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Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils Against Five Strains of Propionibacterium acnes



The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 22 essential oils from Thai medicinal plants against 5 strains of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion and agar dilution methods. The results showed that 19 oils could inhibit the growth of P. acnes. According to the inhibition zone, kaffir lime leaf (Citrus hystrix DC.), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf), clove oil (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry) and michelia oil (Michelia alba DC.) had the strongest antibacterial activity. The results form the agar dilution method showed the same trend in which lemongrass oil and citronella oil showed the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration against 5 strains bacteria at 0.125% v/v. Therefore, these two essential oils are an interesting source for further study and possibly as an alternative acne treatment. ©All right reserved.
Mahidol University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2007; 34(1-4): 60-64.
Original Article
Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils Against
Five Strains of Propionibacterium acnes
S. Luangnarumitchai,1 S. Lamlertthon1,2* and W. Tiyaboonchai1
1Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Faculty of Medical Sciences, Naresuan University,
Phitsanulok, Thailand.
Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 22 essential
oils from Thai medicinal plants against 5 strains of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). Antibacterial
activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion and agar dilution methods. The results
showed that 19 oils could inhibit the growth of P. acnes. According to the inhibition zone, kaffir lime leaf
(Citrus hystrix DC.), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf), clove oil (Syzygium aromaticum (L.)
Merr. & Perry) and michelia oil (Michelia alba DC.) had the strongest antibacterial activity. The results
form the agar dilution method showed the same trend in which lemongrass oil and citronella oil showed the
lowest minimum inhibitory concentration against 5 strains bacteria at 0.125% v/v. Therefore, these two
essential oils are an interesting source for further study and possibly as an alternative acne treatment. ©All
right reserved.
Keywords: acne vulgaris, antibacterial activity, essential oils, Propionibacterium acnes
Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory skin disease
of pilosebaceous units. Propionibacterium
acnes (P. acnes) plays an important role in
the pathogenesis of acne inflammation by
producing polymorphonuclear leukocyte and
monocyte or macrophage to produce pro-
inflammatory mediators.1 Moreover, P. acnes
can also induce follicular keratinocytes to
release interleukin-1, which causes keratino-
cytes to proliferate and contributes to the
formation of the preclinical micromedo.2
Therefore, the compounds for targeting acne
vulgaris should be able to inhibit P. acnes.
For many years, antibiotics have been used to
treat acne vulgaris; however, the presence of
antibiotic resistance strains has been
increasing as shown in many reports.3-6
Hence, there is a challenge for the discovery
of new substances from natural sources to
overcome this problem.
Essential oils are complex natural mixtures
that are isolated by steam distillation. The
majority of them are used as flavoring agents
in perfume, food and beverage. Additionally,
they have been traditionally used as natural
preservatives in medicine, food and
cosmetics. Moreover, several reports have
indicated antibacterial activities of essential
oils.7-15 Therefore, researchers are interested
in searching for essential oils from medicinal
plants which have been traditionally used as
antibacterial agents by examining against the
microorganism predominately involved in
acne inflammation, P. acnes.
Samples of pure essential oils with known
compositions which were obtained via steam
distillation were purchased from Thai China
Flavors & Fragrances Industry Co. (Thailand).
*Corresponding author: Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Naresuan
University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand. Email:
Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils Against Five Strains of Propionibacterium acnes
The test organisms used in this study were P.
acnes (DMST No. 14916, 14917, 14918, 21823,
21824). These bacteria were obtained from
Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of
Public Health, Bangkok, Thailand.
Disc Diffusion Method
This experiment was performed by following
the method of Hayes and Markovic (2002)1
with some modifications. Briefly, P. acnes
was incubated in Brain heart infusion broth
supplemented with 1% glucose and adjusted
to yield approximately 1.0 x 108 CFU/ml.
The inoculum suspension was swabbed on
the entire surface of brain heart infusion agar
containing 1% glucose and 0.5% polysorbate
80. Sterile filter paper discs (Macherey-
Nagel, MN®) were aseptically placed on
inoculated plate and impregnated with 15 μl
of each essential oil. The plates were left at
ambient temperature for 30 minutes to allow
exceed prediffusion prior to incubation at
37oC for 72 hours under anaerobic conditions
using the gas generation kit (Oxoid, UK).
Standard discs of tetracycline (30 μg/disc),
erythromycin (15 μg/disc), and clindamycin
(2 μg/disc) (Oxoid, English) were used
individually as positive controls. The diameters
of the inhibition were measured (mm) and
recorded as the mean ± S.D. (standard
deviation). All experiment was performed in
duplicate and repeated three times.
Agar Dilution Method
The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)
values were determined by agar dilution
method. Test materials were added
aseptically to 20 ml aliquots of appropriate
sterile molten agar containing 0.5%
polysorbate 80 at the appropriate volumes to
produce the required concentration range of
test material (0.015-4.0% v/v). The resulting
agar solutions were vortexed at high speed
for 15 seconds or until completely dispersed,
immediately poured into sterile petri dishes
then allowed to set for 30 minutes. The plates
were then spotted inoculated with multipoint
inoculator to transfer the desired test
organisms (1 μl) from the prepared inoculum
onto the plates. Inoculated plates were left
until the inoculum had set and then incubated
at 37oC for 72 hours under anaerobic condition
as previous described. Following the
incubation period, the plates were observed
and recorded for presence or absence of
growth. From the results, the MIC was
recorded as the lowest concentration of test
materials where absence of growth was observed.
The present results indicated that 19 essential
oils could effectively inhibit the growth of P.
acnes. Among these essential oils, kaffir lime
leaf (Citrus hystrix DC.), lemongrass oil
(Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf), clove oil
(Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry)
and michellia oil (Michelia alba DC.) showed
the strongest antibacterial activity with
inhibition zones of more than 20 mm (Table
1). Subsequent experiments were conducted
to determine inhibitory concentrations of all
essential oils. Lemongrass and citronella oil
(Cymbopogon nardus L.) revealed the highest
antibacterial effect as they possessed the MIC
value of 0.125% v/v for all of 5 strains
bacterial tested (Table 2). Even though kaffir
lime leaf (Citrus hystrix DC.) showed the
largest inhibition zone, its MIC value was
greater than that of lemongrass and citronella
oil. This may be due to their abilities to
diffuse from paper disc and solubilize in agar;
however, the disc diffusion method was used
for screening the antibacterial activity of the
essential oils.16,17
Lertsatithanakorn et al.18 reported that the
MICs against P. acnes of lemongrass, kaffir
lime, holy basil and plai, determined by a
broth microdilution method, were 0.6 µl/ml,
5.0 µl/ml, 5.0 µl/ml and 25.0 µl/ml,
respectively. The lower MICs from that study
may be due to the different method used.
Generally, essential oils comprise of a large
number of active components. The difference
in antibacterial activity of the essential oils
may be due to the difference in chemical
compositions. The main components of
essential oils exhibited high activity in this
study were previously reported for their
S. Luangnarumitchai et al.
marked antibacterial activity against various
types of bacteria. Citral, a main component in
lemongrass oil, showed activity against
several microorganisms such as Staphylo-
coccus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis
and Candida albicans.12,19-21 Similarly, geraniol,
trans-citral, cis-citral, geranyl acetate,
citronellal and citronellol in citronella oil22
Table 1. Antibacterial activity of essential oils against 5 strains of Propionibacterium acnes
a Values for inhibition zone are presented as mean ± S.D. of three independent experiments.
- Inhibition zone was not more than 6 mm (diameter of disc).
Inhibition zone (mm)a ± S.D.
Test samples
P. acnes
P. acnes
P. acnes
P. acnes
P. acnes
Black pepper oil (Piper nigrum L.) - - - - -
Canaga abs oil (Cananga odorata
Hook.f. & Thomson var. fruticosa
(Craib) Corner)
- - - - -
Citronella oil (Cymbopogon nardus L.) 18.1± 0.6 18.1± 0.5 17.9 ± 0.4 18.4 ± 0.8 19.5 ± 0.5
Clove oil (Syzygium aromaticum (L.)
Merr. & Perry) 25.3 ± 2.5 23.6 ± 4.3 21.8 ± 2.1 25.3 ± 1.3 23.3 ± 0.3
Coriander oil (Coriandrum sativum L.) 13.7 ± 2.2 12.8 ± 2.2 11.6 ± 1.4 9.9 ± 1.5 12.3 ± 2.2
Eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus globulus
Labill.) - - - - -
Galanga oil (Alpia galangal (L.)
Swatz) 8.6 ± 0.8 9.4 ± 1.4 9.6 ± 1.2 9.8 ± 2.0 8.9 ± 0.7
Ginger oil (Zingiber offinale Roscoe) 9.6 ± 0.7 9.6 ± 1.5 8.9 ± 0.1 9.0 ± 0.4 9.0 ± 0.7
Guava leaf oil (Psidium guajava L.) 13.1 ± 0.5 12.5 ± 1.5 11.6 ± 1.1 14.7 ± 1.8 12.4 ± 1.9
Holy basil oil (Ocimum tenuiflorum L.) 16.5 ± 3.3 17.3 ± 1.4 17.3 ± 3.8 16.3 ± 3.6 17.2 ± 3.7
Jasmine oil (Jasminum sambac Ait. ) 12.8 ± 0.6 12.0 ± 1.2 11.3 ± 0.8 12.9 ± 1.4 12.8 ± 1.0
Kaffir lime oil (Citrus hystrix DC.) 14.1 ± 3.0 18.0 ± 1.4 16.7 ± 1.5 15.1 ± 2.6 17.3 ± 0.4
Kaffir lime leaf oil (Citrus hystrix DC.) > 90 > 90 > 90 > 90 > 90
Lavender oil (Lavandula angustifolia) 17.8 ± 1.1 17.7 ± 2.2 17.8 ± 2.0 20.2 ± 2.3 15.5 ± 2.8
Lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon citratus
(DC.) Staphf) 35.8 ± 3.9 34.4 ± 2.9 35.6 ± 4.1 31.9 ± 3.9 36.9 ± 3.8
Lesser galangal (Alpinia officinarum
Hance) 14.8 ± 0.2 14.6 ± 0.8 15.3 ± 0.3 13.6 ± 2.7 15.0 ± 2.7
Michellia oil (Michelia alba DC.) 23.8 ± 1.6 21.5 ± 2.9 22.7 ± 2.3 28.3 ± 4.6 22.0 ± 3.0
Plai oil (Zingiber montanum (Koenig)
Link ex Dietr.) 13.5 ± 2.0 13.9 ± 0.9 14.7 ± 1.7 13.3 ± 0.7 15.7 ± 2.2
Sweet basil oil (Ocimum basilicum L.) 11.7 ± 0.7 10.4 ± 1.3 10.4 ± 2.0 10.9 ± 1.8 10.5 ± 0.6
Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) 16.2 ± 1.2 15.2 ± 1.7 15.6 ± 2.6 17.4 ± 1.7 15.3 ± 1.9
Tumeric oil (Curcuma longa L.) 10.3 ± 0.4 11.0 ± 0.1 9.6 ± 0.7 10.1 ± 1.5 9.3 ± 0.9
Ylang ylang oil (Cananga odorata
(Lam.) Hook. f. & T. Thomson var.
8.8 ± 0.7 9.4 ± 0.1 9.5 ± 0.7 9.4 ± 0.1 9.2 ± 0.1
Clindamycin (2 μg/disc) 31.0 ± 1.3 31.2 ± 1.5 30.4 ± 1.6 29.4 ± 0.8 29.1 ± 1.7
Erythromycin (15 μg/disc) 30.9 ± 1.4 31.3 ± 2.8 29.1 ± 1.3 29.2 ± 1.1 28.6 ± 1.5
Tetracycline (30 μg/disc) 35.5 ± 4.6 35.3 ± 3.1 35.5 ± 3.8 35.3 ± 3.0 35.8 ±2.8
Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils Against Five Strains of Propionibacterium acnes
Table 2. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of essential oils against 5 strains of Propioni-
bacterium acnes
and eugenol, β-caryophyllene and acetyl-eugenol
in clove oil23 also showed activities against
various microorganism such as S. aureus,
Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Clostridium perfringens and E.
coli.13-15 Therefore, antibacterial activity
against P. acnes of these essential oils may be
due to the activity of those key constituents.
As previously mentioned, compounds
exhibiting activity against P. acnes can be
used to treat acne vulgaris. Lemongrass oil
and citronella grass oil had the highest
inhibitory activity against P. acnes by which
their MIC values were the same, i.e. 0.125%
v/v. Therefore, these two essential oils may
have a potential for further study as an
alternative acne treatment.
Minimum inhibotory concentration (% v/v)
Test samples
P. acnes
P. acnes
P. acnes
P. acnes
P. acnes
Black pepper oil (Piper nigrum L.) > 4 > 4 > 4 > 4 > 4
Canaga abs oil (Cananga odorata
Hook.f. & Thomson var. fruticosa
(Craib) Corner)
> 4 > 4 > 4 > 4 > 4
Citronella oil (Cymbopogon nardus L.) 0.125 0.125 0.125 0.125 0.125
Clove oil (Syzygium aromaticum (L.)
Merr. & Perry) 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Coriander oil (Coriandrum sativum L.) 1 1 1 1 1
Eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus globulus
Labill.) 4 4 4 4 4
Galanga oil (Alpia galangal (L.) Swatz) > 4 > 4 > 4 > 4 > 4
Ginger oil (Zingiber offinale Roscoe) > 4 > 4 > 4 > 4 > 4
Guava leaf oil (Psidium guajava L.) > 4 > 4 > 4 > 4 > 4
Holy basil oil (Ocimum tenuiflorum L.) 2 2 2 2 2
Jasmine oil (Jasminum sambac Ait. ) 2 2 2 2 2
Kaffir lime oil (Citrus hystrix DC.) 2 2 2 2 2
Kaffir lime leaf oil (Citrus hystrix DC.) 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Lavender oil (Lavandula angustifolia) 2 2 2 2 2
Lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon citratus
(DC.) Staphf) 0.125 0.125 0.125 0.125 0.125
Lesser galanga (Alpinia officinarum
Hance) 1 1 1 1 1
Michellia oil (Michelia alba DC.) 1 1 1 1 1
Plai oil (Zingiber montanum (Koenig)
Link ex Dietr.) 4 4 4 4 4
Sweet basil oil (Ocimum basilicum L.) > 4 > 4 > 4 > 4 > 4
Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) 1 1 1 1 1
Tumeric oil (Curcuma longa L.) > 4 > 4 > 4 > 4 > 4
Ylang ylang oil (Cananga odorata
(Lam.) Hook. f. & T. Thomson var.
> 4 > 4 > 4 > 4 > 4
S. Luangnarumitchai et al.
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... crecimiento eficazmente. Este hallazgo es similar a los de estudios anteriores sobre la CIM del aceite del árbol de té contra C. acnes que utilizaron el mismo método y obtuvieron un rango entre 0,05 y 2,0 % v/v (14,(22)(23)(24). ...
... En este sentido, en el estudio de Luangnarumitchai, et al., sobre la actividad antibacteriana de 22 aceites esenciales, incluido el del árbol de té, se demostró una CIM del 1 % v/v para cinco cepas diferentes de C. acnes (23). Asimismo, Griffin, et al., estandarizaron un método de dilución en agar para la prueba de sensibilidad de dos aceites de M. alternifolia con diferentes concentraciones de terpinen-4-ol (37 y 45 % v/v) en una amplia gama de bacterias y hongos. ...
... Todos los estudios citados se llevaron a cabo utilizando el método de dilución en agar y, a pesar de que este se desarrolló para el trabajo con agentes antimicrobianos solubles en agua, ha sido el método de elección en muchos de los estudios de comparación de la actividad antimicrobiana de los aceites esenciales (14,22,23). ...
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Introducción. El aceite del árbol de té es un aceite esencial reconocido por sus propiedades antimicrobianas. Objetivos. Evaluar la composición, características y efecto antimicrobiano del aceite al 2 % del árbol de té y su concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM) contra Cutibacterium acnes (Propionibacterium acnes). Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó el quimiotipo en tres lotes diferentes de este aceite mediante cromatografía de gases, así como su actividad antimicrobiana en concentración al 2 % v/v y la CIM contra C. acnes mediante ensayo de difusión en agar (guía M11-A8 CLSI). Resultados. Los lotes evaluados presentaron los quimiotipos ajustados a la norma ISO 4730, lo que indicó la alta calidad del producto. Los lotes contenían de 30 a 40 % de terpinen-4-ol, compuesto que favorece la actividad antimicrobiana, la cual presentó en todos los lotes un efecto dependiente de la concentración contra C. acnes, con una inhibición del crecimiento microbiano en concentración al 2 % v/v en todas las pruebas. La concentración inhibitoria mínima fue de 0,25 % v/v. La actividad antimicrobiana del aceite del árbol de té contra este microorganismo ya ha sido reportada con una concentración inhibitoria mínima entre 0,05 y 1,25 % v/v, rango que cobija la obtenida en este estudio. Conclusiones. Los resultados evidenciaron la gran calidad de este producto y su capacidad como agente antibacteriano contra C. acnes. Se deben hacer estudios con otros aislamientos del microorganismo provenientes de pacientes con acné vulgar para confirmar su actividad general y la de cada uno de sus componentes.
... The Thai cultivar of the garlic oil in our study displayed higher activity than other cultivars from other countries in topical usage because the Thai cultivars displayed a higher percentage of allicin content than other countries (Genatrika et al. 2020;Saptarini and Herawati 2017). Moreover, the garlic oil performed higher antiacne activity than other studied essential oils cultivated in Thailand, such as citronella oil, clove oil, coriander oil, galanga oil, ginger oil, guava leaf oil, holy basil oil, jasmine oil, kaffir lime oil, lavender oil, lemongrass oil, galangal oil, michelia oil, plai oil, sweet basil oil, tea tree oil, turmeric oil, guava leaf oil, ylang ylang oil, thyme oil, and cinnamon oil (Athikomkulchai et al. 2018;Julianti et al. 2017;Luangnarumitchai et al. 2007;Matiz et al. 2015). The ethanol extracts of Nepalese wild mushrooms such as Inonotus andersonii, I. clemensiae, I. cuticularis, I. sp., and Cyclomyces setiporus, which had the most inhibitory impact on C. acnes, had less anti-C. ...
... Philippine Journal of Science Vol. 151 No. 3, June 2022 the garlic oil showed inhibition close to that derived from kaffir lime leaf oil, clove oil, citronella oil, and lemongrass oil, which have been reported (Luangnarumitchai et al. 2007). The garlic oil's MIC index was estimated at below 4, suggesting that it was bactericidal and that the oil might interrupt the bacterial cell wall and cell membrane synthesis and could also damage DNA synthesis. ...
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... The antimicrobial activity was determined by Kirby-buyer diffusion method 13,14 . Sterile SDA (Subouraud dextrose agar) was poured into plates and the depth of the medium was 4mm. ...
... The lid of Petri dishes were closed and kept at room temperature for 5-10 minutes to dry the inoculums, confluent growth is desirable. The [9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] . ...
... This aroma comes from the citronella compound contained in lemongrass' essential oil. The content of citronella can inhibit the growth of bacteria [4]. Lemongrass bath salt effervescent is a type of cosmetic preparation in bath salts in the form of effervescent powder with the aroma of lemongrass. ...
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... Boonyanugomol et al. reported significant antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Z. montanum against Gram-negative Acinetobacter baumannii strains by agar disc-diffusion tests [67]. Sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes and diterpenes from Z. montanum showed various degrees of antimicrobial action against B. cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa [68]. ...
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The genus Zingiber consists of about 85 species and many of these species are used as food, spices, and medicines. One of the species, Zingiber montanum (J. Koenig) Link ex A. Dietr. is native to Southeast Asia and has been extensively used as traditional medicines and food. The aim of this review was to collect and critically analyze the scientific information about the bioactive compounds and pharmacological activities of Z. montanum with focus on one of the main components, zerumbone (ZER). Various studies have reported the analysis of volatile constituents of the essential oils from Z. montanum. Similarly, many phenylbutanoids, flavonoids and terpenes were also isolated from rhizomes. These essential oils, extracts and compounds showed potent antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities among others. Zerumbone has been studied widely for its anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and other pharmacological activities. Future studies should focus on the exploration of various pharmacological activities of other compounds including phenylbutanoids and flavonoids. Bioassay guided isolation may result in the separation of other active components from the extracts. Z. montanum could be a promising source for the development of pharmaceutical products and functional foods.
... Menurut Burdock (2002) komponen senyawa utama minyak sereh wangi ini terdiri dari sitronelal, sitronellol, dan geraniol. Luangnarumitchai et al. (2007) memaparkan bahwa kandungan sitronelal, geraniol, dan sitronelol dalam minyak sereh wangi juga mampu menghambat aktivitas bakteri. ...
ABSTRAK Ekstraksi adalah suatu proses pemisahan suatu zat berdasarkan perbedaan kelarutannya terhadap dua cairan tidak saling larut yang berbeda. Pengambilan ekstrak minyak atsiri dapat dilakukan dengan tiga metode yaitu penyulingan atau destilasi, ekstraksi menggunakan pelarut, dan melalui pengepresan atau penekanan.Pada percobaan ini metode yang digunakan untuk mengekstrak minyak dari daun sereh wangi dilakukan dengan cara penyulingan. Adapun tujuan dari percobaan ini yaitu untuk mengetahui pengaruh waktu dan suhu penyulingan pada proses pengambilan minyak atsiri. Adapun prosedur penelitian dimulai dengan ukuran daun sereh diperkecil terlebih dahulu. Kemudian ditimbang sereh sebanyak 500 gram. Dimasukkan air sebanyak 500 mL sebagai pelarut, setelah itu baru ditambahkan daun sereh wangi kedalam alat penyulingan. Proses penyulingan dilakukan pada suhu 120 ℃ dengan variasi waktu penyulingan (3, 3,5, 4, 4,5 dan 5) jam. Hasil penyulingan kemudian dilakukan pemisahan, untuk memisahkan air yang masih terkandung didalam minyak. Ulangi prosedur diatas dengan suhu yang berbeda. Hasil dari penelitian yang didapat yaitu % yield yang terendah didapat pada waktu 3 jam dengan suhu 120 ℃ yaitu 0,998% dan % yield tertinggi didapat pada waktu 5 jam dan pada suhu 120 ℃ yaitu 1,228%. Sedangkan nilai densitas yang terendah diperoleh pada waktu penyulingan 5 jam yaitu 0,882 gr/ml dan nilai densitas tertinggi diperoleh pada waktu 3 jam yaitu 0,886 gr/ml. Kata Kunci: Ekstraksi, Penyulingan, Yield, Densitas, Daun Sereh Wangi ABSTRACT Extraction is a process of separating a substance based on the difference in solubility of two different insoluble liquids. Extracting essential oils can be done in three methods, namely distillation or distillation, extraction using solvents, and pressing or pressing. In this experiment the method used to extract oil from leaves of fragrant lemongrass is done by distillation. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the effect of distillation time and temperature on the process of extracting essential oils. The research procedure starts with the size of lemongrass leaves being reduced first. Then weighing 500 grams of lemongrass. Add 500 mL of water as a solvent, then add lemongrass leaves to the distiller. The distillation process was carried out at a temperature of 120 ℃ with variations in distillation time 3 hours, 3.5 hours, 4 hours, 4.5 hours and 5 hours. The distillation is then separated, to separate the water that is still contained in the oil. Repeat the procedure above with a different temperature. The results of the research obtained were the lowest% yield obtained at 3 hours with a temperature of 120 ℃ which was 0.998% and the highest% yield was obtained at 5 hours and at a temperature of 120 ℃ ie 1.282%. While the lowest density value obtained at the time of 5 hours distillation is 0.882 gr / ml and the highest density value obtained at 3 hours is 0.886 gr / ml. Keywords: Extraction, Distillation, Yield, Density, Fragrant Citronella Leaves
... In high concentrations, these compounds can kill insects and in lower doses can inhibit insect growth and development. The biotic substances found in lemongrass have dehydrating toxicity (desiccant) and contact poison which can kill insects and can also inhibit bacterial activity [9]. ...
... Antibacterial activity of EGEO by disc diffusion and agar dilution method were performed against P. acnes strains. Inhibition zones were not observed, and 4% concentration was reported as active concentration (Luangnarumitchai et al., 2007). Furthermore, EGEO containing γ-terpinene and p-cymene as the major components with a MIC=9375 µg/mL against P. acnes was reported (Athikomkulchai et al., 2008). ...
Eradication of Propionibacterium acnes and associated skin pathogenic species such as Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis involve anti-oxidant as well as anti-inflammatory effects besides antimicrobial action. For this purpose, Pharmacopoeia Grade (PhEur) Eucalyptus globulus essential oil was evaluated against the human pathogenic species such as P. acnes ATCC 6919, P. acnes ATCC 11827, S. aureus ATCC 6538 and S. epidermidis ATCC 12228 using an in vitro microdilution method. The composition and quality of the essential oil was confirmed both by GC/FID and GC/MS techniques, respectively. The in vitro radical-scavenging activity was evaluated using the photometric 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay; the anti-inflammatory activity assay performed by using the in vitro lipoxygenase (5-LOX) enzyme inhibition assay. Essential oil analysis confirmed the presence of 1,8-cineole (80.2 %), p-cymene (6.6 %), and limonene (5 %) as main components. The antibacterial performance of the tested oil was more susceptible against Staphylococcus species (MIC=625 µg/mL) compared to P. acnes (MIC=1250 µg/mL). 5-LOX inhibitory activity was determined as IC50 = 58 ±1,4 µg/mL for the essential oil, compared to the inhibition of the standard nordihydroguaiaretic acid = NDGA. The preliminary experimental results suggest that the Eucalyptus essential oil and its major constituent 1,8-cineole acts against skin pathogenic bacteria as a mild natural antimicrobial with anti-inflammatory effects, for further potential topical applications.
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Alopecia areata is a skin disorder characterized by scarless, localized hair loss that is usually managed by topical treatments that might further worsen the condition. Therefore, the current study aimed to develop nano-cubosomes loaded with finasteride (FI) and oregano oil (Or) to improve drug solubility and permeation through skin and then incorporate it into an aloe ferox gel base. An l-optimal coordinate exchange design was adopted to optimize nano-cubosomes. Phytantriol and Alkyl Acrylate were employed as the lipid material, and surfactant respectively for cubosomes manufacture. The produced formulations were assessed for their particle size, entrapment efficiency (EE%), FI steady-state flux (Jss) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Pro-pionibacterium acnes. Optimal FI-Or-NCu had a particle size of 135 nm, EE% equals 70%, Jss of 1.85 μg/cm2.h, and MIC of 0.44 μg/ml. The optimum formulation loaded gel gained the highest drug release percent and ex vivo skin permeation compared to FI aqueous suspension, and pure FI loaded gel. Aloe ferox and oregano oil in the optimized gel formulation had a synergistic activity on the FI permeation across the skin and against the growth of p. acne bacteria which could favor their use in treating alopecia. Thus, this investigation affirms the ability of FI-Or-NCu loaded aloe ferox gel could be an effective strategy that would enhance FI release and permeation through skin and maximize its favorable effects in treating alopecia.
Pest management in the agricultural process has faced worldwide economic and ecological issues related to chemicals usage. Botanical insecticides have long been considered promising alternatives to control pests because botanicals reputedly pose a minor threat to the environment and human health. Some studies have evaluated several botanical insecticides to control aphids in chrysanthemum. The research was conducted under plastic house conditions at the Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute from January to December 2018. Leaf extract of T. sinensis, T. diversifolia and A. indica at the concentration of 3 and 3.5 g/l, processed oil of C. nardus at the concentration of 2.5 and 5 g/l and synthetic insecticide Imidacloprid 1 g/l were sprayed in the morning or late afternoon. The results showed that aphid attacks severity and percentage of attacked plants were lower when the insecticides were applied in the late afternoon. Slightly softer than synthetic chemicals, the leaf extract of T. sinensis at 3 g/l suppressed the aphid development more effective for about 55.93% than other botanicals treatments. On reproductive properties, the leaf extract of T. sinensis at 3 and 3 g/l and T. diversifolia at 3 g/l induced a higher percentage of open flower for more than 65% than synthetic insecticides, Imidacloprid.
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Background: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 21 plant essential oils against six bacterial species. Methods: The selected essential oils were screened against four gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris) and two gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at four different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20) using disc diffusion method. The MIC of the active essential oils were tested using two fold agar dilution method at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 25.6 mg/ml. Results: Out of 21 essential oils tested, 19 oils showed antibacterial activity against one or more strains. Cinnamon, clove, geranium, lemon, lime, orange and rosemary oils exhibited significant inhibitory effect. Cinnamon oil showed promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, whereas aniseed, eucalyptus and camphor oils were least active against the tested bacteria. In general, B. subtilis was the most susceptible. On the other hand, K. pneumoniae exhibited low degree of sensitivity. Conclusion: Majority of the oils showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains. However Cinnamon, clove and lime oils were found to be inhibiting both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Cinnamon oil can be a good source of antibacterial agents.
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The objective of this study was to elucidate the chemical composition of essential oil from Cymbo- pogon nardus (citronella oil) and its antifungal activity. Chemical composition of the citronella oil was determined by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC/ mass spectrometry. Major constituents of the oil were geraniol (35.7% of total volatiles), trans-citral (22.7%), cis-citral (14.2%), geranyl acetate (9.7%), citronellal (5.8%) and citronellol (4.6%). The antifungal assay using the vapor-agar contact method showed that the crude essential oil markedly suppressed the growth of several species of Aspergillus, Penicillium and Eurotium at a dose of 250 mg/L in air. The most active compounds among the 16 examined volatiles, consisting of 6 major constituents of the essential oil and 10 other related monoterpenes were citronellal and linalool. Citronellal and linalool completely inhibited the growth of all tested fungal strains at a dose of 112 mg/L. Their minimum inhibitory doses ranged from 14 to 56 mg/L. The α- and β- pinenes showed an inhibitory activity against some fungi, whereas the other 8 volatile compounds lacked this property.
The solubility in water of essential oil constituents is directly related to their ability to penetrate the cell walls of a bacterium or fungus. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils is due to their solubility in the phospholipid bilayer of cell membranes. Terpenoids which are characterized by their lability have been found to interfere with the enzymatic reactions of energy metabolism.
Essential oils are used in skincare products for perfuming and aromatherapy purposes. In this study, the bioactivities of seven essential oils commonly used and claimed for skincare namely citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus L.), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC), Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC), holy basil (Ocimum sanctum L.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were investigated. Investigation of the in vitro susceptibility of the oils against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) using the broth microdilution technique revealed that citronella grass oil exhibited the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) at 0.005–0.3 and 0.6–1.2 μl/ml, respectively. The MIC and MBC values of lemongrass oil were 0.6 μl/ml and those of kaffir lime oil and holy basil oil were 5 μl/ml. Antioxidant activity using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay showed that the IC50 values of holy basil oil (0.03 μl/ml), plai oil (6.9 μl/ml) and citronella grass oil (2 μl/ml) were lower than that of ascorbic acid (7.9 μl/ml). Anti-inflammatory activity of the oils determined using the 5-lipoxygenase inhibition assay found that IC50 values of holy basil oil (0.04 μl/ml), kaffir lime oil (0.05 μl/ml) and citronella grass oil (0.15 μl/ml) were less than that of nordihydroquaretic acid (1.7 μg/ml). Since P. acnes has a role in the inflammation of acne leading to scar formation, citronella grass oil may help to relieve acne blemishes. However, further investigation in the form of clinical studies would be necessary.
Citral showed appreciable antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi. Media composition and inoculum size had no observable effect on activity but alkaline pH increased citral activity. The growth rates of Escherichia coli cultures were reduced at concentrations of citral ≥0·01% v/v while concentrations ≥0·03% v/v produced rapid reduction in viable cells followed by limited regrowth. In a non-growth medium, 0·08% and 0·1% v/v showed rapid bactericidal effects. Citral may therefore be of preservative use in addition to its other uses in the food, soap and cosmetic industries.
The analysis of the microbiological inhibitory data on substances that are mainly found in essential oils, reveals that only a small number of substances are able to inhibit bacteria, moulds, dermatophytes and yeasts in a concentration up to 250 ppm. The essential oil components are: cinnamic aldehyde, 2-heptenal, 2-octenal, 2-nonenal, 2-decenal, nonanal, decanal, citral, geraniol, chavicol, thymol, carvacrol, β- and γ-thujaplicin, nonanol and decanol. Structurally related substances include sesquiterpene dialdehydes, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, propyl and butyl ester as well as some phenols. Sesquiterpene alcohols and fatty acids do not show pronouced growth-inhibitory properties towards Gram-negative bacteria. Most of the monoterpenes, which are typical essential oil constituents, normally do not posses a wide spectrum of activity at low doses.
Oxidation of lipids is one of the basic processes causing rancidity in food products. Since application of natural antioxidants may be one of the technically simplest ways of reducing fat oxidation, we studied the effect of heating on antioxidant effectiveness and the chemical composition of basil, cinnamon, clove, nutmeg, oregano and thyme essential oils. When maintained at room temperature, all the oils tested appeared endowed with good radical-scavenger properties in the DPPH assay (effectiveness order: clove ≫ cinnamon > nutmeg > basil ⩾ oregano ≫ thyme). When heated up to 180 °C, nutmeg oil (but not the other essential oils under study) showed a significantly higher free radical-scavenger activity and evident changes in its chemical composition. Furthermore, the ability of these essential oils to protect α-tocopherol, contained in virgin olive oil, against thermal oxidative degradation was investigated. All the essential oils tested appeared able to prevent α-tocopherol loss following oil heating at 180 °C for 10 min (efficiency order: clove > thyme ⩾ cinnamon > basil ≫ oregano > nutmeg). In conclusion, the essential oils under study exhibited good antioxidant properties and might be efficiently used to control lipid oxidation during food processing.