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Effects of high-protein vs. high- fat snacks on appetite control, satiety, and eating initiation in healthy women

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Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether a high-protein afternoon yogurt snack improves appetite control, satiety, and reduces subsequent food intake compared to other commonly-consumed, energy dense, high-fat snacks. Findings Twenty, healthy women (age: 27 ± 2 y; BMI: 23.4 ± 0.7 kg/m2) completed the randomized crossover design study which included 3, 8-h testing days comparing the following 160 kcal afternoon snacks: high-protein yogurt (14 g protein/25 g CHO/0 g fat); high-fat crackers (0 g protein/19 g CHO/9 g fat); and high-fat chocolate (2 g protein/19 g CHO/9 g fat). Participants were acclimated to each snack for 3 consecutive days. On day 4, the participants consumed a standardized breakfast and lunch; the respective snack was consumed 3-h post-lunch. Perceived hunger and fullness were assessed throughout the afternoon until dinner was voluntarily requested. An ad libitum dinner was then provided. The consumption of the yogurt snack led to greater reductions in afternoon hunger vs. chocolate (p < 0.01). No differences in afternoon fullness were detected. The yogurt snack also delayed eating initiation by approximately 30 min compared to the chocolate snack (p < 0.01) and approximately 20 min vs. crackers (p = 0.07). The yogurt snack led to approximately 100 fewer kcals consumed at dinner vs. the crackers (p = 0.08) and chocolate (p < 0.05). No other differences were detected. Conclusion These data suggest that, when compared to high-fat snacks, eating less energy dense, high-protein snacks like yogurt improves appetite control, satiety, and reduces subsequent food intake in healthy women.
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SH O R T REP O R T Open Access
Effects of high-protein vs. high- fat snacks on
appetite control, satiety, and eating initiation in
healthy women
Laura C Ortinau, Heather A Hoertel, Steve M Douglas and Heather J Leidy
*
Abstract
Background: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a high-protein afternoon yogurt snack improves
appetite control, satiety, and reduces subsequent food intake compared to other commonly-consumed, energy
dense, high-fat snacks.
Findings: Twenty, health y women (age: 27 ± 2 y; BMI: 23.4 ± 0.7 kg/m
2
) completed the randomized crossover
design study which included 3, 8-h testing days comparing the following 160 kcal afternoon snacks: high-protein
yogurt (14 g protein/25 g CHO/0 g fat); high-fat crackers (0 g protein/19 g CHO/9 g fat); and high-fat chocolate (2 g
protein/19 g CHO/9 g fat). Participants were acclimated to each snack for 3 consecutive days. On day 4, the
participants consumed a standardized breakfast and lunch; the respective snack was consumed 3-h post-lunch.
Perceived hunger and fullness were assessed throughout the aftern oon until dinner was voluntarily requested. An
ad libitum dinner was then provided. The consumption of the yogurt snack led to greater reductions in afternoon
hunger vs. chocolate (p < 0.01). No differences in afternoon fullness were detected. The yogurt snack also delayed
eating initiation by approximately 30 min compared to the chocolate snack (p < 0.01) and approximately 20 min vs.
crackers (p = 0.07). The yogurt snack led to approximately 100 fewer kcals consumed at dinner vs. the crackers
(p = 0.08) and chocolate (p < 0.05). No other differences were detected.
Conclusion: These data suggest that, when compared to high-fat snacks, eating less energy dense, high-protein
snacks like yogurt improves appetite control, satiety, and reduces subsequent food intake in healthy women.
Keywords: Snacking, Appetite, Satiety, Protein, Eating initiation, Energy density
Findings
Background
Over the past 30 years, there has bee n a significant in-
crease in the number of snacking occasions in the US,
which has occurred concomitantly with the rise in obes-
ity [1,2]. The relationship between increased snacking
and obesity may well be attributed to the types of foods
typically con sumed in these smaller in-between meal
eating occasions. In the US population, nearly one third
of daily intake is comprised of snack foods which tend
to be nutrient-poor, yet energy dense foods (i.e., desserts,
salty/high fat snacks, and candy) that are high in satu-
rated fat and/or simple sugars and may lead to energy
surplus/over-eating [1,3]. However, limited data exist re-
garding whether the replacement of energy dense, high-
fat snacks with healthier alternatives ha s a beneficial
effect on food intake regulation.
Two well-established dietary factors that consistently
improve appetite control, satiety, and/or reduce daily food
intake include the consumption of low energy dense foods
[4] and increased dietary protein [5]. Recent data from our
lab demonstrated that the consumption of a less energy
dense, higher protein yogurt snack led to reduced post-
snack hunger, increased post-snack fullness, and delayed
eating initiation compared to yogurts that were lower in
protein content and higher in energy density [6]. Thus, we
sought to extend the previous findings to examine whether
the consumption of a less energy dense, high-protein
yogurt snack leads to greater appetite control, satiety, and
reductions in subsequent food intake compared to other
* Correspondence: leidyh@health.missouri.edu
Department of Nutrition & Exerc ise Physiology, School of Medicine,
University of Missouri, 307 Gwynn Hall, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
© 2014 Ortinau et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and
reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain
Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article,
unless otherwise stated.
Ortinau et al. Nutrition Journal 2014, 13:97
http://www.nutritionj.com/content/13/1/97
commonly consumed snacks that are energy-dense and
high in fat.
Methods
Twenty pre-menopausal women were recruited through
flyers posted on the University of Missouri campus or
through the Universitys email listserv. Participants were
healthy, non-smoking women (age: 27 ± 2 y; BMI: 23.4 ±
0.7 kg/m
2
) who had no food allergies, eating disorders,
diabetes, recent rapid weight loss/gain, not on medica-
tion that would alter appetite, and followed a typical eat-
ing pattern including 3 meals/day and an afternoon
snack. All participants were informed of the study objec-
tives, procedures, and potential risk s. Written consent
was obtained from all participants. The study procedures
were approved by the University of Missouris Human
Subjects Institutional Review Board.
The study incorporated a randomized, crossover design
comparing three isocaloric, commonly consumed after-
noon snacks (i.e., yogurt, crackers, chocolate) that varied
in macronutrient composition and physical characteristics
(Table 1). In general, the yogurt was less energy dense,
high in protein, and low in fat, whereas the crackers and
chocolate were more energy dense, low in protein, and
high in fat. The participants were provided with each
snack to consume, at home/work, for 3 consecutive days.
On day 4 of each pattern, the participants consumed a
standardized 300 kcal breakfast meal (18% protein; 61%
carbohydrates; 22% fat), at home, and reported to our fa-
cility 1-h prior to their usual lunch time to begin the 8-h
testing day. Each participant was placed in a comfortable
room that was absent of time cues. The testing day began
with the consumption of a standardized 500 kcal lunch
meal (14% protein; 69% carbohydrate; 30% fat). The re-
spective snack pattern was completed 3-h after lunch. The
participants had 15 min to consume the snack and 236
mL (i.e., 8 ounces) water. Immediately following the com-
pletion of the snack, a 100 mm visual analog scale ques-
tionnaire assessing palatability was completed to assess
overall liking of the snack. In addition, computerized, 100
mm visual analog scale questionnaires assessing appetite
sensations [7] were completed every 30 min throughout
the afternoon until dinner was voluntarily requested. Once
this occurred, the participant was fed an ad libitum dinner
of pizza pockets (290 kcal/pocket; 14% protein; 63% car-
bohydrates; 22% fat) with 236 mL (i.e., 8 ounces) and was
instructed to eat until feeling comfortably full within 30
min. Regardless of time of dinner request, the participants
were required to remain in the facility until the full 8-h
testing day was completed. Water was provided ad libi-
tum throughout the testing day. For a more detailed de-
scription of the methodology, please see refs [6,8] which
included similar experimental designs as what wa s in-
corporated within the current study.
Data and statistical analys es
Summary statistics (sample means, net incremental area
under the curve (AUC), and/or SEM) were computed
for all data. A repeated measures ANOVA was applied
to compare the main effects of snacking on perceived sen-
sations, time to dinner request, and dinner energy content.
When main effects were detected, post hoc analyses were
performed using Least Significant Difference procedures
to identify differences between treatments. All analyses
were conducted using the Statistical Package for the Social
Sciences (SPSS; version 21; Chicago, IL).
Results
Post-snack perceived hunger and fullness are shown in
Figure 1. The consumption of each snack led to immediate
reductions in hunger and increases in fullness, followed by
gradual increases in hunger and decreases in fullness
throughout the afternoon until dinner was requested. The
consumption of the yogurt snack led to greater reductions
in afternoon hunger AUC compared to the chocolate snack
(p < 0.01). No differences in afternoon hunger AUC were
detected between the yogurt vs. crackers or between the
crackers vs. chocolate. In examining specific time points,
the yogurt snack led to lower hunger at 90 min post-snack
(33 ± 5 mm*min) compared to the chocolate (50 ± 5
mm*min, p < 0.01) and cracker (40 ± 5 mm*min, p = 0.05)
snacks. No differences in afternoon fullness A UC were
observed between the snacks. However, fullness at 90 min
post-snack was greater following the yogurt snack (52 ± 5
mm*min) vs. chocolate (31 ± 6 mm*min, p < 0.01) but not
crackers (44 ± 6 mm*min, NS). Additionally, the consump-
tion of the crackers led to greater fullness at 90 min post-
snack vs. chocolate (p < 0.03).
The consumption of the yogurt snack delayed dinner
eating initiation, which is an index of satiety, by approxi-
mately 30 min compared to the chocolate snack (yogurt:
164 ± 7 min post-snack vs. chocolate: 137 ± 9 min post-
snack, p < 0.01) and by approximately 20 min compared
to the crackers (144 ± 10 min post-snack, p = 0.07). No
Table 1 Snack characteristics
Yogurt Crackers Chocolate
Serving 6 oz. Cup 10 Crackers 9 Pieces
Energy Content (kcal (kJ)) 160 (38) 160 (38) 160 (38)
Energy Density (kcal/g) 0.94 5.10 4.87
Total Protein (g) 14 0 2
Total Carbohydrates (g) 25 19 19
Sugar (g) 20 2 18
Total Fat (g) 0 9 9
Snack Palatability (mm) 70 ± 10 80 ± 5 80 ± 10
Ortinau et al. Nutrition Journal 2014, 13:97 Page 2 of 5
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differences in eating initiation were observed between
the crackers and chocolate snacks.
The ad libitum dinner intake is shown in Figure 2.
The consumption of the yogurt snack led to approxi-
mately 100 fewer kcals consumed at dinner compared to
the crackers (p < 0.05) and chocolate (p = 0.08). No dif-
ferences in dinner intake were observed between the
crackers and chocolate.
Discussion
The consumption of a less energy dense, high-protein
yogurt snack led to greater reductions in afternoon hun-
ger, delayed the onset of eating, and reduced food intake
at the dinner meal compared to energy dense, high-fat
snacks including crackers and/or choco late. These data
suggest that eating less energy dense, high-protein foods
like yogurt improves appetite control, satiety, and re-
duces short-term food intake in women.
A macronutrient hierarchy exists in which the satiety
effects of foods can be attributed, in part, to their nutri-
tional composition with the consumption of dietary fat
having the lowest satiety effect and protein displaying
the greatest effect [9-11]. Another closely-linked dietary
factor that has strong satiety properties includes the
energy density of the foods [4]. Studies by Rolls et al.
[4,12,13] consistently illustrate increased satiety and re-
duced food intake when consuming less energy dense
foods compared to more energy dense foods. Since high-
protein foods are typically less energy dense than high-
fat foods, it is difficult to tease out the independent
effects of macronutrient content and energy density.
However, we have pre viously shown that, when matched
Figure 1 Appetite and satiety. Perceived hunger (A) and fullness (B) assessed from the time of snack consumption () until voluntary dinner
request in 20 healthy women. The post-snack net incremental area under the curve (AUC) is illustrated in the bar graphs. Data are represented as
means ± SEM; Different letters denotes significance p<0.05.
Ortinau et al. Nutrition Journal 2014, 13:97 Page 3 of 5
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for energy density, the consumption of higher protein
meals lead to improved appetite control and satiety com-
pared to normal protein versions [14].
Several previous snack studies have also examined the
combined effects of reduced energy density and increased
dietary protein [6,15,16]. Specifically, Marmonier et al.
[15] included normal weight men and provided 240 kcal
snacks which varied in macronutrient content and energy
density. Although afternoon hunger and fullness were not
different between snacks, the consumption of the low en-
ergy dense, high-protein snack delayed eating by 35 min
compared to the high energy dense, high-fat snack (p <
0.05) and 25 min compared to a moderate energy dense,
high-carbohydrate snack (p < 0.05). Howe ver, n o differ-
ence in dinner intake was obser ved. In a study by
Chapelot et al. [16] that included normal we ight men,
the consumption of a 285 kcal less energy dense, high-
protein liquid yogurt snack led to a greater increa se in
post-snack fullness and greater decrease in post-snack
hunger compared to a energy dense high-fat chocolate
snack. However, eating initiation and dinner intake were
not different. Las tly, in our previous study in normal
weight women, we examined the effect s of 160 kcal
afternoon yogurt snacks, varying in energy density and
macronutrient content. The less energy dense, high-
protein yogurt led to reduced hunger, increa se d f ullness ,
and de layed subsequent eating compared to the energy
dense, high-carbohydrate version [6]. The inconsistent
findings of eating initiation and diner intake between
the previous studies and the current study may be at-
tributed to the differences in snac k type, macronutrient
content, energy content, and energy de nsity. However, it
is important to note that, despite these differences, none
of the studies showed a negative effect of consuming a
less energy dense, higher protein snack in the afternoon.
Further research is ne cessary to comprehensively iden-
tify the effect s of less energy dense, protein snac k s on
energy i ntake regulat ion.
Limitations
We sought to compare the satiety effects following the
consumption of commercially-available, commonly con-
sumed afternoon snacks. In using this approach, we were
unable to tightly control macronutrient quantity and qual-
ity. Thus, although both high-fat snacks were similar in
carbohydrate content (19 g/snack) and total fat content
(9g/snack), they varied in carbohydrate and fatty acid
composition. Specifically, the chocolate snack contained
mostly simple carbohydrates (18 g), whereas the crackers
included only 2 g of simple carbohydrates. In addition, the
chocolate snack was high in saturated fat (5.5 g) and low
in polyunsaturated fat (0.4 g), whereas the crackers con-
tained only 1.5 g of saturated fat but 5.0 g of polyunsatur-
ated fat. Some, but not all studies, have demonstrated
greater reductions in hunger and/or greater increases in
satiety following the consumption of complex vs. simple
carbohydrates [17] and after the consumption of saturated
vs. polyunsaturated fatty acids [18]. In the current study,
no differences in hunger, satiety, or subsequent food in-
take were detected between the crackers and chocolate,
suggesting that the higher saturated fatty acid content of
the chocolate may have negated the negative effects of the
simply carbohydrates. Collectively, these examples illus-
trate the need to control, not only the macronutrient
content, but the type/quality as well. Other limitations in-
clude the limited assessment of only including perceived
sensations of hunger and satiety in normal weight, adult
women. Thus, further research incorporating both the ap-
petitive and hormonal signals involved with energy intake
regulation in overweight and/or obese individuals is war-
ranted. Lastly, this was an acute trial over the course of a
single day. Longer-term randomized controlled trials are
also critical in establishing whether the daily consumption
of a less energy dense, high-protein snack improves body
weight management.
Conclusion
The less energy dense, high-protein yogurt snack induced
satiety and reduced subsequent food intake compared to
Figure 2 Ad libitum dinner intake following the consumption
of each the afternoon snacks in 20 healthy women. Data are
represented as means ± SEM; Different letters denotes significance
p<0.05, except for *Yogurt vs. Chocolate, p=0.08.
Ortinau et al. Nutrition Journal 2014, 13:97 Page 4 of 5
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other commonly consumed snack s, specifically energy
dense, high-fat crackers and chocolate. These findings
suggest that a less energy dense, high-protein afternoon
snack could be an effective dietary strategy to improve
appetite control and energy intake regulation in he althy
women.
Competing interests
None of the authors have any competing of interests.
Authors contributions
HJL developed the research question and experimental design. HJL, HAH,
and LCO conducted the resea rch. HJL, LCO, and SMD analyzed the data. LCO
developed the initial draft of the paper. All authors substantially contributed
to the completion of the manuscript and all have read and approved the
final manuscript.
Acknowledgements
General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition supplied the funds to
complete the study but was not involved in the design, implementation,
analysis, or interpretation of data.
Received: 1 August 2014 Accepted: 23 September 2014
Published: 29 September 2014
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doi:10.1186/1475-2891-13-97
Cite this article as: Ortinau et al.: Effects of high-protein vs. high- fat
snacks on appetite control, satiety, and eating initiation in healthy
women. Nutrition Journal 2014 13:97.
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... Cheese reduced prospective food consumption compared with water and milk. In a third randomized crossover trial, 20 young women with normal BMIs found that eating yogurt led to greater reductions in hunger but no differences in fullness compared to eating an isocaloric amount of chocolate [26]. In this study, eating yogurt also delayed eating by 30 min compared to chocolate and led to lower caloric consumption at a subsequent ad libitum meal [26]. ...
... In a third randomized crossover trial, 20 young women with normal BMIs found that eating yogurt led to greater reductions in hunger but no differences in fullness compared to eating an isocaloric amount of chocolate [26]. In this study, eating yogurt also delayed eating by 30 min compared to chocolate and led to lower caloric consumption at a subsequent ad libitum meal [26]. Another randomized crossover trial had participants (n=24 adults who were overweight or had obesity) consume a standardized evening meal the night before the intervention, arrive fasted, and consume 500 mL of either a cola beverage, semi-skimmed milk, diet cola, or mineral water. ...
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... Fish appetite is co-regulated by the central system and the peripheral system, through the signal transduction between various appetite regulating factors (including appetite promoting factors and appetite suppressant factors), the "appetite regulating network" of fish is formed (Volkoff et al 2004;Yokobori et al 2012). Food intake is closely related to appetite, and there is evidence in humans, other mammals, and fish that the intake of a high-fat diet can suppress appetite and reduce sensitivity to the present food Ortinau et al 2014;Rasmussen et al 2000;Tantot et al. 2017). In bony fish, fed high carbohydrate diet or injecting glucose intraperitoneally caused rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (Figueiredo-Silva et al 2013), European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) (Castro et al 2015), and Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) decreased appetite and food intake. ...
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... Especially for yogurt, high-protein yogurt afternoon snacks have been shown to increase satiety compared to ones with lower protein content (Douglas et al., 2013;El Khoury et al., 2014) or to high-fat snacks such as crackers and chocolate (Ortinau et al., 2014) contributing to lower subsequent energy intake. However, when plain yogurt with high protein content (23.1 g proteins/141 kcal) was administered to healthy males, no differences in subjective satiety ratings were noticed compared to strawberry yogurt with low protein content (18.3 g protein/167 kcal) (El Khoury et al., 2014). ...
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Satiety is a complex state, influenced by numerous factors that go beyond food ingestion. Satiety influences food habits and behavior, thus affecting human health. This review provides an overview of physiological mechanisms involved in satiety and of methodologies to assess food intake and satiety in both animal models and humans. The following topics are highlighted: differences between satiety and satiation; how the central nervous system regulates food intake and satiety; the impact of different macronutrients on satiety; and how the manipulation of food composition might influence overall satiety. Bringing together knowledge on this myriad of satiety mechanisms and how we can study them is useful to better understand and control obesity and other eating disorders.
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Background Snacking recommendations do not exist, yet snacks contribute substantially to daily energy intakes. While dietary intakes of adults in the United States vary by race/ethnicity, little is known about their snacking patterns. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of snacks stratified by race/ethnicity in adults who participated in the 2011–2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Method Dietary data from 18,679 adults older than 19 years were assessed to examine differences in intakes from snacking occasions by self-identified race/ethnicity. Mean intakes were estimated for total snacking occasions, percentage of day, nutrient density per 100 kcals, and the average snack. Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI) scores were computed for intakes from total day, snack only, and meals only. Analysis of covariance assessed differences between racial/ethnic groups. US Department of Agriculture food categories determined sources of snack foods. Data were weighted to create a nationally representative sample. Results Asians consumed the least amount of daily energy in the form of snacks, while Blacks and Whites consumed the most. Mean intakes of saturated fats and added sugars consumed during snacking occasions were significantly lowest in Asians, and highest in Blacks and Whites. While total and percentage of daily intakes of sodium were lowest in Asians during snacking occasions, they had significantly lowest meal-only HEI sodium subscore, indicating higher sodium consumption of sodium during mealtimes. Conclusions Diet quality of snacks varies significantly by race/ethnicity. These data support the need for development of snacking recommendations with culturally appropriate dietary interventions.
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An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary carbohydrate to lipid (CHO: L) ratios on growth performance, body composition, serum biochemical indexes, lipid metabolism and gene expression of central appetite regulating factors in Chinese perch ( Siniperca chuatsi ) (mean initial weight: 12.86 ± 0.10 g). Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets (fish meal, casein as main protein sources) were formulated to contain different graded CHO:L ratio diets ranging from 0.12, 0.86, 1.71, 3.29 and 7.19. Each diet was assigned to triplicate groups of 18 experimental fish for 8 weeks. Our results revealed that final body weight (FBW), weight gain rate (WGR), specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) increased with dietary CHO:L ratio from 0.12 to 1.71, and then decreased with further increases in dietary CHO:L ratio. A two-slope broken-line regression analysis based on WGR showed that the optimal dietary CHO: L level for maximum growth performance of fish was 1.60. Crude lipid and crude protein content in the liver and glycogen concentration in the muscle and liver were significantly influenced by the dietary CHO:L ratios ( P < 0.05). The lowest crude lipid content in the liver was observed in fish fed the diet with a CHO:L ratio of 1.71( P < 0.05). Dietary CHO:L ratios significantly induced the Glu contents of serum ( P < 0.05). The relative expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism, such as srebp1 and fas in the liver showed a trend of first decreased and then increased with the increase of dietary CHO:L ratios levels. Appropriate CHO:L ratio in the diet can effectively reduce the accumulation of liver fat. We observed in fish fed the 1.71 CHO:L ratio diet showed higher feed intake, up‐regulated mRNA expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti gene-related protein (AGRP), down‐regulated mRNA expression of cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and pro‐opiomelanocorticoid (POMC) significantly as compared to control group. Thus, these results provide the theoretical basis for feed formulation to determine the appropriate CHO:L ratio requirement of Chinese perch.
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Background A large portion of daily intake comes from snacking. One of the increasingly common, healthier snacks includes Greek-style yogurt, which is typically higher in protein than regular yogurt. This study evaluated whether a 160 kcal higher-protein (HP) Greek-style yogurt snack improves appetite control, satiety, and delays subsequent eating compared to an isocaloric normal protein (NP) regular yogurt in healthy women. This study also identified the factors that predict the onset of eating. Findings Thirty-two healthy women (age: 27 ± 2y; BMI: 23.0 ± 0.4 kg/m2) completed the acute, randomized crossover-design study. On separate days, participants came to our facility to consume a standardized lunch followed by the consumption of the NP (5.0 g protein) or HP (14.0 g protein) yogurt at 3 h post-lunch. Perceived hunger and fullness were assessed throughout the afternoon until dinner was voluntarily requested; ad libitum dinner was then provided. Snacking led to reductions in hunger and increases in fullness. No differences in post-snack perceived hunger or fullness were observed between the NP and HP yogurt snacks. Dinner was voluntarily requested at approximately 2:40 ± 0:05 h post-snack with no differences between the HP vs. NP yogurts. Ad libitum dinner intake was not different between the snacks (NP: 686 ± 33 kcal vs. HP: 709 ± 34 kcal; p = 0.324). In identifying key factors that predict eating initiation, perceived hunger, fullness, and habitual dinner time accounted for 30% of the variability of time to dinner request (r = 0.55; p < 0.001). Conclusions The additional 9 g of protein contained in the high protein Greek yogurt was insufficient to elicit protein-related improvements in markers of energy intake regulation.
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Background: Breakfast skipping is a common dietary habit practiced among adolescents and is strongly associated with obesity. Objective: The objective was to examine whether a high-protein (HP) compared with a normal-protein (NP) breakfast leads to daily improvements in appetite, satiety, food motivation and reward, and evening snacking in overweight or obese breakfast-skipping girls. Design: A randomized crossover design was incorporated in which 20 girls [mean ± SEM age: 19 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 28.6 ± 0.7] consumed 350-kcal NP (13 g protein) cereal-based breakfasts, consumed 350-kcal HP egg- and beef-rich (35 g protein) breakfasts, or continued breakfast skipping (BS) for 6 d. On day 7, a 10-h testing day was completed that included appetite and satiety questionnaires, blood sampling, predinner food cue–stimulated functional magnetic resonance imaging brain scans, ad libitum dinner, and evening snacking. Results: The consumption of breakfast reduced daily hunger compared with BS with no differences between meals. Breakfast increased daily fullness compared with BS, with the HP breakfast eliciting greater increases than did the NP breakfast. HP, but not NP, reduced daily ghrelin and increased daily peptide YY concentrations compared with BS. Both meals reduced predinner amygdala, hippocampal, and midfrontal corticolimbic activation compared with BS. HP led to additional reductions in hippocampal and parahippocampal activation compared with NP. HP, but not NP, reduced evening snacking of high-fat foods compared with BS. Conclusions: Breakfast led to beneficial alterations in the appetitive, hormonal, and neural signals that control food intake regulation. Only the HP breakfast led to further alterations in these signals and reduced evening snacking compared with BS, although no differences in daily energy intake were observed. These data suggest that the addition of breakfast, particularly one rich in protein, might be a useful strategy to improve satiety, reduce food motivation and reward, and improve diet quality in overweight or obese teenage girls. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01192100.
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The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.
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Obesity in America continues to be a major public health concern. Emerging scientific evidence suggests that a diet rich in high-quality protein is a beneficial dietary strategy to prevent and/or treat obesity. This paper provides a brief synopsis of the latest research regarding the effects of higher protein diets to improve body weight management and energy intake regulation. Specific focus on the effects of increased dietary protein on appetite control, satiety, and food cravings are also explored.
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Objective Foods that enhance satiety can reduce overconsumption, but the availability of large portions of energy-dense foods may counter their benefits. We tested the influence on meal energy intake of varying the energy density and portion size of food consumed after a preload shown to promote satiety. Design and Methods In a crossover design, 46 women were served lunch on six days. On four days they ate a compulsory salad (300 g, 0.33 kcal/g). Unlike previous studies, instead of varying the preload, the subsequent test meal of pasta was varied between standard and increased levels of both energy density (1.25 or 1.66 kcal/g) and portion size (450 or 600 g). On two control days a salad was not served. Results Following the salad, the energy density and portion size of the test meal independently affected meal energy intake (both p<0.02). Serving the higher-energy-dense pasta increased test meal intake by 153±19 kcal and serving the larger portion of pasta increased test meal intake by 40±16 kcal. Compared to having no salad, consuming the salad decreased test meal intake by 123±18 kcal. Conclusions The effect of satiety-enhancing foods can be influenced by the energy density and portion size of other foods at the meal.
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Unlabelled: The composition of fats within a high-fat (HF) meal may differentially affect hunger and satiety. Purpose: Compare HF meals rich in either monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), or saturated fatty acids (SFAs) on the satiety hormone, peptide YY (PYY), and subjective feelings of hunger and fullness. Methods: Fifteen normal weight women (18-45 year) were randomized in a crossover design to complete three study visits. The three treatments (three visits) were HF meals (70% of energy from fat) rich in MUFAs (42% of total energy), PUFAs (42% of total energy), or SFAs (45% of total energy). At each visit, subjects consumed a HF meal and eight blood draws were collected over a 5 h period. A visual analog scale (VAS) was completed at the same time as each blood draw for subjective feelings of hunger and fullness. Results: The postprandial PYY response (area under the curve) was significantly lower (p<0.05) for the MUFA-rich meal (MUFA: 534.5±27.2 pg/mL/5 h) vs. the SFA-rich or PUFA-rich meals (SFA: 607.3±51.6 pg/mL/5h, PUFA: 633.1±35.8 pg/mL/5 h). The SFA-rich meal elicited greater subjective feelings of fullness compared to MUFA- and PUFA-rich meals (288.1±9.6 vs. 236.8±7.9 and 220.9±7.4 mm/5 h; p=0.04, for 5h AUC for SFA, MUFA, and PUFA, respectively). The only significant correlations between PYY levels and VAS measures were found with the SFA-rich meal. Conclusion: Our data shows that liquid meals rich in MUFAs may elicit a weaker satiety response based on PYY levels compared to liquid meals rich in PUFAs or SFAs in normal weight women.
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Much of the research in ingestive behavior has focused on the macronutrient composition of foods; however, these studies are incomplete, or could be misleading, if they do not consider the energy density (ED) of the diet under investigation. Lowering the ED (kcal/g) by increasing the volume of preloads without changing macronutrient content can enhance satiety and reduce subsequent energy intake at a meal. Ad libitum intake or satiation has also been shown to be influenced by ED when the proportions of macronutrients are constant. Since people tend to eat a consistent weight of food, when the ED of the available foods is reduced, energy intake is reduced. The effects of ED have been seen in adults of different weight status, sex, and behavioral characteristics, as well as in 3- to 5-year-old children. The mechanisms underlying the response to variations in ED are not yet well understood and data from controlled studies lasting more than several days are limited. However, both population-based studies and long-term clinical trials indicate that the effects of dietary ED can be persistent. Several clinical trials have shown that reducing the ED of the diet by the addition of water-rich foods such as fruits and vegetables was associated with substantial weight loss even when patients were not told to restrict calories. Since lowering dietary energy density could provide effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of obesity, there is a need for more studies of mechanisms underlying the effect and ways to apply these findings.
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Pre-portioned entrées are commonly consumed to help control portion size and limit energy intake. The influence of entrée characteristics on energy intake, however, has not been well studied. We determined how the effects of energy content and energy density (ED, kcal/g) of pre-portioned entrées combine to influence daily energy intake. In a crossover design, 68 non-dieting adults (28 men and 40 women) were provided with breakfast, lunch, and dinner on 1 day a week for 4 weeks. Each meal included a compulsory, manipulated pre-portioned entrée followed by a variety of unmanipulated discretionary foods that were consumed ad libitum. Across conditions, the entrées were varied in both energy content and ED between a standard level (100%) and a reduced level (64%). Results showed that in men, decreases in the energy content and ED of pre-portioned entrées acted independently and added together to reduce daily energy intake (both P < 0.01). Simultaneously decreasing the energy content and ED reduced total energy intake in men by 16% (445 ± 47 kcal/day; P < 0.0001). In women, the entrée factors also had independent effects on energy intake at breakfast and lunch, but at dinner and for the entire day the effects depended on the interaction of the two factors (P < 0.01). Simultaneously decreasing the energy content and ED reduced daily energy intake in women by 14% (289 ± 35 kcal/day; P < 0.0001). Both the energy content and ED of pre-portioned entrées affect daily energy intake and could influence the effectiveness of such foods for weight management.