El tejido adiposo: algo más que un reservorio de energía

Grasas y Aceites (Impact Factor: 0.88). 12/2009; 60(5). DOI: 10.3989/gya.043209
Source: DOAJ


Adipose tissue is a reservoir of energy and also an organ that contributes to the aesthetics and health of human body working as an endocrine tissue. White adipose tissue, which is formed by unilocular adipose cells, can modify organic homeostasis by controlling energy expenditure and consumption and by producing adipokines that regulate food consumption, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolic utilization. Brown adipose tissue is structured by multilocular cells containing many small fat drops that can be easily hydrolyzed. This tissue is involved in adaptative or facultative thermogenesis because it contains the uncoupling-1 protein (UCP-1) which by inhibiting ATP synthesis releases heat. The size of brow adipose tissue is reduced with aging and the most recent future strategies to fight obesity may be by transforming white cells into brown adipose tissue. The present work reviews the main structural and functional characteristics of white and brown adipose tissue with emphasis in its endocrine and regulatory function.

El tejido adiposo es un reservorio de grasa y también un órgano que contribuye a la estética y a la salud de las personas, tarea que cumple funcionando como un tejido endocrino. El tejido adiposo blanco, formado por células adiposas uniloculares puede regular la homeostasis orgánica entre el gasto y el consumo de energía. Produce una serie de adipokinas que regulan el consumo de alimentos, la utilización de glucosa y de lípidos por parte del organismo. El tejido adiposo pardo o marrón, estructurado por células multiloculares, contiene numerosas gotas de grasa de pequeño tamaño, las que pueden ser hidrolizadas con mayor facilidad. El tejido participa en la termogénesis adaptativa o facultativa debido a la proteína desacoplante-1 (UCP-1) que inhibe la síntesis de ATP produciendo calor. Con la edad, este tejido se reduce y por ello actualmente se considera que una forma de combatir la obesidad es lograr que el tejido adiposo blanco adquiera característica de pardo. Este trabajo revisa las principales características estructurales y funcionales del tejido adiposo blanco y pardo, con énfasis en sus funciones reguladoras y endocrinas.

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    ABSTRACT: The composition of our diet partially reflects our body composition and from these it is possible to obtain some information about the quality of our feeding. However, the question may be, do we eat that we really need to eat? Or, why we eat what we eat? The human body is the result of the highly regulated expression of our genes, and our genetic heritage is the result of a constant evolutionary process of millions of years. Almost the totally of our genome was formed during the pre-agricultural era and we suppose that this is the optimal informational patrimony for the normal development of our life. This genetic patrimony has allowed our adaptation to the constant modifications of our environment, particularly to the climatic variations where our ancestors developed millions of years ago. Our genetic patrimony was slowly molded, without important changes, during each of the steps of the evolutionary process, from the Ardipithecus ramidus of arboreal life until the present Homo sapiens sapiens, determining our actual nutritional requirements. During these evolution steps aroused the "thrifty genotype" expressed as tissue leptin resistance and differential insulin resistance. At present the expression of the thrifty genotype is not necessary and the effects of its action are associated with the opulence diseases; obesity, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, among others. This work discusses why we have reached to eat what we eat and how the evolution of our feeding can be related with diseases of high prevalence in the western world.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Revista Chilena de Nutricion