imitation as much as coping with the present.
The respondents were asked if tourism is encouraging kids from local communities to dismiss their schools so
that they can work in tourism; most of the respondents agreed saying that it's all for financial reasons, they see it
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as a positive thing since these kids are learning several languages and that tourism help them in supporting their
families, in addition to making them skillful in the work of tourism. Few of them said that such phenomenon is
due to lack of awareness. A respondent said:
Yes, especially among those living in Um Saihoun… their kids
are at the site during the whole day, they speak so many
languages and work as horse guides.
Finally, the respondents were asked if tourism contributed to sustaining local handicrafts and arts; the majority
said that this is very limited, although there is willingness of tourists to buy mosaics, monuments depicting Petra
and ornaments taking the shape of the Nabataean god Dushara. A respondent stated:
It is supposed to, but it has really a very minimal contribution,
instead of importing souvenirs from India and Pakistan, we hope
to have more centers to make local souvenir pieces.
Another commented:
Yes, but unfortunately... most of the handcrafted pieces are
from abroad, like those from India and Turkey, I have a shop
where 95% of the sold material is not locally made.
5. Discussion and Conclusion
In general, local empowerment became one of the basic aims of sustainable tourism, it is based on engaging
local communities in planning and decision making about the management and future development of tourism in
their area, in consultation with other stakeholders (WTO & UNEP 2005). Recognizing the needs of local
community in Petra becomes then vital to create a better tourist experience; none of the previously mentioned
management plans concentrated on locals attitudes and perceptions toward tourism, especially those who were
replaced in Umm Siehoun settlement and then their agricultural and herding activities, which makes then
negative attitudes toward tourism development and investments from outside by the local community possible to
a great extent although of the benefits gained already by them.
Environmentally, conservation and development projects view local people's support for protected areas
management as an important element of biodiversity conservation. Finding common goals between conservation
of resources and the development needs of local people is an essential part of understanding sustainable
protected areas management (Dolisca et al 2007). This initiates the need to establish more comprehensive plans
that involve such aspects. According to WTO & UNEP (2005), some policy areas if taken into account would be
the approach to achieve sustainability in tourism development (which can be applied to the case of Petra); one of
these is maximizing the contribution of tourism to the economic prosperity of the host destination by supporting
locally owned businesses, especially those of handmade crafts; the competition between the Jordanian product
and the imported crafts is a major problem that can be witnessed; the several stores and stands within and around
the site sell imported pieces in bulk from India, Pakistan, Egypt, China, or other Middle East countries. For
example: pashmina shawls and scarves, inexpensive rayon and cotton dresses from India, cheap shells, jewelry,
clothing and toys from China; and Jewelry from Yemen. There is an unfair competitiveness of local products
against imported souvenirs which are present in more quantities; also these are to be sold with lower prices if
compared to local ones (Akhal et al 2008), encouraging and supporting local production of handicrafts would be
a policy area that should be taken into concern.
Respecting and enhancing the historic heritage, authentic culture, traditions and distinctiveness of host
communities, with maintaining and enhancing the quality of landscapes, both urban and rural, and avoiding the
physical and visual degradation of the environment are also to be considered. Spreading awareness among
tourists to reduce their negative behavior (mainly wear and tear) should be done through supplying the different
parts of the site with interpretational methods that focus on behavioral aspects, also conducting programs for this
purpose. Although some individuals of the local community are already involved in archaeological excavations
and conservation; it is important to make the community aware of the negative consequences related to their
activities at the site, such as herding goats, illicit excavations, and the inappropriate spatial characteristics of
shops and stands located around and inside archaeological sites. Many of the stands located inside the
archaeological site are made of materials that do not fit the appearance of the site (plastic sheets covering
wooden beams and roofs to create a shelter), most of these materials are also in a bad condition (torn cloth and
spotted wood boards); another serious issue is the littering caused by the trash thrown by workers of these shops
in nearby areas. Awareness should also be concerning some social problems as illegal relationships and child
www.ccsenet.org/ass Asian Social Science Vol. 7, No. 8; August 2011
Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education 95
labor. For tourists, it becomes important to educate guides (who will then inform the tourists) about appropriate
behavior in the archaeological sites.
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ISSN 1911-2017 E-ISSN 1911-2025
96
Table 1. Numbers of Visitors to the site of Petra (1989- 2010) (MOTA 2010,
http://www.tourism.jo/ar/Default.aspx?tabid=120)
Yea
r
N
umber of Visitors
1989 120,338
1990 102,151
1991 40,889
1992 117,347
1993 138,559
1994 200,505
1995 337,221
1996 414,448
1997 380,527
1998 347,109
1999 429,644
2000 481,198
2001 231,203
2002 158,837
2003 160,658
2004 310,271
2005 393,186
2006 359,366
2007 581,145
2008 813,267
2009
2010
766,938
975,285
Map 1. A map showing the locations of different archaeological features of Petra (Petra National Trust 2011)
... Consequently, many efforts have been paid to the preservation and conservation of the ancient city (Al Haija, 2011;Comer, 2012;Farajat, 2012). However, little attention has been given to the development of the local community (Mustafa & Tayeh, 2011) and they have not been involved in the development process, which has been the responsibility of PDTRA since 2009. The region is an autonomous area, which is responsible to develop the region in all aspects (e.g. ...
... The study area is in an initial phase of tourism growth that can be framed in the stage of Euphoria for residents of the Doxey (1975), in which tourists are always welcome. Together with the communities' expectations to improve their quality of life via tourism development, several other issues have appeared, such as the unequal distribution of the benefits among residents (Al Haija, 2011;Farajat, 2012;Mustafa & Tayeh, 2011). Moreover, problems related to the WHS of Petra and towns' development, such as child labour, working animals and the lack of infrastructure development ( Fig. 1, Pictures 3-7). ...
... Local community involvement in the tourism development improves the sense of ownership, trust and belonging to their community (Murphy, 1983;Williams, Penrose, & Hawkes, 1998;Rasoolimanesh, Ringle, Jaafar, & Ramayah, 2017). In the Petra region, it has been noted that the local's perceptions and involvement in the development have been ignored (Galanzeh, 2008;Mustafa & Tayeh, 2011). ...
Article
Satisfaction and perceptions of the residents towards local management were analysed at a World Heritage site such as the region of Petra, Jordan. Contributing to the context of host-guest interaction at World Heritage sites, we investigated the satisfaction towards local management. Using the Social Exchange Theory and partial least squares-structural equation modelling, a model was built and data from 467 surveyed residents were analysed. The model that we developed in this study represents the relationships between several factors related to the region's characteristics, including involvement in tourism development, participation in local organisation, and resident contact with tourists and community attachment. It was found that these factors play a critical role in the residents' perceptions of the economic, environment and socio-cultural impact of tourism development. Our findings suggest that perceptions strongly affect the satisfaction with local management. Furthermore, this study addresses several practical implications and future studies.
... As newer technologies and social trends emerge, HVA management is challenged with the task of ensuring the conservation of heritage assets, whilst fulfilling tourism demands and generating enough revenue to maintain both tasks. While increased visitor numbers are necessary for revenue generation, Mustafa and Tayeh (2011) explain the high volumes of visitors touching heritage assets, displays, and the facades of built HVAs, as well as walking across old cobblestone streets creates conservation challenges. While concerns for statues and monuments exist due to visitors standing upon, kissing, climbing on, or leaning against them, other HVAs that house historic paintings maintain a concern for condensation caused by visitors' breathing, touching, and sweating (Timothy, 2016). ...
... wear and tear, vandalism, graffiti) (Bhati & Pearce, 2016;Timothy & Boyd, 2006). Thus, as Mustafa and Tayeh (2011) note, HVA management must improve services, amenities, and security inside HVAs to counter these issues. More drastically, McGregor (2002) suggests management can limit access to specific areas of an HVA for effective control and resolution of degradation issues. ...
... More recently, scholars have commented on the role of future technologies, which can promote a salutary effect on behaviour, such as recorded voices and prompts embedded in seats, walls, and bins (Bhati & Pearce, 2017). Adding to this, HVA management may also limit access, as previously discussed, to prevent inappropriate visitor behaviour and deterioration of the HVA as a result of human contact (Mustafa & Tayeh, 2011). In addition to roping off areas, HVA management may limit access by placing vulnerable artefacts behind glass or plastic panels, or informing visitors of CCTV as a means to deter inappropriate visitor behaviour (Timothy, 2016;Timothy & Boyd, 2003). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Although previous tourism research has acknowledged the phenomenon of dark tourism, there is still an absence of research in relation to the design and management of interpretation at dark visitor attractions (DVAs) situated on the lighter end of the darkness spectrum (LDVAs). In order to bring a greater understanding of interpretation design processes within the field of dark tourism, this research, underpinned by an interpretivist paradigm, draws on three specific areas of study – heritage tourism, dark tourism, and interpretation. This research relies on qualitative methods, including semistructured interviews with managers and focus group discussions with staff using rich picture building. These methods were employed for data collection at The Real Mary King’s Close (RMKC), Sick to Death (S2D), and Gravedigger Ghost Tour (GGT). These LDVAs were selected as examples of the wider range of LDVAs, which promote edutainment agendas using a variety of interpretive methods, including re-enactment, in order to deliver information pertaining to unpleasant histories of the more distant past. The findings of this research include a range of influences based on management challenges at RMKC, S2D, and GGT. These influences include stakeholder inclusion and experience with interpretation design; budget restrictions; access, spatial limitations, and conservation concerns; edutainment and selecting interpretation methods; and managing ethical concerns and authenticity. The findings also revealed a series of relationships between these influences and further exposed a number of management challenges relating to interpretation designs. The findings also demonstrate that LDVAs are critically concerned with matters of authenticity and historical facts, despite their entertaining nature and higher commercial infrastructure. In order to manage these influences and the exposed management challenges, this thesis argues that LDVAs would benefit from a holistic model that comprises steps of interpretation planning, designing, and on-going management activities. It therefore proposes a guiding model, contributing to both theory and practice.
... Los procesos de empoderamiento y planificación en el turismo por parte de los residentes involucran la participación de la comunidad, siendo elemento principal para iniciativas claves (Stylidis, Biran, Sit, y Szivas, 2014;Woo et al., 2015). Las comunidades son los custodios para preservar, conservar y defender los recursos culturales no renovables (Mustafa & Tayeh, 2011). El apoyo por parte de los residentes garantiza el desarrollo sostenible del turismo local y determina la calidad de los visitantes (Woo, Kim, & Uysal, 2015 ). ...
... Está relación implica creación de empresas, mejora de condiciones laborales, construcción de infraestructura y contribución al desarrollo en la economía local, el desarrollo de actividades culturales e intercambio con visitantes equipara consciencia en los beneficios que atrae el turismo(Jaafar et al., 2015).La ventaja de adaptación que desarrollan las comunidades para enfrentar los cambios potencialmente drásticos en una economía que fluctúa, la mayor parte de las ganancias están determinadas en una temporada del año(Butler et al., 2014a). Por lo tanto, las comunidades quienes preservan, conservan, salvaguardan y defienden los recursos culturales no renovables( Mustafa & Tayeh, 2011). Los sentimientos de valor, conexión, identidad de lugar, dependencia de lugar, preservan la cultura y son características atractivas para los visitantes internacionales (Blasco López, Recuero Virto, Aldas Manzano, & García-Madariaga Miranda, 2018).1.4. ...
Article
Full-text available
Surgen nuevas alternativas de turismo, siendo el turismo rural comunitario fundamental como herramienta de desarrollo económico en países de bajos ingresos y de altos activos naturales. Teniendo en cuenta el conocimiento, experiencia de guías y agencias de turismo se obtuvieron aspectos de cadena de valor, el objetivo propone un modelo conceptual para la cadena de valor de turismo rural comunitario que articule aspectos tangibles e intangibles en la oferta total de la cadena valor. En resumen, el turismo rural comunitario no ha sido explorado en su totalidad, se recomienda articular con actores locales en la creación de valor. Palabras clave: turismo rural, comunitario, creación de valor, patrimonio, accesibilidad, modelo. New alternatives for tourism arise, being the fundamental community rural tourism as a tool of economic development in low income countries and high natural assets. Taking into account the knowledge, experience of guides and tourism agencies, aspects of the value chain were obtained, proposing a conceptual model for the rural community tourism value chain that articulates tangible and intangible aspects in the total supply of the value chain. In summary, rural community tourism has not been explored in its entirety, it is recommended to coordinate with local actors in the creation of value.
... Los procesos de empoderamiento y planificación en el turismo por parte de los residentes involucran la participación de la comunidad, siendo elemento principal para iniciativas claves (Stylidis, Biran, Sit, y Szivas, 2014;Woo et al., 2015). Las comunidades son los custodios para preservar, conservar y defender los recursos culturales no renovables (Mustafa & Tayeh, 2011). El apoyo por parte de los residentes garantiza el desarrollo sostenible del turismo local y determina la calidad de los visitantes (Woo, Kim, & Uysal, 2015 ). ...
... Está relación implica creación de empresas, mejora de condiciones laborales, construcción de infraestructura y contribución al desarrollo en la economía local, el desarrollo de actividades culturales e intercambio con visitantes equipara consciencia en los beneficios que atrae el turismo(Jaafar et al., 2015).La ventaja de adaptación que desarrollan las comunidades para enfrentar los cambios potencialmente drásticos en una economía que fluctúa, la mayor parte de las ganancias están determinadas en una temporada del año(Butler et al., 2014a). Por lo tanto, las comunidades quienes preservan, conservan, salvaguardan y defienden los recursos culturales no renovables( Mustafa & Tayeh, 2011). Los sentimientos de valor, conexión, identidad de lugar, dependencia de lugar, preservan la cultura y son características atractivas para los visitantes internacionales (Blasco López, Recuero Virto, Aldas Manzano, & García-Madariaga Miranda, 2018).1.4. ...
Article
Full-text available
Surgen nuevas alternativas de turismo, siendo el turismo rural comunitario fundamental como herramienta de desarrollo económico en países de bajos ingresos y de altos activos naturales. Teniendo en cuenta el conocimiento, experiencia de guías y agencias de turismo se obtuvieron aspectos de cadena de valor, el objetivo propone un modelo conceptual para la cadena de valor de turismo rural comunitario que articule aspectos tangibles e intangibles en la oferta total de la cadena valor. En resumen, el turismo rural comunitario no ha sido explorado en su totalidad, se recomienda articular con actores locales en la creación de valor.
... Ref. [32] went on to claim that the site's mismanagement was evidenced by stakeholder disputes, unfair distribution of tourist profits, and a degradation of the site's cultural image. Visitors are also a cause of deterioration at heritage sites, according to [33], owing to behaviors such as climbing and sitting on monuments, crowding, and souvenirism. Petra is subject to a number of impacts produced by the local population, visitors, and tourism development operations, according to [34]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The archaeological site of Umm Qais is a popular tourist destination for both local and foreign tourists who come to appreciate the site’s archaeological history, scenic landscape, and panoramic perspective. The site was the focus of tourism planning, which included the construction of amenities and infrastructure, the creation of tourist circuits, and archaeological management. This development was linked to a rise in visitor numbers as well as the provision of a high level of service, such as parking, tickets, kiosks, restaurants, and cafés, to welcome visitors. The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of on-site tourist services and infrastructures, as well as those of visitors, and their geographical and temporal scope on the site. The study used a qualitative approach based on case study fieldwork as a research method to achieve this goal. Personal observation, interviews with site-related stakeholders, and a checklist were used to collect data during the fieldwork. Both tourism infrastructure and visitors were proven to have a detrimental influence on tourist attractions. The site’s aesthetic pollution and structural deterioration were caused by tourism services and infrastructure. Graffiti, vandalism, and trash left by visitors exerted strong negative impacts. Furthermore, spatial and temporal negative impacts were determined by the patterns of seasonal movement of visitors and the location of infrastructure. Thus, most of the impacts were concentrated in a small portion of the site, among the western theater, the panoramic view, and the traditional Ottoman village. This research sheds light on these challenges and makes recommendations in the areas of heritage management, tourism, and visitor impact management that may be of interest to on-the-ground decision makers as well as academics.
... De igual forma, uno de los elementos más importantes que diferencía al turismo comunitario de las iniciativas privadas es el empoderamiento experimentado por los locales que en él participan (Goodwin y Santilli, 2009), el cual es definido como el cambio consciente que tiende hacia un mayor control, autoestima y poder de decisión de una persona o grupo social (Eyassu, 2011). Se dice que una persona o grupo está empoderado cuando se incrementa su espectro de opciones y tiene la posibilidad de elegir entre más de una. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Tradicionalmente turismo y arqueología han tenido una relación poco armónica. Mientras el primero busca aprovechar el patrimonio como bien de consumo turístico el segundo busca conservarlo y protegerlo. Pocos son los estudios que se han interesado por los impactos positivos del turismo en los sitios arqueológicos y en las poblaciones cercanas a estos. El presente estudio pretende identificar la relación existente entre flujo de visitantes a un sitio arqueológico y el empoderamiento económico de las comunidades que se encuentran a su alrededor. La comunidad y zona arqueológica de Ek Balam sirven como estudio de caso. Los resultados muestran que la afluencia de visitantes a la zona arqueológica ha contribuido al empoderamiento económico de la población de Ek Balam.
... Attitudes could differ depending on whether the residents perceive their locality as a place for earning a living or a place to live [97]. There were, however, also a few studies that either found the opposite-those who are employed in tourism-related jobs do not hold favorable views of tourism development [46,51,98]-or reported that this factor does not play a significant role in influencing residents' support for tourism [94]. While the first situation does not need any explanation as it is in accordance with SET, the situation in which residents employed in tourism-related jobs express negative views on tourism development is rather intriguing. ...
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Full-text available
Development of sustainable tourism is not possible without the support and involvement of the local community. Thus, it would be beneficial to understand how residents perceive tourism development. This study investigates the main factors that influence residents’ support for tourism development in the context of wetland tourism. The study was conducted in one of the most extensive wetland areas in Sri Lanka, situated not far from the capital, Colombo. The main instrument for data collection was a survey applied both to residents living inside the Muthurajawela Wetland and to residents living outside but in the proximity of the wetland. The data collected were subsequently processed, evaluated, and explained using SPSS 26. Besides descriptive statistics, a binomial logistic regression was employed to understand which factors influence residents’ attitudes toward future tourism development. The study found that six factors could predict support for tourism development: gender, age, employment (connected or not to tourism), residence (inside or outside the wetland), interaction with tourists, and satisfaction with the current level of tourism development. The results were then discussed in the context of the extant literature and limitations were acknowledged.
... He also assured that Rakhigarhi will be developed as an iconic tourism site for its archaeological significance. Mustafa & Tayeh (2011) explored the impact of tourism development on the archaeological site of Petra in Jordan. Despite the economic advantage, the site has witnessed deterioration and the local community has also negatively impacted the ancient city. ...
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Full-text available
This paper endeavours to highlight the prospects of rural tourism development in the village of Rakhigarhi, Haryana. The village shot to eminence with an unprecedented discovery of the biggest archaeological settlement site of the Harappan civilization in its periphery. It made the state of Haryana rise to significance in terms of valuable archaeological sites, and the latest findings and validation of the sites being older than Harappan and Mohenjodaro regions. The government of India has included Rakhigarhi to be developed as an iconic archaeological site, among five others in 2020 budget report. The local community's involvement and participation in establishing successful rural tourism development has been the most common practice in the past. As community is major stakeholder in the development of tourism, involvement of the local people has proven to be an organic as well as lucrative step to enhance the tourist experience. This study provides a SWOT analysis of the tourism potential of the Rakhigarhi village based on the secondary data. It helps in the understanding of its prospective as a rural tourism generating destination.
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Petra sits on the western edge of the Arabian plate, southeast of the Dead Sea; the sandstone outcrops extend north on the eastern side of the transform fault segment of the Dead Sea rift Zone. The flash flood that created the site's canyons millions of years ago are now threatening to destroy it, aggravated by the increasing number of humans who flock to see what remains of the ancient site. The crowds of modern people visiting Petra ha left many unexpected marks on the ancient rocks and they have accelerated the natural processes of erosion.
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A 35-item tourism impact scale was developed. It was de rived from an initial pool of 147 impact items drawn from personal interviews and the literature, and it was refined us ing classical scale-development procedures. The scale com prises seven domains: social and cultural, economic, crowd ing and congestion, environmental, services, taxes, and community attitudes, although the latter two domains did not always emerge as independent factors. Testing was under taken with three independent samples drawn from communi ties exhibiting different tourism characteristics. The scale was demonstrated to have dimensional distinctiveness and stability, internal consistency, content validity, and conver gent validity. Tourism impacts were assessed by measuring both belief and affect toward the impact attributes.
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In this study, 508 residents of the Australian tourist city of Cairns rated the impact of tourism on a range of community facilities, as well as on individual and community life. Residents perceived major positive impacts within the economic sphere, major negative impacts on housing and crime levels, and overall perceptions of negative personal impact being associated with a change in the friendliness of local residents. Judgments about personal impacts were much more likely to be associated with perceptions of community enjoyment than were judgments about community impacts. Partialling out the effects of judgments of tourism's impacts on individual and community life revealed the importance of perceived friendliness of local residents. The relevance of these findings for host communities and the tourist industry is discussed.
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The purpose of this study is to determine resident attitudes to the economic, sociocultural, and ecological impacts of tourism development in Hawaii. In Fall 1982, 636 questionnaires were obtained by a random sample of residents of Oahu, Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai. The findings of the study are: respondents strongly agree that tourism provides many economic and cultural benefits, but are ambivalent about environmental benefits; respondents are reluctant to attribute social and environmental costs to tourism; significant variation among respondents by demographic subgroups with the exception of length of residence and ethnicity is generally low; residents regard environmental protection as being a more important priority than the economic benefits of tourism, but are not willing to lower their standard of living in order to achieve this goal.RésuméLes attitudes des habitants envers les impacts du tourisme en Hawaii. Le propos de la présente étude est de déterminer les attitudes des habitants envers les impacts économiques, socioculturels et écologiques du développement du tourisme en Hawaii. En automne 1982, 636 questionnaires ont été obtenus par moyen d'un échantillon prélevé au hasard des habitants d'Oahu, d'Hawaii, de Maui et de Kauai. Les conclusions de l'étude sont: que les habitants sont tout à fait d'accord pour trouver que le tourisme apporte bien des bénéfices économiques et culturels, mais ils sont ambivalents quand aux bénéfices à l'environnement; que les habitants hésitent à attribuer au tourisme des coûts sociaux et environnementaux; qu'il y a peu de variation signifiante parmi les habitants selon sous-groupe avec l'exception de durée de résidence et ethnicité; et que les habitants considèrent que la protection de l'environnement a la priorité sur les bénéfices économiques du tourisme, mais ils ne veulent pas voir diminuer leur niveau de vie afin de réaliser cet objectif.
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Integrated conservation and development projects in the recent years view local people's support for protected areas management as an important element of biodiversity conservation. Increased knowledge about the interaction between conservation of natural resources and the development needs of local people is an essential part of understanding sustainable protected areas management in Haiti. This paper investigates farmers' perceptions on the impact of the Forêt des Pins Reserve on the economic, social, and environmental status of local people using factor analysis and linear structural models. Data from 243 farmers inside the Reserve are used in the empirical analysis. The results suggest that farmers most value economic and environmental objectives, such as tourism and tree planting activities, in promoting forestry programs inside the Reserve. Respondents who believe that their farming activities would benefit from forestry programs through soil protection tended to be more positive.
Summary from International Workshop organized by the Getty Conservation
  • A Akrawi
Akrawi, A. (2000). Summary from International Workshop organized by the Getty Conservation Institute and Loyola Mary Mount University, Corinth, Greece, May 2000, In J. M. Teutonico & G. Palumbo (Eds.), Management Planning for Archaeological Sites. [Online] Available: http://cool.conservation-us.org/jaic/articles/jaic43-03-005_indx.html (April 21, 2011)
The Bedul Bedouin of Petra Jordan: Traditions: Tourism and an Uncertain Future Cultural Survival Quarterly, Issue 19, 4. [Online] Available: http://www.culturalsurvival.org/ourpublications/csq/article/the-bedul-bedouin-petra-jordan-traditions-tourism-an d-uncertain-future
  • D Kooring
  • S Simms
Kooring, D. & Simms, S. (1996). The Bedul Bedouin of Petra, Jordan: Traditions: Tourism and an Uncertain Future. Cultural Survival Quarterly, Issue 19, 4. [Online] Available: http://www.culturalsurvival.org/ourpublications/csq/article/the-bedul-bedouin-petra-jordan-traditions-tourism-an d-uncertain-future (December 21, 2010)
Tourism and Local Communities in Jordan: Perception, Attitudes and Impacts: "a Case Study on Five Archaeological Tourist Sites
  • E G Hejazeen
Hejazeen, E. G. (2007). Tourism and Local Communities in Jordan: Perception, Attitudes and Impacts: "a Case Study on Five Archaeological Tourist Sites". München: Tourism Studies, University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt.