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Linking knowledge and practice: assessing options for sustainable use of Mopane worms (Imbasia belina) in southern Zimbabwe

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  • Mercycorps ZImbabwe
Article

Linking knowledge and practice: assessing options for sustainable use of Mopane worms (Imbasia belina) in southern Zimbabwe

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In recent years, there has been growing interest in the role of mopane worm utilization in the livelihoods of rural poor people, and in the potential for expanding returns. Unfortunately the resulting increase in the commercialization of the resource has led to its over exploitation. The paper assesses options for sustainable use of the mopane worm. Empirical data has been drawn from research carried out between April and July 2002 in several communities in Southern Zimbabwe where households harvest mopane worms. The data collection exercise utilized formal questionnaires and Participatory Learning Approaches. The sustainable use of mopane worms requires approaches that strive to strike a balance between conservation and improvements in the well being of the resource users. Such approaches should be grounded in knowledge gained from local experiences with local communities taking the pivotal stage. Options for enhancing livelihoods from mopane worms are varied. These include strategies associated with improving product quality, fetching better markets and delaying the supply of the stock to the market. Sustainability can be achieved by promoting best practices that strive to maintain sufficient number of fifth-instar mopane worms, safeguard the host tree against exploitation and to preserve the pupae.
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... However, MW consumption has religious restrictions on a large part of the population in South Africa, making it an ideal protein source for quail. On average, a MW life cycle takes about 4 to 6 weeks and is divided into five growing stages, known as instars [29]. ...
... The males follow chemical pheromones secreted by the females during mating, after which the mated female lays a cluster of 50-200 eggs around twigs and leaves of host plants. The eggs hatch after about 10 days to produce tiny black larvae (caterpillars) [29]. The larvae pass through five stages (instars) during their growth phases; each stage lasting for not more than a week. ...
... When the larvae pass stage IV, they moult and displace from the unit. At this stage, they are now referred to as mopane worms (caterpillars) and can grow to approximately 80 mm long [29]. During this phase of growth, the MW ceases feeding and begins to descend the tree trunk to burrow through the soil and form pupae. ...
Article
Full-text available
Fast-growing and highly adaptable avian birds such as quail (Coturnix coturnix) possess great potential to meet the growing demand for animal protein by the rapidly increasing human population, and would contribute immensely to global food production and nutritional security. However, overreliance on conventional protein sources such as fish and soybean meals during the formulation of quail diets is economically and environmentally unsustainable. Alternatively, insect-based protein sources such as Gonimbrasia belina, commonly known as mopane worm (MW), can be used to increase quail production due to their high biological value and low feed food competition. Indeed, MW is highly nutritious, with an average protein content of 55% and a well-balanced amino acid profile. Thus, its incorporation in quail diets could provide great potential to alleviate nutritional deficiencies in quail production and allow for their sustainable intensification. However, there are limited studies on the effect of partial or complete replacement of conventional protein sources with mopane worm meal (MWM) in quail diets. This paper reviews the nutritional profile and use of the MW as a protein source, as well as its potential future prospects in poultry diets. Finally, we postulate that mass production of this insect-based protein source and its sustainability would be an inventive strategy to develop a profitable quail business.
... The socio-economics of forest and woodland resource use Styles (1994) South Africa The big value in mopane worms Gondo et al. (2010) Zimbabwe Assessing options for sustainable use of mopane worms in Southern Zimbabwe Baiyegunhi et al. (2016) South Africa Commercialisation of mopane worm Makhado et al. (2014) Southern Africa Significance of mopane products to rural people's livelihoods in southern Africa Kwiri et al. (2014) Zimbabwe Mopane worm utilisation Utilisation of mopane worms Dube and Dube (2010) Zimbabwe Mopane worm utilisation Moreki et al. (2012) Botswana Mopane worm utilisation in poultry diets Frears et al. (1999) Laboratory experiments ...
... Marketing of mopane worms Gardiner and Taylor (2003) Botswana Enhancing rural livelihoods and resource sustainability Nutritional importance of mopane worms Illgner and Nel (2000) Sub-Saharan Africa Distribution of mopane worms in sub-Saharan Africa Madibela et al. (2009) Botswana Chemical composition of mopane worm Belluco et al. (2013) Global perspective Review of food safety and nutritional perspective of edible insects Roberts (1998) Southern Africa Long-term costs of the mopane worm harvest Long term costs of mopane worm harvests Greyling and Potgieter (2014) South Africa Mopane worms as a key woodland resource: the use, trade and conservation of G. belina Gondo et al. (2010) Zimbabwe Sustainable use of mopane worms Gaston et al. (1997) South Africa Mopane worm natural enemy complex Mortality factors Styles and Skinner (1996) Botswana Possible factors affecting mopane worms Ditlhogo (1996a) Botswana The ecology of G. belina Ghazoul (2006) Southern Africa Manipulating the pupal diapause period Diapause Ghazoul (2006) Southern Africa Domestication of mopane worms Mopane worm domestication ...
... The first and main generation occurs at the beginning of the rainy season (October-November) and a smaller one in February-March, with large numbers of larvae being observed a month later (Gondo et al., 2010). Klok and Chown (1999) suggested that the differences in population sizes were as a result of the first generation emerging soon after the leaf flush while the second generation emerged when the leaves were mature and less nutritious. ...
Article
The study was aimed at reviewing literature related to traditional mopane production as well as exploring the potential for diapause termination to allow for continuous year-round production. Larvae of mopane worms (Gonimbrasia belina) are highly nutritious and popular food for many people in Southern Africa. Improved and sustained supplies of mopane worms in urban and rural areas can potentially address food and nutrition security problems of the mopane worm harvesters and producers financially. This also has the added advantage of improving people’s access to high-protein food. However, harvesting of G. belina larvae takes place during a short period (main harvesting period is from November to December and a smaller second harvest April-May). In addition, the availability of G. belina is a function of parasitism, time of the year, and amount of rainfall, making the production not only seasonal but also erratic and unreliable. The absence of a regulatory and monitoring policy framework that protects G. belina from over harvesting and over exploitation is also a major concern. These problems, coupled with the seasonal nature of the production hinders all year round harvesting and supply. Findings from this study reveal that the literature is outdated, scant and highlights the need for more research to be conducted on the species. Furthermore, the findings suggest that mopane worms are a significant source of protein for vulnerable population groups, capable of addressing their nutritional protein and livelihood needs. To this end, the paper highlights opportunities for further research and the optimisation of production processes.
... The invertebrate consumes and produces more dry matter than elephants (Styles, 1996). Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) such as mopane worms are gradually being recognised as a key component of rural livelihood systems (Gondo et al., 2010;Makhado et al., 2014;Taru and Chazovachii, 2015). According to Heubach (2012), the contribution of NTFPs to total household income was approximately 15 % in Malawi, 27 % in Northern Ethiopia and 35 % in Zimbabwe. ...
... In this Chapter, such services are not considered. Mopane worm harvesting was mainly for subsistence use by rural households in many parts of Zimbabwe and it contributed significantly to rural diets (Ghazoul, 2006;Kwiriet al., 2014), but in recent years it has become an important resource for improved household income as mopane worms are sold in urban markets (Hobane, 1994;Stack et al., 2003;Gondo et al., 2010;Thomas, 2013). Harvesting of mopane worms is mainly based on beliefs, local knowledge and local-level institutional frameworks of control (Maviya and Gumbo, 2005;Mufandaedza et al., 2015;Ndeindoma and Weirsum, 2016). ...
... The negative effects of overharvesting due to commercialisation and increase in the number of harvesters were highlighted and other studies indicated that mopane worms are facing threats of overexploitation (Toms and Thangwana, 2005;Yen, 2009). Overharvesting has been attributed to commercialisation of the worm (Rebe, 1999;Mutanga, 2009;Stack et al., 2003;Gondo et al., 2010;Lucas, 2010) whilst in the past, harvesting of mopane worms used to be for subsistence only (Ashipala et al., 1996). According to Ghazoul (2006), the best time for collecting mopane worm larvae is when they are coming down the tree for pupation as this leads to their sustainable utilisation. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This Chapter compared livelihood benefits from a community-based and a private protected area in south-eastern Zimbabwe to local communities and employed mixed methods research in gathering primary data. A questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data on livelihood benefits to study communities from the protected areas. One hundred and fifty (150) respondents were selected for questionnaire interviews from each of the targeted communities through simple random sampling. Key-informant interviews and focus group discussions were also conducted for the collection of in-depth qualitative data. With some noted similarities and differences, the main livelihood contributions from the two conservation areas to the target communities included household and community income enhancement, and health and educational services provision. While the livelihood benefits from the protected areas were important, most of the respondents in both study sites noted that these were not adequate in meeting the developmental needs and aspirations of their communities. This calls on the protected areas to bring more meaningful livelihood benefits to the study areas. Community based conservation has dominated conservation-development rhetoric in Zimbabwe since the 1980s. The importance of the results of this Chapter therefore lies in the fact that they highlighted private protected areas as an equally significant platform, just as community conserved areas, on which to simultaneously pursue conservation and livelihoods goals.
... The invertebrate consumes and produces more dry matter than elephants (Styles, 1996). Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) such as mopane worms are gradually being recognised as a key component of rural livelihood systems (Gondo et al., 2010;Makhado et al., 2014;Taru and Chazovachii, 2015). According to Heubach (2012), the contribution of NTFPs to total household income was approximately 15 % in Malawi, 27 % in Northern Ethiopia and 35 % in Zimbabwe. ...
... In this Chapter, such services are not considered. Mopane worm harvesting was mainly for subsistence use by rural households in many parts of Zimbabwe and it contributed significantly to rural diets (Ghazoul, 2006;Kwiriet al., 2014), but in recent years it has become an important resource for improved household income as mopane worms are sold in urban markets (Hobane, 1994;Stack et al., 2003;Gondo et al., 2010;Thomas, 2013). Harvesting of mopane worms is mainly based on beliefs, local knowledge and local-level institutional frameworks of control (Maviya and Gumbo, 2005;Mufandaedza et al., 2015;Ndeindoma and Weirsum, 2016). ...
... The negative effects of overharvesting due to commercialisation and increase in the number of harvesters were highlighted and other studies indicated that mopane worms are facing threats of overexploitation (Toms and Thangwana, 2005;Yen, 2009). Overharvesting has been attributed to commercialisation of the worm (Rebe, 1999;Mutanga, 2009;Stack et al., 2003;Gondo et al., 2010;Lucas, 2010) whilst in the past, harvesting of mopane worms used to be for subsistence only (Ashipala et al., 1996). According to Ghazoul (2006), the best time for collecting mopane worm larvae is when they are coming down the tree for pupation as this leads to their sustainable utilisation. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The objective of the study is to examine the hindrances to the flow of livelihood benefits from the Mahenye community conservancy area in south-eastern Zimbabwe to the local community. A questionnaire targeting Mahenye residents; key-informant interviews; a focused group discussion; and document analysis were employed in gathering perceived hindrances to the flow of livelihood benefits. Among the key hindrances internal to the Mahenye community include alleged misappropriation of Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) funds by the Mahenye CAMPFIRE Committee leadership. External hindrances to the maximum enjoyment of livelihood benefits from the community-conserved area to Mahenye residents include lack of complete devolution of appropriate authority in natural resource management to sub-district structures, a low sport hunting quota, a sharp decline in international tourist flows to Zimbabwe, and the undue influence of the chieftaincy upon the community CAMPFIRE project. Considering the dwindling international ecotouristic market into the country, the need for Chilo Lodge to refocus attention towards the domestic tourist market is apparent. While complete devolution of appropriate authority to sub-district structures would be most appropriate, this should be preceded by comprehensive institutional capacity building. Multiple stakeholder engagement would ensure that the community project is transparently managed for the benefit of the whole community and not just a few local elites.
... The invertebrate consumes and produces more dry matter than elephants (Styles, 1996). Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) such as mopane worms are gradually being recognised as a key component of rural livelihood systems (Gondo et al., 2010;Makhado et al., 2014;Taru and Chazovachii, 2015). According to Heubach (2012), the contribution of NTFPs to total household income was approximately 15 % in Malawi, 27 % in Northern Ethiopia and 35 % in Zimbabwe. ...
... In this Chapter, such services are not considered. Mopane worm harvesting was mainly for subsistence use by rural households in many parts of Zimbabwe and it contributed significantly to rural diets (Ghazoul, 2006;Kwiriet al., 2014), but in recent years it has become an important resource for improved household income as mopane worms are sold in urban markets (Hobane, 1994;Stack et al., 2003;Gondo et al., 2010;Thomas, 2013). Harvesting of mopane worms is mainly based on beliefs, local knowledge and local-level institutional frameworks of control (Maviya and Gumbo, 2005;Mufandaedza et al., 2015;Ndeindoma and Weirsum, 2016). ...
... The negative effects of overharvesting due to commercialisation and increase in the number of harvesters were highlighted and other studies indicated that mopane worms are facing threats of overexploitation (Toms and Thangwana, 2005;Yen, 2009). Overharvesting has been attributed to commercialisation of the worm (Rebe, 1999;Mutanga, 2009;Stack et al., 2003;Gondo et al., 2010;Lucas, 2010) whilst in the past, harvesting of mopane worms used to be for subsistence only (Ashipala et al., 1996). According to Ghazoul (2006), the best time for collecting mopane worm larvae is when they are coming down the tree for pupation as this leads to their sustainable utilisation. ...
... The invertebrate consumes and produces more dry matter than elephants (Styles, 1996). Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) such as mopane worms are gradually being recognised as a key component of rural livelihood systems (Gondo et al., 2010;Makhado et al., 2014;Taru and Chazovachii, 2015). According to Heubach (2012), the contribution of NTFPs to total household income was approximately 15 % in Malawi, 27 % in Northern Ethiopia and 35 % in Zimbabwe. ...
... In this Chapter, such services are not considered. Mopane worm harvesting was mainly for subsistence use by rural households in many parts of Zimbabwe and it contributed significantly to rural diets (Ghazoul, 2006;Kwiriet al., 2014), but in recent years it has become an important resource for improved household income as mopane worms are sold in urban markets (Hobane, 1994;Stack et al., 2003;Gondo et al., 2010;Thomas, 2013). Harvesting of mopane worms is mainly based on beliefs, local knowledge and local-level institutional frameworks of control (Maviya and Gumbo, 2005;Mufandaedza et al., 2015;Ndeindoma and Weirsum, 2016). ...
... The negative effects of overharvesting due to commercialisation and increase in the number of harvesters were highlighted and other studies indicated that mopane worms are facing threats of overexploitation (Toms and Thangwana, 2005;Yen, 2009). Overharvesting has been attributed to commercialisation of the worm (Rebe, 1999;Mutanga, 2009;Stack et al., 2003;Gondo et al., 2010;Lucas, 2010) whilst in the past, harvesting of mopane worms used to be for subsistence only (Ashipala et al., 1996). According to Ghazoul (2006), the best time for collecting mopane worm larvae is when they are coming down the tree for pupation as this leads to their sustainable utilisation. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This Chapter aims to explore the extent to which legal and institutional frameworks for biodiversity management in Zimbabwe mainstream climate change adaptation and mitigation issues. This Chapter focused on mainstreaming of biodiversity and wildlife issues in international, regional climate change policies and how it cascades to the national level in Zimbabwe. A desk top research approach was adopted. Primary literature focusing on legal and policy issues on biodiversity/ wildlife and climate change in Zimbabwe was systematically reviewed. Findings from the review reveal that key international biodiversity related policy instruments such as the United Nations Convection on Biological Diversity (UNCBD) address the climate change agenda. International institutions, which inform local wildlife management plans, are more advanced in mainstreaming biodiversity/ wildlife in the context of climate change than the case at the local level. In Zimbabwe, key biodiversity policy instruments that were developed prior to 2010, particularly the Wildlife Policy and the Parks and Wildlife Act do not address climate change issues. However, the National Constitution, the National Climate Change Response Strategy (NCCRS) as well as the Zimbabwe’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) 2013-2020 contain sections related to biodiversity and climate change. In conclusion, there are opportunities for mainstreaming climate change issues in biodiversity frameworks and institutional structures in Zimbabwe. Although the government via the responsible ministry has put in place an overarching climate change policy and strategy, there is need to strengthen climate change action in the biodiversity/wildlife sector particularly adaptation and mitigation. Future studies should focus on the contribution of local policies, projects and programmes aimed at promoting climate change adaptation and mitigation in the wildlife sector.
... The invertebrate consumes and produces more dry matter than elephants (Styles, 1996). Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) such as mopane worms are gradually being recognised as a key component of rural livelihood systems (Gondo et al., 2010;Makhado et al., 2014;Taru and Chazovachii, 2015). According to Heubach (2012), the contribution of NTFPs to total household income was approximately 15 % in Malawi, 27 % in Northern Ethiopia and 35 % in Zimbabwe. ...
... In this Chapter, such services are not considered. Mopane worm harvesting was mainly for subsistence use by rural households in many parts of Zimbabwe and it contributed significantly to rural diets (Ghazoul, 2006;Kwiriet al., 2014), but in recent years it has become an important resource for improved household income as mopane worms are sold in urban markets (Hobane, 1994;Stack et al., 2003;Gondo et al., 2010;Thomas, 2013). Harvesting of mopane worms is mainly based on beliefs, local knowledge and local-level institutional frameworks of control (Maviya and Gumbo, 2005;Mufandaedza et al., 2015;Ndeindoma and Weirsum, 2016). ...
... The negative effects of overharvesting due to commercialisation and increase in the number of harvesters were highlighted and other studies indicated that mopane worms are facing threats of overexploitation (Toms and Thangwana, 2005;Yen, 2009). Overharvesting has been attributed to commercialisation of the worm (Rebe, 1999;Mutanga, 2009;Stack et al., 2003;Gondo et al., 2010;Lucas, 2010) whilst in the past, harvesting of mopane worms used to be for subsistence only (Ashipala et al., 1996). According to Ghazoul (2006), the best time for collecting mopane worm larvae is when they are coming down the tree for pupation as this leads to their sustainable utilisation. ...
Book
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This book is a must-read for anyone with interest to explore (or understand) topical issues in the diverse field of conservation. You will find some wild but useful ideas which others may want to call innovative approaches, and practical strategies for enhancing wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe and beyond. Why wildlife? Could be much easier to answer because of the obvious aesthetic and cultural attachment that you might have. Nevertheless, Whose wildlife? Is a contentious issue that needs unpacking as you will find in this book. When you read this book, you might acquire some Latin phrases such as res nullius and confuse a few friends with new vocabulary in social circles whilst reflecting on the wildlife ownership topic. As you might be already aware, Zimbabwe has an outspoken history of wildlife conservation which dates back to pre-colonial and extends into the post-colonial period, this book takes you through some important reflections of the country`s wildlife journey and paradigm shifts along the process which will certainly help you make sense of the legacies that Zimbabwe cherishes or struggles with today. Biodiversity conservation in the 21st century is faced with shifting climatic changes which some scientists have tried to communicate in emotionally charged publications and threatening headlines in the news, whether that is the inconvenient truth or they are cyclical or irreversible changes-we cannot be certain, however, as this book explores biodiversity policy in a changing climate, focusing on a review of legal and institutional frameworks for biodiversity management in Zimbabwe, it might help you understand some contextualised perspectives. Whilst some people may see sustainable development as a mission impossible in the glaring facts of poverty and food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa, this book may leave you hopeful when you read about the opportunities in the fisheries production and management, opportunities and challenges of those living adjacent to protected areas in Zimbabwe, reflections on the renowned Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (popularly known as CAMPFIRE) case study, which will inevitably drive you into the Chapter which digs deeper into rural livelihood benefits from community-based initiatives to private sector involvement. As you read this special book, it is important to be mindful of the fact that wildlife in Zimbabwe refers to both flora and fauna and this book could not have been complete without covering non-timber forest products and delicacies such as mopane worm harvesting and utilisation covered in a very interesting research done in the Matabeleland region of Zimbabwe. Since this book is a product of Chinhoyi University of Technology, particularly the School of Wildlife, Ecology and Conservation, do not be surprised to find a topic such as Quenching the Thirst for Zimbabweans, you may want to find out how? Water is an important subject in any context. It should be appreciated that conservation is not for conservationists only-it is everyone`s business and this book is an important resource which will help you understand why and hopefully you will not go wild about my story before you can forage on the important ideas contained herein! With their research prowess, the authors provide an enormously useful range of ideas, innovative strategies across a wide spectrum of topics with a lot of creativity and I look forward to read about technological innovations in the field of wildlife conservation in their next edition.
... The invertebrate consumes and produces more dry matter than elephants (Styles, 1996). Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) such as mopane worms are gradually being recognised as a key component of rural livelihood systems (Gondo et al., 2010;Makhado et al., 2014;Taru and Chazovachii, 2015). According to Heubach (2012), the contribution of NTFPs to total household income was approximately 15 % in Malawi, 27 % in Northern Ethiopia and 35 % in Zimbabwe. ...
... In this Chapter, such services are not considered. Mopane worm harvesting was mainly for subsistence use by rural households in many parts of Zimbabwe and it contributed significantly to rural diets (Ghazoul, 2006;Kwiriet al., 2014), but in recent years it has become an important resource for improved household income as mopane worms are sold in urban markets (Hobane, 1994;Stack et al., 2003;Gondo et al., 2010;Thomas, 2013). Harvesting of mopane worms is mainly based on beliefs, local knowledge and local-level institutional frameworks of control (Maviya and Gumbo, 2005;Mufandaedza et al., 2015;Ndeindoma and Weirsum, 2016). ...
... The negative effects of overharvesting due to commercialisation and increase in the number of harvesters were highlighted and other studies indicated that mopane worms are facing threats of overexploitation (Toms and Thangwana, 2005;Yen, 2009). Overharvesting has been attributed to commercialisation of the worm (Rebe, 1999;Mutanga, 2009;Stack et al., 2003;Gondo et al., 2010;Lucas, 2010) whilst in the past, harvesting of mopane worms used to be for subsistence only (Ashipala et al., 1996). According to Ghazoul (2006), the best time for collecting mopane worm larvae is when they are coming down the tree for pupation as this leads to their sustainable utilisation. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The aim of this Chapter is to highlight the forms of wildlife resource conservation, history and PA resource management regimes, and the threats and challenges to biodiversity in protected areas in Zimbabwe. The study was mainly informed by a documentary review of existing literature focussing on peer-reviewed journal articles, books, edited book chapters, relevant policy, laws, programmes and implementation strategies related to resource conservation, protected area management, threats and challenges to biodiversity conservation. Four forms of resource management regimes are identified, i.e., state protected areas, areas under communal lands, private land, as well as transfrontier conservation areas. The establishment and management of protected areas follow an evolution of various legislative instruments that ascribed biodiversity management and rights to different institutions. Transfrontier conservation areas and partnerships are important emerging conservation arrangements promoting collaborative biodiversity conservation. However, loose coordination and fragmented legislation in natural resource management is one of the challenges facing current conservation efforts. Also, habitat loss, land use conflicts, invasive species, climate change and illegal harvesting of resources are seen to pose serious threats to biodiversity conservation. In order to promote sustainability of resource management in PAs, the Chapter recommends the following: (i) devolution of natural resource management rights to local people as an important incentivizing strategy for community participation in biodiversity conservation, (ii) promoting sustainable financing mechanisms for protected areas through increased revenue generation streams such as product diversification and onsite revenue retention initiatives, (iii) realignment and harmonization of environmental legislation and institutions to eradicate resource management conflicts and foster efficient collaboration.
... However, the insect is so popular that overexploitation has occurred, which is reason enough for promoting sustainable harvesting (Baiyegunhi and Oppong, 2016). Strategies to combat overexploitation include restrictive harvesting periods (Akpalu et al., 2007), maintaining a sufficient number of fifth-instar caterpillars, safeguarding the host tree, and preserving the pupae (Gondo et al., 2010). Attempts to rear the mopane caterpillar have failed mainly because of parasitism, predation, and diseases (Ghazoul, 2006). ...
... Schreven et al. (2021), working with chicken manure, recommended that black soldier fly producers should focus on the manipulation of substrate-associated microorganisms as this may increase larval biomass. Over time, the larvae, having a flexible digestive system, may alter the substrate bacterial community composition by inhibiting certain bacteria while dispersing gut bacteria into the substrate (Gold et al., 2018). ...
Chapter
An overview is given of how insects are harvested from nature and consumed in different parts of the world. Over the last 10 years, insects have increasingly been reared for human food or animal feed. The environmental advantages of producing edible insect compared to that of conventional livestock are: lower emissions of greenhouse gases, less water and land use, and the possibility to grow them on organic side streams. Challenges are automating rearing systems, genetic improvement, disease management, and insect welfare. Not only are edible insects able to provide adequate nutrients, they also have health benefits for both humans and animals. There are a large range of insect products on the market and different strategies are employed to convince consumers. The regulatory framework is gradually becoming more and more conducive. There is a growing recognition of the potential of insects as a new sustainable food and feed source.
... Taxonomically, mopane worm is in the caterpillar phase of the emperor moth and that belongs to the Saturniidae family of the order Lepidoptera in the Insecta class [17,18]. The name 'mopane worm' stems from the fact that the caterpillar feeds primarily, though not exclusively, on the leaves of the mopane tree (Colophospermum mopane) that is widely distributed throughout Southern Africa [19][20][21][22][23][24]. ...
... Cooking or roasting during harvesting seemed particularly influential compared with other specific harvesting processes (OR = 2.69, 95%CI = 0.78-9.31). A possible explanation for this could be the resultant exposure to inhalable steam, aerosols or dust particles during the boiling and roasting of mopane worms [20,27]. Exposure to food allergens by inhalation during preparation is believed to have contributed to the increasing prevalence of respiratory allergy in the food industry [66,70]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background The prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing in Zimbabwe and the data relate to local as well as exotic allergen sources. As entomophagy, the practice of eating insects, is a recognised source of local allergens, we sought to measure the prevalence of and risk factors for sensitisation to Imbrasia belina (mopane worm), a popular edible insect. This was investigated alongside other locally relevant allergens in a rural community in Gwanda district, south of Zimbabwe. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among 496 adults and children aged 10 years and above in Gwanda district, a mopane worm harvesting area in Zimbabwe. Data on individual characteristics and mopane worm exposure factors were collected using questionnaires. Sensitivity to allergens was assessed by performing skin prick tests at a local clinic using 10 different commercial allergen extracts (Stallergenes, France) and in-house extracts of mopane worm (Imbrasia belina) and mopane leaves ( Colophospermum mopane ). Data were analysed using Stata version 13 software. Results The prevalence of sensitisation to at least one allergen was 31.17% (n = 144). The prevalence of atopy was higher in adults (33.33%) than in children (23.53%) (p = 0.059). The commonest inhalant allergen sources were mopane worm (14.29%), Tyrophagus putrescentiae (14.29%), mopane leaves (13.42%), Alternaria alternata (6.49%) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (6.49%). Polysensitisation was demonstrated in the study population and of the 108 participants (75%) who were sensitised to two or more allergens, 66 (61%) were women. Sensitisation to mopane worm and mopane leaves often clustered with Tyrophagus putrescentiae amongst adults. Adjusted logistic regression analyses between mopane worm sensitisation and self-reported exposure variables showed that sensitisation was more likely amongst mopane worm harvesters (OR = 1.92, 95%CI = 0.77–4.79), those who cooked or roasted mopane worms during harvesting (OR = 2.69, 95%CI = 0.78–9.31) and harvesting without personal protective equipment (PPE) (OR = 2.12, 95%CI = 0.83–5.44) compared to non-harvesters. Conclusion Atopic sensitization was common in this mopane worm harvesting community in Gwanda district of Zimbabwe. There was frequent co-sensitisation of mopane worm and mopane leaves with Tyrophagus putrescentiae in children and adults. It is important to determine the clinical relevance of our findings, particularly relating to mopane worm sensitisation.
Article
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This paper argues that the present style of conservation has neglected the needs and aspirations of local people, their indigenous knowledge and management systems, their institutions and social organizations, and the value to them of wildlife resources. It asserts that conservation itself needs rethinking. The dominant "positivist-rationalist' paradigm fails to take into account the growing body of empirical evidence indicating that local people have long influenced natural systems in ways that both provide their livelihoods and improve biodiversity. In the past, many "primary' forests or habitats supported large numbers of people, who significantly influenced current ecosystems. The paper asserts that it is necessary to find ways of ensuring local communities' full participation in conservation programmes and policy. Alternative systems of learning and interaction have the potential to contribute to more sustainable management of protected areas. The paper concludes that, for this vision to succeed, a "new professionalism' is required, as well as supportive national and international policies. This Discussion Paper was published in collaboration with the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) and the World Wide Fund for Nature. -from Authors
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Although trade in non-timber forest products (NTFPs) has been widely promoted as an approach to rural development, recent research has indicated that NTFP commercialisation is often not successful. Analysis of the factors influencing success of NTFP commercialisation has been hindered by the lack of an appropriate analytical approach for comparison of case studies. We tested and further developed a methodology recently developed by CIFOR, by examining 16 NTFP case studies in two workshops held in Mexico and Bolivia involving a variety of stakeholders involved in NTFP commercialisation. Workshop participants identified a wide range of measures by which the success of NTFP commercialisation can be defined, which included improvements in social justice, community organisation and local culture, as well as economic status. Participants then considered the factors influencing the processes involved in NTFP commercialisation: production, collection, processing, storage, transport, marketing and sale. In total 45 factors were identified that significantly limit one of the commercialisation processes. Generally product marketing and sale were found to be those processes most constraining overall success. These results illustrate how participatory methods can be of value in analysing the success of NTFP commercialisation, and how a process-based approach can provide an analytical framework for comparison of NTFP case studies.
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