To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.
The petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, aqueous and HCl extracts of Samanea saman (Jacq.)Merr were examined for their phytochemical constituenst and for their invitro activities using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and reducing power assay. Higher antioxidant potential of the extracts was observed in both DPPH scavenging assay and reducing power assay.
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.
... Antioxidant activity was checked by the method.  Citation: Jadhav (Table 1). ...
... The specific activity of the enzyme after all purification steps was found to be 2 U/µg proteins with 17.09-fold purification.  Ethanolic and methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica shows maximum inhibition as 81% and 80% respectively as compared to all the other extracts whereas water extract of Azadirachta indica, ethanolic, and water extracts of Hibiscus rosasinesis showing good antioxidant activity. These activities are contributed by the active phytochemical constituent present in the extracts as shown in the table. ...
Ameloblastoma is a neoplasm that originates from odontogenic epithelium. It is the second most common neoplasm of the oral cavity. Unicystic ameloblastomas refer to those cystic lesions that show clinical, radiographic, or gross features of a jaw cyst, but on histologic examination show a typical ameloblastomatous epithelium lining part of the cyst cavity, with or without luminal and/ or mural growth. Even though the lesion is not that aggressive as the solid ameloblastoma, an accurate diagnosis should be made. This lesion needs to be treated more aggressively than any other periapical lesions.
... After 30 min, the absorbance of samples was measured at a 517 nm wavelength using a Jasco-UV analyzer, while ascorbic acid was used as standard. The scavenging activity of the extract was determined using the following formula : % Inhibition (DPPH) = Abs (control) − Abs (sample)/Abs (control) × 100 ...
... GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane extract of Rosa webbiana was done using GC-MS QP 5050 A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer by SHIMADZU . ...
Rosa webbiana L. (Rosaceae) is one of the least reported and most understudied members of this family. It is native to the Himalayan regions of Pakistan and Nepal. The anti-convulsant effect of n-hexane extract of fruit of Rosa webbiana was investigated in a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced animal model of epilepsy. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups (n = 7) including control, PTZ (40 mg/kg), diazepam (4 mg/kg) and n-hexane extract (at 50, 150 and 300 mg/kg). Convulsive behavior was observed and resultant seizures were scored, animals sacrificed and their brains preserved. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared using the ionic gelation method and characterized by UV-analysis, zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The effects of all the treatments on the expression of phosphorylated cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (p-TNF-α) and phosphorylated transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (p-NF-κB) expression in the cortex and hippocampus of the brains of treated rats were studied through enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and morphological differences and surviving neuronal number were recorded through hematoxylene and eosin (H&E) staining. Significant changes in seizures score and survival rate of rats were observed. Downregulation of neuro-inflammation, p-TNF-α and p-NF-κB was evident. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of this fraction showed multiple constituents of interest, including esters, alkanes and amines.
... The oxidative damage that ROS causes to proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids is responsible for the rise in life-limiting chronic diseases, such as cancer, rheumatism, hypertension, myocardial infarction, arteriosclerosis, and cataracts (Arulpriya et al., 2010). Antioxidants are widely used in the food industry and are considered vital supplements to diets due to their many health advantages Scherer & Godoy, 2009). ...
Mononuclear complexes [FeCl 3 L 2 (OH 2)] (L ¼ L 1 , L 2) were designed and synthesized by combining FeCl 3 with 2-(3 0-Aminophenylbenzimidazole) (L 1) and 2-[(3 0-N-Salicylidinephenyl)benzimidazole] (L 2) and were characterized by physico-analytical strategies. The redox properties of the complexes were disclosed by the cyclic voltammetric method. Further, the interactions of complexes with proteins were studied by performing molecular docking engaging protein models of common cancer therapeutic targets to foresee their affinity to bind to these proteins. The complexes evidenced better protein -ligand docking (−8.4 and −9.0 kcal mol −1) and higher binding energies than their ligands. However, the L 1 complex displayed improved binding free energy (−33.576 ± 1.01 kcal mol −1) compared to the other complexes and individual ligands. These compounds were screened for in vitro cytotoxic assays against triple-negative breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-468 cells), anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties. The in vitro study complemented the in silico assay; therefore , these compounds may be a viable choice for expanding anticancer therapy. Additionally, the L 2 showed better biocontrol activity owing to the enhanced growth of Trichoderma and inhibited the growth of Fusarium oxysporum.
... The binding constant (Kb) values indicate that interaction of the complexes with DNA is intercalative mode 14 . Anti-oxidant Activity: DPPH Radical Scavenging Assay: The scavenging activity of a chemical/or compound on the DPPH radical as a fast and reliable parameter to measure the in-vitro antioxidant activity of such sample has been used by diverse researchers 15 . This assay is based on the measurement of the decrease in the molar absorptivity of DPPH at 517 nm after reaction with the test compound. ...
Three novel metal complexes of 2-aminobenzonitrile (ABN) and octanoate ion (OC) with Mn 2+ , Co 2+, and Ni 2+ have been prepared by using microwave irradiation. The DNA-binding properties of the free ligand 2-aminobenzonitrile and its Mn 2+ , Co 2+ and Ni 2+ complexes have been investigated by fluorescence measurements. The results suggest that ABN, Mn 2+ , Co 2+ and Ni 2+ complexes both bind to DNA via an intercalative binding mode and the affinity for DNA is more strong in case of Mn 2+ , Co 2+, and Ni 2+ complexes when compared with ABN. The intrinsic binding constants (K b) of the Mn 2+ , Co 2+ and Ni 2+ complexes and ligand with DNA were 2.75 × 10 4 M −1 , 3.08 × 10 4 M −1 , 3.80 × 10 4 M −1 and 1.96 × 10 4 M −1 , respectively. Ni 2+ complex is strongly bound to DNA compared to other complexes and the ligand. Furthermore, the free radical scavenging activity of the free ligand and their complexes has been determined by measuring their interaction with the stable free radical DPPH. The complexes have larger antioxidant activity as compared to the ligands.
... Hydrogen peroxide and extracts were combined (0.6ml, 40 mM). After ten minutes, the hydrogen peroxide at 230 nm absorbance was measured in comparison to a blank solution made of phosphate buffer without hydrogen peroxide 6 . The extracts' and standard compounds' percentage of hydrogen peroxide scavenging was calculated as follows. ...
Free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) byproducts are produced by physiological and metabolic processes within living cells. The potentially reactive derivatives of oxygen are continuously produced inside the human body as a result of exposure to numerous exogenous chemicals in our surrounding environment. There is equilibrium between the ROS created and detoxified by the antioxidants present when the free radicals are detoxified by the antioxidants already present in the body. Even though allopathic drugs are currently being phased out, herbal medicines still exist and are even becoming more important in primary healthcare. Research on plants is being advanced globally so that scientists can create novel compounds from natural sources. One of the possibilities being explored for use by medical sciences is the idea of enhancing intestinal health utilizing inexpensive and efficient nutraceuticals agents. This paved the way for a thorough investigation into the antioxidant capabilities of a particular plant, leaf of Decaschistia crotonifolia belongs to the family Malvaceae.
... In these methods, the decrease in absorption of DPPH radical concentartion at 517 nm and ABTS at 734 nm calculates after reaction with the test compounds. The scavenging ability of possible antioxidants against the DPPH and ABTS radicals is based on the radical scavenging activity or hydrogen donating ability . ...
In this study, 5-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzylidenamino)-2-mercaptobenzimidazole and 5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidenamino)-2-mercaptobenzimidazole Schiff base compounds were synthesized and their structure were characterized with spectroscopic techniques, namely, 1H NMR, IR, and 13C NMR. In vitro ABTS, DPPH, CUPRAC, and FRAP tests were applied to calculate the antioxidant activities of the newly designed compounds. Beside, the enzyme inhibitory abilities of the mercaptobenzimidazole derivative Schiff base were assessed against the glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzyme. The Ki values were calculated as 20.06 ± 3.11 and 36.86 ± 6.17 μM, as well as the IC50 values were calculated as 6.30 μM and 5.33 μM respectively. Besides, molecular docking interactions of the compounds with the GST target enzyme (PDB ID:5JCU) were estimated via Chimera and AutoDock Vina software. −8.7 kcal/mol, and −8.5 kcal/mol were calculated as best binding scores of compounds against the GST enzyme. Since the novel Schiff base, 5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidenamino)-2-mercaptobenzimidazole has a good potential in the GST inhibition, it should be subjected to the further pharmacological studies.
... In addition, many standard drugs contain a polyamine skeleton in their structure and the AChE canyon is, in principle, lined with various conserved aromatic residues that form cation-π bonds with the basic polyamine counterpart. Several assays are used to assess the radical scavenging or antioxidant properties of natural or synthetic molecules, which include DPPH, ABTS and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays . ...
New synthetic organic compounds are needed in the medical, industrial, and agricultural fields. Urease inhibitors are usually added to urea formulations used to prevent hydrolysis of urea to ammonia. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are used to treat neurodegenerative disorders. In the present work, mechanochemical green and conventional reflux methods were compared to synthesize anisaldehyde derivatives, 2,4-dichloro-N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)aniline (SB1) and 3,4-dichloro-N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)aniline (SB2), which were reduced to their corresponding amines, RSB1 and RSB2. The structures of the compounds were determined based on spectroscopic studies. The compounds showed good urease and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The SB1 (IC50 0.027µM) showed good urease inhibitory activity as compared to the positive control thiourea (IC50 0.065 µM). SB2 (IC50 0.091 µM), had notable acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity as compared to the standard Neostigmine (IC50 0.008 µM). The SB1 and SB2 showed weak radical scavenging activity in DPPH and ABTS assays than RSB1 and RSB2. They were more active in ABTS assay than DPPH. In ABTS assay RSB2 and RSB1 showed good antioxidant activity (EC50 0.03 µM, 0.04 µM) as compared to SB1 and SB2 (EC50 0.07 µM, EC50 0.06 µM) as compared by standard ascorbic acid (EC50 0.05 µM). SB2 showed higher total antioxidant capacity than other compounds. Molecular docking studies showed the considerable binding potential of SB1, SB2, RSB1, and RSB2 with acetylcholinesterase and urease which was further confirmed by calculating the binding free energy through MMGBSA (Molecular Mechanics/Generalized Born Surface Area). Binding free energies conceded good consistency with inhibitory profiles of acetylcholinesterase and urease.
... The DPPH(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) activity was useful in determining the free radical scavenging potential . The reaction mixture comprised of 0.5 mL of different concentrations of nanoparticles in ethanol and 0.5mLof DPPH (200 lM dissolved in ethanol). ...
The present study focuses on the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using Sonneratia alba (S. alba) leaf extract (LE) in the aqueous medium. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Vis spectroscopy (UV–Visible), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), Zeta potential and N2adsorption-desorption isotherm. The XRD pattern verifies the formation of the crystalline wurtzite structure of ZnO NPs. Further, the bandgap of ZnO NPs was calculated using Tauc’s plot and observed to be 3.2 eV. SEM analysis reveals the formation of spherical shape ZnO NPs. The as-synthesized ZnO NPs show excellent photocatalytic activity against Ethidium bromide (EtBr) and Brilliant green (BG) dye. Kinetic study shows degradation efficiency towards EtBr (97.07%) and BG (95.01%) with rate constant of 0.018 min⁻¹ (EtBr, R² = 0.98472) and 0.033 min⁻¹ (BG, R² = 0.9813), respectively. Moreover, the synthesized material shows excellent antibacterial activity against gram-positive and negative bacteria with excellent antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory.
... Reducing power reflects the ability of an agent to convert iron (Fe) from the ferric (Fe 3+ ) to the Fe 2+ state. In principle, an agent having this reduction potential will react with potassium ferricyanide (Fe 3+ ) to form potassium ferrocyanide (Fe 2+ ), which then reacts with ferric chloride to form ferric-ferrous complex . Physiologically, iron in the ferric state reacts with peroxides to form free radicals that initiates further oxidation of physiological molecules. ...
Objective: Synedrella nodiflora is traditionally used in the treatment of several ailments. Pharmacologically, this plant has anticonvulsant, sedative, anti-nociceptive and anti-proliferative effects. This study further investigated S. nodiflora for its antioxidant and in vitro inhibition of cancerous cell lines. Methods: Phytochemical assays, and the DPPH radical scavenging method were employed in preliminary screening for antioxidant activities of the crude hydro-ethanolic extract (SNE) and resulting fractions. The potent ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), was further investigated for total phenol and flavonoid contents, reducing power, lipid peroxidation potential, and cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer (MCF-7), leukemic (Jurkat), and normal liver (Chang’s liver) cell lines. Results: The extract contained phenols, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, sterols, terpenoids, and alkaloids. It scavenged for DPPH with an IC50 of 114 µg/ml, whereas that of EAF was 8.9 µg/ml. EAF prevented peroxidation of egg lecithin at an IC50 of 24.01±0.08 µg/ml. These IC50s are four and three times lower than the reference standards. EAF produced anti-proliferative effects against MCF-7, and Jurkat cell lines with IC50s of 205.2 and 170.9 µg/ml, respectively. EAF had a high IC50 of 252.2 µg/ml against Chang’s liver cells. At 0.1 mg/ml EAF had similar total flavonoid content to SNE, but a significantly higher total phenol content. Conclusion: The ethyl acetate fraction of S. nodiflora, exhibited the most potent antioxidant activity. It inhibited the proliferation of breast and leukemic cancer cell lines, whiles having weak cytotoxic effect on normal liver cells. These can be explored for further drug development.
... The ability of Schiff bases and their metal complexes to scavenge free radicals is an important property . Presently a number of Schiff-base metal complexes have been investigated as antioxidants. ...
Schiff bases and their complexes are versatile compounds prepared from the condensation of primary amines with carbonyl groups. Schiff bases are very important compounds in various fields, especially in medicinal and pharmaceutical fields because of their wide spectrum of biological activities. The activity is usually increased by complexion therefore understanding the properties of both ligands and metals can lead to the synthesis of highly active compounds. Some of these compounds are identified as having high capacity in scavenging free radicals. This review summarizes the synthesis and antioxidant activities of Schiff bases and its complexes.
... An antimicrobial susceptibility test is done through methods like dilution, diffusion and bioautographic methods. These days, it is not possible to find a standard reproducible method of determining the antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals . ...
... An antimicrobial susceptibility test is done through methods like dilution, diffusion and bioautographic methods. These days, it is not possible to find a standard reproducible method of determining the antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals . ...
... The results showed that some metals complexes show high activities as compared of Schiff base, however, it is also known that Schiff base containing N and O donor atoms increased its activity through complexation with metals ions (Arulpriya et al. 2010;Chohan et al. 2002). ...
... The ability of Schiff bases and their metal complexes to scavenge free radicals is an important property  presently a number of Schiff-base metal complexes have been investigated as antioxidants. and sensitivity spectrum analysis, the disc diffusion method was followed [20,21]. Nutrient Agar (NA) was used as basal medium for culture of test bacteria and N,N Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solvent was used to prepare the desired solution (1%) of the compounds initially. ...
Keywords: Complexes; Synthesis; Schiff Base; Antimicrobial; Antioxidant The present study summarizes the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the synthesized Schiff base; (z)-2-(2-methoxybenzylideneamino)-3-methylbutanoic acid (L1) and its Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes. The Schiff base and its chelates were tested for their antimicrobial activities, it is found that the tested compounds are active against microorganisms used (staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus, Klebsiellapneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escheriehia coli, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum) when compared with the activity of the reference or standard drugs (Gentamici and Ampicillin). on the other hand, the antioxidant activity was measured with a simple and rapid free radical assay using DPPH. Where he was the higher antioxidant activity of Ni(II) relative to the other synthesized complex.
... The yellow colour of Fe 3+ /ferricyanide complex on reaction with the sample changes to ferrous form, which is green or blue colour (depending on the reducing power), called the Prussian blue in the reducing power assay. Higher reducing power is indicated by the higher absorbance of Fe 2+ at 700 nm  . The result of reducing power assay is depicted in fig. ...
Present study aimed to evaluate the phytoconstituents of the aqueous extracts of stem and fruits of Olax psittacorum as well as the free radical scavenging and the antibacterial activity of the extracts. Free radical scavenging activities were evaluated through 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)di-ammonium salt radical scavenging assay, phosphomolybdate radical scavenging assay, hydrogen peroxide assay and reducing power assay using ascorbic acid as the standard. Well diffusion method was adopted for antibacterial activity evaluation of the aqueous extract of fruits and stem against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus stereothermophillus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholera, Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumanii. Phytochemical screening showed presence of tannins, saponins, steroids and terpenoids in the aqueous extracts of both stem and fruits, while glycosides, flavonoids, carbohydrates and reducing sugars were found in the aqueous extract of fruit only. Total phenolic, tannin and saponin contents were found to be higher in the aqueous extract of fruits. Total flavonoid content of aqueous extract of fruit was found to be 279.33 mg quercetin equivalent per gram of dry extract. Variations in phytoconstituents and in vitro experimental data obtained through antioxidant as well as antimicrobial assay methods indicated the existence of significant difference (p<0.05) between the antioxidant potency and zones of inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholera, Acinetobacter baumanii, which aqueous extract of stem failed to show at a dose of 100 mg/ml clearly demonstrated the superiority of the aqueous extract of fruits.
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Ribes alpestre Decne has been commonly used in the treatment of joint complaints. Aim of study: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antiarthritic potential of ethanolic extract and fractions of Ribes alpestre and to explore its probable mechanism of action. Material and methods: Complete Freunds adjuvant induced arthritis in Sprague Dawley rats was used to assess antiarthritic activity of aqueous ethanol extract, butanol and aqueous fractions at 200 mg/kg oral dose for 28 days. Paw volume and diameter, arthritic index, body weight, hematological and biochemical parameters, radiographic and histological analysis of ankle joints were carried out. An array of pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, NF-Kβ, TNF-α, COX-2, IL-4, IL-10 and PGE2) were estimated by RT-PCR and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Antioxidant capacity was assessed using DPPH and reducing power assays. Qualitative phytochemical screening, total phenolic and flavonoid content and HPLC analysis of aqueous fraction of Ribes alpestre were also carried out. Results: Significant (p < 0.001) reduction in paw volume and thickness and arthritic score by aqueous ethanolic extract and its fractions has been found. Aqueous ethanolic extract and fractions in particular aqueous fraction considerably prevented decrease in body weight, alterations in hematological parameters. Radiographic and histological examination revealed no significant architectural changes in joints of treated rats. Significant (p < 0.05–0.001) down regulation of pro-inflammatory genes IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2, PGE2 and NF-Kβ alongwith noteworthy increase in levels of IL-4 and IL-10 was recorded among treated animals. Aqueous ethanol extract and its fractions demonstrated notable and concentration dependent (50–6400 μg/ml) antioxidant potential. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of active fraction (aqueous) displayed presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and glycosides. Besides total phenolic and flavonoid contents has been found to be 179.3 mg GAE/ml and 389.40 μg QE/ml in aqueous fraction of Ribes alpestre respectively. HPLC profile demonstrated presence of quercitin, chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid and cinamic acid in aqueous fraction. Conclusion: Present communication suggests Ribes alpestre a potent antiarthritic therapy by ameliorating adjuvant arthritis in rats by downregulating proinflammatory mediators with up regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines.
... Anti-oxidant assay was performed by following the method of Arulpriya et al. (2010) with slight modifications. For the estimation of anti-oxidant activity, solutions of different concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200 and 6400 μg/ ml) of aqueous ethanol extract, fractions and ascorbic acid (standard) were mixed with 2.5 ml of phosphate buffer (0.2 M, pH: 6.6) and 2.5 ml potassium ferricyanide (1%). ...
Clematis orientalis Linn has long been used as ethnopharmacy for the treatment of arthritis. This study is intended to evaluate the curative efficacy of Clematis orientalis in treating polyarthritis in rats. Aqueous ethanolic extract and fractions (hexane, butanol and aqueous) were administered orally at 200 mg/kg for 28 days after CFA immunization. Paw swelling, paw diameter, arthritic score, body weight, hematological parameters, radiographic and histological analysis of ankle joints were evaluated. Moreover, levels of various inflammatory markers through RT-PCR and ELISA were measured. DPPH and reducing power assays were used to appraise antioxidant capacity. Qualitative phytochemical analysis, determination of total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also carried out. Aqueous ethanolic extract and fractions significantly (p < 0.001) reduced paw volume, paw thickness and arthritic score and considerably prevented decrease in body weight along with anomalous alterations in hematological parameters in comparison with arthritic control. X-ray and histological examination revealed no significant structural changes in ankle joints of treated rats. Expression levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2 and NF-Kβ were significantly (p < 0.05–0.001) suppressed as well as noteworthy increase in the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 among treated animals has been detected. Overproduction of TNF-α and PGE2 was substantially prevented in animals given different treatments. Aqueous ethanol extract and its fractions demonstrated significant and concentration-dependent antioxidant potential. In general, among fractions aqueous fraction exhibited a greater anti-arthritic effect. Phytochemical analysis of aqueous fraction confirmed the presence of flavonoids and glycosides, 215.29 mgGAE/ml phenolic content and 633.03 μgQE/ml flavonoid content. Thus, we suggest Clematis orientalis as a potent strategy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
... The antioxidant activity was measured by the DPPH method . The free DPPH in purple color changes into yellow color upon reaction with hydrogen donors, This is because of the reaction between hydrogen donors and DPPH free radical that leads to its reduction to corresponding hydrazine. ...
... Attention has been drawn more recently to the potentials and severe restriction to the scope of using freshwater biomass for variety of applications such as animal fodder and means of metal remediation has been reported (Sharma and Kumar, 2012). The prospect of converting aquatic weeds to biogas and bioethanol is ongoing in some developing countries such as India (Arulpriya et al., 2010). Water hyacinth contains many phytochemicals (Harborne, 1973). ...
The use of Herbal plant formulations and culinary as an excellent source of several nutrients and ethno-medicine has been the major subject of study in human history. This conventional usage prompted the researchers to formulate these herbal drugs in the treatment of diseases. This study is predominantly on the comparative, characterization and nutritional assay of the stem and leaf of water hyacinth extracts through phytochemical screening, elemental and proximate analysis to elucidate the potential applications. From the results, the ethanol extract of the leaves (EL) revealed the presence of phenol, steroids and saponin owing to the affinity of the solvent for hydrophilicity, while the hexane extract of the leaves (HL) shows the presence of flavonoids and steroids. Also the ethanolic extract of the stems (ES) shows the presence of phenol, steroids and saponin for the same reason, while the hexane extract of stems (HS) shows the presence of flavonoids and steroids. The proximate analysis of the leaf reveals appreciable percentages of protein, fibre and moisture content while that of stem shows higher percentages for carbohydrates and crude lipids. The leaf and stem show equal percentages for the ash content. The Elemental analysis shows that heavy metal concentrations of the leaf and stem are within threshold limits. This evident research substantiates the potential application of water hyacinth for consumption. The presence of secondary metabolites for pharmacological and therapeutic utilization such as anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidandruff, antiproliferative activities and provides a potential source of animal feed due to the higher percentage of carbohydrates, crude protein and crude fibre.
... Reducing power gives a clear cut picture of antioxidant ability of a plant [62,63]. Reducing power action involves the reduction of Fe +3 ion into Fe +2 ion which results in the formation of bluish colour ferri cyanide complex at 700nm . It is concluded that reducing power ability increases with the increase in concentration . ...
Silybummarianum seed extract have promising effects in nutrition as well as in therapeutics. Therefore, present study was designed to evaluate composition and physio-chemical effects of Silybummarianum seed oil in PMAS-AAUR, Rawalpindi Pakistan. Proximate seed analysis of Silybummarianum indicated the increase in dry matter (15.75%),crude fiber (14.4%) whereas moisture (8.2%), crude protein (15.75%), crude fat (24%) total ash (4%) did not proved to significant increase in present study. In case of physico-chemical parameters saponification value (126.2mg KOH/g) and ester value (121.15mg/g) were increased while peroxide (7.056meq. Peroxide/g), free fatty acid (2.53mg/g), iodine (2.79mg/g), acid (5.049mg KOH/g), wax (6.89mg/g) pH is 8.09 and specific gravity (0.8129) have lower values. High in saponification and low acid values make this oil suitable for soap industry also increases quality and volatility of oil. Low Peroxide value shows its low oxidation, rancidity and high antioxidant activity.
... Plants and their extracts are used as indicators to study mutagenesis in eukaryotes (Kumari et al. 2011). Recent evidence suggested that the fallen parts of stem and leaves of Albizia saman have good free radical antioxidant scavenging activity in vitro, and these activities are beneficial to prevent chronic diseases (Halliwell 1994;Espin et al. 2000;Arulpriya et al. 2010). According to Oberdörster (1996), nano sized particles can induce toxicity where the bulk material may not. ...
The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the genotoxic effect of zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) synthesized by leaf extract of Albizia saman on mitotic chromosomes of root tip meristematic cells of Drimia indica. Biogenic ZnNPs were characterized by using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analyses. Root tips of D. indica were exposed to different concentrations of ZnNP suspension, namely 4, 8, 12 and 16 μg ml–1, for 24 h at intervals of 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. The meristematic cells were analyzed for mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations such as chromosomal bridges, sticky chromosomes, multibridge anaphase, laggards, diagonal anaphase, lagging chromosomes, and c-metaphase as well as for the induction of micronuclei. It is evident from the data that the mitotic index is inversely proportional and chromosomal aberrations are directly proportional to the concentration and duration of exposure to ZnNPs. The data were found to be significant at p˂0.05. It is concluded that biogenic ZnNPs induce chromosomal abnormality in root tip meristematic cells of D. indica.
... Reducing power was expressed in terms of ascorbic acid equivalent. 46 Anti-bacterial assay Anti-bacterial assay was determined using agar well diffusion method on nutrient agar plates with wells bored into them. Culture obtained was then spread across the agar and allowed to stand for 10 min, under sterile condition. ...
Introduction: In the current study, methanol and aqueous extracts of leaf of Cerbera odollam Gaertn were screened for its antibacterial, antifungal, phytochemicals and antioxidant activities. Phytochemical constituents were investigated both qualitatively and quantitatively.
Methods: The leaf extracts of Cerbera odollam Gaertn were prepared by drying and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus into methanol and aqueous media, which were subjected to phytochemical screening. Total phenols, tannins, flavanols, alkaloids and its antioxidant activity were determined using spectroscopic techniques. Antimicrobial activity were determined using well diffusion method.
Results: Aqueous extract exhibits higher content of phenols, tannins, flavanols and alkaloids, whereas methanol extract exhibits higher content of anthocyanin and cardiac glycoside respectively. Aqueous extract exhibits higher inhibitory concentration (IC %) value for DPPH (2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and H2O2 radical scavenging assay and reducing power (RP) assay. The methanol extracts exhibited higher inhibitory concentration (IC %) value in SO and NO radical scavenging assay, exhibiting antioxidant properties in five antioxidant models that were investigated. The methanol extract showed some antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli with inhibitory zone ranging from 2 mm to 3 mm, whereas the aqueous extract showed no activity. High antifungal activity was found against Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans for methanol extract and moderate for aqueous extract with inhibitory zone ranging from 9mm to 26 mm. Conclusion: The finding of our study have suggested that the extracts of Cerbera odollam Gaertn, possesses a significant amount of phytochemicals and exhibits antioxidant and antifungal activities.
... The variation in antioxidant activity by different solvents was due to polarity difference present among them and this difference leads to variation in flavonoids and phenolic contents (Saha et al. 2004). According to Arulpriya et al. (2010), the biologically active compounds are present in different polarity. This polarity differences also gives different reducing abilities to these biological compounds. ...
Plant-based medicines play an important role in the life of human being. In this era, some modern and ancient techniques are used to enhance the therapeutic potential of plants. Fermentation is one of the ancient techniques used to improve the medicinal effect of the plants. Gymnosporia royleana Wall. ex Lawson roots and leaves were compared with respect to their free radical scavenging potential with fermented and non-fermented extracts. Qualitative phytochemicals analysis of this plant showed the presence of important phytochemicals. The yield parameter was also measured in five different solvents, i.e., n hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol and water. Maximum yield was shown by the methanolic leaf extract (11%) and minimum by n-hexane root extract (0.3%). Free radical scavenging effect was observed in two sets (fermented and non-fermented). Fermentation was done by β-glucosidase enzyme. Four different scavenging assays were used. In all assays, maximum scavenging potential was shown by ethyl acetate extract and minimum by n-hexane. In all assays, fermented extracts were good in their scavenging potential as compared to the non-fermented. Among all assays, plant extracts gave more positive result with phosphomolybdate assay compared to other assays. Our finding confirms that the fermentation helps in enhancing antioxidant potential of plant extract.
... The ability of the extract to reduce ferric ions to a ferrous complex was determined using the ferric reducing power assay . Different concentrations of each extract (100 μl) were mixed with 250 μl of phosphate buffer (0.2 M, pH 6.6) and 250 μl of Potassium fericcyanide and then incubated at 50°C for 20 min. ...
Conventional drugs used to treat diabetes are too expensive, toxic and rarely available to rural communities. This study was aimed at investigating the phytochemical differences and hypoglycaemic effects (α-amylase enzyme inhibition, glucose uptake, GLUT4 translocation and phosphorylation of MAPKs) of non-defatted and defatted acetone leaf extract of Acacia karroo.
Qualitative phytochemical analyses of extracts were determined using standard chemical tests and total phenolic contents using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method. Presence of antioxidant constituents was determined using DPPH scavenging and ferric reducing power assays. Alpha amylase enzyme inhibitory potential was determined chromogenically and cytotoxicity of the extracts on C2C12 muscle and 3T3-L1 cells using the MTT assay. Glucose uptake by the cells was determined colorimetrically and the most active extract was evaluated for its ability to translocate GLUT4 and MAPKs phosphorylation potential using immunofluorescence microscopy and dot blot analysis, respectively.
Phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides were detected in both extracts. Defatting of the plant material resulted in low amounts of phenols (0.432 ± 0.014 TAE/mg), DPPH scavenging activity (EC50 0.40 ± 0.012 mg/ml), low toxicity and high ferric reducing power (EC50 1.13 ± 0.017 mg/ml), α-amylase enzyme inhibition (IC50 30.2 ± 3.037 μg/ml) and glucose uptake by both cells. The defatted extract showed an increase in GLUT4 translocation (at 25 μg/ml) with decrease in Akt expression while in combination with insulin showed a decrease in GLUT4 translocation. A finding, that is implicative that the effect of the extract on GLUT4 translocation in C2C12 cells was not Akt dependent. The defatted extract in the absence and presence of insulin show varying phosphorylation levels of CREB, p38, GSK-3 and ERK2 which are important in cell survival and metabolism.
This study represents the first report on the hypoglycemic potential of A. karroo and presence of compounds that can be exploited in the search for therapeutics with antidiabetic effect.
... There is growing interest in antioxidants, particularly those designed to prevent the suspected deleterious effects of free radicals in the human body; the free radicals are able to degrade fatty matter and other food components. It was reported that free radicals that are generated in bioorganic redox process can cause oxidative damage in various body parts, and may be implicated in process resulting in the formation of mutations . Manuscript In recent years, several researchers have been interested in searching that can potentially act as free radical scavengers, and a number of antioxidant molecules have been incorporated in foods to protect their shelf-life , . ...
Background: The roots and stem bark of Berberis orthobotrys (Berberidaceae) have long been used traditionally
to treat joint pain. Though, it has not been pharmacologically assessed for rheumatoid arthritis. The current study explores anti-arthritic activity and phytochemical analysis of aqueous-methanolic extract (30:70) and fractions (ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous) of Berberis orthobotrys roots.
Methods: Anti-arthritic potential was evaluated in vitro using protein denaturation (bovine serum albumin and
egg albumin) and membrane stabilization methods at 12.5–800 μg/ml concentration and in vivo via turpentine
oil, formaldehyde and Complete Freund Adjuvant (CFA) models at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg doses. Also, in vitro
antioxidant ability was appraised by reducing power assay. Moreover, total flavonoid content, Fourier transform
infrared spectroscopy and High performance liquid chromatography of n-butanol fraction were performed.
Results: The results revealed concentration dependent inhibition of albumin denaturation and notable RBC membrane stabilization, with maximum results obtained at 800 μg/ml. Similarly, plant exhibited dose dependent anti-arthritic effect in turpentine oil and formaldehyde models, with maximum activity observed at 150 mg/kg. The results of CFA model depicted better protection against arthritic lesions and body weight alterations. Also, B.orthobotrys remarkably ameliorated altered hematological parameters, rheumatoid factor and positively modified radiographic and histopathological changes. Additionally, plant exhibited remarkable anti-oxidant activity. Moreover, phytochemical analysis revealed polyphenols and flavonoids.
Conclusion: Taken together, these results support traditional use of B.orthobotrys as potent anti-arthritic agent
that may be proposed for rheumatoid arthritis treatment.
... The antioxidant activity was measured by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method (Arulpriya et al., 2010). When free DPPH in purple color changes into yellow color upon reaction with hydrogen donors, this is because upon reacting with hydrogen donors DPPH free radical reduced to corresponding hydrazine. ...
Drug discovery from natural products as alternatives for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a current trend. For which plant is an alternative for searching potential molecule for treating AD. Availability of Cassia tora as weed and abundance in nature makes it as potential source. Many plants group under Leguminosae family has potential medicinal property of which Cassia tora is an appropriate choice, to know potency against AD. Etiology of AD is described by senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The Aβ42 has key major role in forming plaques by forming structures like protobirils, oligomers and final fibrilar like structures. Even at in vitro conditions, the peptides have a fibrilar like structure, which was exploited to preliminary screening of natural sources that may be effective in treating AD.
The design of the study was to unravel the potential medicinal property of Cassia tora for its antioxidant, cholinergic and aggregation inhibition activity.
We evidenced that the methanol (MeOH), n-hexane (n-hex), petroleum ether (PE) and aqueous (aq) extracts from the leaves of Cassia tora (C. tora) were investigated for their inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and anti-amyloidogenic assays. The antioxidant effect using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined using Folin-Ciocaltaeu's and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) reagents, respectively.
The methanol extract of C. tora exerted the highest inhibition against AChE (55.38 ± 2.28%) and BChE inhibition (50.02 ± 0.79%) at 100µg/ml concentration. The methanol extract was also found more active in the antioxidant test. The aggregation kinetics was monitored using thioflavin-T (ThT) assay and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique.
The results showed that C. tora methanol extract is able to inhibit the Aβ42 aggregation from monomers and oligomers and also able to dis-aggregate the pre-formed fibrils. The study provides an insight on finding new natural products for AD therapeutics.
Sahacharadi Kashayam is an ayurvedic medicine used to treat vata related diseases like palsy, disc prolapsed, sciatica, back pain and
paralysis. It is of interest to know the antioxidant activity of this medicine to know the possible mechanism of action. The present
study analyze the antioxidant potential of one Ayurvedic medicine, Sahacharadi Kashayam by three procedures, namely, reducing
power assay, DPPH assay and ABTS assay. It was observed that all the three assays gave fair results to prove the antioxidant
potential of this Kashayam. This knowledge could be of help to understand further the medicinal efficacy of Sahacharadi Kashayam.
... The DPPH radical scavenging assay is an easy, rapid and sensitive method for the antioxidant screening of plant extracts 28 . The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the Cistus two species were evaluated according to 20,29 using the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH). ...
... The first assay, H 2 O 2 radical scavenging assay, measured the ability of samples to scavenge hydroxyl radical at 320 nm. Hydrogen peroxide is one of the most reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can cross cell membranes rapidly 34 36 . Table 2 represents the results from H 2 O 2 and DPPH radical scavenging assays. ...
Polyphenols have been widely studied and considered as a health promotingand disease preventive agents in humans. Several studies investigated the antioxidantproperties of polyphenols and their abilities to eliminate free radicals. In this study, theantioxidant activity of coffee in the presence of different types of cows’ milk at differentconcentrations, 10% or 20%, was investigated. Our results showed that milk could eitherenhance the scavenging of DPPH or decrease the metal chelating and metal reducingactivity of polyphenol. However, more investigations are required to evaluate themechanisms by which fats in milk can alter the antioxidant activity of coffee.
... OH), singlet oxygen and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 Humans have the complex network of the antioxidant system consisting of enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as reduced glutathione, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, β-carotene and flavonoids to counteract reactive oxygen species . Dietary antioxidants such as flavonoids and alkaloids also play a significant role in augmenting the body's natural resistance to oxidative stress . ...
Objective: The aim of present studyis to isolate and characterize a novel actinomycetes strain from marine sediments collected at Kakinada coast. To evaluate antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the crude methanolic extract of isolated actinomycetes. Methods: Actinomycetes was isolated from marine sediments collected at Kakinada coast using starch casein agar. Morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization was performed and the crude methanolic extract was used for determination of in vitro antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity against MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cells. Results: The crude methanolic extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity with IC50 value in the range of 30-46 μg/ml in different radical scavenging assays. Moreover, the extract showed concentration dependent cytotoxicity against triple negative breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB 231 with IC50 of 42. 5μg/ml. The extract also inhibited cell proliferation with IC50 value 44. 1 μg/ml probably by arresting cell cycle at S phase. The antioxidant activity of the extract was strongly correlated with cytotoxic and antiproliferative activity. Conclusion: The isolated marine actinomycetes can be the potential source of antioxidants with the anticancer property.
... Reducing power assay: The reducing power was determined by the method of Oyaizu 13 . Substances, which have reduction potential, react with potassium ferricyanide (Fe 3+ ) to form potassium ferrocyanide (Fe 2+ ), which then reacts with ferric chloride to form ferric ferrous complex that has an absorption maximum at 700 nm. ...
... If lower the absorbance the reaction mixture indicates the higher free radical scavenging activity. The capability of scavenging the DPPH radical was calculated using the following equation (Arulpriya et al., 2010; Oktay et al., 2003). ...
Objective: To evaluate the antiproliferative and cell cycle analysis of aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis fruits on
human neuroblastoma and colorectal cancer cell lines. Materials and methods: In the �rst phase of the study, E.
officinalis aqueous extract was subjected to phytochemical investigation and following which in vitro antioxidant
activities were performed. In the second phase, brine shrimp lethality assay was carried out. In the �nal phase of the
investigation,MTTassay was performed on human neuroblastoma and colorectal cancer cell lines to assess the in vitro
cytotoxicity activity of the E. officinalis aqueous extract. Subsequently, cell cycle arrest was assessed by �ow
cytometry. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of various vital phytoconstituents. There was
signi�cant DPPH free radical scavenging activity.Aqueous extract of the fruits of E. officinalismarkedly increases the
mortality in brine shrimp lethality assay. Further, the extract exhibited cytotoxicity on human colorectal and
neuroblastoma cancer cell lines and cell cycle arrest atG0/G1 phase.Conclusion: It can be concluded that the aqueous
extract of fruits of E. officinalis showed antioxidant and anticancer activities and even arrested the cell cycle at G0/G1
... Varied concentrations of PTRC-2111-A and standard~ascorbic acid (50 µL) mixed with pre-mix of 1 % potassium ferrocyanide in phosphate buffer (1:1 v/v, 200 µL each) was incubated at 50°C in a water bath (Cole Parmer, India) for 20 min post-incubation, 10 % trichloroacetic acid (200 µL) was added and centrifuged (3,000 g, 10 min, 25°C) using Table Top Centrifuge (Remi, India). The collected supernatant mixed with double distilled water (500 µL) and 0.1 % ferric chloride (100 µL) was incubated at 37°C for 10 min, followed by recording of absorbance at 700 nm using phosphate buffer as blank . The antioxidant activity in aqueous phase was expressed in terms of absorption unit value (AUV) and calculated using the formula: ...
Berberis aristata is known to contain a variety of phenolic compounds, flavonoids such as quercetin attributing towards its holistic capability of mitigating multidrug resistance.
B. aristata stem bark extract was prepared and characterized using phytochemical and bioactivity-based fingerprinting. Anti-oxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation profiling was also done in conjunction with in vitro anti-microbial efficacy testing against the test microorganism i. e., New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) Escherichia coli.
Aquo-alcoholic (1:1) extract of B. aristata (PTRC-2111-A), containing 3.0±0.02 µg of QUERCETIN/mg of dried extract, exhibited [flavonoid/polyphenol: F/P (quercetin %) ~ 0.16(0.06 %)]. The bioactivity fingerprint profile of PTRC-2111-A included IC50 ratio [DPPH/NOS]=0.064 as functional standardized value having IC50 (DPPH Scavenging)=16±0.5 µg/mL and IC50 (Nitric Oxide Scavenging)=250±0.5 µg/mL respectively. The reducing ability and anti-lipid peroxidation equivalent (extract: standard) of PTRC-2111-A with respect to standard was estimated to be 3.44 (ascorbic acid) and 0.78 (quercetin) respectively. In vitro anti-microbial activity evaluated against sts-09 multidrug-resistant strain of carbapenem-resistant E. coli was found to be 25 µg/mL.
B. aristata was found to contain a number of phytoconstituents, which acts in a synergistic manner to provide significant bactericidal potential against carbapenem-resistant E. coli.
Mansoa alliacea Lam. (Family: Bignoniaceae) is a native plant from Amazonian basin in South America. Plant derivatives are used as an anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antiseptic and anti-bacterial. The study was aimed to determine the pharmacognostic and phy-tochemicals present in Mansoa alliacea. Micro and Organoleptic characteristics of fresh and dried leaf samples had been examined. Physicochemical chemical variables have been done by using WHO suggested variables, preliminary phytochemical of leaf sample had been performed to identify the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and phenols, and quinones using the ethanolic extract of the leaves of M. alliacea.
The synthesis of four new azo Schiff base ligands from 2‐hydroxy‐3‐methoxy‐5‐(phenyldiazenyl)benzaldehyde and 4‐aminoantipyrine is described in this study. The molecular structures of all the scaffolds were confirmed using NMR spectroscopies such as 1H and 13C, as well as FT‐IR and Mass spectroscopy. After successful synthesis and characterization of all the ligands, their In‐vitro antibacterial, antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activities were carried out by using standard protocols. Results revealed that all the four ligands (L1‐L4) possessed excellent biological potency. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Tyrosinase has an important role in melanin formation, is responsible for the production of colour pigments of skin, hair, and eye. In the presents study, tyrosinase was isolated from Mushrooms, isolation of enzyme was done by acetone precipitation procedure and precipitation of enzyme was done with ammonium sulphate precipitation method. Plants selected for extraction were Azadirachta indica (Neem), Manikara zapota (Chiku), Annona squamosa (Sitaphal), and Hibiscus Rosa-sinesis (China rose). For phytochemical screening Alkaloids-Mayer’s Test, Flavonoids (Shinoda Test, Alkaline Reagent Test), sugar (Benedict’s reagent Test), Glycosides (Borntrager's Test), Phenolic compounds Test (Ferric chloride Test, Gelatin Test, Lead Acetate Test). Mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory assay was determined by the spectroscopic method. The study shows the tyrosinase inhibitory activity of selected medicinal plants.
The antimicrobial activity against clinically and agriculturally important microorganisms, antioxidant property and chemical profiling of acetone crude extracts of non-edible oil-seed cakes of neem ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss), madhuca ( Madhuca longifolia syn. Madhuca indica Gmelin) and simarouba ( Simarouba glauca DC) obtained by hot and cold extraction methods were tested in-vitro .
The hot neem and cold acetone extracts of madhuca and simarouba were inhibitory to Staphylococcus aureus . The enteric pathogens- Enterococcus faecalis and Salmonella enterica were inhibited by both hot and cold extracts of simarouba cake. Fusarium oxysporum and Colletotrichum capsici were sensitive to oil-seed cake extracts of madhuca and simarouba cake extracts followed by neem cake extract. The Aspergillus flavus was highly sensitive to neem followed by madhuca and simarouba extracts. The cyclic voltammetry of all extracts indicated the presence of oxidation peaks at different Epa values suggesting the presence of antioxidant ability. The GC–MS profile revealed the presence of pharmacologically important essential compounds.
The study revealed the presence of bioactive compounds in non-edible oil-seed cakes that could be exploited for human welfare.
The current investigation employed rosuvastatin for evaluation as an antiarthritic agent by in vitro and in vivo studies. In vitro studies comprised egg albumin and bovine serum albumin protein denaturation assays along with membrane stabilization assays, while in vivo studies comprised formaldehyde and complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-provoked arthritis. The antioxidant potential was estimated via DPPH free radical scavenging and ferric reducing assays. Rosuvastatin significantly inhibited heat-provoked protein denaturation of egg albumin and bovine serum in a concentration-dependent way with the highest inhibition of 1225 ± 9.83 and 82.80 ± 4.03 at 6400 μg/mL. The percentage protection of the RBC membrane from hypotonicity-prompted lysis was found to be 80.67 ± 2.7. Rosuvastatin promisingly subdued formaldehyde-provoked arthritis, with maximum reduction (65.47%) of the paw volume being observed at a dose of 40 mg/kg. Rosuvastatin also significantly (p < 0.001) attenuated arthritis induced by CFA injection by reducing the paw volume and arthritic index. The reduction in the body weight due to CFA injection was also preserved by rosuvastatin treatment. Hematological and biochemical changes due to arthritis induction by CFA injection were also maintained near normal values by rosuvastatin. The histopathological and radiographic investigation also revealed the protective effect of rosuvastatin on preventing structural changes. Gene expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 was reduced, while IL-4 and IL-10 levels were elevated by rosuvastatin in comparison to those for the disease control group. Concentration-dependent antioxidant potential was shown by rosuvastatin. Thus, rosuvastatin possesses a notable antiarthritic potential as evidenced via in vitro and in vivo studies.
The biological activities of some ternary nickel complexes with a Schiff base obtained from 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde
and 2-aminophenol have been reported. The Schiff base (
HL1) acts as a primary ligand whereas, anthranilic acid (
HL3), alanine (
HL4) and histidine (
HL5) act as secondary ligand or co-ligand. The anticancer activity of
these compounds was studied against human colon carcinoma (HCT-116), human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HEPG-2)
and human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines. As per the results, the compounds were active against the cell lines. The
antioxidant activity of the same compounds was evaluated using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) radical scavenging
and compared with ascorbic acid. The DFT computations for these compounds were made to understand the bonding
mode by a GAUSSIAN 09 program. Moreover, a docking analysis using Autodock 4.2 software package was carried out
against the tyrosine kinase receptor (PDB ID: 1M17). In addition, QSAR investigation was also performed to understand
the biological potency of the ligand.
A leachate is any liquid that, in the course of passing through matter, extracts soluble or suspended solids, or any other component of the material through which it has passed. Twenty seven plant seeds leachate were analyzed for total sugar, starch, total carbohydrates, protein and amino acid composition. In this study, 27 plants seeds were preimbibed in water for 24 hours and dried back were soaked in water for 30 minutes and carbohydrate, proteins and amino acids contents in leachates were measured. three species (Acacia ferruginea Dc., Samanea saman Murrill. and Meyna laxiflora Roxb. ex. Link) evidenced high starch content (above 500 mg / g air dried seeds) among 27 species tested. Acacia ferruginea , Samanea saman and meyna laxiflora were found to contain high level of total carbohydrates (i.e. 51-63). Saraca asoca exhibited the protein (range of 43-44 mg / g / air dried seeds) of their seeds among species studied and Acacia polycantha were found to be rich in free amino acid levels (ranges of 23-24 mg / g / air dried seeds) of their seeds among species studied.
BACKGROUND: Management of cellular metabolism and blood glucose levels are significant in the treatment of diabetes
mellitus and oxidative diseases. Consequently, steroid and peptide hormone-based drugs such as methylprednisolone and
insulin have been the most effective and safe methods of treatment.
OBJECTIVE: Our study investigated the digestive enzymes and oxidative species inhibitory potentials of seven derived
biologically important steroids.
METHODS: Syntheses of the steroidal inhibitors (SIs) were accomplished by functional group transformations. Characterisation of SIs was achieved by spectroscopic techniques; followed by in-vitro enzyme and oxidative suppression
RESULTS: NMR data revealed the presence of a steroid backbone, azomethine, carbonyl, and oxymethine peaks while the
vibrational bands were further confirmed by the FTIR. The enzyme suppression activities of the SIs were influenced by the
presence of histidine residue and free proton groups. However, the antioxidant activities were solely dependent on the free
proton groups on the steroid backbone or the number of the histidine side chain. SIs [3, 4, and 6] exhibited a potent inhibitory
effect on the enzyme activities compared to SIs [1, 2, 5, and 7], while a potent antioxidant activity was reported by SI .
CONCLUSIONS: Generally, SIs with hydroxyl and -amino acid functionalities have a strong affinity for the enzyme active
site than the substrate; hence, the hydrolysis of the -1,4-glycosidic bonds of saccharide was hindered. In vivo administration
of SIs [3, 4, and 6] should take into cognizance the suppression effect at doses ≤939.49 g/mL as well as the potential to
induce abnormal bacterial fermentation of undigested carbohydrates in the colon at high concentration.
Phytochemicals derived from seaweeds offer a novel source of compounds to develop new insecticides and antimicrobials. In the present study, two seaweed species, the brown Sargassum wightii and the green Halimeda gracilis, were investigated. Extracts were obtained using five solvents of varying polarity (acetone, chloroform, methanol, ethanol, and water). The total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and the antioxidant activities of the extracts were estimated. The ethanol extract from S. wightii exhibited more potent antioxidant activity compared to that of the H. gracilis extracts. The ethanol extract from S. wightii possessed higher values of total phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity compared to those of the H. gracillis ethanol extract. The total phenolic and flavonoid content for ethanol extracts of S. wightii and H. gracillis was 5.5 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, 3.8 mg GAE/g, 10 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g, and 8.3 mg QE/g, respectively. The total antioxidant activity of the seaweed extracts was 47 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE)/g for S. wightii and 35.9 mg AAE/g for H. gracilis. Additionally, the bioactive compounds present in these seaweeds were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and GC–MS analysis, and the antimicrobial activity of these extracts was then tested against the biofilm formation capabilities of three pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The ethanol extracts from S. wightii and H. gracillis presented the highest inhibitory effect with up to a 40–75% significant reduction in biofilm formation by Gram-negative bacteria. Finally, their insecticidal potential was assessed against late third instar larvae of malaria vectors (Anopheles stephensi), dengue and Zika virus vectors (Aedes aegypti), and the Japanese encephalitis vector (Culex tritaeniorhynchus). LC50 values estimated for the S. wightii ethanol extract were lower than 50 ppm against all tested mosquito species. Light microscopy revealed that morphological changes were triggered upon exposure to seaweed extracts. Overall, the present study sheds light on the relevant bioactivity of phytochemicals obtained from two widespread seaweeds, suggesting the possibility that these seaweeds can be used to develop novel and biodegradable pesticides and also antimicrobial drugs that can be used to inhibit the development of microbial biofilms.
Objective: The present study deals with the antioxidant study of one Ayurvedic medicine Aswagandhrishtam by three different methods, namely reducing power, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assays. Methods: Aswagandharishtam, which is a liquid medicine, was taken as such at various concentrations for all the three assays. Results: The results show that Aswagandharistam has good antioxidant potential when compared with ascorbic acid as standard. The IC 50 values of reducing power assay were 250.142, that of DPPH were 103.607, and of ABTS assay were 197.79 as compared with that of ascorbic acid being 19.59. Conclusion: All the three assays indicated that Aswagandharishtam showed very good antioxidant results.
Hepatocarcinogenesis is a multistep process involving different genetic alterations that ultimately lead to malignant transformation of the hepatocytes. Modern treatment of cancer includes chemotherapy, hormone therapy, radiotherapy and surgery but they are associated with several adverse effects such as alopecia, fatigue and general weakening of the body's immune system due to bone marrow suppression. However, there is a continual need to look out for newer drugs to overcome the menace of cancer. In view of this we synthesized the new Coumarin-Cobalt complex derivatives. Structures of all the newly synthesized metal complexes are supported by Spectral data such as IR, NMR, and mass spectrometry. Coumarin-Cobalt complex of vanillin exhibited significant anti-cancer activity by in vivo anticancer activity (BrdU estimation). Immunohistochemical analysis has been done by BrdU and the synthesized compounds were screened for anti-oxidant activity and in vitro HepG2 cell lines. The IC50 values of the HepG2 cell lines as compared with that of standard Cisplatin and compounds IIIb, IIId, IIIe, IIIh and IIIj showed appreciable activity at a concentration less than 10 μG. Coumarin-Cobalt complex of vanillin exhibited significant anti-cancer activity. Anti-oxidant activity performed by Nitric oxide reducing ability, Superoxide dismutase and reducing activity:Compounds IIIc, IIIe and IIIg showed appreciable activity at 400μg/mL and 800 μg/mL screened by nitric oxide reducing ability, superoxide anion was effectively scavenged by compound IIIg at 400μg/mL and 800 μg/mL and reducing power of compounds IIIc and IIIj is comparable with standard ascorbic acid at concentrations 400μg/mL and 800 μg/mL.
Sahacharadi Kashayam is an ayurvedic medicine used to treat vata related diseases like palsy, disc prolapsed, sciatica, back pain and paralysis. It is of interest to know the antioxidant activity of this medicine to know the possible mechanism of action. The present study analyze the antioxidant potential of one Ayurvedic medicine, Sahacharadi Kashayam by three procedures, namely, reducing power assay, DPPH assay and ABTS assay. It was observed that all the three assays gave fair results to prove the antioxidant potential of this Kashayam. This knowledge could be of help to understand further the medicinal efficacy of Sahacharadi Kashayam.
In this work the author disclose an effective and environment-friendly approach to the preparation of an ionic liquid supported, magnetic nanoparticle doped titanium oxide nanocomposite. The novel ionic liquid N-(2′, 3′-epoxypropyl)-N-methyl-2- pyrrolidonium salicylate was first synthesized and characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, elemental Analysis and FTIR. It was subsequently used for the preparation of a composite material by traditional protocols. This ionic liquid is able to connect the NiFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles with titanium dioxide via strong ionic liquid interactions. The composite was characterized by FT-IR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDS) analysis, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Diffraction studies (DF). The catalytic activities of these composites were assessed by the reduction of nitro aniline with the aid of UV spectroscopy. Furthermore, the composite material was easily recovered and re-used with negligible loss of its catalytical activity.
The ancient Indian systems of medicine (AYUSH - Ayurveda, Yunani and Siddha) had explored many medicinal plants which can cure many diseases. The extracts of the medicinal plants possess remarkable biological perspectives. Rain tree (Samanea saman) is one of the tropical tree which possess a wide variety of pharmacological activities. The size of the rain tree generally attains maximum height of 15-25m (50-80ft). It has a distinctive, umbrella -shaped crown which is broad and domed. It is a native in Northern America and in Central America. The various parts of the tree (Samanea saman) possess different biological perspectives such as antioxidant, antibacterial potential, analgesic, antifungal, insecticidal, anti ulcer and cytotoxic activities. However, the study made in the perspectives of biological activity are limited and further studies should be conducted to confirm the reported effects. Such evidence is needed to provide scientific credence to the folklore use of traditional medicines which are helpful to develop new medicines and to explore its treatment guidelines.