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1-Abstract: The paper shows the astronomical criteria that the designers of the Giza pyramids may have used in order to design the site plan of the three pyramids. It proves that the pyramids designers did study the daily motion of the sun during the year in their days, and based on their findings they set the positions of the three pyramids in the horizon of Giza plateau to encode three astronomical information concerning the daily motion of the sun on specific year: the meridian angle on the vernal equinox, the meridian angle on the summer solstice and the sunrise angle on the summer solstice. Accordingly, the encoded date of design of the Giza pyramids was identified as 3055BC approximately, based on identifying the tilt of the earth's axis (obliquity angle) in their days (24.10°), and counting the difference between it and that in our days (23.44°), in terms of years. The horizon 1 theory 2 belongs to the ancient Egyptian architects who built the pyramids of Egypt almost five millenniums ago. This research is the first step towards reviving it. The theory deals with the pyramid's ideology, its design principles and its related knowledge and sciences. It depends on, and draws from, astronomical theories and cosmic sciences. It links time with space dimensions. As we understand from the text of Al-Maqrizi, the following paragraph is a modified version of the old story of the pyramids that was mentioned in an old golden plate that was found and translated during the days of King Philip (the father of Alexander), which was based on the dream of the King Soraied 3 . It should be kept in mind while going through the present work.

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  • Paul Librairie Orientaliste
  • S A Geuthner
General References: -Bernadette Menu, Petit Lexique de l' Egyptien Hieroglyphique, a l' usage des Dedutants, librairie orientaliste Paul Geuthner,S. A., Paris, 1989. (Arabic edition, Maher Guaygaty translator, Dar Al-Feker Publisher, Cairo, 1999) -E. A. Wallis Budge, the Egyptian book of the dead: The Papyrus of Ani, Dover publications, inc., New York, 1967.
Osama Al-Khuly translator, Family Library
  • E A Wallis Budge
  • Egyptian Language
E. A. Wallis Budge, Egyptian Language: Easy Lessons in Egyptian Hieroglyphics, Egyptian International Data Bank Publishing Department, Cairo, 1910. -Edwards I. E. S, the Pyramids of Egypt, rev. ed., Pitman, 1961. -R. I. Forbes & E.J. Dijksterhuis, History of Science and Technology, Arabic edition, Osama Al-Khuly translator, Family Library, Cairo, 1999. -Selim Hassan, Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Vols. 1-18, Family Library, Cairo, 2000. -Selim Hassan, Sphinx, Family Library, Cairo, 1999.