Use of social media by college students: Relationship to communication and self-concept

Article · January 2012with 4,308 Reads 
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine social media use among college students and how it affects communication with others, and college students' self-concept. In this study, students completed a questionnaire which assessed personal use of social media, communication skills with friends and family, and effects on self-concept. Results indicated that all of the sampled college students were using at least one form of social networking website. There was a .586 Pearson correlation between usage of social media and communication with family and friends. There was a .658 Pearson correlation between usage social media and self-concept. These findings provide implications for future research on why these social networking sites have gained popularity.

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  • ... While misinformation and fake news can exist anywhere and be mediated through the same channels as any other news, social media in particular has been found to accelerate the spread of fake news (Alcott and Gentzkow, 2016;Shu et al., 2017). Besides sharing news, social media is valuable for people as a way to stay in touch with others (Sponcil and Gitimu, 2013), however, it is also characterized by the desire for self-promotion (Mäntymäki and Islam, 2016). Platforms such as Facebook and Twitter have been blamed for causing polarization with personalized news feeds, but in fact, recent studies have found that human's own choices limit the type of clicked content more than algorithms (Bakashy et al., 2015;Sphor, 2017). ...
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    The World Health Organization have emphasised that misinformation - spreading rapidly through social media - poses a serious threat to the COVID-19 response. Drawing from theories of health perception and cognitive load, we develop and test a research model hypothesizing why people share unverified COVID-19 information through social media. Our findings suggest a person's trust in online information and perceived information overload are strong predictors of unverified information sharing. Furthermore, these factors, along with a person's perceived COVID-19 severity and vulnerability influence cyberchondria. Females were significantly more likely to suffer from cyberchondria, however, males were more likely to share news without fact checking their source. Our findings suggest that to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 misinformation and cyberchondria, measures should be taken to enhance a healthy skepticism of health news while simultaneously guarding against information overload.
  • ... SNSs facilitate communication and interaction between students due to the convenience of flexibility of time and place (Urista et al., 2009). The one-to-many communication over the internet makes sending information faster and easier (Sponcil and Gitimu, 2013). Communication styles affect students' interaction levels, thus they react in different ways in web-based learning networks (Cho et al., 2007). ...
  • ... The findings show that the Internet gives undergraduates easy access to old friends and enables them make new friends. These findings are in accordance with that of Sponcil and Gitimu (2014) which revealed that the most important reason given by students for using the Internet was to communicate with family and friends. The study also revealed that Internet enables students easily access to their mails and messages. ...
  • ... Students use technology more than other people in the community. According to the results of some studies, almost all students have at least one profile in social media and most users are between 18 and 29 years of age (Sponcil & Gitimu, 2013). ...
    Article
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    This study investigated the relationship between uses of virtual social networks, self-directed learning and critical thinking of students in developing countries, a comparative study between students at the University of Esfahan in Iran and students of Aligarh Muslim University in India, enrolled in the academic year 2017-2018. Research was conducted using a descriptive correlational method and found that the use of virtual networks among Iranian students had a positive and significant relationship with components of critical thinking (interpretation, analysis and explanation skills), while among the Indian students, there was a positive and significant relationship with all the components of critical thinking. Moreover, the use of virtual social networks among Iranian students had a positive and significant relationship with the components of self-directed learning (interests in learning and self-control), but it did not have a significant relationship with the component of self-management. Among Indian undergraduate students, the use of virtual social networks had a positive and significant relationship with all the self-directed learning components (self-management, interests in learning and self-control).
  • ... Using social media, users share their personal diaries, post images or videos, express opinions, meet new people and establish communities based on common interests or/and background [2]. Users have an option to choose whether to send private or public messages, post on other user's timeline, organise social events, and getting informed of other user's daily activities [9]. Social media is inexpensive and free to use which allows individuals to access any social media platforms. ...
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    Social media is a term used to combine social networking, media sharing and microblogging systems. Social media assists students to improve their academic studies, allows collaboration and sharing of information with each other, and affords students to know what is happening in the world, acquire pictures and videos in support of such information. Information Systems (IS) students are the next generation of technology experts and their exposure to using social media as an alternative source of information and for collaboration might affect features included in systems.
  • ... Facebook is among the most popular SNSs, especially among college students (Knight-McCord et al., 2016). Approximately 70% of adult Internet users (age 18 years or older) are on Facebook (Duggan et al., 2015) and over 88% of college students use Facebook (Sponcil & Gitimu, 2013). Facebook allows users to post information about the self, share photographs, and post and exchange messages with other users. ...
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  • ... The paper explored the personality characteristics, gender, level of education and age influence about Facebook use pattern and their perceptions and resolved a significant difference regarding level of education, BA students feel Facebook more beneficial than students and are more aware than the MA/Ph.D. students of its cost and many other positive and negative correlations were found in the findings. Sponcil and Gitimu (2013) 10 evaluated the use of social media by college students in Relationship to communication and self-concept and the result indicated that Facebook and Twitter were found to be the most popular websites, individuals are using social media websites increasingly and visiting frequently, create new ways of communicating with friends and family and influences individual's self-concept. Hamade (2013) 3 investigated the perception and use of social networking sites among university students and the findings indicated that majority of students were using Twitter and Facebook mostly, neglecting study/work and the time consumed is the two major drawbacks, it also showed some lack of experience with social networking beyond entertainment and there is need to educate students on the benefits of SNS and quality of information found on sites. ...
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    The present study investigates the use of Social Networking Sites (SNSs) by the students of Central Institute of Technology (CIT) in Kokrajhar, Assam. The survey and random sampling technique have been used for the collection of data. Around 200 structured questionnaires were distributed among the students of CIT, Kokrajhar and filled-in questionnaires were collected on the same day itself and analyzed for data interpretation in the form of tables and charts. The study explored that all the respondents were aware of SNSs and are using more than one SNSs websites, it has found that Facebook is use in large number, while YouTube and Instagram follow it. Mobile is the most preferred tool for accessing SNSs, a majority expressed that low internet speed was the main problem, also indicates that students are using SNSs for entertainment purpose. The majority 47.47% of the CIT students are satisfied, while 35.35% are partially satisfied and very few 17.17% are highly satisfied.
  • ... The underlying reason may lie in the fact that women are traditionally taught to be more expressive and open, while men are expected to restrain in sharing their thoughts and feelings in their communication (Mesch and Beker, 2010). Regarding age, the younger people are more willing to self-disclose than older people in computer-mediated communication contexts (Sponcil and Gitimu, 2013). Besides, social anxiety is another critical factor that may impact online self-disclosure. ...
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    Although WeChat is currently one of the fastest growing social media in mainland China, many scholars and researchers are yet to systematically investigate the potential social and psychological consequences of the newly emerging online social network. Based on theory and previous studies, the principal purpose of this present study is to probe and understand whether and how the use of WeChat is related to individuals’ friendship quality and psychological well-being. Research participants were a total of 508 college students who completed anonymous questionnaires gauging their WeChat usage behaviors, self-disclosure, friendship quality, and well-being. Using structural equation modeling, results demonstrate that the intensity of WeChat use is significantly correlated with college students’ quality of friendships but not with perceived well-being. Moreover, the outcomes also reveal that students’ friendship quality is a significant predictor of well-being. However, there is no relationship between online self-disclosure and friendship quality or well-being. Overall, these obtained findings of the empirical study could cast a much-needed light on the nuanced understanding of the certain social and technological affordances of WeChat and how it may ultimately impact individual's quality of life in the new media context.
  • ... Because of their age and study requirements, university students are the most prominent users of social networks. Herein, the result of Sponcil and Gitimu's (2013) indicates that all university students use at least one kind of social media. Lenhart, Purcell, Smith, andZickuhr (2010, as cited in Tess, 2013) report 72% of social networks users are 18-29 year olds compared to 39% who are older than 29. ...
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    Full-text available
    College students are the prominent users of social networking sites. Some studies revealed negative effect of social networking on academic performance, so finding some variables which can mediate this negative effect is important. This descriptive-correlational study examined the mediating role of informal learning and engagement in relationship between social networking and academic performance. To this aim, 380 university students were selected using cluster sampling. Social Network Sites Usage, Student’s Engagement in School Scale, perceived educational outcome of social networks and student self-reported GPA were used as instruments. Findings from path analysis revealed that the direct effect of social networking on academic performance and engagement was negative but its impact on informal learning was positive. Path analysis showed neither informal learning nor academic engagement can mediate negative effect of social networking on academic performance.
  • ... Internet communication is the newest sphere of professional self-realization of students, where there has been a transformation of all traditional educational practices and implemented innovative potential of student culture in terms of the formation and development of new educational practices and cultural values [33,34]. The culture of professional self-realization as a part of the internet communication of students can be an open global (international) platform for the development of student culture and, based on the social significance of student culture, a platform for further design and development of global cultural processes. ...
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    This article deals with the problem of the culture of professional self-realization of Russian students in the process of university education at the present stage. The role of information and communications technologies is revealed, in particular the interactive technology of self-regulation developed by the authors, as a necessary pedagogical condition for the successful professional self-realization of students. The paper describes the interactive technology of self-regulation formation used in teaching a foreign language in order to improve the educational process. The paper provides an analysis of the current state of the classroom educational environment in teaching a foreign language in order to determine the possibilities of improving the educational process. The main goal of the interactive technology of self-regulation formation is to optimize and intensify the activities of students in the classroom and extracurricular activities. The interactive technology of self-regulation formation in a nonlinguistic university was applied in the proposed work. Special attention was paid to the problem of structuring and the algorithmization of independent work. Ways for increasing interactivity are revealed, and an algorithm for teaching and speech actions in interactive mode was developed. It was established that the introduction of structured algorithmization using the interactive technology of self-regulation formation could be effectively used for teaching poorly prepared students. It has been established that the culture of professional self-actualization for modern students is directly dependent on the quality of online interaction with a university teacher. It was revealed that it is the student’s awareness of the objectives of learning interaction and ways for its implementation that allow him to competently perform his academic work, which in turn contributes to the actualization of personal professional qualities that are required by a university graduate for successful implementation in the future.
  • ... The findings show that the Internet gives undergraduates easy access to old friends and enables them make new friends. These findings are in accordance with that of Sponcil and Gitimu (2014) which revealed that the most important reason given by students for using the Internet was to communicate with family and friends. The study also revealed that Internet enables students easily access to their mails and messages. ...
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    Use of the Internet can have positive or negative influence on students' overall development. The need to ensure effective use of the Internet for social development of university students necessitated this study on Internet use and its contributions to the social development of university business education undergraduates in Anambra State Nigeria. One research question guided the study and two null hypotheses were tested.The population size was 647 out of which a sample size of 156 (63 male and 93 female) final year students was drawn from three (federal, state and private) universities out of four universities in the area that offer the programme using purposive sampling technique. A five-point rating scale questionnaire validated by experts in the field was used for date collection. Arithmetic mean was used to answer the research questions and standard deviation was used to ascertain the homogeneity or otherwise of the respondents' views. z-Test and ANOVA were used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings indicate that the students agreed that the Internet use contributes to their social development. Respondents' gender and institution ownership did not significantly influence their mean ratings. It was concluded that disciplined use of the Internet by university business education undergraduates will yield enormous benefits to their social development. Based on the findings and conclusion of the study, the researchers recommended among others that university undergraduates should set their priorities right and avoid unregulated use of the Internet while lecturers should provide suitable guidance to students on how to use the Internet to enhance their communicative and collaborative abilities.
  • ... Since its inception, the Internet has significantly changed the methods of communication by the addition of novel features and virtual platforms through which people interact including, Instagram, Google+, Facebook, LinkedIn, Flickr, BBM, Hi5 and Twitter. Social media have therefore gained popularity over the last decade, especially among the youth (Sponcil and Gitimu, 2013). They enable information dissemination and interaction among online and offline electorates (PLAC, 2012). ...
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    This paper analyses the use of social media for political mobilisation and communication during the 2015 General Elections in Nigeria. Its aim is to describe the structure and context of information dissemination and communication among political actors, agents and the electorate during this period. It argues that the widespread use of social media was due to the evolving technological architecture of the Internet as well as the ready supply of human technical competencies and appetite for use. The technical setting for the observed level of use depended on several factors, which included, primarily, high Nigerian mobile teledensity, a relatively large number of I n t e r n e t s e r v i c e p r o v i d e r s , a demographic youth bulge and real time communication. It was facilitated by improvements in the availability, accessibility, affordability, and adaptability of the Internet and mobile phones. These factors, among others, were the precursors and enhancers of 48 political communication via social media during the elections.
  • ... OT students at UKZN use social media for both general and professional purposes. As noted in the literature, [17][18][19][20] WhatsApp, Facebook and Instagram were the most commonly used social media sites in this study. WhatsApp, YouTube, Facebook and Pinterest were all commonly used by the students for professional purposes. ...
  • ... With nearly 98% of young adults reporting regular use of at least one social media site in 2016 (Villanti et al. 2017), social media has become a ubiquitous and influential platform to display quick snippets of daily life among emerging adults. To highlight this growing phenomenon, 59.4% of university students report using social 1 3 media more than several times a day (Sponcil and Gitimu 2013). Students spend the majority of their time on Instagram, followed by Snapchat, Facebook, and Twitter (Alhabash and Ma 2017). ...
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    With the ever-increasing popularity in social media use among college students, research is needed to more fully understand the specific content and messaging utilized in specific social media platforms. The purpose of this study was to examine the depiction of sexuality on a Snapchat account aimed at university students. Over a three-month period, a total of 394 screenshots (“snaps”) involving sexuality were collected and analyzed. Of these snaps, 86.6% displayed a female(s) only, 13.4% displayed a male(s) and female(s), 34.1% showed the individual’s face, 78.0% were considered to be a selfie (‘consensual’), and 22.0% were considered to be photographed by another person and deemed nonconsensual. Results also indicated that 40.1% contained individuals who were nude. The top two most frequently displayed body parts were breasts (36.4%) and buttocks (25.5%). Concerns exist regarding the potential erroneous messaging that is not congruent with social norms surrounding sexuality among the majority of university students. Such information could potentially assist health educators and campus health professionals in ensuring that accurate messages regarding social norms are being received by university students.
  • ... Penelitian mengenai penggunaan whatshapp dalam berbagai aspek sudah banyak dilakukan. Namun penelitian tersebut terbatas pada aspek pendidikan dan pembelajaran (Pratama & Yusra, 2016;Amry, 2014;Barhoumi, 2015;Bere, 2013;Bouhnik & Deshen, 2014;Doering,et al, 2008;Ismail & Sahrir, 2016;Maniar & Modi, 2014, Pratama &Yusro, 2016Scarnavacca & Marshall, 2009;Yeboah & Ewur, 2014), komunikasi (del Carmen Ortega-Navas, 2017; Giglio & Palmieri, 2017;Romero-Ruiz, 2017;Markova, et al, 2017;Ranum & Abrar, 2014;Ismail, et al, 2014;Maryani & Arifin, 2012;Sponcil & Gitimu, 2013;Titisari, 2013;Yu, et al, 2010), penggunaan bahasa (Yunus, et al, 2009;Lin & Utz, 2017;Bakar&Harun, 2015;Gunawan, 2014;Harun& Yusof, 2015;Manan, 2016;Gunawan, 2013;Sahril, 2016), sikap dan sopan santun (Jumiatmoko, 2016;Calik, et al, 2017). Belum ada satupun penelitian yang membahas bagaimana ekspresi keberagamaan para akademisi di media sosial whatshapp. ...
    Chapter
    Full-text available
    This paper examines the religious expression of Indonesia scholars in social media. This paper is urgent to be done because the social media nowadays, especially WhatsApp, was utilized only as a medium of education, learning, and communication, while religious expression is still rarely done. The qualitative descriptive method with an ethnographic approach was utilized in this paper. The results showed that form of religious expression began to be demonstrated through nonverbal communication, especially when calamities and administering speech come. The religious expression is undoubtedly different from previous eras. If the Orderer or Sufi in Indonesia spread religion with peaceful, polite expression and based on local culture, Fukaha with very tolerant religious expression famous with Mazāhib Arba'a and discussion tradition, then the religious expression of Indonesian scholars which are outstanding with the cyber world with social media WhatsApp also based the local wisdom that refers to the Qur'an and the Hadith of the Prophet.
  • ... The most commonly used SNS was Facebook (78%), similar to the study by Sponcil & Gitimu et al, in a USA, where 88.5% recognized Facebook as their preferred social media site. 5 A majority of students (64%) accessed SNS on a daily basis while 36% of them used weekly or monthly in the present study. A similar study conducted in Nepal has been shown that majority (84.1%) of the students accessed Facebook on daily basis. ...
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    Full-text available
    Background: The internet has become much more personal since social network sites (SNS) were introduced and embraced by the masses. Since their introduction, social networking websites have attracted millions of users, many of whom use these sites daily. Its excessive usage can influence physical health of their users.Methods: A descriptive study was conducted among students of selected colleges in Thrissur district. The subjects included 400 SNS users selected using systematic random sampling. Data was collected using a pre tested structured questionnaire.Results: The mean age of the study population was 19.13±1.09 years. Most of the subjects used Facebook along with (78%) or without (33.5%) the usage of other social networking websites. Among the subjects, 64% were daily users with 39.5% reporting 1-2 hours use per day and 29.5% reporting 2-4 hours use per day. 74% subjects reported mobile phone as method of access to SNS. The prevalence of visual problems, eyestrain, headache, appetite problems and postural pain were significantly high in daily SNS users.Conclusions: The study shows how virtual online world is interfering with their physical health. Daily SNS use had negative effects on physical health of the college students in this study.
  • ... According to a Pew Research Center study (2015), 90% of college students use social media. A study in Massachusetts have found that almost all college and university students are now using some form of social media (Rios-Aguilar et al. 2012), 72% of them have a social media profile, with 45% of college students using a social media site at least once a day (Sponcil and Gitimu 2013). ...
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    Background: There are concerns that the use of social media (SM) among medical students could affect academic performance. The objectives of the study were to investigate the pattern and reasons for SM use and their association with academic performance. Methods: A stratified random sample, frequency distribution and comparison of categorical variables with Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used. Results: Of the 97% who responded, 98% used SM. The most popular were Whatsapp (87.8%), You tube (60.8%) and Twitter (51.8%) for general use; while You tube (83.5%), Whatsapp (35.5%) and Twitter (35.3%) for learning. For general use, there was a significant higher number of visits to You tube and Facebook among male students, while the reverse was true for Instagram and Path. Around 71% visited SM >4 times/day and 55% spent 1-4 hours/day. The main reasons for SM use were entertainment (95.8%), staying up-to-date with news (88.3%), and socializing (85.5%); for academic studies (40%). There was no significant association between Grade Point Average and the frequency of daily SM use or use during lectures. Conclusions: While almost all the students used SM, only a minority used them for academic purposes. SM use was not associated with academic performance.
  • ... Since social media provides an easy way to receive feedback and communicate with peers, young adults attitudes of themselves can be affected by using social media networks [6]. Social media has become part of our lives over the last decade. ...
  • ... To Keep in Touch with Acquaintances Research report that students prefer to add friends and family members who they are already familiar with in real life. In other words, students tend to carry their relationships in real life onto the online social platforms (Acır 2008;Atal 2010;Bicen and Cavus 2011;Bosch 2009;Deniz 2012;Hew 2011;Ellison et al. 2007;Joinson 2008;Lampe et al. 2006; Lewis et al. 2008;Liu 2010;Masrom and Usat 2013;Pempek et al. 2009;Roblyer et al. 2010;Selwyn 2009Selwyn , 2007Sheldon 2008a;Sponcil and Gitimu 2013). ...
  • ... Moreover, social media is a widely used platform among young adults, where some youth have reported being online "constantly" (Anderson & Jiang, 2018). In fact, students spend nearly an hour on Facebook daily, as nearly 50% of students had logged onto their social media accounts multiple times throughout the day (Anderson & Jiang, 2018;Sponcil & Gitimu, 2013). With the rise and expansion of technology, cell phones (e.g., text messaging), internet use, and social media sites have become the socially favored route of communication among peer groups. ...
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    The present investigation sought to address the gap of research surrounding rape myth acceptance attitudes and cyber-sexual assault (CBSA). Researchers examined data collected from a college sample of 94 undergraduate psychology students. The purpose of this investigation was to explore whether this sample of college students reported any potential stereotypes pertaining to cyber-sexual assault victims and whether the college students utilized technology for sexual exploration (e.g., creation, distribution, and receiving of sexually explicit material). In addition to identifying cyber-sexual victims, this study explored the correlation of gender with those responses. Results are reported, and suggestions for counselors are offered. The researchers hypothesize that rape culture acceptance attitudes have shifted to victims of online abuse, though more research is warranted to draw specific conclusions.
  • ... Studies have reported that teenagers and university students are the most avid users of SNSs. Nearly 24% of teens go online 'almost constantly' (Lenhart et al., 2015) and 59.4% of college students visited SNSs several times a day (Sponcil and Gitimu, 2013). ...
  • ... A study examining college students' use of social media reported that all sampled students use social networks [43]. In social media, our planet's limited resources are very topical. ...
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    Environmental and technological preferences correlate. Both are empirically accessible via established instruments such as the Two Major Environmental Value model (2-MEV) with “preservation” (PRE) and “utilization” (UTL), and the technology questionnaire with “interest in technology” (INT) and “social aspects of technology” (SOC) additionally, “appreciation of nature” (APR) was monitored with a seven-item scale. We used these instruments to assess the preferences of freshmen in five different areas of study (law, economics, science, pedagogy, cultural studies). All subsequent analyses unveiled positive relations between appreciation and preservation, the two technology subscales, as well as between utilization and social aspects of technology. Negative relationships appeared between preservation and utilization, preservation and both technology factors, as well as appreciation and social aspects of technology. In all subsamples, preservers (individuals with preservation preferences) showed little interest in technology or its social aspects; utilizers scored high in social aspects of technology, whereas appreciators displayed no interest in it. The freshmen’s areas of study seem to predict consistent tendencies to (biocentric) preservation or (anthropocentric) utilization. Moreover, females were more likely to preserve and appreciate nature whereas males preferred utilization along with interest in technology as well as in the social implications of technology. The observed differences can be used to develop new and improve existing educational programs; recommendations are discussed.
  • ... Students today also have at least two IM accounts where they can often keep in contact with peers, family members and even their lecturers. The over-development of online communication technology has given people a chance to communicate online conveniently (Sponcil & Gitimu, 2013). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    This study aimed to examine the relationship between the usage of WhatsApp and interpersonal communication skills among students in a Malaysia private higher education institution. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) proposed by Davis (1986) was used to guide the study. Purposive and quota sampling was employed in this study, whereby students who have experiences using the WhatsApp were chosen to be the respondents. A survey method was employed in this study, where questionnaires were distributed and generate 125 valid responses. The data were then analyzed using Spearman's rho correlation test through the SPSS version 25.0. Based on the findings, all the variables under TAM model, namely; perceived usefulness and perceived ease-of-use have a positive and a moderate relationship with interpersonal communication skills. Limitations of the study, implications of the findings, and suggestions for future study are also discussed.
  • ... According to the Pew Research Center (2018), Facebook and Instagram are the most popular social network websites among Americans (68% Facebook and 35% Instagram). Social media has gained popularity over the last decade has become one of the most convenient methods of communication, creating and sustaining relationships with others (Boyd & Ellison, 2007, Sponcil & Gitimu, 2013 however, research shows that not all of the Facebook friends are considered as genuine or trustworthy in a crisis (Fan, & Gordon, 2014;Pew Research Center 2018). College students constitute the largest number of social media users, and use social media for social interaction, information seeking, entertainment, relaxation, communicatory utility, expression of opinion, information sharing, and surveillance about others (Pempek, Yermolayeva, & Calvert, 2008;Sponcil & Gitimu, 2013). ...
  • ... It has demonstrated a unique strength in keeping together despite the growing stress and strain. (Desai, 1995a;Sonawat, 2012;Sriram, 1993;Tata Institute of Social Sciences, 1993). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    There is consensus among media and communication scholars that a monumental shift is occurring in the media and communication habits of young people, and the communication culture within family, is in a swirl. On the one hand, new digital media has progressively become a part of life in the urban cities and remote towns of India, governing the interactions of people, on the other, social media that developed as an off shoot of new digital media quickly became a big source of connectivity among the people, as across the globe. India has a special place on the social networking sites map owing to large numbers of its young users3 . The usage of social networking sites amongst teenagers and college going students greatly increased with extensive influence on the youth in numerous ways, particularly as the new platform has scope to impact their interpersonal relationships. This triggered a debate on the impact of the new media on the activities, social relationships, and worldviews of the younger generations, and on values, attitudes, and patterns of social behavior, in the family context. The scope of enquiry of the present study is focused around two primary questions, i.e., 1) How is family communication influenced using new media (inclusive of social media? 2) Is family losing its place of importance in youngsters’ lives?
  • ... This way can increase the efficiency of time and energy, that students do not bother in the search for information. However, social media has some good and bad impact for user and the social environment [6]. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    This study was conducted to examine how the use of social media to developing a new college student at State University of Malang. This study uses in-depth interviews method were conducted in a manner that has been structured. This method applied to eight new college students to get information from students about the new college student development through social media. All the students in this case, uses social media Whatsapp and Instagram in their development process, only a few students who use LINE and Facebook. This study focuses on three things that is how social media is used to perform a new student development, student response in development through social media and the tendency of students to choose development process through social media or directly development process. The results of this study can be obtained that social media help in the process but the given information must be complete and clear.
  • ... Lurking behaviors on social networking sites seem to be increasing. In addition, people are using social media news websites more frequently and at increasing rates [24,25]. This is a cause for concern since it is much easier for people to fall victim to online deception, given the number of users who exist on social media and the ease of creating an account [26]. ...
    Article
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    Social media has evolved over the last decade to become an important driver for acquiring and spreading information in different domains such as business, entertainment, crisis management, and politics. The increasing popularity of social media raises a number of questions regarding why we use it so much and what aspects influence this activity. What about gender? What about education, income, age or social status? This paper answers some of these questions using statistical analyses and by dividing overall social media use into selected social media, i.e., Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, YouTube, and Twitter. The analysis used a dataset that contains information related to 2002 respondents from the U.S. and their social media activity. The results show that people with high household incomes and high education use social media the most. As age increases, social media use decreases, while bigger household income means that social media are used more. Overall, understanding where and at what frequency users are on social media can be a key competitive advantage. When using social networks correctly for marketing, companies can significantly improve their brand awareness, customer satisfaction, quality, reach, and profit.
  • ... SNSs enable young adults to develop themselves in subjects that they have not yet experienced yet (Borja, 2005), conduct research in areas of interest (Cox & McLeod, 2014), increase their creativity (Lau et al., 2016), and develop their language and reading skills (Tuan, 2013;Wood et al., 2014). The person, who actively shares in a group on Social Networking Sites (Cappello, 2019) and follows the lives of others, develops a sense of belonging to that community (Sponcil & Gitimu, 2013;O'Leary, Wilson & Metiu, 2014). ...
  • ... 167); and habitual needs "are ritualized and help bring structure to one's day" (Wang, Tchernev, & Solloway, 2012, p. 1830. Aside from these general uses, other researchers have found that college students use social media to build social capital (Ellison, Steinfield, & Lampe, 2007) and publicly construct a concept of self (Sponcil & Gitimu, 2013). ...
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    Using the relationship management theory as framework, this study examines college student perceptions of how small businesses use social media to cultivate relationships with them. We conducted an online survey of 156 college students across the U.S. Results indicate that college students expect small businesses to use Facebook and Instagram as platforms and prefer they implement assurance and positivity strategies. However, together, the strategies did not predict attitude but did behavioral intentions. In terms of theory, this study advances RMT by analyzing it in the context of small businesses. Practically, the results highlight the importance of effective small business social media use to cultivate relationships with college students to ensure growth and prosperity.
  • ... They are used to communicate, read, comment, share, like, and create content (Chen and Sakamato, 2013;Ma et al., 2014). These platforms are gaining popularity, and an increasing number of young people (Pempek et al. 2009), especially students, now comprise the highest percentage of social media users (Lewis, 2009;Sponcil and Gitimu 2013;Yoo and Kim, 2013). The young make use of social media primarily to meet their information needs (Rubina and Shakeel, 2012). ...
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    This chapter describes how presently, India has the largest proportion of youth population in the world and will continue to hold for the next 20 years. The challenge for the country is to increase the human resource potential for the country. The demographic data of the country's youth is a challenge which needs to be addressed, one of the challenges is not being able to access the digital world due to illiteracy, lack of knowledge on computer technology and social media, and proficiency in manual work. The chapter examines youth work in the context of the Indian sub-continent.
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    In recent studies have shown that Social Medias are very popular among the Children’s and Adolescents, they spending majority of their time daily life in social media pages. However this Social Medias has become a touchy part of the daily life of the Adolescents and they are used to access regularly for a prolong time periods for different purposes like communicate with people, share information and any other perspective. In the present study an attempt has been made by the investigators to study the Nature of Using Social Media among the school going Adolescents and its effects on their Mental Health in the district of Purulia, West Bengal, India. The investigators have used Descriptive Survey method for the present study. The sample consists of 300 students who were reading in the different secondary schools which are situated in the district of Purulia, West Bengal, India. The random sampling technique has been used for the selection of sample. The investigators used two self made questionnaires, one for knowing the nature of using social media and another one for measuring mental health.. For the analysis of data Mean, S.D, ‘t’-Test, ANOVA and Graph to analyze have been used by the investigators in the present study. This study revealed that those students who use Social Media in one day in a week they are good on their mental health and those who use social media one day after they have facing mental health problem.
  • Chapter
    Social media is a recent development in our society that now influences our lives on a daily basis. However, when it comes to defining the term “social media”, there is no official, universally applicable definition. Some authors employ a broad definition incorporating a social media platform, which allows users to upload and share content as well as to comment on these. Murthy, for example, states that “[s]ocial media has been broadly defined to refer to ‘the many relatively inexpensive and widely accessible electronic tools that enable anyone to publish and access information, collaborate on a common effort, or build relationships’”. Others do not make any reference to a proper definition, but rather simply cite a number of examples, such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and different kinds of blogs, in order to illustrate what social media essentially is. To some extent, rating platforms are also included in this field.
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    Online social networking (OSN) is an activity performed through social network sites (SNS) such as Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp, and Instagram. OSN has become a dominant interaction mechanism within contemporary society. Online platforms are woven inextricably into the fabric of individuals’ everyday lives, especially those of young adults. We present a mixed-methods study—conducted at the University of the Free State in Bloemfontein—that analyzes how students reflect on their everyday experiences of OSN. The key theoretical frameworks guiding this research are phenomenology, existentialism, and reflexive sociology. These theoretical lenses collectively assist in broadening our understanding of the students’ experiences that reveal the complexities associated with their interactions and social relations via SNS. From their narratives, we learn how the students make sense of their engagements on SNS, how these engagements have an impact on their social interactions, and how OSN affects their self-presentation.
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    The present chapter aims to explore the relationship between social media and identity by reviewing theoretical frameworks as well as empirical studies on the topic. Considering the complexity of the concept of identity, a multidisciplinary theoretical approach is provided, including Psychological Theories, Sociological Theories and Communication Theories. These theories are revisited in the context of online identity formation and communication through social media. Different aspects of identity such as gender identity, professional identity, political identity etc., are discussed and illustrated through empirical studies in the field. Moreover, the role of social media as a factor that might either promote or hinder identity development is also discussed (e.g., phenomena such as cyber-bulling and internet addiction). Finally recommendations and suggestions for future research are provided, including the need for multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks to the investigation of the relationships between social media and identity.
  • Chapter
    Social media has become pervasive, impacting the social fabric and culture of our society. This study investigates differences and similarities between students' and faculty's perceptions of social media impact on social behavior of students. Data were collected using a specially designed survey. The sample size was 2605 students and 507 faculty of different genders and ages. Research outcome indicates that students and faculty are familiar with and are immersed in social media use. The findings support the advantages of social media use on students' social behavior and do not indicate any obvious disadvantages. The findings of the study include identification of dominant group perceptions pertaining to advantages and disadvantages of social media use on social behavior of students. Common concerns of the two groups pertaining to students include physical inactivity, social introversion, exposure to bullying and domination attitudes; and mental dullness. These findings can help discern possible issues relating to use of social media affecting social behavior.
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    Aim: The health management department is to determine the level of communication skills and social media use of students and to establish the relationship between communication skills and social media usage levels. Method: The universe of the study is composed of a total of 338 students who continue their education at Ankara University Health Management Department. Sampling was not selected in the study and the entire universe was tried to be reached. Accordingly, a total of 273 students attended and 81% of the universe was reached. Communication Skills Inventory was used to measure communication skills, and Social Media Usage Scale was used to measure social media usage. Findings: The total average score of the students who participated in the research is 104.16±15.69. It is observed that the average level of communication skills of male students is higher than that of women. It was found that the communication skill scores of the first year students are lower than the second, third and fourth year students. According to the students who live with their friends, the average scores of communication skills are higher than those living with their families. When social media usage is examined, the average score of social media usage is found as 21.84±9.13. The use of social media was found to be the highest in the 4th grade students. According to the results of the correlation analysis, it was found that there is a statistically significant and positive relationship between general social media use and general communication skills (r= 0.151). Finally, the results of the regression analysis reveal 3.9% of the total variance in the communication skills of social media use. Results: It has been found that there is a positive and weak relationship between the level of communication skills of the students and the levels of social media usage. According to this result, it can be said that the level of communication skills of the students participating in the research is related to the level of social media usage and the use of social media increases the communication skills.
  • Conference Paper
    Incorporating social media in educational processes at institutions of higher learning in Lesotho: Student-Teacher Perspective
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    Social media, in the past decade, changes the whole spectrum of businesses, as well as learning and education. Social Media has also gained dedicated followers in Universities, Colleges, Institutions, and Schools. Firstly at higher schools and now increasingly in Primary schools, despite their use in schools often not being encouraged by school authorities. Social media have enormous power and transformed the way students and faculty communicate in the teaching and learning process. The learning and teaching process in higher education is currently experiencing a technological revolution. This is mainly because social media is presently used as a tool by administrators, faculties, and management to communicate with students inside and outside of the classroom. In this research, descriptive statistics are used to analyze secondary data on the trend of faculty use of social media. This study focuses on the role of social media in higher education, specifically for education delivery and improving the quality of instructions in education. Social networking is exploiting the use of social networks as learning tools in the context of smart classroom environment for higher education delivery. In Higher education, Social networking technologies are exploited in education delivery.
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    The present chapter aims to explore the relationship between social media and identity by reviewing theoretical frameworks as well as empirical studies on the topic. Considering the complexity of the concept of identity, a multidisciplinary theoretical approach is provided, including Psychological Theories, Sociological Theories and Communication Theories. These theories are revisited in the context of online identity formation and communication through social media. Different aspects of identity such as gender identity, professional identity, political identity etc., are discussed and illustrated through empirical studies in the field. Moreover, the role of social media as a factor that might either promote or hinder identity development is also discussed (e.g., phenomena such as cyber-bulling and internet addiction). Finally recommendations and suggestions for future research are provided, including the need for multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks to the investigation of the relationships between social media and identity.
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    The purpose of this study was to identify the motives of secondary school boy students in Hamadan in using social networking networks. This research was carried out using a hybrid approach and exploratory design. In the qualitative section, a semi-structured interview was conducted using a phenomenological method with twenty students selected using snowball sampling method. The interview questions focused on the motivations and causes of using teenagers from social networks, which was analyzed using the Smith Five-Step Method. Then, in order to extend the scope of the findings through descriptive and survey method, a researcher-made questionnaire of 22 questions was distributed among 300 male secondary school students. Validity of the questionnaire was calculated using the views of seven experts in the field of cyberspace and its reliability was calculated by calculating the Cronbach's alpha of r = 0.88. The findings suggest that students use new social media for new information, entertainment and entertainment, communication and interaction with others, and self-expression. In the meantime, access to new information is the most important motive for adolescent use and self-expression is the lowest.
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    Artikel ini berfokus pada permasalahan gender dan stereotipe khususnya dalam hal konstruksi realitas sosial yang terjadi dalam media sosial Instagram. Pendekatan kualitatif dengan metode etnografi virtual yang dilakukan untuk melihat fenomena sosial dan kultur pengguna di ruang siber. Fokus kajian dalam artikel ini adalah membahas; (1) konstruksi realitas dalam media sosial, dan (2) hubungan antara gender dan stereotipe yang terjadi dalam ruang media sosial Instagram. Informasi yang berkembang dalam media sosial telah menciptakan suatu area tanpa batas yuridiksi, sehingga interaksi yang terjadi juga telah menciptakan suatu hubungan tanpa batas. Media sosial menjadi salah satu sarana bagi masyarakat untuk mengumpulkan kepercayaan diri serta dukungan dari lingkungannya, memudahkan mereka dan meningkatkan rasa ingin tahu akan dunia yang lebih luas, serta dijadikan sebagai sarana untuk memuaskan hasrat baik yang bersifat positif maupun negatif yang tidak dapat mereka lakukan di dunia nyata. Pada penggunaan media sosial ini ternyata gender adalah satu-satunya variabel demografi yang sangat signifikan berpengaruh dalam penggunaan media sosial, karena ada beberapa perbedaan antara pengguna media sosial laki-laki dan perempuan. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa dalam hal perubahan ini, telah terjadi pembentukan identitas yang di rekonfigurasi ruang dan waktu yang terikat dengan teknologi baru.
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    Amaç: Sağlık yönetimi bölümü öğrencilerinin iletişim becerileri ve sosyal medya kullanımı düzeylerini belirlemek ve iletişim becerileri ile sosyal medya kullanım düzeyleri arasındaki ilişkiyi ortaya koymaktır. Yöntem: Çalışmanın evrenini Ankara Üniversitesi Sağlık Yönetimi Bölümü’nde eğitimine devam eden toplam 338 öğrenci oluşturmaktadır. Çalışmada örneklem seçilmemiş olup, evrenin tamamına ulaşılmaya çalışılmıştır. Buna göre, toplam 273 öğrenci katılmış olup evrenin %81’ine ulaşılmıştır. İletişim becerileri düzeyini ölçmek için İletişim Becerileri Envanteri, sosyal medya kullanım düzeyini ölçmek için ise Sosyal Medya Kullanımı Ölçeği’nden yararlanılmıştır. Bulgular: Araştırmaya katılan öğrencilerin iletişim becerileri ölçeğinden aldıkları toplam puan ortalaması 104,16±15,69’dir. Erkek öğrencilerin iletişim becerileri puan ortalamasının kadınlara göre yüksek olduğu saptanmıştır. Ayrıca 1. sınıf öğrencilerinin 2., 3., ve 4. sınıf öğrencilerine göre iletişim becerileri puanlarının daha düşük olduğu bulunmuştur. Ev arkadaşıyla birlikte yaşayan öğrencilerin ailesiyle birlikte yaşayanlara göre iletişim becerileri puan ortalamalarının daha yüksek olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Öğrencilerin sosyal medya kullanımından aldıkları puan ortalaması ise 21,84±9,13’dir ve sosyal medya kullanımının en fazla olduğu grup 4. sınıf öğrencileridir. Korelasyon analizi sonuçlarına göre, genel sosyal medya kullanımı ile genel iletişim becerileri arasında (r=0,151) istatistiksel açıdan anlamlı ve pozitif yönlü ilişkiler olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Son olarak regresyon analizi sonuçları da sosyal medya kullanımının iletişim becerilerindeki toplam varyansın %3,9’unu açıklamaktadır. Sonuç: Öğrencilerin iletişim becerileri düzeyleri ile sosyal medya kullanım düzeyleri arasında pozitif yönlü, zayıf bir ilişki olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Elde edilen bu sonuca göre araştırmaya katılan öğrencilerin iletişim becerileri düzeylerinin sosyal medya kullanım düzeyleri ile ilişkili olduğu ve öğrencilerin sosyal medya kullanımının iletişim becerilerini artırdığı söylenebilir. Anahtar Kelimeler: İletişim Becerileri, Sosyal Medya Kullanımı, Sağlık Yönetimi Öğrencileri DETERMINATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMMUNICATION SKILLS AND SOCIAL MEDIA USE OF HEALTH MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT STUDENTS ABSTRACT Aim: The health management department is to determine the level of communication skills and social media use of students and to establish the relationship between communication skills and social media usage levels. Method: The universe of the study is composed of a total of 338 students who continue their education at Ankara University Health Management Department. Sampling was not selected in the study and the entire universe was tried to be reached. Accordingly, a total of 273 students attended and 81% of the universe was reached. Communication Skills Inventory was used to measure communication skills, and Social Media Usage Scale was used to measure social media usage. Findings: The total average score of the students who participated in the research is 104.16±15.69. It is observed that the average level of communication skills of male students is higher than that of women. It was found that the communication skill scores of the first year students are lower than the second, third and fourth year students. According to the students who live with their friends, the average scores of communication skills are higher than those living with their families. When social media usage is examined, the average score of social media usage is found as 21.84±9.13. The use of social media was found to be the highest in the 4th grade students. According to the results of the correlation analysis, it was found that there is a statistically significant and positive relationship between general social media use and general communication skills (r= 0.151). Finally, the results of the regression analysis reveal 3.9% of the total variance in the communication skills of social media use. Results: It has been found that there is a positive and weak relationship between the level of communication skills of the students and the levels of social media usage. According to this result, it can be said that the level of communication skills of the students participating in the research is related to the level of social media usage and the use of social media increases the communication skills. Keywords: Communication Skills, Social Media Use, Healthcare Management Students
  • Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties
    • J J Arnett
    Arnett, J.J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55(5), 469-480. doi: 10.1037/0003-066x.55.5.469
  • Relational quality and media use in interpersonal relationships
    • N K Baym
    • Y B Zhang
    • A Kunkel
    • A Ledbetter
    • L Mei-Chen
    Baym, N. K., Zhang, Y.B., Kunkel, A., Ledbetter, A., & Mei-Chen, L. (2007). Relational quality and media use in interpersonal relationships. New Media & Society, 9(5), 735-752. doi:10.1177/14614444807080339
  • Social media and young adults. Pew Internet and American Life Project
    • A Lenhart
    • L Purcell
    • A Smith
    • K Zickuhr
    Lenhart, A., Purcell, L., Smith, A., & Zickuhr, K. (2010). Social media and young adults. Pew Internet and American Life Project. Retrieved June 20, 2011, from http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Social-Media-and-Young-Adults.aspx
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    Friendship is highly significant during the university years. Facebook, widely used by students, is designed to facilitate communication with different groups of ‘friends’. This exploratory study involved interviewing a sample of student users of Facebook: it focuses on the extent to which older adults, especially parents, are accepted as Facebook friends, and the attitudes towards such friendships and potential friendships and what these reveal about notions of privacy. Parents were rarely reported to be Facebook friends, and there was a view that in general they would not be welcomed. The reasons were related to embarrassment, social norms, and worries about mothers. Underlying these were various notions of the private and the public. Students did not appear to conceive of there being two distinct realms: indeed, the ‘public’ appeared to be the individual's private social world. A level of sophistication is apparent, with nuanced understandings of concepts, suggesting that social networking sites such as Facebook are associated with new ways of construing some of the notions surrounding the traditional public/private dichotomy. Notions of what is private and what is public are fuzzy, with no clear-cut public/private dichotomy. Computer-mediated communication appears to make this fuzziness more apparent than has hitherto been the case.
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    The present research investigated whether the attribution process through which people explain self-disclosures differs in text-based computer-mediated interactions versus face to face, and whether differences in causal attributions account for the increased intimacy frequently observed in mediated communication. In the experiment participants were randomly assigned to a face-to-face or computer-mediated interaction with a confederate who made either high-or low-intimacy self-disclosures. Results indicated that computer-mediated interactions intensified the association between disclosure and intimacy relative to face-to-face interactions, and this intensification effect was fully mediated by increased interpersonal (relationship) attributions observed in the computer-mediated condition. The article presents an attributional extension of the hyperpersonal model (Walther, 1996) by demonstrating the role of causal attributions in interpersonal intensification processes in text-based computer-mediated interactions.
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    Abstract Social network,sites,(SNSs) are increasingly attracting the attention of academic,and,industry researchers intrigued by their affordances and reach.,This special theme section of the,Journal,of Computer-Mediated,Communicationbrings ,together scholarship on these emergent phenomena.,In this introductory article, we describe features of SNSs and propose a comprehensive definition. We then present one perspective on the history of such sites, discussing key changes and developments. After briefly summarizing existing scholarship concerning SNSs, we discuss the articles,in this special section and conclude with considerations for future,research.
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    Online social networking services are Internet websites that allow individuals to learn about and communicate with others. This study investigated the association between use of these websites and friendship quality for individuals varying in shyness. Participants (N = 241) completed questionnaires assessing their use of Facebook, an online social networking service, shyness, perceived available social support, loneliness, and friendship quality. Results indicated an interaction between shyness and Facebook usage, such that individuals high in shyness (when compared to less shy individuals) reported stronger associations between Facebook use and friendship quality. Facebook use, however, was unrelated to loneliness among highly shy individuals. Therefore, online social networking services may provide a comfortable environment within which shy individuals can interact with others.
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    Author final draft doi:10.1177/1461444804041438 Two studies were conducted in this investigation to compare college students’ interpersonal interaction online, face-to-face, and on the telephone. Our first study, a communication diary, assessed the relative amount of social interactions college students conducted via the internet in comparison to face-to-face conversations and telephone calls. Results indicated that the internet was used nearly as often as the telephone, however, face-to-face communication was far more frequent. The second study, a survey, compared participants’ reported use of the internet within their local and long distance social circles to the use of other media within those circles, and examined participants’ most recent significant social interactions conducted online, face-to-face, and on the telephone in terms of purposes, contexts, and quality. Results indicated that online interaction was perceived as high in quality, but slightly lower than telephone calls and face-to-face conversations. In addition, participants’ estimated use of the internet was positively correlated with the use of other modes of interpersonal communication. Together, results showed that the internet was integrated into social life, but face-to-face remained the dominant mode of interpersonal communication.
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    This research examined whether the Internet improves life satisfaction. The study surveyed 195 college students, and a structural model was built to explain effects of the Internet on school life satisfaction using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In line with social cognitive theory and literature on social effects of the Internet, current data supported the hypotheses that Internet use, perceived online social support, and online social self-efficacy had direct positive impacts on school life satisfaction. Offline extroversion, online extroversion, online social self-efficacy, and online social outcome expectations influenced school life satisfaction indirectly: offline extroversion acted through social online self-efficacy and online extroversion; online social self-efficacy acted through online extroversion, online social outcome expectations, and perceived online social support; online extroversion acted through online social outcome expectations; online social outcome expectations acted through perceived online social support and Internet use. Contrary to our hypothesis, however, the path from online social outcome expectations to school life satisfaction was negative. Departing from a real-life personal characteristic (offline extroversion), the structural model represents the interactions between personal factors (social self-efficacy, social outcome expectations, social support beliefs), behavior (Internet use), and environment (the Internet) and the processes through which these interactions influence people's judgment of their life satisfaction. This study established a possible causal mechanism that links life online to an indicator of psychological well-being.