Article

Historical and Contemporary Education Fever in China 1 Historical and Contemporary Education Fever in China

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... An important theme of China's policy framework in the 1980s was its turn toward a market economy and neoliberalism led by the "reform and opening-up" policy (Hannum, Behrman, Wang, & Liu, 2008;So & Chu, 2012). In education, the new policy direction led to two important developments: the restoration of examinations in the education system, and financial reforms in basic education (Tsang, 1996;Yu & Suen, 2005). ...
... Both of these contexts were conducive to shadow education's emergence in the 1980s. The restored examination system offered a meritocratic solution to social mobility (Liu & Wu, 2006), and it fuelled the demand for private tutoring as parents wanted their children to succeed in the high-stakes examinations (Yu & Suen, 2005;Zhang & Bray, 2015). On the providing end, schools and teachers facing financial difficulties had to support themselves with alternative sources of income outside the public system, and tutoring could serve this purpose by bringing in additional fees (Tsang & Ding, 2005). ...
... The expansion of higher education was initially proposed to ease the immediate pressure of unemployment in the aftermath of the 1997 financial crisis, but it also gave more students the opportunity to join the race in higher education. At the same time, China's economy began to grow rapidly, and the general Chinese families had more financial means to purchase tutoring services in the examdriven education fever (Yu & Suen, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Private supplementary tutoring, or shadow education, has become a global phenomenon, and China is among the countries where it is most prevalent. By 2019, China’s private tutoring industry had grown into a prominent sector providing educational services to millions of students and parents. This article examines the development process of shadow education in China, and explores the path that led to its current prevalence. Drawing on existing literature and publicly available data sources, the article maps key stages of shadow education’s evolution and its changing characteristics. The analysis suggests that China’s private tutoring industry has undergone three stages of evolution: first, the emergence stage, when small numbers of individuals started to provide tutoring on an informal basis; second, the industrialisation stage, when institutionalised providers became primary providers of more formal types of tutoring services; and third, the capitalisation stage, when major providers of shadow education evolved into part of the educational capital market. The discussion argues that the development trajectory of shadow education occurred in line with the continued marketisation of education in China. The article also addresses the implications of capitalised shadow education as it enters a more intensified and controversial phase of development.
... As a result, students in Europe have more opportunities to access higher education than do students in the Middle East, Asia, and the Pacific (World Bank 2014), but the expectations for educational attainment at the postsecondary level are not accurately reflected in actual enrollments by region. For example, "education fever" in East Asia suggests that parents' expectations for their children's higher education attainment is much higher than the latter's actual enrollment (Yu and Suen 2005;Suen 2005). ...
... It is worth noting that Middle Eastern parents had the highest expectations for their children's educational attainment-even higher than those of parents in East Asia and the Pacific, who are well known for their "education fever" (Suen 2005;Yu and Suen 2005). ...
... There is a famous saying in China, "All pursuits are of low value; only studying is of high value" (He 2000, cited by Yu andSuen 2005, p. 18). This belief can be traced back to the seventh century, when Imperial Examinations (keju) were used to select civil servants for the Chinese government (Yu and Suen 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study comparatively examines variation among the expectations of parents worldwide for the educational attainment of their children. The data are from the 2011 Progress in International Reading and Literacy Study (PIRLS). A two-level hierarchical linear model (HLM) was used to estimate multilevel and multi-contextual effects on such expectations. The results reveal that parents in the Middle East had the highest expectations for the educational attainment of their children, followed by parents in East Asia and the Pacific region. Parents in European regions expressed the lowest expectations; however, they expressed significantly higher expectations for their daughters’ educational attainment than for their sons’. In European countries, immigrant parents had significantly higher expectations for the educational attainment of their children than did nonimmigrant parents, but the opposite was true in the Middle East, East Asia, and the Pacific. These results suggest that although parents who belong to different nations and different cultures share norms and values regarding educational attainment, regional differences persist as the result of social, cultural, and economic differences.
... High-stakes examinations are defined in terms of the purposes they are used for. In line with the goals of LEDIMTALI as espoused above, high-stakes examinations are viewed as school or externally set and marked national examinations which have consequences for candidates (Cizek, 2001;Yu & Suen, 2005). This means that upon being successful in the examination, the candidate obtains some credit which allows him/her access to a variety of benefits. ...
... This issue is alluded to by Ashley and Hand (2007, p. 2) who proffer that examination-driven teaching -seems to be accomplishing some good (i.e., increased proficiency in basic skills and a narrowing of the black-white achievement gap)‖. On the contrary, it is also argued that the use of examination-driven teaching increases social inequalities (Yu & Suen, 2005). Yu and Suen (2005)'s position are similar to that of Davis and Martin (2008) who are explicit that teaching strategies driven by focusing on making learners competent in developing low-level skills are part of the larger structuring effects of standardized tests to contribute towards African-American learners being in a position of subservience. ...
... On the contrary, it is also argued that the use of examination-driven teaching increases social inequalities (Yu & Suen, 2005). Yu and Suen (2005)'s position are similar to that of Davis and Martin (2008) who are explicit that teaching strategies driven by focusing on making learners competent in developing low-level skills are part of the larger structuring effects of standardized tests to contribute towards African-American learners being in a position of subservience. As is pointed out above an examination-driven teaching strategy can be used in a more empowering fashion by including the development of the learners' competencies that deal with mathematical items involving -critical and conceptual oriented thinking‖ as they appear and possible occurrences in time-restricted high-stakes examinations. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In Chapter 5 the focus is on facilitation and mediation by CPD providers. In particular, it emphasises the issue of different positionings of teachers and didactitians. It concludes that mathematics educators involved in CPD initiatives need to constantly search for opportunities to learn what it takes to mediate and to facilitate when they interact with teachers.
... As Chinese students progress through their primary and secondary education, they understand that their scores on the high-stakes National College Entrance Exam (NCEE, also known as Gaokao) will impact (1) the prestige-level of college they are able to attend, (2) their college major, and (3) their ultimate career (Cheng, 2008;Kirkpatrick & Zang, 2011;Yu & Suen, 2005). Yu and Suen (2005) pointed out that, "Names of top NCEE scorers are frequently posted locally at public places in many cities to honor [students'] successes in the exams" (pg. ...
... As Chinese students progress through their primary and secondary education, they understand that their scores on the high-stakes National College Entrance Exam (NCEE, also known as Gaokao) will impact (1) the prestige-level of college they are able to attend, (2) their college major, and (3) their ultimate career (Cheng, 2008;Kirkpatrick & Zang, 2011;Yu & Suen, 2005). Yu and Suen (2005) pointed out that, "Names of top NCEE scorers are frequently posted locally at public places in many cities to honor [students'] successes in the exams" (pg. 26). ...
... 76). Furthermore, for students who major in English, such as the students in our study, their scores on the high-stakes College Test of English Majors (TEM, Band 4 and Band 8) will determine the type of career they can have (Cheng, 2008;Yu & Suen, 2005)-students with the highest TEM scores are able to have highly-sought competitive careers (Qian & Cumming, 2017). ...
Article
To investigate the role of Chinese culture on students' motivation, self-efficacy, willingness, and frequency for completing a difficult public task (speaking English as a foreign language), we investigated the extent to which Chinese English-learning students' distal achievement motives of hope for success and fear of failure were related to their proximal achievement goals, and subsequently predicted their classroom speaking self-efficacy, willingness to communicate, and frequency for speaking English in class—a task that is both difficult and public. Our results confirmed that students' achievement motives were hierarchically related to their achievement goals, and their speaking self-efficacy and willingness to communicate directly related to their speaking-frequency. However, our data-driven model revealed that (1) hope for success had a negative relationship with performance avoidance goals, (2) hope for success had a direct, positive relationship with speaking self-efficacy, and (3) mastery approach goals directly related to willingness to communicate—but not to speaking self-efficacy. Our analysis showed that correlations, after correcting for measurement errors, were very high for hope for success and fear of failure, as well as among all achievement goals. We discuss trajectories and relationships of these powerful motives and goals for conducting a difficult task (e.g., publicly speaking a foreign language) within a highly competitive environment (Chinese educational system), and provide insights into the power of cognitive hope and fear of shame, particularly within a context that has strong press for competitive accomplishments.
... 體之角色義務的要求有關。儒家文化認為個體在社會 網絡中的角色與義務具有道德屬性(R. T. Ames, 2011;Nuyen, 2009),而「努力用功」與「追求傑出學業 成就」等正是在儒家社會中常被視為身為子女或學生 之基本義務 (陳舜文、魏嘉瑩,2013;顏綵思、黃光 國,2011;Chen, Fwu, Wei, & Wang, 2016Fwu, Chen, Wei, & Wang, 2018),因此也常被視為具有道德性 (Hwang, 2012;Tao & Hong, 2014)。 儘管不同文化都曾提及努力及學業成就之道德 屬性,但相關的實徵研究,都未直接詢問受試者是否 認為此兩者為道德。這些研究多以努力具備道德意涵 做為「在得到同樣成績時,努力與否所得到的獎懲與 成績並不對稱」之解釋 (Weiner, 1994(Weiner, , 1995 Weiner(1994Weiner( , 1995Rest et al., 1973;Weiner & Kukla, 1970)與Nicholls(1976)兩派的動機理論,與儒家文 化對於個體與社會之關係的看法出發,探討「努力追 求學業成就」與道德的關係;接著從社會-認知範疇 理論(social-cognitive domain theory) (Turiel, 1983;Smetana, 2013)及其實徵研究的角度,討論不同社 會-認知範疇的區別以及不同年齡之青少年對於「努 力」、「學業成就」的道德性的看法之發展差異。 (一) 努力與成就的道德性:獎懲不對稱與 Weiner的理論 動機學者Weiner (Rest et al., 1973;Weiner & Kukla, 1970 (Rest et al., 1973;Weiner & Kukla, 1970 Kim & Park, 2006;Tsuneyoshi, 2011; Y. C. Wang, 2014;Yu & Suen, 2005) & Turiel, 2011;Smetana, 2013;Turiel, 1983; see also Schmidt & Rakoczy, in press Fwu, Wei, Chen, and Wang (2014) further postulated that the role obligation of effort is not only a "positive" moral duty that requires individuals to act, but also an "unconditional positive" moral duty that calls for total dedication without temporary exceptions. Alternatively, under the social-cognitive domain theory, role obligation may simply be regarded as a social convention rather than a moral code. ...
... C. Wang, 2014;H.-C. Yen, 2014;Yu & Suen, 2005). Consequently, they have become the basic role-obligation within the family relationship in which a person stands. ...
Article
Full-text available
Prior empirical studies have argued that in culturally Confucian societies, academic e ort and school performance are deemed role-based morality. Yet these studies have often arrived at their conclusions through inferences drawn from participants’ opinions of achievement related acts but not their direct judgement on whether lack of effort or academic performance is immoral. Based on Confucian ethics, Hwang (2012) hypothesized that studying hard and striving for academic achievement are role-based responsibilities and obligatory moral conduct for young learners. Fwu, Wei, Chen, and Wang (2014) further postulated that the role obligation of e ort is not only a “positive” moral duty that requires individuals to act, but also an “unconditional positive” moral duty that calls for total dedication without temporary exceptions. Alternatively, under the social-cognitive domain theory, role obligation may simply be regarded as a social convention rather than a moral code. Therefore, this study directly investigated whether Taiwanese adolescents viewed effortful learning (EL) and academic performance (AP) as essential moral duties or only duties arising from social convention. Each type of duty was examined twice, rst as an obligation that one had better follow and then as an obligation one ought to perpetually observe without exception (i.e., unconditional positive duties). Because lial piety (FP) has typically been construed as an unconditional positive moral obligation in culturally Confucian societies, belief in FP was simultaneously explored for comparison. Overall, 148 college students and 158 tenth graders from Northern Taiwan lled out three forms of questionnaires addressing the target concepts of EL, AP, and FP. Each questionnaire comprised four subscales: social convention, moral code, unconditional positive social convention, and unconditional positive moral code. Analyses of t tests did not support the prior inference that Taiwanese adolescents regarded EL as a moral code. Instead, both high school and college students agreed that EL was a duty arising from social convention. However, from the perspective of Taiwanese adolescents, the social convention aspect of EL was limited, given that it was not accepted as a duty ascribed to unconditional positive social convention. In contrast, the same group of adolescents viewed FP as an unconditional positive moral code that one should observe at all times. AP was construed to be neither a social convention nor a moral duty. In conclusion, no direct evidence supported prior postulations that students in Confucian societies perceive EL and AP as morality-based obligations, not to mention as unconditional positive moral duties. The implications of the ndings for Confucian role-based ethics were discussed.
... Some even refer to the system as one of "high-stakes" testing (Chu, 2017). In fact, the so called "education fever" or test fever has been instilled in Chinese culture since the 7 th century when the "keju" system, the civil services exam, was utilized to select officials to serve the emperor (Lan and Hoi, 2005). The current national college entrance exam in China, the "gaokao," which was created in 1952, discontinued in 1966, and resumed in 1977, has since been the sole criteria for college and university admission. ...
... This exam is of such importance that it is considered a national event. Given the population and unequal distribution of resources between rural areas and major cities (Gao 2014), it is not hard to understand that entering a prestigious college or university has been viewed as the only means of upward mobility in the Chinese culture (Lan and Hoi, 2005). Therefore, pressure to pass this exam, and all those leading up to this one, is enormous for there is so much at stake. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to provide a cross-cultural comparison between China and the United States of neutralization and academic entitlement on academic dishonesty, often referred to as college cheating. The sample consisted of 434 American Students and 180 Chinese students. Neutralization was a predictor of cheating in college for both the Chinese and American students, although Chinese students engaged in more neutralization than did the American students. While academic entitlement was found to be a predictor of college cheating among American students, it was not a predictor of cheating among Chinese students, even though Chinese students exhibited higher levels of academic entitlement. For American students, cheating was highest on class assignments, but for Chinese students the highest percentage of cheating was for copying an internet document. Explanations for cross-cultural differences and similarities are suggested.
... The Chinese education system is assumed to be a case of 'meritocracy in action', as access to colleges or universities is almost exclusively based on exam performance (Jin & Ball, 2019). The current 'meritocratic' education system resonates with Chinese society, given its strong historical attachment to the system operating in Imperial China (Yu & Suen, 2005). Nevertheless, meritocracy is also, in its modern permutation, neoliberalism's 'handmaiden', which facilitates the atomisation of individuals while extending competition and entrepreneurial behaviour into 'the The reform era, Chinese post-secondary system, and VET Scholars have argued that China has embraced neoliberalism since the start of the Reform Era, coinciding with similar changes in other parts of the world (Ferguson & Gupta, 2002;Gledhill, 2004;Harvey, 2005;Sharma & Gupta, 2006). ...
... Conducting a survey study involving around 960 first-year college students, Ye Liu (2013; found that the CEE, with its association with meritocratic selection, justified the privileges of urban residents and advantaged families in the form of merit outcomes, while at the same time maintaining social inequality among different regions and between the rural and the urban. Inherited from the Imperial Period (Yu & Suen, 2005), the system of exam-based meritocracy is viewed as fair and just (Song, 2016), and the social respect shown to those achieving exam success is apparent (Kipnis, 2011). Students regard the exam system as a form of sacred and fair competition, as well as a means to success (Song, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Since the start of the Reform Era in 1978, vocational education and training (VET) in China has been seen as inferior to academic routes and positioned at the bottom of the educational hierarchy. VET students are stereotyped as being ‘stupid and lazy’ and suffer considerable prejudice in Chinese society. Drawing on Foucault’s disciplinary power and Ball’s idea of performativity, this paper analyses how academically focused, exam-driven societal attitudes, as a form of meritocratic discourse, impact on these students and on how they perceive their stereotyped position within the Reform Era educational system. The findings reveal that these students have internalised the ideology of meritocracy, coming to see themselves as inferior and inadequate compared to their academic counterparts. Turning ‘the gaze’ upon themselves, they examine whether they ‘add up’ and assume responsibility for their own ‘failures’. VET students are trained to be the new kind of youthful subject required to sustain the Reform Era China’s engagement with neoliberal governance.
... Low-achieving students drop out of school at high rates (Wang et al., 2015;Shi et al., 2015) and have lower self-confidence and self-esteem (Cheng, 1997;Wong and Watkins, 2001). Indeed, researchers have documented that this sort of "informal tracking" is pervasive in junior high schools across China (Yuen-Yee and Watkins, 1994;Yu and Suen, 2005;Liu and Wu, 2006;Dello-Lacovo, 2009). Faced with this system, how do teachers decide which students deserve their time and effort? ...
... An issue that has received attention in other countries that have ability tracking systems punctuated from time-to-time (e.g., between lower and upper secondary school) with high-stakes exams is the effect of realized or unrealized student expectations (Clarke et al., 2000;Yu and Suen, 2005;Liu and Wu, 2006). If student tracking creates a certain amount of positive (negative) social capital for high-performing (low-performing) students, what happens to that level of trust when a fast-tracked student fails to pass the high-stakes exam at the end of the program? ...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this paper is to describe and analyze the relationship between ability tracking and student social capital, in the context of poor students in developing countries. Drawing on the results from a longitudinal study among 1,436 poor students across 132 schools in rural China, a significant lack of interpersonal trust is found and confidence in public institutions among poor rural young adults. We also find that there is a strong correlation between ability tracking during junior high school and levels of social capital. The disparities might serve to further widen the gap between the relatively privileged students who are staying in school and the less privileged students who are dropping out of school. This result suggests that making high school accessible to more students would improve social capital in the general population.
... Fairness has been pursued for many years in testing and assessment globally (Meyer et al. 2013). Rigorous procedures were used to ensure fairness, for example, double marking and test scripts being copied so that test-takers' handwriting would not be recognized in the Chinese Imperial Examinations (606-1905 AD) (Yu and Suen 2005). Later, the twentieth century witnessed the evolution of fairness research in examinations of statistical bias (Cleary 1968;Holland 1985). ...
... The occurrence of irregularities may be related to the high stakes of the GSEEE Academic, which determines test-takers' life opportunity for higher education. The motivation to raise the test scores through cheating becomes too tempting for some individuals to resist, in the past and at present (Yu and Suen 2005). Standardized administration continues to be a challenge to ensure that all test-takers are tested against the same criteria and under the same conditions at all times and locations. ...
Article
Fairness and social justice has been the subject of much discussion in educational research, and concerns about fairness are paramount in the milieu of high-stakes admission testing. This study explored stakeholders’ perceptions of the fairness of a high-stakes graduate school admission test, the Graduate School Entrance English Examination (GSEEE) that decides whether students may have a chance to gain admission into master’s programs in China. By interviewing three groups—program administrators, English teachers, and test-takers, the study found different groups had different knowledge about the test. While there was much fairness concern regarding item quality, standardized administration, and scoring practices, the three groups expressed their acceptance and support toward the use of the GSEEE. In the end, the paper questioned whether the GSEEE truly achieved its selection purpose, given its flawed estimates of test-takers’ English proficiency due to unfair treatment in item quality, administration, and scoring, as perceived by those participants.
... Indeed, researchers have documented that this sort of "informal tracking" is pervasive in junior high schools across China (Dello-Iacovo, 2009;H. Liu & Wu, 2006;Yu & Suen, 2005;Yuen-Yee & Watkins, 1994). Faced with this system, how do teachers decide which students deserve their time and effort? ...
... An issue that has received attention in other countries that have ability tracking systems and high-stakes exams is the effect of realized or unrealized student expectations (Clarke, Haney, & Madaus, 2000;H. Liu & Wu, 2006;Yu & Suen, 2005). If student tracking creates a certain amount of positive (or negative) social trust for high-performing (or low-performing) students, what happens to that level of trust when a fast-tracked student fails to pass the high-stakes exam at the end of the program? ...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this paper is to describe and analyze the relationship between ability tracking and student social trust, in the context of low-income students in developing countries. Drawing on the results from a longitudinal study among 1,436 low-income students across 132 schools in rural China, we found a significant lack of interpersonal trust and confidence in public institutions among poor rural young adults. We also found that slow-tracked students have a significantly lower level of social trust, comprised of interpersonal trust and confidence in public institutions, relative to their fast-tracked peers. This disparity might further widen the gap between relatively privileged students who stay in school and less privileged students who drop out of school. These results suggest that making high school accessible to more students may improve social trust among rural low-income young adults.
... The subjects tested by the NCEE are based on the "3+X" system. This system requires all students to take exams in three common areas: Chinese language, mathematics and foreign languages (Yu & Suen, 2005) and take an additional comprehensive test in either art or science, depending on the track chosen by the examinee. ...
... refers to the phenomenon of China's national obsession with education and in particular to parents' feverish aspiration and support for their children's educational attainments (Kim, 2003;Yu & Suen, 2005). According to the 2013 Chinese Household Finance Survey (CHFC), family expenditure on education amounted to 10.84 per cent of the family budget and surpassed both housing and clothing to become, after food, the second highest expenditure for households in China. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
A growing concern in studies of internationalisation relates to Chinese students studying in the West. In business studies, Chinese students are the largest cohort of international undergraduates. Areas of concern include differences in learning styles, language and socio-cultural barriers. Institutionally, learning is considered to occur when students can demonstrate the learning outcomes achieved and learning is assured against learning criteria. However, research has shown the limitation of this view or what Hagar et al (Hager, Lee & Reich, 2012) term the dominant paradigm of learning and that learning occurs in many forms (Boud, 2006; Stone, Boud & Hager, 2011). There is an absence of discussion about how learning actually occurs, or the practices that Chinese students use in order to learn. Drawing on Hager and Hodkinson's (2011) use of becoming as a metaphor for learning, this thesis aims to examine the experience and practices of Chinese business students studying in an Australian university. The principle research question focuses on the contribution that a practice-based study makes to investigations of undergraduate Chinese business student learning in an Australian university. Drawing on a practice theoretical framework influenced by the Chinese philosophical concept of Yinyang, and a practice methodology, the research is an in-depth investigation of the everyday practices used by five Chinese business undergraduate students to support their learning. The study uses interpretative methods including interviews, observations, reflexive groups, document analyses, collections of artefacts and field notes. The findings demonstrate how students put things together in different ways that are inseparable from their becoming. Study practices, such as memorising and translating are used by students together with socio-cultural practices. Study and socio-cultural practices are entangled in multiple relationships usefully described using Yinyang concepts (Wang, 2012). The findings highlight how student learning occurs, or becomes, as they adapt and adopt what they see as appropriate study and sociocultural practices in different contexts. A practice-based approach, with the inclusion of the notion of Yinyang, can help explain the tensions and contradictions of students’ performance as learners and the process of becoming that makes up their learning journey. Many institutional and historical tensions and contradictions shape students’ learning practices. I conclude that Chinese students’ learning is characterised by complexity and that the possibility and impossibility of Chinese students’ learning is inseparable from particular practices, settings and arrangements. The implications for students and teachers are that learning cannot be pinpointed in a static snapshot but is better understood as a constant process of becoming and that institutions and teachers need to be able to deal with complexity when supporting students by developing appropriate curricula and structures.
... NHEEE can be dated back to the Keju Examination in Tang dynasty in China as a national civil service examination (Feng, 1995;Yu & Suen, 2005;Zhang, 1988). Since then until the Qing dynasty , Chinese government uses Keju to select talented officials to serve the country. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to examine the psychometric properties of an instrument to measure word problem solving skills in mathematics related to speed with 706 sixth grade Chinese and Singaporean students. Rasch measurement models were applied to examine the reliability, unidimensionality, rating scale functioning, item difficulty, and person difficulty. The differential item functioning (DIF) analysis was also performed to examine the differences in item difficulty estimates between Chinese and Singaporean students. Results suggest that the data satisfied the unidimensionality requirements of the Rasch model and that most of the item difficulty measures aligned the person ability distribution. The instrument demonstrated adequate reliability. The fit statistics were within acceptable limits for the vast majority of items, with a few exceptions. The rating scale structure functioned properly although the middle categories had very few observations. Deleting misfitting cases and collapsing middle categories slightly improved the psychometric properties. DIF analysis revealed that four items were more difficult for Chinese students whereas two other items were more difficult for the Singaporean students. Results also indicated that the Chinese participants scored higher than the Singaporean participants for 11 of the 14 items and the Singaporean students scored higher than their Chinese cohorts in the other 3 items. The validation of this instrument has implications for the teaching and learning of mathematical word problems in practice.
... An analysis of literature from USA on examination malpractice reveals that the problem is growing steadily (Scheers&Dayton 1987;Karlins, & Podlogar, 1988;Whitley, 1998;Coverdale & Henning, 2000;Carroll& Appleton, 2001;McCabe & Trevino, 2001). In Asia, examination malpractices are rampant (Yu & Suen, 2005;Suen & Wu, 2006;Eisend & Schuchert, 2006;Baron & Wirzbicki, 2008;Bartzis & Hayner, 2008;OECD, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examined ethical barriers to employee selection in Uganda. Basing on the extensive literature review, the paper set out to answer three questions, namely; a) what are the ethical barriers to the effective employee selection in organizations and how do they impact on organizational performance? b) What theoretical explanations underpin these ethical barriers? c) How can these ethical barriers be removed? The paper extensively discussed that employee selection is being affected by ethical barriers such as deception of job seekers, bribery, demanding sex in exchange for jobs and nepotism. It is recommended that deontological approach be embraced by employers because it advocates treating job candidates with dignity.
... In the past 30 years, China has dramatically improved access to education. In the context of significant urban-rural and regional economic disparities, the State has largely eliminated barriers to primary and lower secondary education and expanded access to higher education while maintaining an extremely competitive high-stakes testing system (Hannum, 1999;Wan, 2006;Yu & Suen, 2005). Given the highstakes testing regime, one might expect to find high rates of retention. ...
Article
This paper analyzes the prevalence, correlates, and behavioral and academic impacts of grade retention using national and single-province data from China. Retention is much more prevalent in China than official estimates suggest; it is more frequent in less-developed parts of the country; and it is associated nationally with poorer subsequent performance and psychosocial well-being, even after adjusting for numerous confounders. However, a causal analysis in one province using matching and difference-in-difference approaches shows no evidence of a causal impact of retention on outcomes. With certain caveats, findings suggest that retention is primarily a “red flag” and not a cause of poorer achievement and behavioral outcomes. We discuss potential mechanisms that drive observed levels of grade retention in China.
... Their job is to identify best practices and work with classroom teachers in implementing them (Ding, G. Ed., 2010). Nonetheless, Chinese teachers and school leaders, particularly at the secondary level, are finding it difficult to change practices due to the emphasis placed on the college entrance exam, the Gaokao (Yu & Suen, 2005). The ...
Article
Full-text available
p> This study investigated schools in the two largest global economies, the United States and The People’s Republic of China, in order to understand how both educational systems are preparing students to thrive in the global workplace. The study 1) delineates skill sets needed for success in the new economy, 2) identifies and reports on the instructional findings within seven schools in China and seven schools in the United States that describe themselves as preparing students for the 21st century workplace, 3) compares findings between schools studied in both countries, and 4) ends with suggestions for policymakers and school systems wishing to improve student preparedness for the global workplace. </p
... This study examines the dilemmas experienced by a group of teacher candidates in Taiwan. As one of the societies deeply influenced by traditional Chinese/Confucian cultural values and high-stakes testing system, teachers in Taiwan have long been under great pressure to secure students' successful performances on high-stakes exams (Watkins & Biggs, 2001;Yu & Suen, 2005). In consequence, the focus of teaching has inevitably been on what students must know for exams, rather than on how students can apply the knowledge in their daily lives. ...
Article
Full-text available
Learning to teach is a complex process that hinges on teacher candidates’ personal experiences, values, beliefs and characteristics, as well as the contexts they are exposed to. Student teaching as a transitional period may create dilemmas for teacher candidates, who are new to the profession and still learning about what it means to be a teacher. Thus, this study examined the dilemmas experienced by a group of Taiwanese teacher candidates during the student teaching phase. Using the framework of dilemmatic spaces, we identified the sources of their dilemmas and the decisions they made towards the dilemmatic situations and further examined how they justified their decisions. Our findings suggest that conflicting ideologies and teacher candidates’ identities as student teachers are the main sources of their dilemmas. In response to the dilemmas, teacher candidates showed different decision-making trajectories that revealed the different actions and justifications they took within the dilemmatic space.
... 16 An examination-orientated approach to teaching can be understood as a response to the cultural importance attached to examinations in Chinese history and society (Yu & Suen, 2005) as well as the effects of the one-child policy which has resulted in many parents putting all of their hopes (and often financial resources) into ensuring that their child secures a place at a top university (Poole, 2016). In addition, adopting an examination-orientated approach to learning English also reflects an epistemological understanding of knowledge as something that is fixed and therefore needs to be passed on from one generation to the next (Tan & Chua, 2015). ...
Thesis
This thesis explored how four internationalised school teachers constructed cross-cultural teacher identities in an internationalised school in Shanghai, China (pseudonym, WEST). The topic of international teacher identity is of significance to practitioners, researchers and school leaders alike as there is growing consensus that teacher identity and its construction is not only a vital part of developing a professional self, but is a complex, open-ended life-long project, involving cognitive, affective and, increasingly in a globalising world, intercultural dimensions. However, the international education literature continues to construct the international educator in positivist terms due to a focus on macro-level phenomena, such as international schools, curricula and the nature of international education. The essentialisation of international teachers as a type or a ‘reduced Other’ (Grimshaw, 2007) has resulted in their lives and experiences being silenced and marginalised in the literature. In order to address the issue above and to bring into focus the complexity of internationalised teachers’ lives, this thesis situated itself at the intersection of a number of fields and disciplines, including international education, teacher professional identity, narrative inquiry and discourse analysis. The concept of teacher identity was explored from postmodern, modernist, and cross-cultural traditions, leading to an integrative framework that conceptualised identity construction as experiential and discursive in nature, arising out of personal, professional and cross-cultural domains of experience, and articulated in the form of Gee’s (2014) notion of Discourse (narratives) and discourse (language features). Commensurate with identity as discursive in nature, narrative inquiry was employed as a guiding methodology, with semi-structured interviews utilised as the main instrument for data collection. Data for the study were collected over a two-year period, with interview data being collected in the first year, and follow-up interviews and supplemental data collected in the second year. An enhanced form of member-checking was employed that ensured that data collection, transcription, analysis, and the writing up of findings proceeded in a semi-grounded and recursive manner, with participants being given opportunities to expand or excise data or interpretations that did not resonate with their lived experiences. This thesis found that the participants’ tended to draw upon similar narratives and discursive features in order to construct their identities as international teachers, yet they also mobilised narrative and discourse in an idiosyncratic manner, based on personal, professional and cross-cultural experiences. Another significant finding was that cross-cultural experiences did not necessarily lead to increased intercultural understanding as might be expected after an extended sojourn abroad. Rather, the participants mobilised cross-cultural experiences in order to reinforce existing beliefs that were western-centric in nature or to bid for recognition as ‘western’ teachers in a Chinese school. The findings also showed how the participants narrated their cross-cultural experiences in terms of the accumulation of a range of capitals, including linguistic, cultural and social. Finally, the thesis highlighted the role of the interview context, and WEST as an organisation, in mediating the construction of the participants’ identities. This lead to the generation of two conceptual terms for describing how the participants constructed internationalised teacher identities in an internationalised school: discursive consonance and discursive dissonance. This thesis contributes to the international education literature by exploring the lives and experiences of a group of international teachers who have yet to receive attention from researchers. It argues that the field of international education could appropriate the conceptual and methodological tools from the literature on teacher professional identity (narrative inquiry and discourse analysis) in order to explore the lives of internationalised teachers from an emic perspective. This study problematises the typologies of international schools and international teachers as types by offering a reconceptualisation of both in the form of the internationalised school and the internationalised school teacher. This study also adds to my practice as a practitioner by outlining how the findings could be used for professional development purposes. This would provide international teachers with a method for developing professional and intercultural identities, and also bring about a transformative experience for school leaders in WEST and other internationalised schools.
... By contrast, China has a long history of centralized education. Started as early as the 7th century, the central governments used "Ke ju" examination system to achieve tight control over education (Yu and Suen 2005). "Ke ju" was essentially a high-stakes examination, the test content was limited to a few books that were officially designated by the central government. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined and compared school autonomy in China and the United States. Based on the international PISA 2012 school data, the authors examined three aspects of school autonomy. We found that in comparison with the United States, (1) principals from China were less likely to have responsibility over eleven school decisions (hiring teachers, firing teachers, salary increase, budget formulation, budget allocation, disciplinary policies, assessment policies, student admittance, textbook selection, course content, and courses offered) and were similar in having responsibility over teacher start salaries, and (2) teachers from China were less likely to have responsibility over six school decisions (hiring teachers, budget formulation, disciplinary policies, textbook selection, course content, and courses offered), were more likely to have responsibility over two decisions (firing teachers, student admittance), and were similar in having responsibility over four decisions (teacher start salaries, salary increase, budget allocation, and assessment policies). We also found that schools in China had (1) lower responsibility for curriculum/assessment and lower responsibility for resource allocation and (2) a lower level of teacher participation/autonomy. The findings have implications for educational policy in China and the United States.
... China has the largest education system in the world, with 260 million students enrolled in nearly 51,400 schools in 2013 (OECD, 2016). China's exam-oriented education system is highly competitive and produces much pressure on students (Deng and Guo, 2007;Li et al., 2012a,b;Yu and Suen, 2005). For most Chinese students, the transition to a higher level of education depends solely on their scores on admission examinations. ...
Article
Research on depression and education usually focuses on a unidirectional relationship. This paper proposes a reciprocal relationship, simultaneously estimating the effects of depression on education and of education on depression. China, which has the world's largest education system, is used as a case study. This paper applies structural equation modeling to three datasets: the China Family Panel Studies, the China Education Panel Survey, and the Gansu Survey of Children and Families. Analyses reveal a reciprocal and negative relationship between depression and educational outcomes. Specifically, early depression reduces later educational achievement, and higher educational achievement also lowers the level of subsequent depression by resulting in less peers' unfriendliness, less pressure from parents' expectations, and less teachers' criticism. More time spent on studies is not associated with higher educational achievement but significantly increases the level of depression. Children from lower SES families bear more pressure and spend more time on studies, which does not correspond to higher educational achievement but rather to higher levels of depression. In the long term, prior depression lowers educational attainment and, after controlling for prior depression, lower educational attainment is also associated with higher levels of subsequent depression. This paper shows that the lower achievers, not the high achievers, bear the major psychological burden of the education system's quest to produce high achievement. This situation reinforces these students' educational disadvantage.
... However, LSAs have effectively instilled in the mind of the public that the purpose of education is primarily to prepare for tests and consequently test scores reflect the quality of education. As evidence, TIMSS and PISA scores have been equated with the quality of education in different countries (OECD, 2016b;Tucker, 2011;Zhao, 2016c), resulting in strong media and policy reactions around the world (Baird et al., 2016;Dillion, 2010;Figazzolo, 2009;Gruber, 2006;Sellar & Lingard, 2014;Sjøberg, 2015 As evidence, in China, for instance, only subjects tested by the National College Entrance Exam are taken seriously (Yu & Suen, 2015;Zhao, 2014). And the U.S. has witnessed a trend of curriculum narrowing since the enactment of NCLB in the U.S. (Abu-Alhija, 2007;Albrecht & Joles, 2003;Berliner, 2011;Bowen & Rude, 2006;Klenowski, 2011;Klinger & Rogers, 2011;Popham, 2000;Tienken & Zhao, 2013;Towles-Reeves, Garrett, Burdette, & Burdge, 2006;Volante, 2005Volante, , 2006. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose In line with a recent call for side effects research in education, this article aims to synthesize the major concerns that have been raised in the literature concerning large-scale assessments (LSAs) in education. Design/Approach/Methods The researchers endeavored to complete a deep review of the literature on LSAs to synthesize the reported side effects. The review was synthesized thematically to understand and report the consequences of the ongoing push for the use of LSA in education. Findings Thematic analysis indicated overarching side effects of LSA in education. We discuss why negative side effects exist and present evidence of the most commonly observed side effects of LSA in education, including distorting education, exacerbating inequity and injustice, demoralization of professionals, ethical corruption, and stifling of innovation in education. Originality/Value While concerns about the use and misuse of LSA in education are not new and have been discussed widely in the literature, rarely have they been discussed as inherent qualities and consequences of LSAs that can do harm to education.
... Most importantly, such a collaborative stance against the institutional arrangements at STS foregrounds an ongoing struggle over the social/moral definition of what counts as a "good Tibetan school". On the one hand, this struggle reinforces the logic of academic competition that has been described elsewhere as a major driving force in the Chinese education system (see Pérez-Milans 2013;Dello-Iacovo 2009;Yu and Suen 2005). The unequal weighting of scores across subjects is officially rationalised at STS which prioritises subjects that are included in the local academic competition, which, according to the Tibetan teachers, sacrifices students' motivation and grades in Tibetan. ...
Article
Full-text available
Though widely regarded as a relevant research approach, the field of ethnography of language policy still faces challenges that need attention. On the one hand, research on language policy continues to put ethnography aside in many national regions. On the other, ethnographically-oriented investigations often rely on very holistic approaches to meaning and context, this leaving us with broad-brush portrayals in which language policy issues are detached from the situated dynamics of meaning-making out of which wider structural constraints get re-contextualized and re-configured under changing socioeconomic and political conditions. Against this background, this article examines the case of minority languages in China, an area of enquiry that has received increasing attention as new studies report on how the lack of institutional recognition that such languages receive erodes ethnic minority identities and disempowers social actors living in minority areas. Drawing on Williams' (1977) notion of " structures of feeling " , we empirically examine individuals' engagement with language policies in situated practices at a secondary school located in an ethnically diverse city in southwestern China in which Tibetans constitute the largest ethnic minority group. Our data show emergent communicative forms, or " structures of feeling " , through which school actors enact, challenge and shape an institutional logic that marginalizes the Tibetan section within the school and constructs Tibetan language education as a pedagogical space with no room for Tibetan religious content.
... China's contiguous impoverished regions host approximately 40 million children, whose level of development in health and education is significantly lower than the average level (China Children's Development Foundation, 2018). There is a proverb in Chinese, "all pursuits are of low value; only studying the books is high" (Yu and Suen, 2005). Chinese culture highlights greater educational attainment and academic performance as the main determinant of evenly distributed educational resources (Beaujean et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study conducted a questionnaire survey involving 513 children from low-income families (mean age = 13.25 ± 2.19 years) to explore the relationship between social support and academic performance as well as the mediating role of dispositional optimism and the moderating role of grit. A structural equation model analysis showed that: (1) social support has a significant positive predictive effect on academic performance and (2) dispositional optimism has a significant mediating effect on the relationship between social support and academic performance. Further, a moderated mediation effect test showed that grit moderates (3) the direct social support effect on academic performance as well as (4) the direct and indirect pathways among social support, dispositional optimism, and academic performance. The results indicate that social support is conducive to the development of dispositional optimism in children from low-income families, thereby improving their academic performance. At the same time, grit can enhance the positive impact of optimism on the academic performance of children from low-income families. This study has important theoretical and practical implications for effectively improving the academic performance of children from low-income families.
... The necessity of doing this research comes from our socio-cultural background: the Japanese society is known for its strong emphasis on winning competitive, high-stakes examinations [1,2], a social norm historically linked to a traditional imperial examination system to become a high-ranking civil servant. This trend is also shared by neighboring Asian countries [3,4], and test-takers and the endorsement of the authority of tests and test-makers (teachers) carry significant social value. Within this socio-cultural climate, the current study explores the potentials of the PAs in teaching and learning compared to the test-centred teaching approach in higher education and skill-based blended courses. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to clarify the potentials of performance-centred instructional design in online and blended learning. It asserts its contribution in that no research so far available has explicitly investigated how students-'evaluatees'-evaluate the implemented course design with a 100% performance-based assessment (PA). The study consists of two parts: a comprehensive literature review on PAs, followed by a report on a survey to the students on performance-centred course experiences. The research was held in an undergraduate English programme at a Tokyo university. No test was conducted, and only performance-based evaluative methods were used throughout the two-semester course of one academic year. A survey was administered to the students after the course experience, obtaining 67 valid responses. AI research tools were also applied to the analyzes, to explore their future use. A high level of positivity toward the PA course design was obtained. Besides, the design succeeded in building students' self-efficacy and helping them become more strategic in using the language. The perceived progress was also confirmed by an objective test held outside the current research. Furthermore, the students admitted some utility in test-based assessment, proving, on average, that the combinatory design of 75-85% PAs and 15-25% tests would be ideal. PA-centred course design has significant potential to deepen students' learning. It provides an antithesis to a heavily test-centred teaching approach, which could limit students' learning. It suggests that digital-based PAs be viable solutions, when meeting for tests is not feasible under emergencies, including worldwide pandemics.
... Education has been a crucial channel for social mobility in China (He, 1980;Yu and Suen, 2005). Since 1977, performance on the national college entrance examination has become the main determinant of college admission, while schooling has come to represent the access to a life at a higher social strata (Fong, 2004;Paine and DeLany, 2000;Pepper, 1996). ...
Article
Full-text available
Student resistance is one of the central themes in the study of schooling and inequality. This article used sound as a means of inquiry to investigate how China’s suburban teenagers—a segment largely overlooked in prior scholarly writing—resist the school values amid the exaltation of success and widening stratification in contempo- rary Chinese society. Drawing on fieldwork in a suburban middle school in Northwest China, I demonstrated that students utilize a wide range of sound acts—burlesqued shouts, subdued murmurs, and sometimes pervasive silence—to resist educators’ mor- alized lectures on the seriousness of schoolwork and the prospects of education suc- cess. Lodged in the liminal space within China’s socioeconomic and spatial hierarchy, suburban youths expressed their disbelief and disillusion—both in and through sound— in an environment that offers few avenues for social mobility.
... 'those who labour with their strength') and believe the selection into office based on merit, intelligence and hard work (Liu 2016, 25). Inherited from the Imperial Era, the system of exam-based meritocracy is still viewed as fair and just (Yu and Suen 2005;Song 2016), and the social respect shown to those achieving exam success is apparent in today's Chinese society (Kipnis 2011). Students regard the exam system as a form of sacred and fair competition, as well as a means to success (Song 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
While enjoying the respect and prestige in some countries, in others, despite being a significant educational sector, vocational education continues to suffer from low status and negative societal sentiments. Vocational education in China has been positioned at the bottom of the educational hierarchy, absorbing the ‘left-over’ students with ‘less good’ academic records. Addressing the research gap concerning the limited philosophical discourses about the academic/vocational divide from non-Western traditions, this paper seeks to explore the philosophical and historical heritage of the academic/vocational divide and how Confucianism may contribute to this divide and shaped the hierarchy of work in China. The Confucian literati, as ‘the privileged other’, determined the social rank of ‘those who labour with their strength’ and ‘those who labour with their minds’ through the Imperial Examination System. By using institutional logics theory, the paper explores how the legacy of these views may have negatively impacted on the standing of occupations and vocational education in contemporary Chinese society and argues that an alternative philosophical orientation is needed to counter the long-standing consequences for vocational education.
... These statements fit into the image of the Chinese education system, which is based on two fundamental principles. First, as many researchers note, education in China is based on the Confucian principles of collective society (Yangb & Shena, 2020;Yu & Suen, 2005). These principles are contained, for example, in the high value of education, the belief that hard work can compensate for the lack of abilities. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Gaokao exam is still a hot topic in contemporary Chinese society designed to select people for the country by testing their knowledge of specific exam subjects. People from all walks of life have different attitudes and understandings towards it. The purpose of this study was to examine how do Chinese female students from Top Universities in China perceive the gaokao exam by using a semi-structured, in-depth interview (N =5) and an open-ended interview questionnaire (N = 7). The findings suggest that an evaluative dichotomy can characterize the exam itself and exam preparation period. Although initially this time was seen in terms of immense sacrifice and was highly intense, positive attitudes to the Gaokao exam dominated, and the exam was considered a relatively fair and equitable selection method. It should be borne in mind that this study does not attempt to be globally representative. However, we do trust that the findings will have a universal appeal to educational communities.
... Japanese society strongly emphasises winning competitive, high-stakes examinations [1,2], a social norm historically linked to the traditional imperial examination system conducted to select high ranking civil servants, which is common in its neighbouring Asian countries as well [3,4]. This study explores a potentially improved instruction design that shows higher efficiency and effectiveness in teaching and learning than the test-centred teaching approach, by using performance-based assessment (PA) in higher education skill-based blended courses. ...
Chapter
Tests can make students feel insufficiently capable. A 100% performance-centred assessment (PA) instructional design is therefore considered a better option. This study examines a PA design wherein no tests are included, and its effects and benefits are investigated from the perspective of students. The two-semester course based on this instructional design was held for one academic year in an undergraduate English programme at a Tokyo university. A survey administered after the course experience obtained 67 valid responses revealing a high level of positivity towards the PA course design. Additionally, the course succeeded in building students’ self-efficacy and language use in a more strategic manner. Students also acknowledged the differences in the functionality between the test and PA methods, signifying a higher level of learning attained. Therefore, it can be concluded that a PA-centred course design has significant potential to deepen learning with skill-based education at the higher education level, providing a viable solution when conducting tests in person is not feasible, as during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
... The overall prevalence of refractive error is much higher in East Asians than in other ethnic populations (3). In China, an exam-driven educational system in which higherperforming students are selected based on their level of academic performance has been implemented for over a thousand years (4). Chinese students tend to work hard for long hours for school-related learning (5). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: To assess associations of high academic performance with ametropia prevalence and myopia development in Chinese schoolchildren. Methods: This multicohort observational study was performed in Guangdong, China. We first performed a cross-sectional cohort analysis of students in grades 1 to 9 from Yangjiang to evaluate the relationship between academic performance and refractive status on a yearly basis. We also performed longitudinal analyses of students in Shenzhen to evaluate the trend of academic performance with refractive changes over a period of 33 months. All refractive statuses were measured using noncycloplegic autorefractors. Results: A total of 32,360 children with or without myopia were recruited in this study (mean age 10.08 years, 18,360 males and 14,000 females). Cross-sectional cohort analyses in Yangjiang showed that the prevalence of hyperopia was associated with lower academic scores in grade one, the year students entered primary school (β=-0.04, P=0.01), whereas the prevalence of myopia was associated with higher academic scores in grade six and grade eight, the years in which students were about to take entrance examinations for junior high school or senior high school (β=0.020, P=0.038; β=0.041, P=0.002). Longitudinal analysis showed that in Shenzhen, faster myopia development was associated with better scores in all grades even after adjustments for BMI, outdoor activity time, screen time, reading time, and parental myopia (grade two at baseline: β=0.026, P<0.001; grade three at baseline: β=0.036, P=0.001; grade four at baseline: β=0.014, P<0.001; grade five at baseline: β=0.039, P<0.001; grade six at baseline: β=0.04, P<0.001). Conclusions: Refractive errors correlated significantly with academic performance among schoolchildren in China. Children with high academic performance were more likely to have faster myopia development.
... In the China sample, there were frequent reports of stress related to university entrance exams. This important milestone task (Davey et al. 2007;Ross and Wang 2010;Yu and Suen 2005) was mentioned in many of the participants accounts of realistic dreams and intuitive impressions (e.g., an inkling, without rational logical thought processes, often accompanied with imagery, that was subsequently borne out). Other realistic dreams involved ancestors. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the lived-experience of spiritual life in contemporary USA, India, and China. A qualitative coding frame was constructed based on participant responses to open-ended questions regarding spirituality. Qualitative analysis was facilitated by the use of Dedoose, a mixed methods software. The exploratory approach of this study takes on a cross-culturally comparative lens, and has two primary questions: (1) What are the universal aspects of lived spirituality across cultures, and (2) How does culture shape spiritual experience (e.g., typology and prevalence)? A total of 6112 participants (41% women, mean age of 29 years, range 18-75 years) were recruited, and analysis was conducted on a subset of 900 participants. The primary thematic categories derived by content analysis included religion (religious traditions, religious conversion, religious professionals, religious figures "theophany," and religious forces "heirophany"), contemplative practice (meditation, mindful movement, prayer, and rituals), ancestors (ancestral worship, dreams about ancestors, and general mention of ancestors), natural world (animals, and nature), and metaphysical phenomena. Metaphysical categories were further parsed apart to include extrasensory perception (telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition, realistic dreams, and intuitive impressions), psychokinesis, survival hypothesis (near death experiences, out of body experiences, and apparitional experiences), and faith and energy healing (recovery/remission of illness, and spiritual practitioners). Explanatory factors for similarities and differences across groups, and the origins of spirituality, are discussed.
... Lee and Bong's (2016) finding may not come as a surprise. Under the tradition of Chinese imperial examination, which had also spread to neighboring Asian countries, such as Vietnam and Korea, educational and academic attainment was regarded as almost the only means to turn around social, economic, and political statuses (Yu & Suen, 2005). Contemporarily, passing the national examinations with superior grades in order to enter topranked high schools and universities is still regarded as the most effective means of obtaining a better job and future success in different East Asian societies (Shin, 2012;Tsuneyoshi, 2011;Yu et al., 2018). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
In many East Asian societies, both Confucian emphases on effortful learning and the instrumental value of academic grades for attaining social privilege have greatly impacted people's achievement goals. In this study, we examined whether perceived parental effort goals and outcome goals would function independently from the often noted mastery and performance goals in prior Western literature in explaining East Asian college students' academic dedication and self-handicapping. The reliability and the construct, concurrent, and incremental validity of newly developed scales for perceived parental effort goals and outcome goals were tested using two samples of Taiwanese students (Ns = 252, 269; 47.6% and 61.7% female; mean age = 20.44, 19.33 years). Results of confirmatory factor analyses supported the four-factor model of effort, outcome, mastery, and performance goals being distinct goal constructs. Hierarchical regression for examining the incremental validity of effort goals and outcome goals indicated that, above and beyond the influence of perceived parental mastery and performance goals, perceived parental effort goals predicted greater self-handicapping behaviors. The inverse effect of perceived parental effort goals in predicting academic adjustment may be explained by students' sense of academic helplessness, which can be cultivated by prolonged exposure to such parental goals. The regression analyses also found perceived paternal, but not maternal, outcome goals predicted stronger academic dedication, suggesting that East Asian students may interpret paternal interest in test scores as concern for children's future social and economic wellbeing and perceive similar maternal interest with apprehension.
... It is argued that the success of cognitive learning entailed by Gaokao is at the cost of students' affective learning. Like other HST, Gaokao has been criticized for stifling students' creativity, laying unnecessarily overwhelming pressure, favoring certain students in a biased manner, and resulting in superficial learning (Liu 2016;Kirkpatrick and Zang 2011;Yan 2015;Yu and Suen 2005). On the other hand, Muthanna and Sang (2015) examine college students' perception of Gaokao through a qualitative approach. ...
Article
Full-text available
High-stakes testing (HST) is critical in the educational system of East-Asian countries like China, and the ongoing standards-based reform in many Western countries like the USA. HST has been criticized for corrupting an educational system through means like disengaging students from authentic learning. It seems that students’ affective learning would be promoted if HST were abandoned. In this study, we used the mixed-method approach to investigate this hypothetical question by comparing the physics identity of high-school students in an HST-oriented educational context and college students who have transferred from an HST-oriented context to an almost HST-free one in China. We administered a physics identity survey with 108 students from two physics classes in a key high school and 233 undergraduate physics majors in a top-tier university who were separated by Gaokao as the most life-shaping test in China. We also interviewed sample participants about their physics learning. The data show the freshmen in college had a significantly higher average physics identity than the high-school students did. In the undergraduate physics program, the average physics identity had a deteriorating pattern from the freshmen, sophomores, to juniors. From high school to college, the students’ intention of pursuing physics as a major or career was similarly low. Differently, the students’ perception of lecturing changed, so did their self-discipline. Together, the findings suggested that simply discarding HST would not promote students’ affective learning. An alternative was needed to replace the extrinsic pressure from HST, which could be either students’ intrinsic engine of learning or another rewarding or coercive system.
... In order for them to accept their unsatisfactory outcomes they have to believe (albeit falsely) that the system used to determine the outcomes is fair and legitimate (Jost 1995). In China, the system of exam-based meritocracy has been seen as a sacred means to success since imperial times (Song 2016;Yu and Suen 2005); as Ran said 'it has always been like this'. This acceptance is bound up with their assumption that they themselves were inadequate, evidenced for them by their low CEE scores, and their sense of individualised responsibility for those scores. ...
Article
Full-text available
Individual academic achievement is highly valued in Chinese society, with vocational education students positioned at the bottom of the educational hierarchy and suffering considerable societal prejudice. In this paper we present new findings from the choice-making experiences of students in two vocational education colleges in China, how they are perceived by their teachers, and how, in the context of their negatively-stereotyped status, they perceive themselves. Drawing on the Marxist notion of false consciousness to help understand the agency of these students, we found that almost all perceived themselves as being agentic and having control over their destiny. They felt they only had themselves to blame for the stereotyping to which they were subjected. One student had not adopted this mindset and was critical of the exam system. We argue that the perceived agency of the majority of the students resonates strongly with the neoliberal values which are associated with responsibilisation, and which have been encouraged in China since the 1970s with the beginning of the Reform Era. The evidence from our study also suggests, however, that it is possible for young people , by their own efforts, to move away from the state of false consciousness
... The role of education in shaping mate selection preferences and processes must be situated within China's cultural and institutional contexts associated with education (Wu, 2017). The significance of education is rooted in Chinese culture, as shown by the Confucian idea that "all pursuits are of low value; only studying the books is high" (Yu and Suen, 2005). Historically, the imperial examination system (keju) used education-based competition to promote meritocracy and social mobility regardless of social origins (Liu, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Prior studies of assortative mating have shown that people tend to marry someone of the same educational level, but why individuals value a mate's education and the process of mate selection itself remain a black box in predominantly quantitative studies. With online dating's growing popularity, research needs to examine how online daters navigate dating markets given educational preferences they hold and 'freedom of choice' offered by technologies. This study aims to investigate individuals' educational preferences and how educational preferences shape mate selection processes in online dating. In-depth interviews were conducted with 29 university-educated, heterosexual online daters (13 men, 16 women) in Shanghai. Data were analyzed through a combination of abductive and inductive coding strategies. Results showed that both educational levels and university prestige were primary mate selection criteria in online dating. Both genders considered educational sorting essential for achieving cultural matching, but only men emphasized the importance of spouse's education for their future children's education. Furthermore, guided by their educational preferences, online daters deliberately chose dating platforms and screened dating candidates. We argue that online daters' emphasis on university prestige is rooted in China's hierarchical higher education system, and gendered rationales for educational preferences stem from ingrained gender roles in Chinese families. Seemingly "personal" preferences are therefore shaped by cultural norms and institutional contexts. Moreover, results suggest that online dating may reinforce social closure among China's educational elites.
... Therefore, studying exam-based and task-based approaches with relation to summative and formative evaluation should be seen as a very valid and essential endeavour. Additionally, there is significant amount of evidence in the literature claiming that exam-driven education is not only harmful for the mental and indirectly physical health of the students but also do not contribute much to the educational ideals and deep learning (Rillero & Padgett, 2012;Yu & Suen, 2005;Mackatiani, 2017;Kılıçkaya, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated ELT students’ opinions about the convenience of exam-based or task-based approaches for their learning process, concerning three criteria that relate to the effectiveness of task-based and exam-based education: 1. the contribution to the professional and personal development of the students (whether task-based or exam-based applications develop them better); 2. the contribution to their critical and creative skills; and 3. the advantages and disadvantages of task-based and exam-based approaches. Exam-based approach as summative assessment type and task-based approach as formative assessment type were compared in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Findings indicate that the majority of the students are not satisfied with the summative assessment system. Participants believe that the formative evaluation approach is more appropriate for them. The results propose that the conventional approach, which is based on an exam-focused system in the English Language Teaching Department, should be changed in order to enhance future English teachers’ creative skills as well as their personal and professional development as far as possible.
... A second factor is the stressful nature of China's educational system. The "exam culture" of education in China has existed since the 7th century, and it continues through state systems of high-stakes exams, such as the ultra-competitive college entrance exam and the equally rigorous high school entrance exam [11]. The role of exams in academic attainment increases academic pressure on students in China, which may exacerbate pre-existing vulnerabilities to depression and anxiety. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although children living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) account for 90% of the global population of children, depression, and anxiety among children in LMICs have been understudied. This study examines the prevalence of depression and anxiety and their associations with biological and psychosocial factors among children across China, with a focus on rural areas. We conducted a large-scale epidemiological study of depression and anxiety among 53,421 elementary and junior high school-aged children across China. The results show that 20% are at risk for depression, 6% are at risk for generalized anxiety, and 68% are at risk for at least one type of anxiety. Girls and junior high school students show a higher risk for both depression and anxiety symptoms, while socioeconomic status has varying associations to depression and anxiety symptoms. Our results also show consistent correlations between depression and anxiety symptoms and standard math test scores. These findings underscore the importance of identification, prevention, and treatment of youth depression and anxiety in underdeveloped areas. As China constitutes 15% of the global population of children under age 18, this study offers valuable information to the field of global mental health.
... High-stakes examinations such as the middle-school entrance examination (xiao sheng chu), the high-school entrance examination (zhongkao), and the national college entrance examination (gaokao) mark some of the most significant milestones in secondary education for Chinese students, with a significant impact on their higher education and future career development (e.g., Jin & Yan, 2017;Qi, 2005). In such an exam-driven educational landscape, secondary-level EFL teachers in China are either required or incentivized to circumscribe instructional objectives and resources to ensure students' success on those examinations (Yu & Suen, 2005). Previous research has also indicated that EFL teachers in secondary schools play an essential role in the development and use of classroom-based, schoolbased, and municipal English exams embedded in the standardized language education curricula (Yan et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent investigations into language assessment literacy (LAL) suggest that stakeholder groups might differ in interests, needs, and expectations in assessment practice, resulting in different LAL profiles. This qualitative study furthers this line of research by examining the effect of contextual and experiential factors on the LAL profiles and development of different stakeholder groups. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 20 participants from three stakeholder groups in China, including language testers, EFL teachers, and graduate students. Results indicate that LAL profile differences existed at both group and individual levels. At the group level, language-testing researchers and students demonstrated greater familiarity with assessment concepts than did EFL teachers; however, EFL teachers were able to understand and link those concepts with assessment practices. At the individual level, each participant experienced a different LAL development process; yet, these processes share some common patterns. Based on these patterns, a common LAL development model for all stakeholders is proposed. Assessment training should consider the resources in stakeholders’ assessment contexts and their experiences in assessment development, use, and research and develop realistic expectations in LAL development for different stakeholders.
... It is fair to say that the academic setting brings about highly individualistic beliefs that it is important, acceptable, and even celebrated to compete and outperform others on academic tests. The desire to obtain the highest test scores so as to gain access to the best educational opportunity is fueling China's "education fever" and dictates the daily activities of Chinese parents, teachers and students (Kipnis, 2011;Wang & Ross, 2010;Yu & Suen, 2005). In fact, a closer look at Chinese parents' educational involvement and investment shows a well-formed individualistic value system driven by the desire to give their own children an edge over the children of their neighbors, colleagues, friends, and even relatives (Kai, 2012;Wang & Li, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Collectivism remains a dominant force in the Chinese society and schooling is a process to instill collectivistic values in the students, although there has been a noticeable increase in individualistic orientation among Chinese youth. Because China’s meritocratic educational system endorses high individualism to enhance academic competitiveness and performance, the Chinese educational system is contradictorily both collectivistic and individualistic. Within meritocratic educational systems, academic performance influences students’ psychosocial adjustment. However, the role of students’ individualistic orientation and collectivistic orientation on their psychosocial adjustment and the role of them on the link between academic performance and psychosocial adjustment are not well understood. To address this issue, we obtained survey data from 1003 6–12th grade Chinese students on their academic performance, individualistic orientation, collectivistic orientation, and psychosocial adjustment (i.e., self-esteem, anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms, peer relations, and parent–child relationship quality). Results showed the students’ academic performance scores predicted scores for all five psychosocial adjustment subscales in expected directions; higher collectivistic orientation scores predicted lower depression scores, higher parent–child relationship quality scores and peer relation scores, while higher individualistic orientation scores predicted higher self-esteem scores and higher depression scores. Finally, the influence of academic performance on anxiety symptoms was moderated by the students’ individualistic orientation.
Book
Evaluating Language Assessments offers a comprehensive overview of the theoretical bases and research methodologies for the evaluation of language assessments and demonstrates the importance of a fuller understanding of this widely used evaluative tool. The volume explores language assessment evaluation in its wider political, economic, social, legal, and ethical contexts while also illustrating quantitative and qualitative methods through discussions of key research studies. Suitable for students in applied linguistics, second language acquisition and language assessment and education, this book makes the case for a clear and rigorous understanding of the theoretical and methodological underpinnings of language assessment evaluation in order to achieve fair assessments and just institutions.
Article
Full-text available
This study of transferring management and business knowledge in China tapped the views and opinions of 43 expert management educators who had participated in the transfer of management knowledge in China from the mid-1990s to the present time. It traces the development of management education in China following the implementation of the 1978 Open Door Policy, demonstrates the impact of China’s national culture on knowledge transfer, identifies success factors in the process, and exposes the noncomparability of culture-specific approaches to managing people and organizations. We argue that the management values, attitudes, and practices of Chinese managers are diverging from those in the West, which has significant implications for the curriculum and pedagogy employed in the delivery of management education. Understanding the basis for this divergence will benefit expat and local manager alike as they negotiate their managerial roles in cross-border organizations like international joint ventures (IJVs).
Article
Since the restoration of the Gaokao (College Entrance Examination) in 1977 and the nationwide higher education expansion that started in 1998, millions of rural students have enrolled in urban universities. Though Chinese rural students’ educational trajectories have received extensive attention, their subjective experiences in the rapidly changing context of the higher education system remain insufficiently represented in the literature. This paper utilises a life history approach to explore three successful rural students’ journeys towards and through higher education, graduating from university in the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s. Through interweaving the social context and individual accounts in this paper, I examine how educational aspirations (as individual choices and strategies) are shaped by changes in the social milieus in which one is situated and how rural students perceive classed differences in the context of an expanding urban–rural divide. I highlight the point that rural families’ aspirations towards higher education are not simply personal preference but rather are constructed within the nexus of perceived limitations and opportunities and are complexly shaped by the social and economic context. I argue that, though the forms of symbolic domination might vary across the studied timeframe—from clothes to extra-curricular activities to comprehensive ability—the rural students’ disadvantaged situation in the urban university remained largely unchanged.
Article
Full-text available
With the reform movement in 1978, the Chinese government began to make great efforts to develop its country’s education. Xi Jinping’s administration has continued these efforts, attempting to achieve a world-class education system by 2020. This paper will examine the accomplishments of the Chinese education system in the post-Mao era, and discuss the gap between the current status of Chinese education and the requirements of a world-class education, ultimately arguing that there is still a big gap between a Chinese education and the most advantaged education systems in the world. To establish a globalized educational system, build world-class universities, and train internationally recognized Chinese scholars, this paper suggests that it is necessary for China to scrutinize and reshape its educational philosophy, since a philosophy of education is the guiding principle for any country to achieve the goal of providing its citizens with a world-class education.
Article
Full-text available
Although the proliferation of empirical research has documented the association between parental control and school adjustment, findings of this linkage are still inconclusive. Moreover, fewer efforts have been made to address this association in middle school students. Guided by an ecological framework, the current study aimed to integrate the conflicting findings into a coherent body of knowledge, paying particular attention to two research purposes: (a) to examine the association between parental control and three objective indicators of school adjustment (social competence, academic grades, and peer acceptance) and (b) to explore whether this association was moderated by individual characteristics of social identity and grit. A total of 120 Chinese middle school students (42.5% females) aged between 13 and 15 years old were recruited for this study, and research data were gathered from multiple sources. To be specific, students were asked to complete a set of self-report questionnaires concerning parental control, social identity, and grit. Meanwhile, school-related social competence was rated by head teachers; academic grades were obtained from school records; and peer acceptance was assessed by sociometric nominations. The results from hierarchical regression analyses showed that parental control was negatively associated with academic grades. Moreover, when reporting higher levels of social identity, parental control was negatively related to social competence and peer acceptance for those students with lower levels of grit. Our findings suggest that parental control can dampen middle school students’ academic performance, and low levels of grit can magnify the detrimental effect of parental control on social competence and peer acceptance in middle school students who regard themselves as closely connected to social groups.
Article
This study investigates Chinese adolescents’ overseas study tours from the perspectives of both Chinese adolescents and their parents. Fifty in-depth interviews were conducted and analyzed with 30 adolescents and 20 parents. Data analysis results suggest three primary types of activities in an overseas study tour: sightseeing tours, schooling programs and socializing with the locals. A variety of reasons for overseas study tours from the perspectives of Chinese adolescents (a taste of college education in foreign countries, global perspectives, socialization, independence, novelty and fun) and their parents (child’s future plans, child’s social development, the lost college dream) are identified. The key findings of this study pinpoint a number of important social, economic, cultural forces in today’s China society that shape and are reflected in Chinese adolescents’ and their parents’ perspectives on overseas study tours, including globalization, China’s modernization, China’s contemporary single-child family structure and Chinese traditional cultural values.
Article
The implementation of minority language education policies is always socially, economically, and politically embedded. This paper focuses on the implementation of Tibetan language education policies in a secondary school dominated by students who are officially categorized as Tibetan, to investigate the nuances of individual practices as they are situated in particular institutional and social contexts. Adopting ethnography of language policy as the guiding theoretical and methodological framework, a two-month fieldwork was carried out with data collected from multiple sources. The analysis highlights social actors’ different forms of positioning regarding the unique institutional space of Tibetan language education, and pries open a local market wherein Tibetan language education has obtained a high pragmatic value for students’ pursuit of academic advancement and upward social mobility. However, it also points to dilemmas facing social actors as the pragmatic value could not directly translate into higher symbolic power for the Tibetan language. (148 words)
Article
Children's social status in China includes both informal (e.g., social preference) and formal (e.g., class leader) statuses. This study examines the associations among caregivers’ characteristics, children's characteristics, children's social preference, and being a class leader by using multiple sources of information (caregiver reports, self‐ratings, sociometric methods, and achievement data). The participants were 1,926 fourth‐ to ninth‐graders (Mage = 12.7; 49.7% males) and their primary caregivers. The caregivers’ characteristics were found to be related more closely to class leader than to social preference. Both higher children's interpersonal character and academic achievement were associated with higher social preference and class leader; however, academic achievement showed stronger relationships with both types of status than interpersonal character. The children's characteristics mediated the associations between caregivers’ characteristics and children's social statuses. The grade difference test showed that interpersonal character had a stronger association with social preference, and academic achievement had a stronger association with class leader in secondary school than in primary school. The results suggest that children's characteristics (especially academic achievement) are strongly related to Chinese children's social preference and being a class leader. In addition, the potential role of caregivers’ characteristics and the influence of child age are noteworthy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
This article concerns „gaokao” Chinese exams. I show how the „high stakes” tests (the essence of these exams) create the winners and losers in the battle for stratification success. They set up, as a one-time „selection act”, the trajectory of a career and the whole future life of young Chinese. At the same time, they are an example of the entanglement of the testing process in politics and of the enormous (and overwhelming) social pressure on young people.
Article
Full-text available
The journey of acquiring proficiency in a second and/or foreign language is lifelong for many learners. In the search for the best educational pedagogies, a study was conducted in which learners’ motivations were categorised to analyse each driving effect over learning performance. A retrospective case study of 20 Chinese PhD students learning English in China (i.e. English as a Foreign Language—EFL) and in overseas (i.e. English as a Second Language—ESL) contexts was employed. This study identified 12 different motivational categories which were classified as controlled and autonomous motivations for learning English. Moreover, this study shows both continuity and change in students’ motivations: there was a continuity of autonomous motivation over time and across the two contexts, whereas change (d = .54) was seen in the frequency of controlled motivation between the two contexts. Specifically, the motivation of these 20 students was dominated by passing exams or proficiency tests in the EFL context and by communication in the ESL context, which possibly accounts for ‘silent English’ phenomenon in China. Analysis of trends of changes in motivation across different study stages indicated that external regulation belonging to controlled motivation experienced the most fluctuation. This fluctuation was attributed to enrolment pressure in China as well as the immediate demand of communication and the high-stakes PhD study while studying abroad. The results suggest that the development of language learners’ motivation is a dynamic process and contingent upon levels of schooling or learning contexts.
Chapter
China and the United States have long histories of educating their populations. Currently, all children in both China and the United States are mandated to attend for a minimum of nine years, and schools are free for students. Although education in China and the United States may be accessible to all, do all groups have equal opportunities for success? While addressing this topic, some questions arise: What is the historical background of education and schools in each nation? What is the current status of literacy in both countries? Are there inequality in learning opportunities for children in China and in the United States? What are some possible reasons for unequal access to education?
Article
Previous studies have shown that Chinese students tend to keep quiet in communication-oriented English classes. However, one Chinese university has been conducting a course, Communicative English for Chinese Learners (CECL), for over 30 years. How do they engage students in communication, when other studies have continuously reported resistance? In the current study, we observed 28 CECL class-sessions, conducted by three teachers. We also interviewed these three teachers and 16 students to understand their beliefs and experiences in CECL. Analysis revealed two types of instructional strategies, hierarchical and horizontal, that facilitated Chinese students’ participation in classroom communications. Interestingly, although students enjoyed the classroom communications, they did not feel they learned as much from the communicative approach as they did from lectures.
Chapter
Over the past three decades, the international community has witnessed China’s increasing integration into the global economy and dramatic changes to every aspect of its social life (Postiglione GA (ed). Education and social change in China: inequality in a market economy. M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, 2006). Shanghai, as the largest metropolis and economic centre in China, has been widely expected to play a leading role in the modernisation process of the national economy and technological innovation. As early as the 1990s, the Shanghai government set the goal of establishing itself as a global city and in its 10th Five-Year Plan (2001–2005), declared its aim to become a centre of international commerce, finance, trade and shipping by 2020 (Leman, China Bus Rev 29(5): 7–15, 2002). The Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, a dominant force in the governance of China, encouraged Shanghai to play a prominent role “leading to change the mode of economic growth, leading to improve the capability of independent innovation, leading to promote reform and opening to the world, and leading to building a harmonious socialist society” (Xinhua News, ‘Four centers’ and ‘four leaders’ (in Chinese). Retrieved from http://www.sh.xinhuanet.com/misc/2007-05/23/content_10097532.htm, 2007). To realise these goals, the Shanghai Municipal Government (The outline of the Eleventh Five-Year Plan of Shanghai for national economic and social development (in Chinese). Retrieved from http://www.shanghai.gov.cn/shanghai/node2314/node2315/node4411/userobject21ai141039.html, 2006) advocated development of innovation to enhance the international competitiveness of the city and the use of science and education as the major strategy to achieve development of the city.
Article
This paper examines the relationships between political centralism and the Imperial Examination in imperial China and the National College Entrance Examination (NCEE) in the People's Republic of China. A brief history of the two systems is given. The purposes, characteristics, strengths and limits of the two systems are discussed. The relationships between the two systems and Chinese education, the relationships between the two systems and Chinese political systems, and the relationships between the two systems and the common people in different historical periods are also discussed. These discussions lead to the understanding that the two systems have served the political needs of both the ruling classes and the commoners (although it has been limited for the latter), and contributed to the continuity of political centralism. The NCEE is still indispensable but it needs reform.
This book is a path-breaking study of print culture in early modern China. It argues that printing with both woodblocks and movable type exerted a profound influence on Chinese society in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The book examines the rise and impact of print culture from both economic and cultural perspectives. In economic terms, the central issues were the price of books and the costs of book production. Chow argues that contrary to accepted views, inexpensive books were widely available to a growing literate population. An analysis of the economic and operating advantages of woodblock printing explains why it remained the dominant technology even as the use of movable type was expanding. The cultural focus shows the impact of commercial publishing on the production of literary culture, particularly on the civil service examination. The expansion of the book market produced publicity for literary professionals whose authority came to challenge the authority of the official examiners.
A test-dominated society: China, 1115B.C.-1905A.D
  • Philip H Dubois
DuBois, Philip H. (1964). A test-dominated society: China, 1115B.C.-1905A.D.
The ladder of success in imperial China Law of Education in People's Republic of China Retrieved December 12 Explanation on NCEE scores in Hunan Province from Document of Education Committee in Keju kaoshi de jiaoyu shijiao
  • Ping-Ti Ho
Ho, Ping-ti (1962). The ladder of success in imperial China. New York: Wiley & Sons. Law of Education in People's Republic of China (1995). Retrieved December 12, 2003 from http://www.nuaa.edu.cn/xcb_web/law_study/jiaoyufa.htm Li, H. Z. (2002). Explanation on NCEE scores in Hunan Province from Document of Education Committee in Hunan Province Liu, Haifeng Á õ º £ · å (1996). Keju kaoshi de jiaoyu shijiao ¿ AE ¾ Ù ¿ ¼ Ê Ô µ Ä ½ Ì Ó ý Ê Ó ½ Ç (The education angle of the Keju examinations.) Hankou, Hubei: Hubei Education Publishers º þ ± ± ½ Ì Ó ý ³ ö ° ae É ç .
Zhongguo gaokao baogao Ö Ð ¹ ú ¸ ß ¿ ¼ ± ¨ ¸ ae (China Gaokao Report)
  • J M He
He, J. M º Î ½ ¨ Ã ÷ (2000). Zhongguo gaokao baogao Ö Ð ¹ ú ¸ ß ¿ ¼ ± ¨ ¸ ae (China Gaokao Report). Beijing: Huaxia Publishing House » ª Ï Ä ³ ö ° ae É ç .
A history of Chinese examination system)
  • Ssu-Yu Teng
Teng, Ssu-yu µ Ë Ë Ã Ó í (1967). Zhongguo Kaoshi zhidu shi. Ö Ð ¹ ú ¿ ¼ Ê Ô Ö AE ¶ È Ê · (A history of Chinese examination system). Taipei: Student Bookstore Ñ § É ú Ê é ¾ Ö .
Gaokao Reinstitution after Cultural Revolution China Youth Daily
  • C Wang
Wang C. (2001) Gaokao Reinstitution after Cultural Revolution China Youth Daily, retrieved December 16, 2003 from http://education.163.com/edit/010116/
Competitive examinations in China
  • William A P Martin
Martin, William A. P. (1870). Competitive examinations in China. North American Review, 111, 62-77.
Exploration on NCEE system reform
  • X Y Chen
Chen, X. Y. (1997). Exploration on NCEE system reform-"3+1" format. China Exam, 1997, Vol.1
A history of psychological testing
  • Philip H Dubois
DuBois, Philip H. (1970). A history of psychological testing. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Reform on tested subjects in NCEE. China Exam
  • X C He
He, X. C. (1998). Reform on tested subjects in NCEE. China Exam, 1998, Vol.5, 25-27
Translated by Conrad Schirokauer) China's examination
  • Ichisada Miyazaki
Miyazaki, Ichisada (1976) (Translated by Conrad Schirokauer) China's examination
Lishi de kuse: Juzi de mingyun : (The bitterness of history: The fate of exam candidates)
  • Fei Chen
Chen, Fei (1993). Lishi de kuse: Juzi de mingyun : (The bitterness of history: The fate of exam candidates). Taipei, Taiwan: Yunlong Publishers .
Average admission rate reached 60% in 2003
China Central Television International (2003) Average admission rate reached 60% in 2003. Retrieved January 14, 2004 from http://www.southcn.com/news/china/zgkx/ 200308310750.htm
Zhongguo gudai kaoshi zhidu (Ancient examination systems of China)
  • Qijia Guo
Guo, Qijia (1994). Zhongguo gudai kaoshi zhidu (Ancient examination systems of China). Taipei: Taiwan Commercial publishers .
Zhongguo gaokao baogao (China Gaokao Report)
  • J He
He, J. M (2000). Zhongguo gaokao baogao (China Gaokao Report). Beijing: Huaxia Publishing House .
Law of Education in People's Republic of China
  • Ping - Ho
Ho, Ping-ti (1962). The ladder of success in imperial China. New York: Wiley & Sons. Law of Education in People's Republic of China (1995). Retrieved December 12, 2003 from http://www.nuaa.edu.cn/xcb_web/law_study/jiaoyufa.htm
Explanation on NCEE scores in Hunan Province from Document of Education Committee in Hunan Province Liu
  • H Z Li
Li, H. Z. (2002). Explanation on NCEE scores in Hunan Province from Document of Education Committee in Hunan Province Liu, Haifeng (1996). Keju kaoshi de jiaoyu shijiao (The education angle of the Keju examinations.) Hankou, Hubei: Hubei Education Publishers .
Zhongguo Kaoshi zhidu shi. (A history of Chinese examination system)
  • Ssu-Yu Teng
Teng, Ssu-yu (1967). Zhongguo Kaoshi zhidu shi. (A history of Chinese examination system). Taipei: Student Bookstore .
Gaokao Huifu ershi nian (Reinstitution NCEE for twenty years) National Education Examinations Authority
  • Xue-Wei Yang
Yang, Xue-wei (1997), Gaokao Huifu ershi nian (Reinstitution NCEE for twenty years) National Education Examinations Authority.
Lun Keju kaoshi zhong de shifu qu shi (On the selection of scholars based on poetry and poetic essays in Keju exams)
  • Rui Zhang
Zhang, Rui (2002). Lun Keju kaoshi zhong de shifu qu shi (On the selection of scholars based on poetry and poetic essays in Keju exams).