Conference Paper

Insider Threat: Εnhancing BPM through Social Media

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Abstract

Modern business environments have a constant need to increase their productivity, reduce costs and offer competitive products and services. This can be achieved via modeling their business processes. Yet, even in light of modelling's widespread success, one can argue that it lacks built-in security mechanisms able to detect and fight threats that may manifest throughout the process. Academic research has proposed a variety of different solutions which focus on different kinds of threat. In this paper we focus on insider threat, i.e. insiders participating in an organization's business process, who, depending on their motives, may cause severe harm to the organization. We examine existing security approaches to tackle down the aforementioned threat in enterprise business processes. We discuss their pros and cons and propose a monitoring approach that aims at mitigating the insider threat. This approach enhances business process monitoring tools with information evaluated from Social Media. It exams the online behavior of users and pinpoints potential insiders with critical roles in the organization's processes. We conclude with some observations on the monitoring results (i.e. psychometric evaluations from the social media analysis) concerning privacy violations and argue that deployment of such systems should be only allowed on exceptional cases, such as protecting critical infrastructures.

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... A growing trend toward partnership and network development of a "network society" was observed. Interdependence and horizontal relations have grown in importance due to the influence of information technologies [51]. Moreover, networking skills become a meaningful factor for career success. ...
... Moreover, networking skills become a meaningful factor for career success. Social technologies have an impact on work planning and collaboration in BPM [51][52][53][54][55]. The research also noticed the effectiveness of cognitive technologies' application to social networks and building cognitive social structures [56]. ...
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... In paragraph bellow we concentrate on threats that could cause trouble in business. When dealing with social BPM we came across very large set of actors from different organizations and with varying levels of BPM proficiency and domain knowledge [40] . Social BPM can only be successful if all actors who can make meaningful contribution are motivated to invest their time and effort continuously and lastingly. ...
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Chapter
In today’s expansion of new technologies, innovation is found necessary for organizations to be up to date with the latest management trends. Although organizations are increasingly using new technologies, opportunities still exist to achieve the nowadays essential omnichannel management strategy. More precisely, social media are opening a path for benefiting more from an organization’s process orientation. However, social media strategies are still an under-investigated field, especially when it comes to the research of social media use for the management and improvement of business processes or the internal way of working in organizations. By classifying a variety of articles, this study explores the evolution of social media implementation within the BPM discipline. We also provide avenues for future research and strategic implications for practitioners to use social media more comprehensively.
Chapter
Organizations employ a suite of analytical models to solve complex decision problems in their respective domains. The current practice uses different simulation and modeling formalisms and subject matter experts to address parts of a larger problem. There is a realization that complex problems cannot be solved by employing a single analytical methodology and its supporting tools; rather, they require a combination of several such methods, all supplementing or complementing each other. We propose the use of multiformalism-based modeling and analysis to assist in evaluating performance of insider threat detection systems. The paper proposes a multimodeling test bed that allows integration of multiple modeling and analysis techniques that can digest and correlate different sources of data and provide insights on performance of insider threat detection systems. © Springer International Publishing AG 2018. All rights are reserved.
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Business process modeling has facilitated modern enterprises to cope with the constant need to increase their productivity, reduce costs and offer competitive products and services. Despite modeling’s and process management’s widespread success, one may argue that it lacks of built-in security mechanisms able to detect and deter threats that may manifest throughout the process. To this end, a variety of different solutions have been proposed by researchers which focus on different threat types. In this paper we examine the insider threat through business processes. Depending on their motives, insiders participating in an organization’s business process may manifest delinquently in a way that causes severe impact to the organization. We examine existing security approaches to tackle down the aforementioned threat in enterprise business processes and propose a preliminary model for a monitoring approach that aims at mitigating the insider threat. This approach enhances business process monitoring tools with information evaluated from Social Media by examining the online behavior of users and pinpoints potential insiders with critical roles in the organization’s processes. Also, this approach highlights the threat introduced in the processes operated by such users. We conclude with some observations on the monitoring results (i.e. psychometric evaluations from the social media analysis) concerning privacy violations and argue that deployment of such systems should be allowed solely on exceptional cases, such as protecting critical infrastructures or monitoring decision making personnel.
Thesis
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Η διαρκής ανάπτυξη της Τεχνολογίας Πληροφοριών και Επικοινωνίας (Τ.Π.Ε.) στο σύγχρονο κοινωνικό τοπίο φαίνεται να αποτελεί ένα πρόσφορο έδαφος ανοιχτού διαλόγου, με σκοπό το συστηματικό επαναπροσδιορισμό του ρόλου των τεχνουργημάτων της ανθρώπινης ευρηματικότητας σε σχέση με τις κοινωνικές πρακτικές των δρώντων προσώπων. Με αφετηρία τη συγκεκριμένη διαπίστωση, ιδιαίτερο ενδιαφέρον παρουσιάζει η διερεύνηση του τρόπου με τον οποίο τα ιστολόγια ως μια μορφή σύγχρονου μέσου κοινωνικής δικτύωσης είναι δυνατόν να προσεγγιστούν ως οιονεί κοινωνικοτεχνικά συστήματα. Ο στόχος της διατριβής είναι η μελέτη της ελληνόφωνης μπλογκόσφαιρας μέσω της καταγραφής των επικοινωνιακών πρακτικών των ελληνόφωνων bloggers. Οι κεντρικοί θεματικοί άξονες αφορούν στη συλλογή δεδομένων που σχετίζονται με τα δημογραφικά χαρακτηριστικά των bloggers, τις επικοινωνιακές τους πρακτικές, το περιεχόμενο των ιστολογίων, τις νοηματοδοτήσεις/ερμηνείες των συμμετεχόντων στην έρευνα, καθώς και τις σχέσεις που διασυνδέουν τις πρακτικές τους με άλλα πρόσωπα και λειτουργίες. Μέσα από την προτεινόμενη θεωρητική προσέγγιση επιχειρείται η διερεύνηση της δυνατότητας μελέτης του πεδίου των ιστολογίων ως οιονεί αυτοποιητικών κοινωνικοτεχνικών συστημάτων, τα οποία δεν συγκροτούνται (απλώς) από ένα πλήθος διαδρώντων προσώπων, αλλά μέσω της κανονικοποίησης των επικοινωνιακών ενεργημάτων στο πλαίσιο μιας ενδοϋπολογιστικά ηνιοχούμενης διαδραστικής διαδικασίας. Οι bloggers αντιμετωπίζονται ως πρόσωπα/μέλη ενός κοινωνικοτεχνικού συστήματος και η διερεύνηση και κατανόηση των πρακτικών τους μπορεί να υλοποιηθεί στο πλαίσιο συστημάτων παρατήρησης επικοινωνιακών δρώντων υποκειμένων, σε μια διαδικασία σχηματισμού του «ενδόκοσμου» αυτού του συστήματος. Εξετάζεται επίσης ο βαθμός στον οποίο τα ιστολόγια συγκροτούν ένα κοινωνικοτεχνικό σύστημα μέσω της παραγωγής νοηματικά αναγνωρίσιμων επικοινωνιακών ενεργημάτων. Για τον έλεγχο των προηγούμενων θέσεων εφαρμόστηκε ο συνδυασμός δύο μεθοδολογικών εργαλείων: χρήση διαδικτυακού ερωτηματολογίου και διεξαγωγή διαδικτυακού τύπου συνεντεύξεων. Η έρευνα πεδίου πραγματοποιήθηκε το διάστημα από 25/10/2010 έως 20/08/2011 με τη συμμετοχή 672 bloggers στο ερωτηματολόγιο και την πραγματοποίηση 25 συνεντεύξεων. Ολοκληρώθηκε μια περιγραφική στατιστική ανάλυση και παρουσίαση των αποτελεσμάτων. Επίσης συγκροτήθηκαν έντεκα κεντρικοί θεματικοί άξονες, από την ανάλυση του περιεχομένου των συνεντεύξεων, μέσω των οποίων επιχειρήθηκε η καταγραφή των επικοινωνιακών πρακτικών, ερμηνειών και νοηματοδοτήσεων των συμμετεχόντων. Συμπερασματικά, παρουσιάστηκε για πρώτη φορά στο πεδίο της ελληνικής επιστημονικής κοινότητας η χρήση της συστημικής σκέψης για την προσέγγιση των ιστολογίων ως οοινεί κοινωνικοτεχνικών συστημάτων τα οποία παράγουν και αναδιαμορφώνουν αυτοπεριγραφές του κοινωνικού συστήματος, μέσω της χρήσης τεχνολογιών κοινωνικής δικτύωσης. Πιστεύω ότι μια πιθανή περαιτέρω διερεύνηση αυτής της θεωρητικής σκοπιάς σε συνάρτηση με τα σύγχρονα μέσα κοινωνικής δικτύωσης, μπορεί να τεκμηριώσει μελλοντικά μια σύγχρονη θεωρία των μέσων κοινωνικής δικτύωσης.
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form only given. The observations that security is not an add-on feature and that insiders pose a considerable security threat have both been familiar in the security community for a long time. Attempts to deal with insider threats are not new either. Relevant techniques such as separation of duties are part of the standard toolset of security practitioners. However, it may well be true that in the past most countermeasures against insider threats belonged to the social and not to the technical domain. With increasing automation and IT support for business processes this approach is reaching its limits, as are approaches that just add-on IT security to business processes. This talk will argue that defending against insider threats is in fact just one aspect of designing secure organisational (business) processes, and that one has to start at the design of the processes within an organization to make progress in dealing with insider threat.
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Attacks against computer systems can cause considerable economic or physical damage. High-quality development of security-critical systems is difficult, mainly because of the conflict between development costs and verifiable correctness. Jürjens presents the UML extension UMLsec for secure systems development. It uses the standard UML extension mechanisms, and can be employed to evaluate UML specifications for vulnerabilities using a formal semantics of a simplified fragment of UML. Established rules of security engineering can be encapsulated and hence made available even to developers who are not specialists in security. As one example, Jürjens uncovers a flaw in the Common Electronic Purse Specification, and proposes and verifies a correction. With a clear separation between the general description of his approach and its mathematical foundations, the book is ideally suited both for researchers and graduate students in UML or formal methods and security, and for advanced professionals writing critical applications. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005. All rights are reserved.
Book
Business process management is usually treated from two different perspectives: business administration and computer science. While business administration professionals tend to consider information technology as a subordinate aspect in business process management for experts to handle, by contrast computer science professionals often consider business goals and organizational regulations as terms that do not deserve much thought but require the appropriate level of abstraction. Matthias Weske argues that all communities involved need to have a common understanding of the different aspects of business process management. To this end, he details the complete business process lifecycle from the modeling phase to process enactment and improvement, taking into account all different stakeholders involved. After starting with a presentation of general foundations and abstraction models, he explains concepts like process orchestrations and choreographies, as well as process properties and data dependencies. Finally, he presents both traditional and advanced business process management architectures, covering, for example, workflow management systems, service-oriented architectures, and data-driven approaches. In addition, he shows how standards like WfMC, SOAP, WSDL, and BPEL fit into the picture. This textbook is ideally suited for classes on business process management, information systems architecture, and workflow management. This 2nd edition contains major updates on BPMN Version 2 process orchestration and process choreographies, and the chapter on BPM methodologies has been completely rewritten. The accompanying website www.bpm-book.com contains further information and additional teaching material.
Article
Insider threat is widely recognised as an issue of utmost importance for IS security management. In this paper, we investigate the approach followed by ISO17799, the dominant standard in IS security management, in addressing this type of threat. We unfold the criminology theory that has designated the measures against insider misuse suggested by the standard, i.e. the General Deterrence Theory, and explore the possible enhancements to the standard that could result from the study of more recent criminology theories. The paper concludes with supporting the argument for a multiparadigm and multidisciplinary approach towards IS security management and insider threat mitigation.
Article
In this paper we propose a holistic Criticality Assessment methodology, suitable for the development of an infrastructure protection plan in a multi-sector or national level. The proposed methodology aims to integrate existing security plans and risk assessments performed in isolated infrastructures, in order to assess sector-wide or intra-sector security risks. In order to achieve this, we define three different layers of security assessments with different requirements and goals; the operator layer, the sector layer and the intra-sector or national layer. We determine the characteristics of each layer, as well as their interdependencies. In this way, existing security plans can be fully exploited in order to provide a “shortcut” for the development of security plans for complex inter-dependent infrastructures. A key element in the proposed methodology is the formal definition of interdependencies between different infrastructures and their respective sectors. Interdependencies between infrastructures belonging to the same or to a different sector, as well as interdependencies between different sectors, act as interfaces through which threats and their impacts occurring on different layers or different sectors, are conveyed to others. Current risk assessment methodologies fail to address effectively this issue, thus, the formalization of these interfaces and their interference is an important element for the definition of a holistic Criticality Assessment methodology.
Article
Studies have shown a connection between the individual personality of the user and the way he or she behaves on line. Today many millions of people around the world are connected by being members of various Internet social networks. Ross et al. (2009) studied the connection between the personality of the individual users and their behavior on a social network. They based their study on the self-reports of users of Facebook, one of the most popular social networks, and measured five personality factors using the NEO-PI-R (Costa & McCrae, 1992) questionnaire. They found that while there was a connection between the personalities of surfers and their behavior on Facebook, it was not strong. This study is based on that of Ross et al. (2009), but in our study the self-reports of subjects, were replaced by more objective criteria, measurements of the user-information upload on Facebook. A strong connection was found between personality and Facebook behavior. Implications of the results are discussed.
Article
We present a new approach to building secure systems. In our approach, which we call model driven security, designers specify system models along with their secu- rity requirements and use tools to automatically generate system architectures from the models including complete, configured security infrastructures. Rather than fixing one particular modeling language for this process, we propose a schema for construct- ing such languages that combines languages for modeling systems with languages for modeling security. We present dierent instances of this schema, which combine dier- ent UML modeling languages with a security modeling language for formalizing access control requirements. From models in these languages, we automatically generate secu- rity architectures for distributed applications, built from declarative and programmatic access control mechanisms. The modeling languages and generation process are seman- tically well-founded and are based on an extension of role-based access control. We have implemented this approach in a UML-based CASE tool and report on experiments.
Article
Introduction1. The Crisis That Will Not Go Away2. Reengineering-The Path to Change3. Rethinking Business Processes4. The New World of Work5. The Enabling Role of Information Technology6. Who Will Reengineer?7. The Hunt for Reengineering Opportunities8. The Experience of Process Redesign9. Embarking on Reengineering10. One Company's Experience-Hallmark11. One Company's Experience-Taco Bell12. One Company's Experience-Capital Holding13. One Company's Experience-Bell Atlantic14. Succeeding at Reengineering15. Questions that Readers Ask the MostEpilogueIndex
Conference Paper
One approach to detecting insider misbehavior is to monitor system call activity and watch for danger signs or unusual behavior. We describe an experimental system designed to test this approach. We tested the system's ability to detect common insider misbehavior by examining file system and process-related system calls. Our results show that this approach can detect many such activities.
Open source intelligence. Handbook of intelligence studies
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R.D. Steele, "Open source intelligence. Handbook of intelligence studies", pp. 129, 2007.
Building a multidimensional pattern language for insider threats
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D. Mundie, A. Moore, and D. McIntire, Building a multidimensional pattern language for insider threats, CERT, Carnegie Mellon University, USA, 2012.
Which side are you on A new Panopticon vs
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is still fiction: Electronic monitoring in the workplace and US privacy law, Duke Law &Technology Review
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G. Lasprogata, N. King, and S. Pillay, "Regulation of electronic employee monitoring: Identifying fundamental principles of employee privacy through a comparative study of data privacy legislation in the European Union, US and Canada", Stanford Technology Law Review 4, 2004.
Which side are you on? A new Panopticon vs. Privacy
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M. Kandias, L. Mitrou, V. Stavrou, and D. Gritzalis, "Which side are you on? A new Panopticon vs. Privacy", Proc. of the 10 th International Conference on Security and Cryptography, pp. 98-110, 2013.