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Effect of EM Bokashi application on control of secondary soil salinization


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Abstract: In order to ameliorate saline-alkaline soil, EM Bokashi has been applied to rice production in conjunction with subdrainage in Ningxia Autonomous Region and Zhejiang Province. The preliminary results can be summarized as follows: EM Bokashi can increase soil organic matter content, improve soil porosity and permeability, and raise the soil’s levels of available nutrients; and EM Bokashi combined with subdrainage treatment is more effective in controlling secondary soil salinization and raising the grain yield and quality than other treatments. The results suggest that EM Bokashi can reduce the necessary amount of chemical fertilizer application, thereby improving the agricultural environment, and that the introduction of EM Bokashi into systems of secondary soil salinization control systems has resulted in significant benefits.
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Water Science and Engineering, Dec. 2008, Vol. 1, No. 4, 99-106
ISSN 1674-2370,, e-mail:
This work was supported by the College Sci-Tech Achievements Industrialization Project of Jiangsu Education
Department (Grant No. JH07-010).
*Corresponding author (e-mail:
Received Jan. 7, 2008; accepted Jul. 2, 2008
Effect of EM Bokashi application on control of
secondary soil salinization
Shao Xiaohou*1, 2, Tan Min1, Jiang Ping3, Cao Weiling3
1. College of Agricultural Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, P. R. China
2. Key laboratory of Irrigation–Drainage and Agricultural Water and Soil Environment in Southern China,
Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, P. R. China
3. Central Station of Rural Water Conservancy, Zhejiang Provincial Bureau of Water Resources, Hangzhou
310009, P. R. China
Abstract: In order to ameliorate saline-alkaline soil, EM Bokashi has been applied to rice production in
conjunction with subdrainage in Ningxia Autonomous Region and Zhejiang Province. The preliminary results
can be summarized as follows: EM Bokashi can increase soil organic matter content, improve soil porosity and
permeability, and raise the soil’s levels of available nutrients; and EM Bokashi combined with subdrainage
treatment is more effective in controlling secondary soil salinization and raising the grain yield and quality than
other treatments. The results suggest that EM Bokashi can reduce the necessary amount of chemical fertilizer
application, thereby improving the agricultural environment, and that the introduction of EM Bokashi into
systems of secondary soil salinization control systems has resulted in significant benefits.
Key words: EM Bokashi; secondary salinization control; soil amelioration; grain yield and quality;
subdrainage; agricultural environment
DOI: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2008.04.011
1 Introduction
The use of beneficial and effective microorganisms (EM) as microbial inoculants in
agriculture is a promising new technology. It has been shown to be effective in improving soil
health and quality, inevitably raising the yield and quality of crops. Currently, EM technology
has been applied in more than 90 countries and regions, including Japan, the United States,
France, Austria and North Korea. Employing EM composting fertilizer and EM-activated
liquid has been shown to promote root growth and improve the germination potential and
germination rate. Spraying rice seedlings with EM liquid causes an increase in the leaf area,
stem thickness and chlorophyll content. Meanwhile, effective control of the wilting of rice
seedlings can be achieved (Melloni et al. 1995; Jowett and McMaster 1995; Mosbæk et al.
There are 369 000 km2 of soils experiencing secondary salinization in China, including
62 400 km2 of cultivated soils, making up about 7% of the country’s cultivated lands. They are
mainly found on the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, on the western plain of Northeast China, near the
Shao Xiaohou et al. Water Science and Engineering, Dec. 2008, Vol. 1, No. 4, 99-106
Great Bend of the Yellow River, in inland areas of Northwest China, and along a small part of
the eastern coast. These cultivated lands, mostly affected by salt through irrigation with
neglect of the drainage system, notably in the (semi-) arid regions, are great obstacles to the
development of agriculture (Shao et al. 2001). EM technology was introduced in China in
1992. It has been proven through research and demonstration tests to be effective in
agricultural and environmental protection (Gunapala and Scow 1998). The technology has
been used in the cultivation of plants with EM fertilizer, EM spray fertilizer, and EM-soaked
roots, but little research has been conducted on the amelioration of salt-affected soil with EM
technology, either in China or in other countries. In this study, EM Bokashi was applied to rice
production in conjunction with subdrainage in Ningxia Autonomous Region and Zhejiang
Province in order to investigate the effectiveness of EM in controlling secondary soil
2 Materials and methods
2.1 Experimental sites
The field experiments were conducted in the saline soils of Qianjin Farm in Ningxia
Autonomous Region and in Baiquan Town of Zhoushan City in Zhejiang Province. The
physical and chemical properties of tested soils at a depth of 0-20 cm are listed in Table 1.
Table 1 Properties of tested soils and EM Bokashi
Item C (g/kg) N (g/kg) C/N ratio Organic matter
(g/kg) pH EC
Soil of Qianjin Farm 14.5 1.2 12.1 8.2 8.0 5.5
Soil of Baiquan Town 32.4 2.3 14.1 16.9 7.2 3.5
EM Bokashi 483.2 24.5 19.7 5.5 4.8
Item Alkaline N
(mg/kg) Available P
(mg/kg) Total salt
content (g/kg) Bulk density
(g/cm3) CEC
(cmol/kg) Texture
Soil of Qianjin Farm 26.0 8.9 3.6 1.70 3.2 heavy clay soil
Soil of Baiquan Town 101.2 17.2 1.8 1.47 9.8 loam clay soil
EM Bokashi 982.0 653.0 2.7
Qianjin Farm is situated in an arid area with an average annual precipitation of 186 mm,
whereas Baiquan Town is located in the coastal humid zone with an average annual
precipitation of about 1 200 mm. The saline soil of Qianjin Farm is a heavy clay soil, with a
structural soil profile of clay. There is little rainfall in this dry climate, but the annual
evaporation has amounted to more than 1 800 mm. Strong evaporation of groundwater increases
the concentration of salt particles substantially, and causes the salt particles to rise to the
surface and rapidly accumulate in the soil. Secondary soil salinization occurs due to
unreasonable irrigation without good drainage systems. The saline soil of Baiquan Town is a
loam clay soil, and the structural soil profile shows loam at the top and clay at the bottom. The
secondary soil salinization occurs due to the high salinity of irrigation water, unreasonable
chemical fertilizer application, and strong surface evaporation (Shi et al. 2003).
Shao Xiaohou et al. Water Science and Engineering, Dec. 2008, Vol. 1, No. 4, 99-106 101
2.2 Preparation of EM Bokashi
EM Bokashi is an organic fertilizer prepared by adding water (500 mL), molasses (8 mL)
and EM (8 mL) to a mixture of rice bran and animal manure (4.7 kg), and then allowing the
mixture to anaerobically ferment for two weeks. An equal amount of rice bran and animal
manure without EM was also fermented to produce traditional farmyard manure (FYM). The
chemical properties of EM Bokashi are presented in Table 1.
2.3 Design of the field experiments
The experiments conducted from 2000 to 2001 consisted of two blocks, one with the field
subdrainage system and one without. The subdrainage system utilized 5.5 cm-diameter PVC
tubes with depths of 1.1 m and spacing of 15 m. A total of eight plots (each with a size of
100 m × 30 m) containing single replicates of each treatment, were set up for both blocks
(Huang et al. 2003).
The following treatments were applied to designated plots each year during rice
(1) Chemical fertilizer (N, P) without subdrainage,
(2) FYM (1 000 t/km2) and chemical fertilizer (N, P) without subdrainage,
(3) EM Bokashi (1 000 t/km2) and chemical fertilizer (N, P) without subdrainage,
(4) EM Bokashi (2 000 t/km2) without subdrainage,
(5) Chemical fertilizer (N, P) with subdrainage,
(6) FYM (1 000 t/km2) and chemical fertilizer (N, P) with subdrainage,
(7) EM Bokashi (1 000 t/km2) and chemical fertilizer (N, P) with subdrainage, and
(8) EM Bokashi (2 000 t/km2) with subdrainage.
Chemical fertilizer treatment consisted of basal and topdressing applications according to
local recommendations. FYM and EM Bokashi were applied as basal and mixed well into the
soil to a depth of up to 15 cm (Li et al. 2003). Each treatment was adjusted to contain an
almost equal amount of N and P nutrients at each site. Rice and soil were managed based on
local methods and traditions. The water table, soil moisture and electrical conductivity (EC) of
0-100 cm soil profiles, as well as irrigated and drained water were measured with an
observation well, neutron probe, salt sensor, and water gauge in the field. Laboratory analysis
and measurement of coefficients relating to soil and rice crops were strictly based on the
Analytical Methods for Soil and Agricultural Chemistry (Lu 1999).
3 Results and discussion
3.1 Effects of EM Bokashi application on soil properties
Soil samples were collected from both experimental sites in the autumns of 2000 and
2001, just after the rice harvest. The effects of application of EM Bokashi, FYM and chemical
Shao Xiaohou et al. Water Science and Engineering, Dec. 2008, Vol. 1, No. 4, 99-106
fertilizer on soil properties were compared. Tables 2 and 3 list the average values for different
treatments at the two field experimental sites from 2000 and 2001.
Table 2 Effects of EM Bokashi, FYM and chemical fertilizer on soil properties at a depth of 0-20 cm at
Qianjin Farm
Treatment Bulk density
(g/cm3) Organic matter
(g/kg) Alkaline N
(mg/kg) Available P
(mg/kg) CEC
1 1.68a 8.2d 27.2bc 9.0a 3.3e 305e
2 1.60b 10.5bc 33.6bc 10.2a 5.6d 421d
3 1.53c 12.3b 46.2b 11.3a 6.8bc 501bc
4 1.42d 15.6a 72.1a 13.9a 9.2a 612a
5 1.62ab 8.0d 26.8c 8.8a 3.2e 312e
6 1.56bc 9.7cd 35.3bc 10.1a 6.0cd 453c
7 1.50c 12.1b 47.2b 11.9a 7.0b 518b
8 1.38d 14.9a 70.5a 14.0a 9.9a 654a
Note: Numbers in the same column followed by the same letter are not significantly different according to the DMRT (Duncan’s
multiple range test) method (P0.05), where P is the probability.
Table 3 Effects of EM Bokashi, FYM and chemical fertilizer on soil properties at a depth of 0-20 cm at
Baiquan Town
Treatment Bulk density
(g/cm3) Organic matter
(g/kg) Alkaline N
(mg/kg) Available P
(mg/kg) CEC
1 1.46a 17.2b 99.5cd 16.8a 9.5d 482c
2 1.40ab 18.5ab 112.4c 17.6a 10.7c 509c
3 1.37bc 18.6ab 130.2b 18.4a 12.5b 601b
4 1.32cd 20.3a 150.5a 20.3a 14.6a 722a
5 1.46a 16.9b 97.3d 17.0a 9.7d 491c
6 1.39b 17.8b 109.3cd 18.1a 10.9c 537c
7 1.35bcd 17.9b 135.2b 19.2a 13.1b 623b
8 1.30d 20.1a 149.8a 21.3a 15.2a 756a
Note: Numbers in the same column followed by the same letter are not significantly different according to the DMRT method
It can be seen from Tables 2 and 3 that treatments of EM corresponded with higher levels
of microbial biomass level, alkaline N, available P and cation exchange capacity (CEC) than
treatments of chemical fertilizer or FYM and chemical fertilizer, either with subdrainage or
without subdrainage. The lowest soil bulk densities at both experimental sites occurred at 0-20 cm,
where the soils were treated with EM Bokashi (2 000 t/km2) combined with a subdrainage
system. EM Bokashi (1 000 t/km2) and FYM with chemical fertilizer resulted in lower bulk
densities than chemical fertilizer alone. Generally, highly productive agricultural soils have
bulk densities of less than 1.40 g/cm3, a well-developed structure, and better porosity and
permeability. Results showed that bulk densities of saline soils were reduced to less than
1.40 g/cm3 after two years of amelioration with application of EM Bokashi (2 000 t/km2).
Therefore, EM Bokashi is very effective in physically, chemically and biologically raising the
fertility of salt-affected soil.
Shao Xiaohou et al. Water Science and Engineering, Dec. 2008, Vol. 1, No. 4, 99-106 103
3.2 Effects of EM Bokashi application on yield and quality of grain
The effects of EM Bokashi, FYM and chemical fertilizer on the yield and quality of rice
at the two experimental sites are reported in Table 4. It can be concluded that the highest yield,
crude protein contents and crude fat contents were obtained with EM Bokashi treatments
under subdrainage conditions. Besides subdrainage, EM was responsible for much of the yield
increase and quality improvement, possibly due to increased availability of plant nutrients or
direct beneficial effects on plant growth, health and protection (Bevacqua and Mellano 1994;
Stolze et al. 2000). The results in Table 4 also show that EM technology has allowed farmers
to make a successful transition from chemical-based conventional rice production to
non-chemical, organic farming systems, and with considerably less environmental risk from
chemical fertilizers.
Table 4 Effects of EM Bokashi on the grain yield and quality of rice (average values from 2000 and 2001)
Yield (1 02 t/km2) Crude protein (%) Crude fat (%)
Treatment Qianjin Farm Baiquan Town Qianjin Farm Baiquan Town Qianjin Farm Baiquan Town
1 5.0f 4.5f 10.6c 9.1c 4.2e 3.7e
2 5.4e 4.8ef 10.8c 9.3c 4.3de 3.9de
3 5.8d 5.0e 11.0c 9.5c 4.5cde 3.9de
4 6.0cd 5.5d 11.5c 10.0c 4.8bc 4.1cde
5 6.0cd 5.7cd 13.5b 11.4b 4.7bcd 4.2bcd
6 6.2c 6.0c 14.2ab 12.3ab 4.9abc 4.5abc
7 7.0b 6.5b 14.7ab 12.8a 5.1ab 4.6ab
8 7.5a 7.0a 15.2a 13.5a 5.3a 4.9a
Note: Numbers in the same column followed by the same letter are not significantly different according to the DMRT method
3.3 Effect of EM Bokashi application on control of secondary soil
Secondary soil salinization is mainly caused by excessive irrigation which results in the
rising of salty underground water under poor drainage conditions. Field subdrainage systems
have been demonstrated to be very effective in controlling the occurrence of secondary soil
salinization (Shao et al. 2000a, 2000b). The total soluble salt content of soil can be obtained
from the EC recorded by salinity sensors buried in soil. The relationships between the EC of
the salinity sensor (x) and total soluble salt content (y) are expressed as follows:
y = 0.02817x + 0.0027 (Baiquan Town, n = 9, r = 0.962**)
y = 0.05867x + 0.0573 (Qianjin Farm, n = 10, r = 0.895**)
where n is the number of the correlative analysis, r is correlation coefficient, and ** indicates
that the correlation coefficient is very significant.
The desalinization degrees at depths of 0-20 cm and 0-100 cm at both experimental sites
are calculated based on the following formula: Desalinization degree = (total soluble salt
content of soil before experimenttotal soluble salt content of soil in October 2001) / total
soluble salt content of soil before experiment.
Shao Xiaohou et al. Water Science and Engineering, Dec. 2008, Vol. 1, No. 4, 99-106
The fluctuation patterns of soluble salt and desalinization degree with different treatments
at both experimental sites were compared, and are shown in Tables 5 and 6. The sample dates
of July and September in 2000 represent the processes of salt leaching just after irrigation and
the surface accumulation of salt during transpiration, respectively. Before field experiments,
the threats of secondary salinization did exist at both locations, with total soluble salt contents
at depths of 0-20 cm and 0-100 cm, respectively, of 12.1 g/kg and 9.8 g/kg at Qianjin Farm,
and 3.3 g/kg and 2.8 g/kg at Baiquan Town. The results in Table 5 and Table 6 show that EM
Bokashi with subdrainage treatment is most effective in controlling the secondary salinization
with maximum desalinization degrees at depths of 0-20 cm and 0-100 cm at both experimental
sites. Subdrainage systems no doubt made the predominant contribution to depressions of total
soluble salt content. Nevertheless, EM Bokashi played a greater role in the control of
secondary salinization than chemical fertilizer treatment. The reason was that the application
of EM Bokashi improved the permeability and aeration capacity of soil, which increased the
leaching of salts (Zhang et al. 2005; Hussain et al. 2003).
Table 5 Effects of EM Bokashi and subdrainage on total soluble salt content and desalinization degree at
Qianjin Farm
Total soluble salt content (g/kg)
Jul. 2000 Sep. 2000 Nov. 2000 Oct. 2001 Desalinization
degree (%)
Treatment 0-20
cm 0-100
cm 0-20
cm 0-100
cm 0-20
cm 0-100
cm 0-20
cm 0-100
cm 0-20
cm 0-100
1 10.8a 12.0a 14.2a 11.9a 10.7a 9.6a 10.5a 9.4a 13.2b 4.1d
2 10.2a 11.2a 13.8a 11.5a 10.5a 9.3a 10.1a 9.0a 16.5b 8.2cd
3 9.8a 10.7a 12.5a 10.8a 10.1a 9.0a 9.8a 8.2a 19.0b 16.3cd
4 9.5a 9.9ab 11.9a 10.5a 9.3a 8.9a 9.0a 8.0a 25.6b 18.4c
5 6.4b 7.8bc 7.0b 8.0b 3.9b 3.6b 3.0b 2.9b 75.2a 70.4b
6 5.7b 7.0c 6.0b 7.3b 3.0b 2.8b 2.7b 2.4b 77.7a 75.5ab
7 5.5b 6.8c 5.8b 7.0b 2.8b 2.4b 2.0b 1.8b 83.5a 81.6ab
8 4.6b 6.0c 4.6b 6.0b 2.5b 2.0b 1.8b 1.5b 85.1a 84.7a
Note: Numbers in the same column followed by the same letter are not significantly different according to the DMRT method
Table 6 Effects of EM Bokashi and subdrainage on total soluble salt content and desalinization degree at
Baiquan Town
Total soluble salt content (g/kg)
Jul. 2000 Sep. 2000 Nov. 2000 Oct. 2001 Desalinization
degree (%)
Treatment 0-20
cm 0-100
cm 0-20
cm 0-100
cm 0-20
cm 0-100
cm 0-20
cm 0-100
cm 0-20
cm 0-100
1 2.8a 3.0a 4.0a 2.8a 2.7a 2.8a 2.6a 2.7a 21.2e 3.6d
2 2.6a 2.8ab 3.6ab 2.6ab 2.5a 2.6ab 2.4a 2.6a 27.3de 7.1d
3 2.4ab 2.7abc 3.0bc 2.5ab 2.2ab 2.4ab 2.1a 2.2ab 36.4cd 21.4c
4 2.2ab 2.7abc 2.7cd 2.0b 2.0abc 2.1abc 1.9ab 2.0abc 42.4c 28.6bc
5 1.8bc 2.2bcd 2.0de 2.3ab 1.5bcd 2.1abc 1.2bc 1.7bc 63.6b 39.3b
6 1.6c 2.0cd 1.8e 2.1ab 1.4cd 2.0bc 1.0c 1.5bc 69.7ab 46.4ab
7 1.5c 1.9d 1.7e 2.0b 1.3cd 1.9bc 0.9c 1.4c 72.7ab 50.0ab
8 1.3c 1.8d 1.3e 1.9b 1.0d 1.6c 0.7c 1.3c 78.8a 53.6a
Note: Numbers in the same column followed by the same letter are not significantly different according to the DMRT method
Shao Xiaohou et al. Water Science and Engineering, Dec. 2008, Vol. 1, No. 4, 99-106 105
The traditional practices for controlling secondary salinization in soil are water
conservation, agricultural, biological and chemical measures (Bhatti et al. 2005). This study
combined water conservation measures and biological measures to raise the salt-affected soil
fertility physically, chemically and biologically with EM Bokashi and subdrainage treatment.
Subdrainage treatments were most effective in controlling the secondary salinization of soil
and raising grain yield and quality. Meanwhile, EM Bokashi is also a good microbial carrier
for use in promoting settlement of the microorganism and creating a useful soil environment.
4 Conclusions
The analytical results lead to the following conclusions:
(1) EM Bokashi treatments increased soil fertility by increasing CEC and available
nutrients, by improving soil porosity and permeability due to a significant soil bulk density
decrease, and by increasing the microbial biomass of soil.
(2) EM Bokashi combined with subdrainage treatments were more effective in controlling
the secondary salinization of soil and raising grain yield and quality than FYM and chemical
fertilizer treatments. A balance of water and salt can be achieved by a combination of EM
Bokashi and subdrainage treatment.
(3) These are two typical soils experiencing secondary salinization with large
geographical differences. The conclusion was the same in the two different regions, suggesting
that EM technology can sufficiently reduce the amount of chemical fertilizer application,
thereby improving the agricultural environment and guaranteeing the sustainable development
of agriculture through control of secondary soil salinization.
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... The role of organic amendments on physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils having salinity and sodicity problems is shown in Table 3. Organic amendments have profound influences on soil's physical properties. Several studies revealed that the application of organic manures decreased the bulk density [33,[147][148][149]] and penetration resistance [149], whereas it increased the aggregate stability [150][151][152], total porosity [152,153], hydraulic conductivity, and permeability [150,154]. Soil organic matter is an important attribute of soil quality and aggregate stability, which is influenced by the inherent properties of soil such as soil type and texture [155,156] as well as agronomic factors such as management, inputs, and nature of the organic matter [157]. ...
... The incorporation of organic amendments had also been found to improve chemical properties such as decrease in pH [27,147,158,159], EC [27,158,160], ESP [33,158], and SAR [27], while there is an increase in the soil organic matter [153,161], organic carbon [132,147,151,152,159,[162][163][164], CEC [152,162], total nutrients [32,151,161], and available nutrients [32,132,147,149,153,159,162,164,165]. ...
... The incorporation of organic amendments had also been found to improve chemical properties such as decrease in pH [27,147,158,159], EC [27,158,160], ESP [33,158], and SAR [27], while there is an increase in the soil organic matter [153,161], organic carbon [132,147,151,152,159,[162][163][164], CEC [152,162], total nutrients [32,151,161], and available nutrients [32,132,147,149,153,159,162,164,165]. ...
Full-text available
High salt concentration in soil is a major abiotic stress, which adversely influences the growth, overall development, and productivity of crops. More than 20% of the land of the world used for crop production is adversely affected by high salt concentration. The problem of salt stress becomes a major concern when previously fertile, productive agricultural lands are salinized more profoundly as a result of anthropogenic activities along with natural causes. Therefore, this review is focused on various aspects of salt-affected soils (SAS), their effects on plants, and different approaches for reclamation of SAS to enhance the potentiality for crop production. Salt-affected soils are categorized into saline, saline-sodic, and sodic soils based on the amount of total soluble salts as expressed by electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), and soil pH. The inhibition of plant growth in saline soils is mainly induced by osmotic stress; reduced uptake of essential macro-and micronutrients, including nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu); and specific toxicities of sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl). Sodic soils adversely affect the plant through high soil pH and poor physical condition resulting from an excessive amount of exchangeable Na. Different plants respond to salt stress in different extents. Salt-affected soils must be reclaimed to restore their productivity for increasing food production. The approaches for the management of SAS include leaching, incorporation of different organic and inorganic amendments, mulching, and development of salt-tolerant crops. The suitability of approaches depends on several considerations such as cost of reclamation, the time required, the extent of the salt stress, soil properties, availability of technology, and other environmental factors. Among different strategies, the incorporation of organic amendments is beneficial, cost-effective, environment friendly, and sustainable for amelioration of salt stress and enhancement of crop production due to the extensive roles of organic amendments in improving the soil's physical (structural stability, porosity, and permeability), chemical [pH, EC, ESP, organic matter, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and Na leaching], and biological and/or biochemical (microbial abundance, microbial activity, biomass carbon, and enzymatic activities) properties.
... Bokashi is an organic element used in sustainable soil management. Based on interviews after training, farmers have calculated that if chemical fertilizers are replaced with bokashi applications, it will have an impact on reducing the cost of purchasing fertilizers regularly [16]. Based on Figure 3 for 6 months of community service activities the number of farmers who applied bokashi was 18 farmers. ...
... Fertilization conducted by farmers is usually done periodically using chemical fertilizers. The use of chemical fertilizers is because farmers do not want to use manure that is less practical but continuous and excessive use can damage soil quality [16]. One of the reasons that make farmers reluctant to use manure is the time and process of making it long. ...
... The application of bokashi can reduce the cost of fertilization and improve the quality of soil fertility so that it can affect the productivity of horticultural crops. 16 ...
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Berkah Mulia is a farmer group in Manuk Mulia Village, Karo Regency with 19 members. Livestock developments may cause several problems such as environmental pollution in the form of livestock manure which causes unhealthy environmental conditions. In addition, the unstable supply of chemical fertilizers and high prices are problems that are quite difficult to solve. The solution to this problem is the utilization of cattle feces in Bokashi which can improve the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil due to the use of excessive chemical fertilizers to improve soil quality. Bokashi is compost produced from the fermentation process or organic matter fermentation with EM4 technology. The method implemented in the community service is having interviews and discussions to find the solution for all problems. Then use teaching media in the form of banners and brochures about the method of making bokashi. Training, counseling, and mentoring are carried out by providing materials and practices for making bokashi using cow feces. The results of the activity show that this community service can increase the knowledge and skills of farmers by 84% related to making bokashi. This activity can also reduce environmental pollution and reduce the cost of purchasing chemical fertilizers so that horticultural crop production increases.
... This may be due to the Sandwich compost being fully degraded by microbes. The CEC of Sandwich compost-treated soil was significantly higher than untreated ones ( Figure 2B) [21]. ...
... This may be due to the Sandwich compost being fully degraded by microbes. The CEC of Sandwich compost-treated soil was significantly higher than untreated ones ( Figure 2B) [21]. . Means ± standard error with different letters is significantly different at p < 0.05 using DMRT. ...
... The non-commercial inoculum (EM) was prepared according to Xiaohou et al. (2008), with some modifications. For this, 700 g of unsalted rice cooked in distilled water were used ( Figure 1). ...
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Organic wastes are considered the most significant components of urban solid waste, negatively affecting the environment. It is essential to use renewable resources to minimize environmental risks. Composting is one of the most sustainable methods for managing organic waste and involves transforming organic matter into a stable and nutrient-enriched biofertilizer, through the succession of microbial populations into a stabilized product. This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the new type of composter and the microbial and physiochemical dynamics during composting aiming to accelerate the degradation of organic waste and produce high-quality compost. Two inoculants were evaluated: (1) efficient microorganisms (EM); (2) commercial inoculum (CI), which were compared to a control treatment, without inoculation. Composting was performed by mixing organic waste from gardening with residues from the University's Restaurant (C/N ratio 30:1). The composting process was carried out in a 1 m ³ composter with controlled temperature and aeration. The thermophilic phase for all treatments was reached on the second day. Mature compost was obtained after an average of 120 days, and composting in all treatments showed an increase in the availability of P and micronutrients. The new composter helped to accelerate the decomposition of residues, through the maintenance of adequate oxygen content and temperature control inside the cells, providing high metabolic activity of microorganisms, contributing to an increase in physicochemical characteristics, also reducing the composting time in both treatments. During composting, the bacteria and actinobacteria populations were higher than yeasts and filamentous fungi. The inoculated treatments presented advantages showing more significant mineralization of P-available and micronutrients such as Mn and Zn in terms of the quality of the final product in comparison to the control treatment. Finally, the new composter and the addition of inoculants contributed significantly to the efficiency of the process of composting organic waste.
... CEC of Sandwich compost substrate amended soil showed significantly greater than Sandwichcompost substrate unamended ones [52]. CEC was largely affected by the amount of organic matter [53][54][55] including Sandwich compost substrate. ...
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Soil enzymes ensure our food security, yet they are vulnerable to abiotic stresses. Solving the global issues of food waste by amending the Sandwich compost can be a great solution to ensure food security. Food waste Sandwich compost substrate (as soil amendment) and leachate (as seed priming solution and liquid fertilizer) were used to grow Bok Choy for 4 growing cycles, where soil pH, cation exchangeable capacity, moisture content, aggregate stability, and enzyme activity were determined. The Sandwich compost substrate amendment increased soil pH close to neutral and CEC up to 1.5-fold. Anaerobic Sandwich compost substrate-amended soil reduced soil catalase activity. Still, it steadily increased during the growing cycle. The Sandwich compost substrate amendment soil sustained the aggregate stability for 4 growing cycles. On the flip side, aggregate stability without the Sandwich compost substrate amended soil declined from the growing cycle to the next growing cycle. All variables were positively correlated except catalase activity. Henceforward, Sandwich compost substrate is recommended to improve soil quality in the aspects of pH, CEC urease activity, and dehydrogenase activity.
... Bokashi is a process, meaning fermented organic matter using effective microorganisms (EM), molasses, and water. e main advantage of Bokashi is short processing time (7 to 21 days) [2,[34][35][36]. Furthermore, Bokashi only required a small corner or space to digest the food waste. ...
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Food waste is a vast issue global, including in Malaysia. Food waste brings negative impacts, including increasing food production costs, impact on human health, and environmental degradation. Malaysian’s animal- and plant-based diet preferences affected the desired food waste decomposition method as most of the methods only allow plant-based material to be utilized as food waste compost. The objectives of this study were to understand Malaysians' awareness of food waste behaviour and the food waste component for the decomposition. Malaysians usually produce more plant-based food waste than animal-based food waste. Most Malaysians have a high awareness of causes and impact of food waste, but they lack action on food waste reduction. Bio-compost is believed to be the most effective method to manage food waste, and most of them were willing to have it at home. However, some of them are unwilling to have a compost pile at home because there is no time to take care of it.
... One type of organic fertilizer that was widely developed during ini is bokashi. Bokashi is a fertilizer produced from the fermentation or fermentation process of organic materials with EM (Effective Microorganism) technology (Xiaohou et al. 2008). ...
Dead fish after upwelling in Cirata Reservoir might cause environmental pollution if it is not well managed. A solution that can be used is utilizing the waste into bokashi organic fertilizer. The purpose of this research were to process fish wastes into bokashi organic fertilizer that meet standards of SNI, and to apply on kale growth. Research was divided into three stages. The first stage was production of fish meal from Cirata Reservoir fisheries waste. The second stage was production of bokashi organic fertilizer by mixing fish meal, rice bran and coconut dregs with fish meal concentration of 30%, 40%, 50% and 60%. The third stage was fertilizer application on kale. Bokashi organic fertilizer product had organic C of 13,98%-17,77%, N total of 3,23%-7,80%, C/N ratio of 1,69- 5,50, P total of 1,46%-2,90%, and K total of 0,92%-1,46%. In general, bokashi organic fertilizer product did not meet standard of SNI because C/N ratio was below the standard. Bokashi organic fertilizer with 30% fish meal combination resulted the highest kale growth (p < 0,05).
... That is, bokashi fertilizer was capable of increasing the photosynthetic rate of rubber seedlings resulting in more biomass accumulation. This was possible because bokashi can improve the organic matter contents of the soil and increase the available nutrient levels [75] which resulted in an increased biomass accumulation of the rubber seedlings. ...
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Lack of good potting media to produce good planting materials for rubber plantations is one of the problems affecting natural rubber (NR) growers and this demands viable solutions. This work describes the effects of potting media made with horse waste-based bokashi compost on the growth and biomass accumulation of rubber seedlings. The research involved four potting media (M1 = 1:0 soil:bokashi, M2 = 1:1 soil:bokashi, M3 = 2:1 soil:bokashi, and M4 = 1:2 soil:bokashi), as well as PB 350 and RRIM 2002 seedlings. Growth parameters assessed were plant height and girth size per plant. Shoot and root dry weights were computed to evaluate the biomass accumulation using indices such as the relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA), root–shoot ratio (RSR) and leaf weight ratio (LWR). Significant growth in terms of plant height was achieved in M4 with the tallest plants (114.1 cm) compared to 93.1 cm in M1 (corresponding to 74.4 and 42.0% height increment, respectively). Plant height increased by 66.3% in RRIM 2002 as compared to 54.6% in PB350. Also, M4 provided a significant shoot dry weight of 139.0 g/plant, leaf area of 4233.2 cm2/plant compared to 58.1 g/plant and 1832.3 cm2/plant, respectively, in the control-M1. Interaction results indicated that RRIM 2002 clone provided the highest RGR (0.011 g/g/day) in M4. This work also demonstrated that adding bokashi to the soil significantly improved most of the chemical properties (but did not significantly change the physical properties) with RRIM 2002 clone responding better to bokashi potting media compared to PB 350 clone.
... In addition to co-composting the use of microbial inoculums facilitate the maturation period, increase compost quality and reduces the impact on the environment due to its strong assimilative capacity (Laskowska et al. 2018). In Laskowska et al. 2018 andShao et al. 2008 depicted the use of effective microorganisms controls and prevents secondary soil salinity. Effective microorganism (EM) is a mixture of groups of organisms that has a reviving action on humans, animals and the natural environment (Higa 1995;Balogun et al. 2016) and has also been described as a multiculture of coexisting anaerobic and aerobic beneficial microorganisms. ...
Conference Paper
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Model simulations permit to identify and predict the levels of loss arising under different storage temperature and maturity conditions in the supply chain. In this research kinetic model was developed for predicting relationship between storage temperature andmango quality attributes. Three quality attributes of mango (color, firmness and total soluble solids (TSS)) were measured and used for the kinetic modeling by estimating the parameters of the model. Mangoes were stored at 7, 13 °C and room temperature. The measurements were carried out with eight repetitions at one week intervals. From the tested equations exponential model for color and TSS found to be the best fit and logistic model for firmness. The model parameters were estimated by the simulation and also validated with a separate experiment with acceptable standard errors and minimum confidence interval of 87.58% which means that the variation in the measured data could be explained by the model. After developing the model a ripening stagewere assigned from 1 to 5 with the corresponding quality values; where 1 is the mature green and 5 is the over ripe stage. The result shows that softening was the limiting quality factor for mangoes stored at 7 °C and color was the limiting quality factor for mangoes stored at 13 °C and room temperature. Equations used in this research could be used to estimate quality loss at different conditions of mango fruit in the supply chain. Keywords: Mango · Quality · Kinetic modeling · Firmness · Color · Total soluble solids · Temperature
Perubahan iklim menjadi salah satu isu penting selama beberapa tahun ini. Perubahan iklim sendiri mengakibatkan berbagai dampak buruk bagi bumi beserta ekosistem di dalamnya. Dampak buruk ini antara lain naiknya permukaan air laut, tenggelamnya kawasan pesisir, kelangkaan air bersih, peningkatan suhu dan cuaca ekstrim, dan lain-lain. Usaha-usaha yang harus dilakukan dalam mengurangi dampak perubahan iklim ini tidaklah mudah. Dibutuhkan waktu bertahun-tahun untuk memulihkan kondisi bumi ini. Salah satu penyebab perubahan iklim adalah jumlah sampah secara global yang dapat menghasilkan gas metana melalui proses pembusukan. Gas metana merupakan salah satu gas rumah kaca yang menyebabkan pemanasan global. Sampah-sampah yang berada di TPS didominasi oleh limbah rumah tangga. Oleh karena itu kesadaran akan pengelolaan sampah di skala rumah tangga sangat penting. Universitas Muhammadiyah Gresik sebagai salah salah satu lembaga pendidikan tinggi dapat mengambil peran dalam memberikan penyuluhan kepada masyarakat tentang perubahan iklim dan pentingnya melakukan pengelolaan limbah rumah tangga dengan baik dan benar. Warga RW 07 Desa Kedanyang telah memiliki sistem pemilahan sampah anorganik yang kemudian dikumpulkan ke bank sampah. Namun sampah organik di RW 07 ini masih belum terolah dengan baik. Sampah organik dapat diolah menjadi kompos dengan metode aerob dan anaerob. Metode anaerob dapat menjadi salah satu solusi pembuatan kompos di lingkungan dengan lahan kecil. Metode anaerob yang digunakan dalam penyuluhan ini adalah dengan sistem bokashi. Dengan adanya penyuluhan ini diharapkan warga menjadi lebih peduli terhadap lingkungan dan perubahan iklim dengan melakukan pengolahan sampah organik rumah tangga menjadi pupuk kompos sehingga dapat menjadi contoh dan motivasi bagi masyarakat lainnya.
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Shaheen Basmati was evolved as a salt tolerant fine rice variety by the Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhattian, Pakistan. Water culture studies were conducted to investigate the physiological mechanism exercised by this variety in particular and rice plant in general to face the saline environment. Performance of this rice variety and the concentration and uptake of ions were studied under stress of three salinity levels (30, 60 and 90 mmol L-1) created with NaCl. Recorded data indicated that shoot dry matter was not significantly affected by all the three levels of salinity. However, NaCl levels of 60 and 90 mmol L-1 affected the root dry matter significantly. Sodium concentration and uptake was enhanced significantly in root and shoot at the first level of salinity (30 mmol L -1) but thereafter the differences were non-significant, indicating the preferential absorption of this cation. The K concentration decreased significantly in shoots at all the levels. The impact was less pronounced in roots as far as K absorption was concerned. The effect on Ca and Mg concentrations was not significant. The values of K:Na, Ca:Na and (Ca+Mg):Na ratios in shoot and root were comparatively low under stress conditions, indicating that selective ion absorption may be the principal salt tolerance mechanism of variety Shaheen Basmati when grown in a saline medium.
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A new type of single-pass aerobic biofilter is being developed as an alternative to the conventional septic tile bed and for treatment of wastewater in general. The Waterloo Biofilter uses absorbent Inter media that combine long retention times, separate flowpaths for wastewater and air, and large surface areas, thereby enabling loading rates 10 times greater than that for solid particle filter media. Although absorbent sphagnum peat and coarse sand plug readily at loading rates of 50 to 80 cm d⁻¹, absorbent plastic particles provide consistent treatment with no plugging problems. The latest field trial removes 97.8% BODâ, 96.1% TSS, and 99.5% fecal conform bacteria with 12 to 16°C wastewater loaded at 49 cm d⁻¹. Surge Bows up to 204 cm d⁻¹ over several days are handled with little effect on effluent quality. In laboratory column experiments, removal of fecal coliforms averages >99.99% at 80 cm d⁻¹ loading, and >99.999% at 10 cm d⁻¹ after a 10- to 14-d acclimatization period. Ammonium is thoroughly oxidized to NOâ⁻ with typically
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Alföldi, Thomas und Lockeretz, William und Niggli, Urs, (Eds.) Proceedings of the 13th International IFOAM Scientific Conference, IFOAM 2000 - The World Grows Organic , p 148-151. Hochschulverlag AG an der ETH Zürich.
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Executive Summary Organic farming has become an important aspect of European agri- environmental policy. Since the implementation of EC Reg. 2078/92, the EU promotes organic farming based explicitly on its positive effects to the environment. The objective of this report is to contribute to a better understanding of organic farming's effects on the environment and to help clarify its possible contribution to European agri-environmental policy. Approach In this study, environmental and resource use impacts of organic farming are assessed relative to conventional farming systems. The primary source of information for this report is a survey of specialists in 18 European countries (all EU-member states plus Norway, Switzerland and the Czech Republic) using a structured questionnaire. These experts were asked to refer back to their national literature on the subject. The second important source of information used in this report is a literature search in international databases completed by the authors. For the purpose of this study, the OECD set of environmental indicators for the agricultural sector has been adapted, taking into consideration only those indicators that directly affect the system of organic farming. Following indicator categories will be evaluated: Ecosystem, natural resources, farm input and output, and health and welfare. As data availability on the subject has not always been satisfying, a qualitative multi-criteria analysis has been chosen as an approach. Due to the subjective elements involved therein, the report tries to achieve maximum transparency by showing step by step how each of the conclusions has been reached. Standards of organic farming Organic farming world-wide is defined by standards set by the organic farming associations themselves. In recent years it has also been defined by the EU. An important objective of these standards is the achievement of desired environmental goals. This and the pure existance and control of such standards is the most important aspect differentiating organic farming from conventional farming. In order to achieve desired environmental results two methods are used: 1. the regulation of the use of inputs to achieve an environmentally sensitive system; and 2. the requirement of specific measures to be applied or, in some cases, of the outcome of environmental or resource use. In general, the first method is more important and the second is more a supplement. There is considerable variety in the standards found which might influence both competitiveness environmental and resource performance. Impact of organic farming on indicators The results of environmental indicator assessment are summarised according to the following categories. Ecosystem: This category comprises the review of research results on floral and faunal biodiversity, habitat diversity and landscape conservation. The main findings are that organic farming clearly performs better than conventional farming in respect to floral and faunal diversity. Due to the ban of synthetic pesticides and N-fertilisers, organic farming systems provide potentials that result in positive effects on wildlife conservation and landscape. Potentially, organic farming leads to a higher diversity of wildlife habitats due to more highly diversified living conditions, which offer a wide range of housing, breeding and nutritional supply. However, direct measures for wildlife and biotope conservation depend on the individual activities of the farmers. Furthermore, research deficiencies were ascertained in connection with the measurement of habitat and landscape diversity. It needs to be stressed, that organic farming, as well as each form of agriculture, cannot contribute directly to many wildlife conservation goals. However, in productive areas, organic farming is currently the least detrimental farming system with respect to wildlife conservation and landscape. Soil: The impact of organic farming on soil properties has been researched comprehensively. Information is somewhat scarce only in respect to soil erosion. Results show that organic farming tends to conserve soil fertility and system stability better than conventional farming systems. This is due to mostly higher organic matter contents and higher biological activity in organically farmed soils than in conventionally managed. Furthermore, organic farming has a high erosion control potential. In comparison, no differences between the farming systems were identified as far as soil structure is concerned. Soil performance is, however, highly site specific. Ground and surface water: The research results reviewed show that organic farming results in lower or similar nitrate leaching rates than integrated or conventional agriculture. Farm comparisons show that actual leaching rates per hectare are up to 57% lower on organic than on conventional fields. However, the leaching rates per unit of output were similar or slightly higher. Critical areas for nitrate leaching in organic farming are ploughing legumes at the wrong time and the selection of unfavourable crops planted afterwards and composting farmyard manure on unpaved surfaces. However, consciousness of the problem and its handling has increased recently. Alternative measures have been developed and introduced in organic farming practise as well. Organic farming does not pose any risk of ground and surface water pollution from synthetic pesticides. Although incorrect organic farm management practices could indeed bear some potential risks for polluting ground and surface water, the detrimental environmental effects from organic farming tend to generally be lower than those from conventional farming systems. Thus organic farming is the preferred agricultural system for water reclamation areas. Climate and air: This section deals with the differences between organic and conventional farming with respect to greenhouse gases, NH3 emissions and air contamination due to pesticides. Research on CO2 emissions show varying results: On a per-hectare scale, the CO2 emissions are 40 - 60% lower in organic farming systems than in conventional ones, whereas on a per-unit output scale, the CO2 emissions tend to be higher in organic farming systems. Quantitative research results on N2O emissions in different farming systems are scarce. Based on deduction, experts conclude that N2O emissions per hectare on organic farms tend to be lower than on conventional farms, while the N2O emissions per kg of milk are equal or higher, respectively. However, due to the fact that almost no quantitative data is available, no definite differences between organic and conventional farming systems can be identified. Quantitative research results on CH4 emissions in different farming systems are also scarce. Experts estimate that organic farming has a lower CH4 emission potential on a per hectare scale, while CH4 emissions per kg of milk are estimated to be higher in organic dairy farms than in conventional ones. However, due to the insufficient data basis, again, no definite differences between the farming systems can be identified. Calculations of NH3 emissions in organic and conventional farming systems conclude that organic farming bears a lower NH3 emission potential than conventional farming systems. Housing systems and manure treatment in organic farming should aim for further reduction, although they provide fewer opportunities for abatement of emissions than slurry based systems. Due to the fact that synthetic pesticides are not permitted in organic farming, significantly lower air contamination is ensured than in conventional farming. Farm input and output: The studies reviewed about on-farm balances of nutrients, water and energy with respect to organic and conventional farming can be summarised as follows: nutrient balances of organic farms in general are close to zero. In all published calculations, the N, P and K surpluses of organic farms were significantly lower than on conventional farms. Negative balances were found for P and K. Most research studies reviewed indicate that energy consumption on organic farms is lower than on conventional farms. Energy efficiency calculated for annual and permanent crops is found to be higher in organic farming than in conventional farming in most cases. However, no research results on water use in organic and conventional farming systems are available. Animal health and welfare: Animal welfare and health are the subject of only a few comprehensive scientific studies. Hence, the actual situation provides the following picture: housing conditions and health status depend highly on farm specific conditions, thus housing conditions seem not to differ significantly between organic and conventional farms. Health status seems to be closely related to economic relevance of animal husbandry on the farm: Significantly fewer incidences of metabolic disorders, udder diseases and injuries were found when dairy production was properly managed. Prophylactic use of synthetic, allophatic medicines is restricted by some national standards and recently also by EU standards. Organic dairy cows tend to have a longer average productive life than conventional dairy cows. Although the application of homeopathic medicines should be preferred, conventional veterinary measures are permitted and used in acute cases of disease. Quality of food produced: No clear conclusions about the quality of organic food in general can be reached using the results of present literature and research results. The risk of contaminating food with pesticides and nitrate can be assumed to be lower in organically rather than in conventionally produced food. However, neither with respect to mycotoxin, heavy metal and PCB contents, and radioactive contamination, nor with respect to the contents of desirable food substances such as vitamins, nutrients, and aromatic compounds can significant differences between organic and conventional food be demonstrated. Given the discussed factors specific to animal products, a strong argument exists for the superiority of animal products from organic in comparison to conventional farming. The lack of comparative investigation of organic versus conventional farming is compensated by existing research results on the risk associated with conventional farming, such as antibiotic residuals in food and their effects on humans. Conclusion on the indicator assessment The review of the relevant literature with respect to organic farming and its impacts on the environment and resource use showed that organic farming performs better than conventional farming in relation to the majority of environmental indicators reviewed. In no indicator category did organic farming show a worse performance when compared with conventional farming. While detailed information is available as far as the two categories of soil and nutrients are concerned, a research deficit was ascertained for the indicator categories climate and air, animal health and food quality. Due to the lack of information, it was only possible to completely assess the performance of the different farming systems with respect to their environmental and resource use impacts on a per hectare scale. Policy relevance of the results One question among the many possible relevant policy ones can be answered firmly. How would an increase in the area organically farmed (e.g. doubling of the area) influence environmental and resource performance? Answer: an increase in the area of organic farming would clearly improve the total environmental and resource use performance of agriculture. It is not easy to answer further questions only using the material available about the influence of organic farming on the environment while maintaining constant food production levels or wether organic farming is part of a least-cost solution to meet agri-environmental goals. However, for policy purposes, the question of whether there are other agri-environmental means of achieving a desired level of environmental and resource performance that might be cheaper for society than organic production is of high relevance. A tentative answer to this question can only be based on theoretical reasoning. There are convincing arguments that the support of organic farming can be a useful part of the agri-environmental tool box, however, other, more specific instruments are also needed. Organic farming seems especially useful if broad environmental concerns are to be addressed, because it results in improvements for most environmental indicators. 
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Atmospheric input of mercury directly to selected crops was determined in Eastern Denmark by isotopic labelling of experimentel soils.Bulk precipitation in the growth period corresponds to 200 ng·m−2·d and the mercury concentrations in the experimental plants were in the range of 5 – 20 ng·g−1 (wet weight). These figures indicate that the experimental site was situated in an unpolluted agricultural area not influenced by local emissions of the metal.Atmospheric mercury contamination of the crops contributed more than 90% of the total plant mercury in the green parts. The atmospheric mercury appeared to be absorbed into and transported throughout the whole plant. Even in the subterranean part of a plant the atmospheric contribution was approximately 50%.Airborne mercury thus seems to contribute significantly to the mercury content in crops and thereby to the human food intake of this toxic metal.
A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive years in a farmer's field at Haji Mora Village, Dera Ismail Khan (D.I. Khan) in the Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan to compare various management practices, such as the effect of various organic manures and gypsum in a rice-wheat cropping system on a saline-sodic Entisol (Zindani soil series). The treatments consisted of 1) a control (rice-wheat), 2) gypsum, 3) farmyard manure (FYM), 4) berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) as green manure (GM), and 5) dhancha (Sesbania sp.) as GM. All treatments increased yields of both rice and wheat significantly (P < 0.01) over the control, with the green manure treatments proving more economical than the others; while they decreased pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) of the soil. Saturation percentage and available water of the soil were raised for all treatments due to an increase in organic matter content of the soil.
45 and 50 composite soil samples were collected, respectively, from two agricultural fields, that were enclosed and reclaimed from coastal tidal-flat areas in 1996 and 1984 respectively, in Shangyu of Zhejiang Province, China, to investigate the physico-chemical properties and the hyperspectral characteristics of the saline soils and to make an assessment on their relationships. The reflectance spectra of saline soils were measured using a spectroradiometer in laboratory. The mean spectral curves of the saline soils from the two sites different in reclamation year showed that the saline soil taken from the recently reclaimed land with higher salinity demonstrated a lower reflectance intensity in the spectral region from about 550 nm to 2300 nm. In addition, nine absorption bands, i.e., 488 am, 530 nm, 670 nm, 880 nm, 940 nm, 1400 nm, 1900 nm, 2 200 nm and 2 300 nm, were chosen as the spectral bands to investigate the relationships between soil physico-chemical properties by means of Pearson correlation analysis. Finally, the first two principal components were calculated from nine absorption bands and used to discriminate the saline soil samples taken from two sampled fields. The results indicate that it is feasible to detect physico-chemical properties of saline soils from fields reclaimed for varying time periods on the basis of the hyperspectral data.
Onion (Allium cepa cv. Spanish Sweet Utah), lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Black Seeded Simpson), snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus cv. Sonnet Yellow), and turfgrass (Festuca arundinacea cv. Marathon) were grown twice annually (spring and fall) on a San Emigdio sandy loam (coarse‐loamy, mixed calcareous thermic, Typic Xerorthents) soil for two years that was treated with a cumulative total of 0, 37, and 74 MT/ha of sewage sludge compost from San Diego. The soil received two compost treatments each year and crops were planted within a week of compost incorporation. Crop growth was monitored and the results of the fourth or final planting are described here. Seedlings of onion, snapdragon and lettuce transplanted to compost treated plots displayed more vigorous establishment than those in the control plots. Compost treatments produced higher yields of onion, turf and lettuce. Snapdragon yield was not affected by compost treatment. Soil analysis of compost treated plots revealed lowered pH and increased levels of organic matter, primary nutrients, soluble salts and heavy metals. A concurrent greenhouse study demonstrated that the presence of chipped Eucalyptus tree trimmings (60% by volume) in the sewage sludge compost did not inhibit the growth of the test crops.
Dynamics of microbial communities during two growing seasons were compared in soils under tomatoes managed by conventional (2- and 4-y rotations), low input, or organic practices. Fumigation extractable carbon (FEC) and nitrogen (FEN), potentially mineralizable N, arginine ammonification and substrate induced respiration (SIR) were significantly higher in organic and low input than conventional systems on most sample dates. Microbial variables were significantly negatively correlated with amounts of soil mineral N in the conventional 4 y system, whereas they were positively correlated with mineral N in the organic system. The C-to-N ratios of material released after fumigation extraction were significantly higher in the conventional than organic soils. In all farming systems, soil moisture was positively correlated with FEC or FEN, but negatively correlated with the C-to-N ratio of the microbial biomass and SIR. Soil temperature was negatively correlated with FEC and FEN, but positively correlated with the C-to-N ratio of microbial biomass.