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Creativity: Understanding Innovation in Problem Solving, Science, Invention, and the Arts

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Abstract

How cognitive psychology explains human creativity Conventional wisdom holds that creativity is a mysterious quality present in a select few individuals. The rest of us, the common view goes, can only stand in awe of great creative achievements: we could never paint Guernica or devise the structure of the DNA molecule because we lack access to the rarified thoughts and inspirations that bless geniuses like Picasso or Watson and Crick. Presented with this view, today's cognitive psychologists largely differ finding instead that "ordinary" people employ the same creative thought processes as the greats. Though used and developed differently by different people, creativity can and should be studied as a positive psychological feature shared by all humans. Creativity: Understanding Innovation in Problem Solving, Science, Invention, and the Arts presents the major psychological theories of creativity and illustrates important concepts with vibrant and detailed case studies that exemplify how to study creative acts with scientific rigor. Creativity includes: Two in-depth case studies—Watson and Crick's modeling of the DNA structure and Picasso's painting of Guernica— serve as examples throughout the text Methods used by psychologists to study the multiple facets of creativity The "ordinary thinking" or cognitive view of creativity and its challengers How problem–solving and experience relate to creative thinking Genius and madness and the relationship between creativity and psychopathology The possible role of the unconscious in creativity Psychometrics—testing for creativity and how personality factors affect creativity Confluence theories that use cognitive, personality, environmental, and other components to describe creativity Clearly and engagingly written by noted creativity expert Robert Weisberg, Creativity: Understanding Innovation in Problem Solving, Science, Invention, and the Arts takes both students and lay readers on an in-depth journey through contemporary cognitive psychology, showing how the discipline understands one of the most fundamental and fascinating human abilities. "This book will be a hit. It fills a large gap in the literature. It is a well-written, scholarly, balanced, and engaging book that will be enjoyed by students and faculty alike." —David Goldstein, University of Toronto
... Creativity is often considered as an "intuition" and can't be easily interpreted in a rational way. The creative industries often refer to graphic design, film, music, video game, fashion, advertising, media, or entertainment industries [11], related to the extraordinary thinking by supreme creative individuals [12]. However, creativity actually lies in all creating activities, from art to science, from everyday life to industry production. ...
... However, creativity actually lies in all creating activities, from art to science, from everyday life to industry production. And the thinking behind creativity and all those great creations can be acquired by ordinary people with deliberate practice [12]. Some recent studies summarized creativity as a "multifaceted phenomenon to form value and produce innovation entailing the generation of new intangible or physical item" [13,14]. ...
... Cognitive theories of creativity believed that the processes of creative thinking and thinking involved in solving ordinary problems are basically the same [39], and creative products come through the process of ordinary thinking [12]. This view brings creativity and ordinary people closer together. ...
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Artificial intelligence (AI) is bringing new possibilities to numerous fields. There have been a lot of discussions about the development of AI technologies and the challenges caused by AI such as job replacement and ethical issues. However, it’s far from enough to systematically discuss how to use AI creatively and how AI can enhance human creativity. After studying over 1,600 application cases across more than 45 areas, and analyzing related academic publications, we believe that focusing on the collaboration with AI will benefit us far more than dwelling on the competing against AI. “AI Creativity” is the concept we want to introduce here: the ability for human and AI to co-live and co-create by playing to each other’s strengths to achieve more. AI is a complement to human intelligence, and it consolidates wisdom from all achievements of mankind, making collaboration across time and space possible. AI empowers us throughout the entire creative process, and makes creativity more accessible and more inclusive than ever. The corresponding Human-AI Co-Creation Model we proposed explains the creative process in the era of AI, with new possibilities brought by AI in each phase. In addition, this model allows any “meaning-making” action to be enhanced by AI and delivered in a more efficient way. The emphasis on collaboration is not only an echo to the importance of teamwork, but is also a push for co-creation between human and AI. The study of application cases shows that AI Creativity has been making significant impact in various fields, bringing new possibilities to human society and individuals, as well as new opportunities and challenges in technology, society and education.
... We know about creativity primarily is based on conceptual studies that seek to answer what creativity is and what leads to creativity? The existing evidence shows that creativity is inherent in all people, but several ingredients contribute to creativity, such as individuals' cognitive ability, social environment, time, and place (Cambell, 1960;Csikszentmihalyi, 1994;Guildford, 1967;Mednickk, 1962;Weisberg, 2006;Woodman et al., 1993). Some research considers creativity to occur step by step over a long period of time (Wallas, 1926). ...
... Like the evolutionary perspective, some research within psychology has studied and shown supports for 'cognitive ability' as a description of creativity (Guildford, 1967;Mednickk, 1962;Weisberg, 2006). Cognitive-related theories of creativity vary and mainly emphasize creative process and person, which pinpoint the significant role of cognitive mechanisms (e.g. ...
... Cognitive-related theories of creativity vary and mainly emphasize creative process and person, which pinpoint the significant role of cognitive mechanisms (e.g. attention, memory) and individual differences in problem finding and solving (Weisberg, 2006). ...
Article
Employee creativity has become an essential concept in tourism and hospitality literature in the last two decades. Nevertheless, empirical evidence on creativity has developed into a fragmented area of research with a variety of definitions and conceptual lenses. The current study suggests that this discrepancy of extant research impedes theoretical and empirical advancement. This study systematically reviews studies in the tourism and hospitality field to strengthen future work on employee creativity. The study results show that leadership is the most powerful predating and moderating factor in employee creativity. The results also show that positive organizational culture and climate factors greatly influence employee creativity. Finally, this study proposes a combined framework of creative qualities, which can be used as a managerial tool in tourism and hospitality, and other similar service-oriented industries.
... This theory suggests that even though incubation is supposed to be a period without conscious work on the unsolved problem, the solver may still carry out intermittent conscious work (Mayer et al., 1995;Weisberg, 2006). The student leaves the problem and engages in another task but relates the present task to the unsolved problem and while solving the problem at hand consciously thinks about how it could help the previously unsolved problem. ...
... This might trigger a critical aspect of bringing to mind information on a previously unsolved problem and relate it to the current activity. This behavior in the context of an educational game and in relation to IE can be considered a manifestation of the intermittent conscious work theory (Mayer et al., 1995;Weisberg, 2006) presented in the literature review. ...
... From these findings, it can be inferred that in a time-limited session with a game-based learning environment, time pressure may contribute to the emergence of competitiveness of the learners that lead to more problem revisits or a higher incidence of post-incubation in the later part of the session. Revisiting previously unsolved problems after encountering a problem of the same type could be considered an indication of the intermittent conscious work theory (Mayer et al., 1995;Weisberg, 2006) where the learners try to link the current task to the unsolved problems they have set aside. Both time and intermittent conscious work helped in the development of familiarity that the learners chose to utilize as a response to the "competitive arousal" (Malhotra, 2010) towards the end of the session. ...
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The incubation effect (IE) is a problem-solving phenomenon composed of three phases: pre-incubation where one fails to solve a problem; incubation, a momentary break where time is spent away from the unsolved problem; and post-incubation where the unsolved problem is revisited and solved. Literature on IE was limited to experiments involving traditional classroom activities. This initial investigation showed evidence of IE instances in a computer-based learning environment. This paper consolidates the studies on IE among students playing an educational game called Physics Playground and presents further analysis to examine the incidence of post-incubation or the revisit to a previously unsolved problem. Prior work, which focused on predicting successful outcomes, includes a coarse-grained IE model developed with logistic regression on aggregated data and an improved model which leveraged long short-term memory (LSTM) combined with dimensionality reduction visualization technique and clustering on fine-grained data. The additional analysis which aims to understand factors that may trigger the post-incubation phase also used fine-grained data and LSTM to create a revisit model. Results show that time elapsed relative to the activity period and encountering a problem with a similar solution during incubation were possible factors in revisiting previously unsolved problems.
... Several definitions of creativity can be found in the literature (e.g., Amabile 1996, Csikszentmihalyi 1999Weisberg, 2006). In a simple definition, creativity is the ability to produce work that is both novel and appropriate (Sternberg & Lubart, 1999). ...
... In fact, creative ideas and products are normally involved in discussion in deciding what is creative or not. Despite that, the systems through which an innovation occurs can be quite normal according to Newell and Simon (1972) and as cited in Weisberg (2006). This fundamental aspect is based on the essence of design -creative cognition -as Boden (1992) denoted. ...
... This is, driven by the necessity to accomplish a goal. Top-down processing is based on the flow of information from the top of the system to the bottom of it (Weisberg, 2006). A top-down approach (also known 'step by step design' and 'decomposition,' respectively) is essentially the fragmentation of a system to promote understanding of the composition of its subsystems. ...
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The present paper illustrates a pilot experiment in which a new model for fostering creativity in the product development process is tested with novice engineers. After introducing creativity in the field of product development, the current author presents the new standard. The theoretical background that embodies the new model is presented, based on relevant literature. Making use of the new model, a methodology for testing it, using novice engineers is then proposed. It relies on the comparison between novices that were trained in the model in comparison to other novices that were not trained in the model. Higher results for creativity achieved by novice engineers that have employed the model show the advantages of its application during product development activities.
... Besides, it can be said that it gives directions to creativity studies in each period. The field of the creativity has been a remarkable study field focusing on a particular field or discipline within the last 15-20 years (see [29,[33][34][35][36]). One of the reasons for this situation may be thought resulting from the fact that whether the creativity is domain-general or domain-specific. ...
... For instance, to be successful in the field of life needs creativity. Just like Weisberg's [36] example pointing out that RAT measures the potential of the creative thinking capacity: "If you want to determine the potential of a good marathon runner, you should measure his capacity of lungs not his speed of running". Why shouldn't we use the scales which will help the creativity integrate into the education programmes or measure the potential of the creativity automatically? ...
... Researchers focusing on creativity have long struggled with how to measure creativity [56]. Examining studies showing that creativity can be achieved through computational processes, Boden [19] argued that it may be possible to create a program that can create works of art or symphonies [36]. The literature contains studies suggesting that computer-based and artificial intelligence supported creative products can be developed [75][76][77] on the one hand and studies on whether creativity can be assessed automatically [57,58,78] on the other hand. ...
Chapter
Science and technology getting continue to advance, the true wealth of our civilization will manifest in human creative output. Accordingly, technological developments offer great opportunities for creativity researches and assessment of creativity. While there are studies in the literature on the creation of computer-based creative products on the one hand, studies on whether creativity can be evaluated automatically or not, on the other hand, have started to attract attention. In addition, field experts turned to new research to understand whether creativity assessment could be automated and measured more quickly and qualitatively, and to explore whether this calculation method could be standardized. Researches conducted in the last 10 years have shown that computational approaches towards semantic distance have made significant contributions to the field both in theory and in practice. However, it can be said that there are very few studies that measure creativity based on semantic distance. This chapter presents a brief overview to discuss whether a computer-based measurement tool that can perform automatic calculations can be used in the evaluation of linguistic creativity in light of the evidence obtained from the literature.
... 1 Novelty might take the form of (and be labeled as) originality, unusualness/uncommonness, infrequency, uniqueness, newness, or innovativeness, whereas usefulness might include variants such as appropriateness, applicability/relevance, fit, adaptiveness, effectiveness, workability/feasibility, functionality, value/utility, elaboration/specificity, or aesthetics (Besemer & Treffinger, 1981;Cropley & Kaufman, 2012Dean et al., 2006;Kampylis & Valtanen, 2010;Long, 2014;Montag et al., 2012;Zeng et al., 2011). As such, the operationalization of novelty seems fairly straightforward and unambiguous, but the scope of the term usefulness is more left open and subject to controversy (Weisberg, 2015; see also Harrington, 2018 for a different perspective )-several creativity researchers have noted that the connotation of this term varies by the nature of the context, domain, or task involved (e.g., Amabile, 1988;Cropley & Kaufman, 2019;Gl aveanu, 2010;Glück et al., 2002;Reiter-Palmon et al., 2009;Runco et al., 2005;Sullivan & Ford, 2010;Weisberg, 2006;Zeng et al., 2011). For instance, the usefulness aspect of artistic creativity often entails subjective judgments about aesthetics (Gl aveanu, 2010; Kozbelt, 2004) whereas the evaluation of usefulness in the context of scientific problem-solving or engineering design relies more on features such as appropriateness or utility of the final solutions/products (Cropley & Kaufman, 2019;Larson et al., 1999;Long, 2014;Weisberg, 2006). ...
... As such, the operationalization of novelty seems fairly straightforward and unambiguous, but the scope of the term usefulness is more left open and subject to controversy (Weisberg, 2015; see also Harrington, 2018 for a different perspective )-several creativity researchers have noted that the connotation of this term varies by the nature of the context, domain, or task involved (e.g., Amabile, 1988;Cropley & Kaufman, 2019;Gl aveanu, 2010;Glück et al., 2002;Reiter-Palmon et al., 2009;Runco et al., 2005;Sullivan & Ford, 2010;Weisberg, 2006;Zeng et al., 2011). For instance, the usefulness aspect of artistic creativity often entails subjective judgments about aesthetics (Gl aveanu, 2010; Kozbelt, 2004) whereas the evaluation of usefulness in the context of scientific problem-solving or engineering design relies more on features such as appropriateness or utility of the final solutions/products (Cropley & Kaufman, 2019;Larson et al., 1999;Long, 2014;Weisberg, 2006). ...
... This conclusion was in line with earlier assumptions that different creativity criteria probably should be adopted depending on the nature or type of the product being evaluated (Glück et al., 2002;Runco et al., 2005). Although more realistic and dynamic than idea generation in AUT items, the production of Minecraft houses in the current study by novice individuals was not a highly complex or difficult task; instead, it taps more into everyday creativity or little-c at the lower-level (Kaufman & Beghetto, 2009) and requires only a minimum level of domain-specific expertise (Amabile, 1996;Cropley, 2006;Simonton, 2003;Weisberg, 2006) and thus seems more indicative of creative potential rather than achievements Guilford, 1966;Jauk, 2019;Piffer, 2012;Runco & Acar, 2012). As a result, the college student sample was appropriate for this study but a future study that has access to samples of architects or professional visual designers could be carried out in a higher level Minecraft building task for which the U.S. patent definition might be more suitable; such a study would also allow for testing the role of domain-specific expertise as another individual antecedent of creativity, which to our knowledge, remains an understudied but important and fruitful future research avenue. ...
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Considering creativity as a novel-and-useful performance outcome, this study explored the predictive effects of cognitive abilities (i.e., divergent thinking, intellectual aptitude as indicated by SAT scores) and Big Five personality traits on creativity and its two aspects (i.e., novelty and usefulness) in addition to the intercorrelations between creativity, novelty, and usefulness in a Minecraft building task. Regression analyses based on a college student sample (N = 285) revealed that Minecraft creativity was predicted by divergent thinking (β = .16, p < .01), SAT scores (β = .27, p < .001), and Openness to Experience (β = .23, p < .001), supporting the standing beliefs regarding individual antecedents of creativity. Such personal characteristics however, had different predictive effects on the two components of creativity, in that novelty was predicted by divergent thinking (β = .14, p < .01), SAT scores (β = .13, p < .01), and Openness to Experience (β = .27, p < .001) whereas usefulness was predicted by Openness to Experience only (β = .14, p < .01). In terms of the intercorrelations among creativity and its two subdimensions, novelty and usefulness were found to be highly correlated with each other (r = .72, p < .001) and were also both highly related to creativity (rnovelty-creativity = .89, p< .001, and rusefulness-creativity = .65, p < .001, respectively). Implications of these results, several key avenues for future research, and study limitations are discussed.
... Articles in the popular press attempt to identify the traits and habits of creative people in order to provide strategies for increasing one's own level of creativity (e.g., The Creativity Post website), since creativity is generally seen as being a valued personal attribute. However, there are many contentious issues regarding the nature of creativity (Weisberg, 2006(Weisberg, , 2020, as will be described in the following sections. ...
... Creative processing seems to involve an enhancement of sensorimotor brain areas mediating non-creative or less-creative processing for that domain. This view might jibe with Weisberg's (1993Weisberg's ( , 2006Weisberg's ( , 2020 perspective that creative cognition is a variant of ordinary thinking within a given domain, a process that he calls "thinking inside the box". The involvement of sensorimotor areas in creative production has been underappreciated compared to other brain networks that have been implicated in creativity, such as the DMN. ...
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One of the central questions about the cognitive neuroscience of creativity is the extent to which creativity depends on either domain-specific or domain-general mechanisms. To address this question, we carried out two parallel activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses of creativity: 1) a motoric analysis that combined studies across five domains of creative production (verbalizing, music, movement, writing, and drawing), and 2) an analysis of the standard ideational task used to study divergent thinking, the Alternate Uses task. All experiments contained a contrast between a creative task and a matched non-creative or less-creative task that controlled for the sensorimotor demands of task performance. The activation profiles of the two meta-analyses were non-overlapping, but both pointed to a domain-specific interpretation in which creative production is, at least in part, an enhancement of sensorimotor brain areas involved in non-creative production. The most concordant areas of activation in the motoric meta-analysis were high-level motor areas such as the pre-supplementary motor area and inferior frontal gyrus that interface motor planning and executive control, suggesting a means of uniting domain-specificity and -generality in creative production.
... Articles in the popular press attempt to identify the traits and habits of creative people in order to provide strategies for increasing one's own level of creativity (e.g., The Creativity Post website), since creativity is generally seen as being a valued personal attribute. However, there are many contentious issues regarding the nature of creativity (Weisberg, 2020(Weisberg, , 2006), as will be described in the following sections. We shall begin with a theoretical review of key topics related to the nature of creativity and then examine some of these ideas empirically by performing an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of creativity, as described in the second half of the article. ...
... Creative processing seems to involve an enhancement of brain areas mediating non-creative or less-creative processing for that domain. This view might jibe with Weisberg's (1993Weisberg's ( , 2006Weisberg's ( , 2020 perspective that creative cognition is a variant of ordinary thinking within a given domain, a process that he calls "thinking inside the box". The involvement of sensorimotor areas in creative production has been underappreciated compared to other brain networks that have been implicated in creativity, such as the DMN. ...
Preprint
One of the central questions about the cognitive neuroscience of creativity is the extent to which creativity depends on either domain-specific or domain-general mechanisms. To address this question, we carried out two parallel activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses of creativity: 1) a motoric analysis that combined studies across five domains of creative production (verbalizing, music, movement, writing, and drawing), and 2) an analysis of the Alternate Uses divergent-thinking task. All experiments contained a contrast between a creative task and a matched non-creative or less-creative task that controlled for the sensorimotor demands of task performance. The activation profiles of the two meta-analyses were non-overlapping, but both pointed to a domain-specific interpretation in which creative production is, at least in part, an enhancement of sensorimotor brain areas involved in non-creative production. The most concordant areas of activation in the motoric meta-analysis were high-level motor areas such as the pre-supplementary motor area and inferior frontal gyrus that interface motor planning and executive control, suggesting a means of uniting domain-specificity and -generality in creative production.
... The contents measured by these tests are mainly verbal and figural, which allow the evaluation of the following creative processes: fluency (quantity of ideas), flexibility (diversity of ideas), originality of ideas (novelty) and elaboration (embellishment of ideas). The possibility of measuring creativity through divergent thinking has impacted many tests, such as Wallach and Kogan's test (Wallach & Kogan, 1965) and the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking-TTCT (Torrance, 1966(Torrance, , 2008, the latter are the most widely measure, at the international level, to assess creativity (Aslan & Puccio, 2006;Kim, 2006;Runco et al., 2010;Weisberg, 2006). ...
... Elaboration in the figural task was evaluated by counting the number of details to enrich each drawing. Verbal elaboration was assessed counting the adjectives near the substantives, which showed the embellishment of the idea, as proposed by Weisberg (2006) in her studies for validating Torrance's tests to Brazilians. Then, a composite index was formed by adding each type of dimension for the 3 activities: ICFlu (fluency creativity index), ICFle (flexibility creativity index), ICOR (originality creativity index), and ICEL (elaboration creativity index). ...
Article
Assessments of intelligence have neglected to examine creativity in most test batteries, thus inhibiting a complete understanding of cognitive functioning. This study aimed to analyze whether creativity could be combined with intelligence in a group test battery (BAICA- Intelligence and Creativity Battery) and to verify whether creativity was related to fluid and crystallized intelligence tasks or if it was an independent factor. The sample was composed of 450 individuals (299 F, 151 M) living in 6 Brazilian states, with ages ranging from 14-50 years old (M= 21.42, SD= 7.70). Seven tasks related to fluid intelligence (Gf; logical thinking, visual spatial ability, visual memory, speed of thinking) and crystallized intelligence (Gc; synonyms, antonyms, verbal analogies), along with 3 tasks related to creative thinking (Cr; fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration) were studied through confirmatory factor and network analyses. The results indicated better adjustment indices for Model 3, which was composed of the G factor explained by Gf (including analogies), Gc and Cr. The network analysis confirmed the relationships among these factors and the same pattern for both sexes. In conclusion, there is a need to integrate creativity as a distinct construct for assessing intelligence to obtain a better comprehension of human potential.
... A fair number of intelligence researchers consider DT as a subcomponent of intelligence (Carroll 1997;Guilford 1967;Jäger 1982;Karwowski et al. 2016a). (Carroll 1997; see also Chrysikou 2018;Dietrich 2015) stated that DT requires several mental abilities, such as the speed of retrieval (e.g., Forthmann et al. 2019), knowledge (e.g., Weisberg 2006), fluid intelligence (e.g., Beaty et al. 2014;Nusbaum et al. 2014), and motor skills (e.g., the ability to write quickly; see: Forthmann et al. 2017). This view emphasizes that multiple factors might moderate the strength of the association between intelligence and DT. ...
... However, he and his colleagues used DT tests with explicit be-creative instruction, evaluated ideas using subjective ratings, and statistically controlled for measurement errors (e.g., Nusbaum and Silvia 2011; see more details on instructions and scoring methods in Section 3.3 below). Silvia (2015) concluded that contrary to the previous position that DT is closely linked to crystallized intelligence and hence depends on how much a person knows (Mednick 1962;Weisberg 2006), fluid intelligence (i.e., reasoning and processing of information) plays a more important role than expected and has to be taken into account. In this regard, it is especially interesting that building on a more comprehensive set of cognitive abilities, Weiss et al. (2020a) reported quite comparable correlations between DT and general intelligence (encompassing g f , g c , mental speed, and working memory) and between DT and crystallized intelligence. ...
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This paper provides a meta-analytic update on the relationship between intelligence and divergent thinking (DT), as research on this topic has increased, and methods have diversified since Kim’s meta-analysis in 2005. A three-level meta-analysis was used to analyze 875 correlation coefficients from 112 studies with an overall N = 33,897. The overall effect showed a significant positive correlation of r = .25. This increase of the correlation as compared to prior meta-analytic findings (Kim 2005) could be attributed to the correction of attenuation because a difference between effect sizes prior-Kim vs. post-Kim was non-significant. Different moderators such as scoring methods, instructional settings, intelligence facets, and task modality were tested together with theoretically relevant interactions between some of these factors. These moderation analyses showed that the intelligence–DT relationship can be higher (up to r = .31–.37) when employing test-like assessments coupled with be-creative instructions, and considering DT originality scores. The facet of intelligence (g vs. gf vs. gc) did not affect the correlation between intelligence and DT. Furthermore, we found two significant sample characteristics: a) average sample age was positively associated with the intelligence–DT correlation, and b) the intelligence–DT correlation decreased for samples with increasing percentages of females in the samples. Finally, inter-moderator correlations were checked to take potential confounding into account, and also publication bias was assessed. This meta-analysis provides a comprehensive picture of current research and possible research gaps. Theoretical implications, as well as recommendations for future research, are discussed.
... kısmen bilgi gereklidir ve bilgi de belli bir alana özgü birikimdir (Mukhopadhyay ve Sen, 2013;Weisberg, 2006). Ayrıca burada yaratıcılığa giden yolda beslenilen kaynaklar da farklı olabilmektedir. ...
... Bu ifadelerden yola çıkarak bilimsel yaratıcılık ve problem çözme kavramlarının birbiri ile ilişkili kavramlar olduğu söylenebilir. Nitekim alanyazında söz konusu kavramları birlikte ele alan çalışmalar bulunmaktadır (DeHaan, 2009;Karaca, 2017;Treffinger ve Isaksen, 2005;Weisberg, 2006). Örneğin DeHaan (2009) çalışmasında yaratıcılık ile problem çözme ve diğer üst düzey bilişsel beceriler arasındaki ilişkiyi ele alarak söz konusu becerilerin nasıl geliştirilebileceğini incelemektedir. ...
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ifted individuals play a key role in human progress due to their extraordinary potential led by their creativity and problem solving skills. The present research investigated gifted students’ self-assessment on scientific creativity and scientific problem solving. This study was designed as a case study with a qualitative research approach. The study sample consisted of 21 gifted students at 6th grade studying in Trabzon Science and Art Center. Data were collected from participating students through semi-structured interviews. Students' awareness in the field of science was identified during the interviews and they were asked to make self-assessments on scientific creativity and problem solving. The data were analyzed by content analysis. Research results demonstrated that the students were able to make definitions on their own and these definitions were in line with the literature. It was concluded that most of the participants were interested and curious about science and they regarded themselves to be gifted in science. In addition, it was determined that the students were generally aware of their intelligence and abilities and displayed high self-confidence but did not have the same level of self-confidence in scientific creativity and problem solving. The striking results obtained from the interviews were discussed in relation to the education system.
... Thirdly, I would characterize the three authors as analyzing detailed historical examples or protocol observations as significant constraints, to hypothesize reasoning patterns that could have produced those examples or observations. Qualitative case studies in psychology are not intended to report on data from large numbers of subjects, but the approach has considerable value in the early stages of a field area, especially in an area with highly complex or nested, interacting processes where qualitative theoretical mechanisms are sparse or uncertain (Newell and Simon, 1972;Cronbach, 1975;Campbell, 1979;Strauss and Corbin, 1998;Dunbar, 1999;Weisberg, 2006;Jaccard and Jacoby, 2010;Tweney, 2012;Ylikoski, 2019), including for in-depth psychological microanalysis studies with single subjects (e.g., Gruber, 1974;Anzai and Simon, 1979;Tweney, 1992;Gentner et al., 1997). The first desired outcome for this paper in the 'hypothesis and theory' category of this journal is to construct a qualitative theoretical framework or 'field map' of important scientific reasoning strategies for model construction, and major interconnections between them, on the basis of detailed case studies of scientific events. ...
... But a number of the reasoning processes may be developmentally connected to everyday versions of reasoning, such as mental simulation, analogy, model generation, and evaluation via observations (Lehrer and Schauble, 2015). For example, in one of the few collections of case studies of creative thinkers Weisberg (2006) argues that experts used many everyday thinking processes; Lombrozo (2019) examines the role of thought experiments in everyday learning; Metz (1998) and Koslowski (2013) argue that children can do several types of scientific reasoning; and Sternberg (2006) argues that processes used during normal science can be creative. An implication is that work on frameworks may inform socio-cognitive approaches that are badly needed to teach scientific thinking skills (e.g. ...
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Science historians have recognized the importance of heuristic reasoning strategies for constructing theories, but their extent and degree of organization are still poorly understood. This paper first consolidates a set of important heuristic strategies for constructing scientific models from three books, including studies in the history of genetics and electromagnetism, and an expert think-aloud study in the field of mechanics. The books focus on qualitative reasoning strategies (processes) involved in creative model construction, scientific breakthroughs, and conceptual change. Twenty four processes are examined, most of which are field-general, but all are heuristic in not being guaranteed to work. An organizing framework is then proposed as a four-level hierarchy of nested reasoning processes and subprocesses at different size and time scales, including: Level (L4) Several longer-time-scale Major Modeling Modes, such as Model Evolution and Model Competition; the former mode utilizes: (L3) Modeling Cycle Phases of Model Generation, Evaluation, and Modification under Constraints; which can utilize: (L2) Thirteen Tactical Heuristic Processes, e.g., Analogy, Infer new model feature (e.g., by running the model), etc.; many of which selectively utilize: (L1) Grounded Imagistic Processes, namely Mental Simulations and Structural Transformations. Incomplete serial ordering in the framework gives it an intermediate degree of organization that is neither anarchistic nor fully algorithmic. Its organizational structure is hypothesized to promote a difficult balance between divergent and convergent processes as it alternates between them in modeling cycles with increasingly constrained modifications. Videotaped think-aloud protocols that include depictive gestures and other imagery indicators indicate that the processes in L1 above can be imagistic. From neurological evidence that imagery uses many of the same brain regions as actual perception and action, it is argued that these expert reasoning processes are grounded in the sense of utilizing the perceptual and motor systems, and interconnections to and possible benefits for reasoning processes at higher levels are examined. The discussion examines whether this grounding and the various forms of organization in the framework may begin to explain how processes that are only sometimes useful and not guaranteed to work can combine successfully to achieve innovative scientific model construction.
... For example, some see creativity as a process (Wallis, 1926), more recently, an iterative process (Finke et al., 1992). Others describe a creative process in relation to problem-solving and make the distinction between clearly defined problems (using a more formulaic approach) and ill-defined problems (using a more heuristic approach which involves trial and error) (Weisberg, 2006). Ill-defined problems require creative solutions (Finke et al., 1992) and many solutions to the problem are often possible (Boden, 1990;Cropley, 2001). ...
... There is international evidence of this kind of practice within D&T education and other subjects stretching over a period of time (Nicholl & Spendlove, 2016;Renzulli et al., 2003;Stables, 2017;Williams, 2017). Commentators suggest however that creativity cannot be reduced to teaching via a series of steps in this way (Amabile, 1996;Boden, 1990;Weisberg, 2006). For that reason professional development (PD) has aimed to challenge teachers' conceptions of problem-solving in order to help them to integrate it into their classroom practices in a more meaningful and authentic way. ...
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Research relating to the nature and purpose of ‘design’ activity across education sectors has accelerated in recent years as governments and policy makers throughout the world highlight the importance of skills such as creative problem-solving and innovation. Within secondary schools, responsibility for teaching and learning through design is often assigned to Technology and Engineering subjects, however, gaps tend to exist in relation to what different teachers understand and experience about the teaching and learning of problem-solving and design in their classrooms. In this exploratory study, a small group of practicing secondary school teachers completed a one day training workshop where they were introduced to new knowledge and pedagogical skills relating to design problem-solving using a classroom intervention called ‘Designing Our Tomorrow’. The teachers participated in a focus group discussion before and after the workshop in which they discussed their experiences in teaching design. Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) (Lakoff & Johnson Metaphors we live, University of Chicago Press, 1980) was employed to highlight the figures of speech used by the teachers during the focus groups and from these a number of conceptual metaphors were identified that described their understandings and experiences of teaching design problem-solving. In synthesizing the broad theoretical base relating to understandings of design problem-solving and CMT together with the findings from the one day professional development workshop, the paper highlights the potential value for researchers in using CMT to unpack teachers' views on how design problem-solving is taught and learned in schools. Finally, the paper reveals a potential new space to inform and evaluate future professional development of Technology teachers, particularly where the focus is on complex and difficult to define concepts such as design and problem-solving.
... Fu et al. [10] measured the analogical distance between patent documents based on the semantic similarity of the patent texts, whereas Srinivasan et al. [13] used an analogical distance between different design domains based on the similarity of patent references across patent classes. Despite the differences in experimental settings and distance metrics, the findings on the effects of using near-field versus far-field patents as design stimuli are aligned and resonate with the creativity literature, which has suggested that it is easier and more effective for humans to be inspired by external stimuli in fields near that of the original problem [10,13,[33][34][35][36], while more distant stimuli may contribute to novelty with lower success rates [37][38][39]. In particular, the understanding of the multifaceted effects of the analogical distance on ideation behaviors and outcomes, based on the empirical contexts of patent data, may guide the retrieval of design stimuli from the vast patent database. ...
... Our knowledge-based expert system is built on the fundamental understanding that new design ideas are conceived through the combination or analogical transfer of prior knowledge or concepts [33,[40][41][42][43][44][45]. Combination refers to the cognitive process of bringing together multiple separate concepts to form a new one [42,46,47]. ...
Article
Data-driven conceptual design methods and tools aim to inspire human ideation for new design concepts by providing external inspirational stimuli. In prior studies, the stimuli have been limited in terms of coverage, granularity, and retrieval guidance. Here, we present a knowledge-based expert system that provides design stimuli across the semantic, document and field levels simultaneously from all fields of engineering and technology and that follows creativity theories to guide the retrieval and use of stimuli according to the knowledge distance. The system is centered on the use of a network of all technology fields in the patent classification system, to store and organize the world’s cumulative data on the technological knowledge, concepts and solutions in the total patent database according to statistically-estimated knowledge distance between technology fields. In turn, knowledge distance guides the network-based exploration and retrieval of inspirational stimuli for inferences across near and far fields to generate new design ideas by analogy and combination. With two case studies, we showcase the effectiveness of using the system to explore and retrieve multilevel inspirational stimuli and generate new design ideas for both problem solving and open-ended innovation. These case studies also demonstrate the computer-aided ideation process, which is data-driven, computationally augmented, theoretically grounded, visually inspiring, and rapid.
... The study of creativity spans multiple disciplines and domains, among which is music and its many variations (Weisberg, 2006). Jazz music is of particular note because of its demands for improvisation, the creation of music in real time, which does not allow for active revision. ...
Research Proposal
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Musical improvisation, defined as the ability to spontaneously generate novel musical compositions in real time moments of performance (Berkowitz & Erkkinen, 2019), has been a particular focus of cognitive neuroscience research over the past decade. Executive function is said to play a role in creativity and musical improvisation. The extent at which it does, and in what ways, is a point of debate amongst experts. This literature review hopes to examine and clarify the relationship between musical improvisation and executive functioning, supported by evidence in developmental cognitive neuroscience, musicology, creativity research, and educational practice, to argue that improvisation can enhance executive functions through an intervention training model. The discussion will propose a new role of musical improvisation as a flexible, domain-general intervention that utilizes students’ individual EF-related skills and needs in order to support them in the development of various skills and domains. Furthermore, this intersection supports the broader argument that improvisation and musical training possess the potential to be used as an intervention for varying levels of domain-general cognitive variability. Following this review, the discussion section will provide implications for musical improvisation as a means for intervention across EFs. Finally, the literature and research will be presented coherently as an argument for music education and improvisation as components of healthy child development and educational instruction.
... In particular, the relevance score (R) or its normalized form (ZR) may further guide the search and retrieval of the white space concepts to relate to the focal design domain for potential syntheses into new design ideas. According to the extensive design creativity literature (Gentner and Markman, 1997;Ward, 1998;Christensen and Schunn, 2007;Tseng et al., 2008;Chan et al., 2011Fu et al., 2013b;Song et al., 2017a;Srinivasan et al., 2018), near stimuli to the target design domain can stimulate more ideas and more feasible ideas (Gick and Holyoak, 1980;Weisberg, 2006;Fu et al., 2013b;Keshwani and Chakrabarti, 2017;Srinivasan et al., 2018), whereas far stimuli may stimulate fewer ideas and ideas with high infeasibility and abstractness, but give rise to the novelty of the generated ideas (Gentner and Markman, 1997;Ward, 1998;Tseng et al., 2008;Srinivasan et al., 2018). Therefore, when searching and choosing white space concepts as potential design stimuli, one may focus on the near-field concepts with high R values (e.g., ZR > 0) for ideation productivity, but anticipate common and non-surprising ideas. ...
Article
There are growing efforts to mine public and common-sense semantic network databases for engineering design ideation stimuli. However, there is still a lack of design ideation aids based on semantic network databases that are specialized in engineering or technology-based knowledge. In this study, we present a new methodology of using the Technology Semantic Network (TechNet) to stimulate idea generation in engineering design. The core of the methodology is to guide the inference of new technical concepts in the white space surrounding a focal design domain according to their semantic distance in the large TechNet, for potential syntheses into new design ideas. We demonstrate the effectiveness in general, and use strategies and ideation outcome implications of the methodology via a case study of flying car design idea generation.
... He concluded that creative people have recourse to different forms of intelligence in their creative resolution process. Empirical studies in the domain-specific approach are often inspired by sociocultural theories (e.g., Sawyer, 2006) or theories about problem solving (e.g., Weisberg, 2006). Some studies (e.g., Gray, 1966) do not only speak in favor of the domain-specific approach but also of task specificity within a given domain, for example, in the arts (painting and sculpting). ...
Book
The investigation of domain specificity by means of structural models is undoubtedly one of the most cutting edge subjects in creativity research. Whereas the dominant approach conceives creativity as a general capacity, a more recent approach conceives creativity as domain specific. Three major domains of creative expression are often identified: art, science, and everyday life. The hybrid approach reconciles the domain-general and domain-specific paradigms by including domain-general, domain-specific, and even task specific features. The present research explored the hybrid approach, which raises the question of how far the creative profile can be generalized among domains. The cognitive-conative creative profile was investigated in the domains of art, science, and everyday life. The artistic creative profile of architects was compared to the scientific creative profile of social scientists and the everyday creative profile of the general population. A general creativity test was administered to the three test groups (architects, social scientists, and the general population) so as to compare their creative profiles. Additionally, one population-specific creativity test was added within every sample. The differential approach to creativity, integrating both domain-general and domain-specific features, was supported. This doctoral dissertation establishes different creative profiles with regard to specific domains of creative expression. It became clear that the profiles of architects and social scientists were reversed. Architects demonstrated the expected profile for scientific creativity, whereas social scientists demonstrated the expected profile for artistic creativity. As anticipated, the everyday creative profile was presented by people from the general population. It was characterized by openness to new experiences and, to a lesser extent, by intelligence. The image of the psychologically conflicted architect, sometimes mentioned in the literature, was not supported. Psychological conflict was instead associated here with creative social scientists. Implications and limits of these results are discussed further below.
... Over the last two decades some scholars posited that creativity is domain specific (Baer, 2015) and that being creative in one domain does not inevitably make a person creative in another domain (even if this second domain is adjacent to the first) (Baer, 2012;Weisberg, 2006). The domain specificity of creativity is also supported by publications that discovered negligible transfer of the creativity training gains from one knowledge domain to other knowledge domains (Baer, 2016). ...
Conference Paper
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CONTEXT Engineering educators need a simple method of appraising the changes in creativity levels of students resulting from undertaking a course or a degree. Over the years, scholars have offered over 100 definitions of creativity and proposed over 200 instruments to measure it. Recent findings advocate for each profession to develop instruments that assess creativity in its particular domain. The existing instruments to evaluate engineering creativity are predominantly indirect and time consuming. Most of them are based on surveys, self-reports, expert assessment and peer judgement. Although some scholars advocated that the number of ideas generated by a student to an open-ended problem is an adequate measure of engineering creativity, engineering educators have not yet adopted this simple method. GOAL This study aimed to determine whether the number of ideas generated by a student to an open-ended problem is suitable for appraisal of the student's creativity level. More specifically, this study intended: (i) to establish whether a definition of engineering creativity that is grounded in the criteria of patentability and patent authorship is suitable for the engineering profession and (ii) to determine whether engineering creativity can be adequately evaluated by the number and/or the breadth of ideas generated by a student to an open-ended problem. METHODOLOGY Four engineering experts (judges) were engaged in the evaluation of 48 idea generation forms that were randomly selected from over 700 forms submitted by students that participated in earlier idea generation experiments. The judges had to rank the ideas generated by each individual student by answering seven statements related to the patent-based definition of engineering creativity. The judges' rankings for each individual student were compared with the assessment of each student's output (the number and breadth of ideas) made by the assessors of the original idea generation experiments. OUTCOMES It was discovered that (i) the judges associated engineering creativity with the criteria of patentability, (ii) the level of engineering creativity of an individual can be adequately evaluated by the number/breadth of ideas generated by her/him in response to an open-ended problem. CONCLUSIONS Engineering educators can rank students in their level of engineering creativity by counting the number/breadth of independent ideas generated by each student to the same open-ended problem. In order to appraise a longitudinal change in engineering creativity level, a set of 'similar' test problems is to be developed for use in consecutive evaluations. KEYWORDS Engineering creativity, number of ideas, breadth of ideas, patentability
... Keterampilan abad Aspek dari keterampilan belajar dan berinovasi tersebut dikenal juga dengan sebutan 4C yaitu critical thinking, creativity, communication, collaboration (Trilling & Fadel, 2009 (Weisberg, 2006). Seseorang bisa menjadi kreatif dalam bidang yang spesifik, contohnya ada orang yang kreatif dalam bidang sains tetapi tidak dalam menggambar (Liang, 2002 (1) ...
Article
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Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pelaksanaan pembelajaran berbasis proyek terhadap keterampilan berpikir kreatif ilmiah siswa SMA dalam materi fluida dinamis. Keterampilan berpikir kreatif ilmiah merupakan salah satu keterampilan abad 21 yang sangat penting dimiliki oleh peserta didik supaya bisa beradaptasi terhadap perubahan. Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah one-group pretest-posttest design. Setelah dilaksanakan pembelajaran berbasis proyek pada sampel yang diteliti ternyata menunjukan adanya pengaruh terhadap peningkatan keterampilan berpikir kreatif ilmiah berdasarkan perhitungan effect size (d). Pelaksanaan pembelajaran berbasis proyek secara umum berpengaruh dalam meningkatkan keterampilan berpikir kreatif ilmiah berdasarkan nilai effect size (d) sebesar 1,32. Selanjutnya ditinjau berdasarkan aspek-aspek dari keterampilan berpikir kreatif ilmiah secara khusus, bahwa pembelajaran berbasis proyek berpengaruh dalam meningkatkan aspek thinking-fluency-technical product dan thinking-originality-technical product dengan nilai effect size (d) masing-masing sebesar 1,35 dan 1,21, tetapi tidak cukup efektif dalam meningkatkan aspek thinking-flexibility-technical product yang ditunjukan dari nilai effect size (d) yang hanya sebesar 0,14
... eine traditionelle Betonung der Unterschiede in den Bereichen der Künste und Wissenschaften in der sozialwissenschaftlichen Kreativitätsforschung zurückführen, so dass die Bereiche der Künste -künstlerische Kreativität -und Wissenschaften -akademische Kreativität -selten zusammen analysiert oder systematisch verglichen wurden (für Ausnahmen s. z.B . Weisberg 2006;Abreu und Grinewitsch 2014;Chong 2013;Miller 2014;Hautala und Ibert 2018). Diese traditionell dualistische Perspektive wurde dabei in den meisten wirtschaftsgeographischen Studien übernommenen und reproduziert, so dass der Begriff der (künstlerischen) Kreativität vor allem zur Analyse der Produktion von kulturellen Inhalten (vgl. Markuse ...
Book
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This work adds to the interdisciplinary debate about the possibility of organizing creative processes. Using the example of pharmaceutical research and development projects the significance of valuations in creative process and the gap between two disciplinary approaches are examined. While economic geography and organizational research focus primarily on the conditions for the emergence of novelty and thereby neglect the relevance of val­uation, the second approach, which is shaped by an economic sociological tradition, focuses on the valuation of novelty („Valuation Studies“), whereby valuations are rarely addressed in connection with creativity. Against this background, this work explores three related research questions: When in the creative process does what kind of valuation take place; how do negative and positive valuations interact in creative processes; and where, in which places, is valuation happening? Based on the qualitative data (25 expert interviews and 116.5h observations), three main findings are formulated. First, that creative processes always include an interplay of generation and valuation, whereby the valuation of novelty is as central as the generation of novelty, so that the two integral parts of creativity should be considered together more often. Second, that negative and positive valuations exhibit fundamentally different intrinsic logics. In particular, negative valuations provide indispensable impulses for reinterpretation and thus enable a successful course of the creative process – at least for pharmaceutical R&D projects. Third, that the generation and valuation of novelty does not only take place socially but also locally situated, whereby analytically clearly differentiable patterns of generation, valuation and testing were detected. This in turn shows that even in terms of the analytical knowledge base, knowledge production does not exclusively follow universally valid protocols, but also has a performative character, which is shaped by the composition of the group of actors, their personal idiosyncrasies, preferences and aversions.
... Starko (2014), for example, takes this approach and groups popular theories of creativity by the 'who'. Those that focus on individuals are generally psycho-cognitive-oriented, including psychoanalytic theories (see Jung, 1972;Kris, 1951;Kubie, 1958;Miller, 1990;Rothenberg, 1990), humanist and developmental theories (see Maslow, 1954;Rogers, 1962), behaviorist or associationist theories (see Mednick, 1962;Skinner, 1972), creativity as cognition (see Guilford, 1959;1967;Perkins, 1981;Weisberg, 1986Weisberg, , 1988Weisberg, , 1993Weisberg, , 1999Weisberg, , 2006Ward, 2001). 6 Those that involve more than a single individual are generally systemic, including sociocultural theories (see John-Steiner, 2000;Vygotsky, 1930), and systems theories (see Amabile, 1989;1996;Csikszentmihalyi, 1988;Feldman, 1993;Sternberg & Lubart, 1991;Gardner, 1993;Gruber, 1981;Simonton, 1999;Law, , 2019bLaw, , 2020b. ...
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[URL of published article: http://www.hkaect.org/jce/5(1)/Law_2021_5(1)_pp121-134.pdf] Creativity is the new literacy; we cannot leave a whole generation of people behind."-Chase Jarvis (TNW, 2017) "You can't use up creativity. The more you use, the more you have."-Maya Angelou "If I can try to make it fun that for me is what being creative is about; it's having fun and looking at life through like a sort of the lens of a child really."-Taika Waititi (TEDx Talks, 2010)
... Detractors see little actual relevance to the tests. See Gruber, 1989, chapter 1;Weisberg, 2006. 76 See Johnstone, 1979, Narrative Skills. ...
... Robert Weisberg examines the concept of innovation in problem solving, science, invention, and the arts. He believes that creativity is the lot not only of selected people [38]. ...
Article
Introduction. The philosophy of I.A. Ilyin proposes a program for the renewal of society while returning to the spiritual tradition, which seems to be relevant for modern humanitarian education. The aim of this research is to reconstruct the concept of creative doing in the I.A. Ilyin`s philosophy and to demonstrate of its application in the organization of design and research work of university`s students in the framework of humanitarian education. Materials and methods. Based on the analysis of modern research literature and works of I.A. Ilyin, theoretical and hermeneutical methods were used in this work, as well as the design and research method of organizing educational work with students. Research results. Creative doing is the creative implementation of each person's life project in real conditions. The concept of creative doing consists of four points: 1) creation of oneself; 2) building your own business; 3) building a family and raising children; 4) social and cultural creation. In the philosophical works of I.A. Ilyin, you can find this concept. By discovering spiritual reality, a person comprehends God's plan for himself, his “calling”, freely accepts it and responsibly implements it in his life. The family, created on the basis of the spiritual community of the spouses, transmits the spiritual tradition and creates a new, more creative generation. Patriotism is brought up in the family, the transition to the concepts of the Motherland, the state, domestic and world culture is carried out. The topics are named and the stages of organizing the design and research work of students are presented. Discussion and conclusions. The novelty of this research lies in the combination of theoretical (philosophical ideas of I.A. Ilyin) and practical (long-term practice of organizing students' design and research work) approaches, which allows solving educational problems within the framework of humanitarian education. The concept of creative doing allows you to combine a personal approach with domestic traditions and public good.
... WEISBERG [Wei06] states that a creative person "intentionally produces a novel product" (p.70) and explicitly decouples a possible value of a product from it being the result of a creative process (p.63). BODEN [Bod10] described novelty as a surprising product, one that the creator did not directly anticipate (p.30). ...
Article
We review recent methods in 2D creative pattern generation and their control mechanisms, focusing on procedural methods. The review is motivated by an artist's perspective and investigates interactive pattern generation as a complex design problem. While the repetitive nature of patterns is well-suited to algorithmic creation and automation, an artist needs more flexible control mechanisms for adaptable and inventive designs. We organize the state of the art around pattern design features, such as repetition, frames, curves, directionality, and single visual accents. Within those areas, we summarize and discuss the techniques' control mechanisms for enabling artist intent. The discussion includes questions of how input is given by the artist, what type of content the artist inputs, where the input affects the canvas spatially, and when input can be given in the timeline of the creation process. We categorize the available control mechanisms on an algorithmic level and categorize their input modes based on exemplars, parameterization, handling, filling, guiding, and placing interactions. To better understand the potential of the current techniques for creative design and to make such an investigation more manageable, we motivate our discussion with how navigation, transparency, variation, and stimulation enable creativity. We conclude our review by identifying possible new directions that can inspire innovation for artist-centered creation processes and algorithms.
... Starko (2014), for example, takes this approach and groups popular theories of creativity by the 'who'. Those that focus on individuals are generally psycho-cognitive-oriented, including psychoanalytic theories (see Jung, 1972;Kris, 1951;Kubie, 1958;Miller, 1990;Rothenberg, 1990), humanist and developmental theories (see Maslow, 1954;Rogers, 1962), behaviorist or associationist theories (see Mednick, 1962;Skinner, 1972), and creativity as cognition (see Guilford, 1959;1967;Perkins, 1981;Weisberg, 1986Weisberg, , 1988Weisberg, , 1993Weisberg, , 1999Weisberg, , 2006Ward, 2001). Those that involve more than a single individual are generally systemic, including sociocultural theories (see John-Steiner, 2000;Vygotsky, 1930), and systems theories (see Amabile, 1989Amabile, , 1996Amabile, , 2001Csikszentmihalyi, 1988;Feldman, 1993Feldman, , 1999Sternberg & Lubart, 1991Gardner, 1993;Gruber, 1981;Simonton, 1999Simonton, , 2004Law, 2018Law, , 2020b. ...
Article
Full-text available
Creativity is the new literacy; we cannot leave a whole generation of people behind."-Chase Jarvis (TNW, 2017) "You can't use up creativity. The more you use, the more you have."-Maya Angelou "If I can try to make it fun that for me is what being creative is about; it's having fun and looking at life through like a sort of the lens of a child really."-Taika Waititi (TED x Talks, 2010).
... One of the emerging debates on ongoing educational discussions is the integration of arts in teaching and learning practices which is one of the major principles of holistic education (Nakagawa, 2000) from the Eastern worldview of holistic education which are the primary means for self-transformation by pursuing the higher self. Similarly, from the Western worldview, experiential learning integrating arts is the primary means to reach the holistic development of a person (Forbes, 2003 (Weisberg, 2006). ...
Thesis
From the early years of schooling, I experienced a separation of my non-academic lifeworlds (contexts of brick factories, Newari culture, arts-related activities, restaurants, and the entrepreneurial world) from formal educational practices (curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment) – a dualism that academic world exists outside the non-academic world of a learner. Pedagogical approaches implemented by my teachers and textbooks prepared by so-called experts did not seem to be aware of my diverse cultures, contexts, and abilities. From school to under graduation, it seemed that I was under the domination of the highly teacher-centered and one-size-fits-all nature of education. As a teacher, I also followed the footsteps of traditional/conventional perspectives. However, there appear to be diverse opportunities in my non-academic worlds to support my all-round development. During my MEd in mathematics education and MPhil in STEAM education, I had enough space to critically reflect upon my and others' beliefs, values, assumptions, and ongoing educational practices governed by those un/helpful ideologies. Similarly, I happened to develop knowledge/skills regarding the better alternatives of education possibly governed by constructivist and transformative philosophies. In this regard, I see the integrative context of education that might be helpful to blend learner's lifeworlds and formal education thereby promoting the holistic notion of education. Thus, this autoethnographic inquiry aimed at capturing my painful and gainful lived experiences of my non/academic lifeworlds to bridge them to envision a transformative vision of STEAM education. To address some of the emerging issues of education, I constructed four research questions to cover this entire inquiry. Under the multi-paradigmatic research design space, I employed three research paradigms: criticalism, postmodernism, and interpretivism to carry out this inquiry successfully. Similarly, I used evocative autoethnography as a methodology and writing narratives as a method of inquiry. In this entire inquiry process, I was mostly guided by, but limited to, three grand theories as referents: Living Educational Theory, Transformative Learning Theory, and Knowledge Constitutive Interests. Moreover, I used crucial concepts such as Holistic Education, Research as Transformative Learning, and Research as Envisioning as referents in this inquiry. I divided this inquiry mainly into four parts. I developed the first part to address the first research question. The aim was to portray my lived experiences from my schooling to under graduation in mathematics education. By critically reflecting upon every perspective I presented, I tried to capture the conventionality or traditional contexts of education in the context of Nepal which might be an unhelpful model of education. I tried to articulate the one-size-fits-all nature of educationally disempowering practices and how they could lead to emerging problems such as disengagement, disinterest, lack of real-world applications of knowledge/skills, injustice in education and society. On the other hand, I explored some of the alternatives to those practices such as assessment as/for learning, constructivist and progressive pedagogies (e.g., inquiry-based learning), etc. which might be helpful to solve some of the pressing issues in education. I developed the second part of this inquiry to address the second research question to capture my non-academic pursuits which could be effective assets for an education system governed by the holistic notion of education. Presenting my personal narratives and dialogues, I tried to advocate for culturally contextualized educational perspectives, arts-based learning as living pedagogy, ICTs as tools for innovation and empowerment, and entrepreneurial learning as a pedagogy for turning ideas into actions for economic sustainability. Moreover, this part greatly emphasized on blending or connecting students' lifeworlds through empowering teaching and learning methodologies to promote the holistic development of a learner. The third part was developed to capture my lived experiences during my MEd in mathematics education and MPhil in STEAM education. The central aim of this part was to discuss my transformative shifts in my thoughts and actions regarding my personal and professional practices. I presented narratives, dialogues, and stories to depict my moves towards embracing practices governed by constructivist and transformative sensibilities. In doing so, I envisaged the possibility for a drastic change in education through the ethical implementation of technology-blended pedagogy, culturally responsive pedagogy (ethnomathematics, fund of knowledge, etc.), arts-integrated pedagogy, STEAM as a pedagogical approach, and transformative images of the curriculum (curriculum as experience, as currere, and as social reconstruction, etc.). These could be vital to prepare students with meaningful experiences and 21st-century skills wherein a student is anticipated to be capable of being a creator, developer, critical thinker, and problem solver. The final part of this inquiry aimed to respond to my fourth research question by portraying my vision of transformative STEAM education. I have developed my vision through semi-fictive creative imagination towards implementing the integrated nature of education. Under the interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary integrated curriculum, I developed my vision of STEAM education by portraying the future attributes of assessment, school, teacher, and student. This probably was my vision to balance the traditional and modern vision of education thereby seeking a better alternative to make this world a better place through education. In the midst of accomplishing this evocative autoethnographic endeavor, however, this is yet not the conclusion, I found myself a more autonomous and responsible citizen and/or professional who always seeks/works for empowering and inclusive changes in people and ultimately in society. Inculcating the transformative sensibilities by developing higher abilities, I found myself being and becoming an agent of change in my personal and professional contexts. Hence, this research journey has been one of the meaningful life achievements for me. Additionally, for others, this might be a turning point to join this transformative journey.
... ISSN 2351 -6186 This paper is available at: https://www.journalcbi.c om/impact-of-creativityflow-and-interactionquality-on-collaborativedesign-solutions-in-socialgroups.html the amount of such combinations, the number of ideas that these combinations generate (Hocevar, 1979;Weisberg, 2006;Kaufman et al., 2013). The ability to begin idea generation immediately, an aspect of executive function, is considered the strongest determining factor for the number of ideas proposed over a given period of time (Guilford, 1956;Benedek et al., 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of intragroup performance in relation to produced outcome during a collaborative and interdependent creative problem-solving task. The social dimensions of flow experiences and creativity influence group members' perception of social interaction have significant impact on the group's produced outcome. Twelve social groups of a total of sixty-two participants took part in an experiment consisting of two tasks generating qualitative data and two questionnaires measuring the experience of state flow and the perceived synchronization of social interactions. Group members autotelic experience predict the level of group interaction quality. It is important that facilitators encourage creative initiatives and enable conversations on task completion to increase the level of interaction quality, groups creativity capabilities and outcome functionality. Introduction In order to develop understanding of how group outcomes relate to group members experience of interaction among group members we adopt a two-blended perspective utilized in Zhang & Kwans (2019) research, social interaction quality and task achievement will be measured. There is a need to understand in what ways co-ordinational and motivational factors influence group members' interaction and exchange of ideas. The rationale is that the degree of interaction quality has a mediating effect on the relationship between the task's demands for interdependent initiatives and the group's produced design solution (Zenk et al, 2021).
... The characterization of innovation as a combinatoric process of existing ideas (Usher, 1954;Ruttan, 2000;Fleming, 2001;Fleming and Sorenson, 2001;Frenken and Nuvolari, 2004;Frenken, 2006a, b, c;Weisberg, 2006;Gruber et al., 2012;Youn et al., 2015) has been suggested to explain why exponential improvements are observed (Youn et al., 2015;Basnet and Magee, 2016). Furthermore, fundamental properties of a technology domain, such as scaling laws and the complexity of interactions between the components artifacts, have been conjectured to determine differences in rate of performance improvement across domains (Dutton and Thomas, 1984;McNerney et al., 2011;Basnet and Magee, 2016). ...
Article
In this work, we provide predicted yearly performance improvement rates for nearly all definable technologies for the first time. We do this by creating a correspondence of all patents within the US patent system to a set of 1757 technology domains. A technology domain is a body of patented inventions achieving the same technological function using the same knowledge and scientific principles. These domains contain 97.2% of all patents within the entire US patent system. From the identified patent sets, we calculated the average centrality of the patents in each domain to predict their improvement rates, following a patent network-based methodology tested in prior work. They vary from a low of 2% per year for the Mechanical Skin treatment- Hair Removal and wrinkles domain to a high of 216% per year for the Dynamic information exchange and support systems integrating multiple channels domain, but more that 80% of technologies improve at less than 25% per year. Fast improving domains are concentrated in a few technological areas. The domains that show improvement rates greater than the predicted rate for integrated chips, from Moore's law, are predominantly based upon software and algorithms. In addition, the rates of improvement were not a strong function of the patent set size.
... For many years, the concept of creativity has been and still is the subject of behavioural and social psychology, cognitive neuropsychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, history, as well as economics and business. Unfortunately, over the past 50 years, significant differences have been observed in studies defining the creativity (Weisberg, 2006). Amabile defined creativity as a process that leads to new, useful and clear results or a process that creates new ideas and new solutions (Amabile & Gryskiewicz, 1989). ...
Book
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Nowadays, information and communication technologies (ICT) are a significant part of the modern economy, especially in countries in the process of political and economic transition. However, socioeconomic development is not possible without digital innovation. Novel ICT-solutions support different countries to improve their business competitiveness as well as social and political development. The special challenge in the field of information and communication technologies for development (ICT4D) is to help the poor and socially excluded people and marginalized communities. The objectives of this monograph is to focus on how digital innovation opportunities like cyber-physical systems, blockchain or data analytics can lead to socioeconomic development, including economic growth, human capital development, well-being of society, and fostering social development. Authors of this book were interested in ICT4D effects in the fields of healthcare, marketing, customer relationship management, enterprise resource planning, business intelligence, human resource management, alternative trading systems, or innovative management systems, among many others. Transdisciplinary innovative solutions, bridging the digital divide and providing equitable and sustainable access to technologies as a factor of socioeconomic development were especially described.
... It is important to note that Kekulé's anecdote regarding the discovery process of benzene was part of an address he gave at a celebratory dinner in honor of this discovery multiple years later. It is still debated whether this anecdote is true or made up for presentation at that celebratory dinner (seeWeisberg, 2006). ...
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This is one of two chapters on "A cognitive neuroscience perspective on insight as a memory process" to be published in the "Routledge International Handbook of Creative Cognition" by L. J. Ball & F. Valleé-Tourangeau (Eds.). In this chapter, we will describe cognitive and brain processes that lead to an insight. Inspired by cognitive theories, we translate some of insight's main cognitive subprocesses (problem representation, search, representational change, solution) into related neurocognitive ones and summarize them in a descriptive framework. Those described processes focus primarily on verbal insight and are explained using the remote associates task. In this task, the solver is provided with several problem elements (e.g. drop, coat, summer) and needs to find the (remotely related) target that matches those cues (e.g., rain). In a nutshell, insight is the consequence of a problem-solving process where the target is encoded in long-term memory but cannot be retrieved at first because the relationship between the problem elements and the target is unknown, precluding a simple memory search. Upon problem display, the problem elements and a whole network of associated concepts are automatically activated in long-term memory in distinct areas of the brain representing those concepts (=problem representation). Insight is assumed to occur when automatic processes suddenly activate the target after control processes associated with inferior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex activation manage to overcome prior knowledge and/or perceptual constraints by revising the current activation pattern (=representational change). The next chapter (https://psyarxiv.com/bevjm) will focus on the role of insight problem solving for long-term memory formation.
... Jika mengulas tentang kreativitas maka tidak terlepas dari solusi memecahkan permasalahan haruslah dikembangkan dalam situasi yang riil (Basadur et al., 2014). Kemudian Weisberg (2006) menyatakan bahwa kreatif merupakan adalah pola pikir yang dapat menghasilkan suatu yang belum pernah ada (inovasi). Prosesnya akan menjadi landasan produk inovatif adalah serupa dengan proses berpikir yang menjadi dasar dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. ...
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Ketika buku ini disusun, masyarakat Indonesia sudah menjalani setahun lebih masa pandemi Covid-19. Tentunya pandemi ini sudah banyak membawa dampak dan perubahan dalam tatanan kehidupan masyarakat kita. Sebagai manusia sudah semestinya untuk membangun makna, karena sesungguhnya pada suatu peristiwa atau fenomena pasti memiliki makna. Pada dasarnya setiap manusia sudah dibekali potensi untuk membaca dan memahami makna. Ketika manusia memahami dan mengetahui nilai atau makna maka ia akan dapat beradaptasi. Ketika manusia tidak mampu membaca dan memahami nilai/makna maka ia akan menjadi stress dan frustasi, maka carilah makna dan jadilah bermakna. Dalam rangka mewujudkan tradisi akademik guna merespon perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan terkait Covid-19, maka Fakultas Ushuluddin dan Humaniora, Prodi Psikologi Islam UIN Antasari Banjarmasin mengundang para akademisi, peneliti dan praktisi untuk memberikan sumbangan pemikiran dalam bentuk opini, refleksi, ataupun review mengenai Covid-19 dalam perspektif Psikologi Islam. Call for chapter buku Covid-19 dan Psikologi Islam dibuka pada bulan September 2020 melalui website http://pi.fuh.uin-antasari.ac.id. Antusiasme sangat tinggi yang dibuktikan dengan banyaknya artikel yang masuk, tidak hanya dari internal saja, tapi juga dari kolega-kolega lain. Pada Bulan Desember-Maret 2021, kami melakukan proses review dan edit. Tercatat ada 26 artikel dengan topik relevan dengan tema Covid-19 dan Psikologi Islam.
... According Weisberg (2006), for something to be an innovative (creative) product, it must be new and that, there are two novelties that must be separated in the creative process, that is to say; novelty of a person, versus that of the world. If an individual developed a product and he or she was not aware that the product had been developed somewhere else, then that individual is creative for the idea of the product was novel to him or her, therefore, Weisberg argues that for a product to be creative or innovative, it should encompass novelty by the creator, and that a creative person is one who produces such products. ...
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Background Discrepancies between what is transcribed and the actual interview recordings were noticed in qualitative research reports. This study aimed at the development of a new transcription software (Jiegnote), and the evaluation of its effectiveness in the optimization of the transcription process, to minimize transcription completion time, and errors in qualitative research. Methods The study was a mixed methods project implemented from September to November 2020. The qualitative aspect of the study was phenomenological in perspective whereas the quantitative consisted of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a parallel design. Results At the time of the study, the Jiegnote software was a working prototype. We enrolled a total of 26 participants; 14 participants had their data analyzed in the RCT part of the study, 13 participated in the in-depth interviews, and 22 in the answering of Semi Structured Questionnaires. Upon the execution of an independent t test, results showed that, there was no statistical significance between the intervention and control means. On considering the total average transcription completion time and the type of language in which an audio case was recorded, the effect size evaluation implied that the Jiegnote software had a small impact (Hedges' g = 0.413438) in reducing the total average time taken to translate and transcribe audio cases that were recorded in a local language (Luganda), and a large impact (Hedges' g = 1.190919) in reducing the total average time taken to transcribe audio cases that were recorded in a foreign language (English). On considering the total average number of transcription errors and the type of language in which an audio case is recorded, the effect size evaluation implied that the Jiegnote software had a small impact (Hedges' g = 0.213258) in reducing the total average time taken to translate and transcribe audio cases that were recorded in a local language (Luganda). This was further observed (Hedges' g = 0.039928) in the transcription of cases that were recorded in a foreign language (English). On considering the in-depth interview data outcomes, participants responded that the Jiegnote software media looping functions (algorithm) enabled them to accomplish their transcription tasks in a shorter time and with fewer errors compared to the traditional methods. Conclusion The study demonstrates utilities associated with intrapreneurship and technological innovation in an organization setting whereby, the Jiegnote technology that was developed by the researchers, had some impact on the optimization of the qualitative research value chain. This was observed through the effect size (impact) evaluations that were conducted to investigate the superiority of the Jiegnote software against the traditional transcription methods, in minimizing the average number of errors committed, and time taken to complete a transcription process.
... These four stages have been recurrently used as a framework for studying insight in the psychological literature (Luo and Niki, 2003;Jung-Beeman et al., 2004;Sandkühler and Bhattacharya, 2008;Weisberg, 2013). Although Wallas' work covers the creative process in rather broad terms, its relevance to the study of insight is remarkable, due to the close proximity and similarity in conceptualization, measures, and processes (Shen et al., 2017(Shen et al., , 2018 Almost at the same time, Wolfgang Köhler, one of the pioneers of Gestalt psychology, introduced the term insight into comparative psychology (although this way of problem solving was already described before him in non-human animals; Turner, 1909;Köhler, 1925;Weisberg, 2006;Galpayage Dona and Chittka, 2020). Gestalt psychologists proposed that insight depends on different mechanisms to trial and error learning, which, according to Thorndike (1911), was the only way in which animals could solve problems (Köhler, 1925;Koffka, 1935;Duncker, 1945;Wertheimer, 1959). ...
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Despite countless anecdotes and the historical significance of insight as a problem solving mechanism, its nature has long remained elusive. The conscious experience of insight is notoriously difficult to trace in non-verbal animals. Although studying insight has presented a significant challenge even to neurobiology and psychology, human neuroimaging studies have cleared the theoretical landscape, as they have begun to reveal the underlying mechanisms. The study of insight in non-human animals has, in contrast, remained limited to innovative adjustments to experimental designs within the classical approach of judging cognitive processes in animals, based on task performance. This leaves no apparent possibility of ending debates from different interpretations emerging from conflicting schools of thought. We believe that comparative cognition has thus much to gain by embracing advances from neuroscience and human cognitive psychology. We will review literature on insight (mainly human) and discuss the consequences of these findings to comparative cognition.
... For many years, the concept of creativity has been and still is the subject of behavioural and social psychology, cognitive neuropsychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, history, as well as economics and business. Unfortunately, over the past 50 years, significant differences have been observed in studies defining the creativity (Weisberg, 2006). Amabile defined creativity as a process that leads to new, useful and clear results or a process that creates new ideas and new solutions (Amabile & Gryskiewicz, 1989). ...
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Nowadays, information and communication technologies (ICT) are a significant part of the modern economy, especially in countries in the process of political and economic transition. However, socioeconomic development is not possible without digital innovation. Novel ICT-solutions support different countries to improve their business competitiveness as well as social and political development. The special challenge in the field of information and communication technologies for development (ICT4D) is to help the poor and socially excluded people and marginalized communities. The objectives of this monograph is to focus on how digital innovation opportunities like cyber-physical systems, blockchain or data analytics can lead to socioeconomic development, including economic growth, human capital development, well-being of society, and fostering social development. Authors of this book were interested in ICT4D effects in the fields of healthcare, marketing, customer relationship management, enterprise resource planning, business intelligence, human resource management, alternative trading systems, or innovative management systems, among many others. Transdisciplinary innovative solutions, bridging the digital divide and providing equitable and sustainable access to technologies as a factor of socioeconomic development were especially described.
... Artistic paintings are concrete visual expressions of human evolution and creativity to share emotions, values, visions, beliefs, and trends of history and culture. The creation, interpretation, and analysis of artistic paintings are social, contextual, subjective, passive, and, beyond superficial characteristics, complex to compute and automatize [1]. In particular, it is theorized that art is an output of social agents, particularly a human experience, that can only be imitated by machines [2]. ...
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The artistic community is increasingly relying on automatic computational analysis for authentication and classification of artistic paintings. In this paper, we identify hidden patterns and relationships present in artistic paintings by analysing their complexity, a measure that quantifies the sum of characteristics of an object. Specifically, we apply Normalized Compression (NC) and the Block Decomposition Method (BDM) to a dataset of 4,266 paintings from 91 authors and examine the potential of these information-based measures as descriptors of artistic paintings. Both measures consistently described the equivalent types of paintings, authors, and artistic movements. Moreover, combining the NC with a measure of the roughness of the paintings creates an efficient stylistic descriptor. Furthermore, by quantifying the local information of each painting, we define a fingerprint that describes critical information regarding the artists' style, their artistic influences, and shared techniques. More fundamentally, this information describes how each author typically composes and distributes the elements across the canvas and, therefore, how their work is perceived. Finally, we demonstrate that regional complexity and two-point height difference correlation function are useful auxiliary features that improve current methodologies in style and author classification of artistic paintings. The whole study is supported by an extensive website (http://panther.web.ua.pt) for fast author characterization and authentication.
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“Nos estamos ahogando en información mientras tenemos hambre de sabiduría.” –Owen Wilson En esta sobremesa quiero proponer un argumento para provocar y motivar a la reflexión colectiva y plural. La pregunta: ¿Podría el food design ser un camino para desarrollar la sabiduría alimentaria? Nos puede permitir indagar sobre aspectos que tocan los cimientos de nuestra área de trabajo. ___ Artículo publicado en la edición número 2 de la La Revista Latinoamericana de Food Design.Los contenidos y metadata de esta revista están bajo licencia de Acceso Abierto CC BY-NC-ND 2.5 AR Registro DNDA ISSN 2718- 6814
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Creativity and innovation go hand in hand, and understanding sources of creativity will expand organizational innovative capacity. This study explores the impact that characteristics have on creativity using divergent‐thinking experiments. I hypothesize that their influence stems from their effect on the experiences individuals acquire throughout life based on preferences, opportunities, and constraints. I find that gender, socioeconomic background, and exposure to other cultures are associated with personal experiences. In turn, experience is positively associated with greater creativity. I also explore creative style and its impact on creativity and find that having an experimental creative style positively correlates with creativity.
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RESUMO: A complexidade crescente dos edifícios nas últimas décadas e a necessidade de produzir projetos com maior precisão e eficiência exige um controle e uma gestão mais rigorosa de todo o processo. O objetivo deste artigo é refletir sobre os vários tipos de pensamento que norteiam o processo de projeto paramétrico. O objeto de estudo é a modelagem paramétrica (MP). A intenção é: 1. Definir o que é MP em arquitetura; 2. Mostrar que projetos paramétricos não são derivados apenas de um pensamento algorítmico, lógico e racional; 3. Destacar que projetos paramétricos podem despertar a curiosidade e a criatividade por meio de combinações inusitadas entre os parâmetros envolvidos. ABSTRACT The increasing complexity of buildings in recent decades and the necessity to produce projects with greater precision and efficiency require a more rigorous management and control of the entire process. The goal of this article is to reflect on the various kinds of thought that guide the parametric design process. The object of study is the parametric modeling (MP). The intention is to: 1. define what is MP in architecture; 2. sh ow that projects are not based parametric only algorithmic thinking, rational and logi cal; 3. Hi ghlight that param etric designs can arouse the curiosity and creativity through unusual combinations between the parameters involved.
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The sophistication of academic research often creates a cognitive barrier for readers when they understand and utilize new knowledge. Cognizant of this issue, scholars in various fields, including Operations and Supply Chain Management (OSCM), have called for improved communication in academic research. Readability is a key pillar of written communication and is particularly important in OSCM. This is partially because OSCM articles tend to be diverse in terms of methods, theoretical lenses used, and author origins. OSCM is also a field where knowledge is created with the purpose of interfacing with real business problems closely and engaging with diverse external stakeholders. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between readability and knowledge diffusion in academic OSCM research. Using cognitive load as the theoretical lens for readability, we analyze a full-text dataset of 1476 articles published in leading OSCM journals between 1998 and 2018. We find that readability has a positive impact on citations garnered. This relationship holds over 3-year short-term spans and 6-year long-term spans, indicating lasting effects. In addition, the results show that the impact of readability on knowledge diffusions is nonlinear. This finding confirms the additive nature of cognitive load and suggests that there is a level authors and journal editors should achieve to make their work more understandable and more likely to be diffused. Suggestions are made to help researchers reduce cognitive loads and to increase the likelihood that knowledge generated in their research is more likely to be disseminated by future researchers.
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Applying analogies in teaching and learning can significantly improve their outcomes. It is pedagogically important to know the various factors on which depend the frequency and manner of application of analogies. Such factors include creativity. We can see the relationship between creativity and analogy from several angles. In this paper, we are dealing with the connection between self-assessment of creativity and the tendency to apply analogies in a pedagogical context. On a sample of 305 students, the Kaufman Creativity Domain Scale (K-DOCS) and inventory were applied to measure the propensity to spontaneously apply analogies. The results suggest that there is a connection between self-assessment of creativity and a tendency to apply analogies, but also that the nature of that connection is complex. The connection was registered with two areas of expression of creativity (personal-everyday and academic area), while the connection with other areas was not registered. The meaning and pedagogical significance of the obtained results were discussed.
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This article presents an 8P theoretical framework for understanding creativity and theories of creativity. The 8Ps are purpose, press, person, problem, process, product, propulsion, and public. The article opens by distinguishing between a theory and a model, on the one hand, and a theoretical framework, on the other. It then considers briefly some of the theoretical frameworks for creativity that have been proposed in the past. Next, it describes the 8P theoretical framework and how it applies to understanding creativity and theories of creativity. The 8P framework suggests that most theories of creativity have been rather incomplete, dealing only with limited aspects of the phenomenon.
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Inquiry‐based lab experiences have been shown to be more effective than traditional lab experiences. Students’ perceptions of the types of thinking required in science lab settings have implications for interest and persistence. This study compares students’ perceptions about the thinking required in traditional and inquiry laboratory settings. Findings include that students in the inquiry setting more often viewed their experiences as reflecting more reasonable and literature‐aligned views of creative and critical thinking. Implication for persistence and helping students develop more reasonable views of critical and creative thinking are discussed.
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Creativity is a major source of innovation, growth, adaptability, and psychological resilience, making it a top priority of governments, global corporations, educational institutions, and other organizations that collectively invest hundreds of millions of dollars annually into training. The current foundation of creativity training is the technique known as divergent thinking; yet for decades, concerns have been raised about the adequacy of divergent thinking: it is incongruent with the creative processes of children and most adult creatives, and it has failed to yield expected downstream results in creative production. In this article, we present an alternative approach to creativity training, based in neural processes different from those involved in divergent thinking and drawing upon a previously unused resource for creativity research: narrative theory. We outline a narrative theory of creativity training; illustrate with examples of training and assessment from our ongoing work with the U.S. Department of Defense, Fortune 50 companies, and graduate and professional schools; and explain how the theory can help fill prominent lacunae and gaps in existing creativity research, including the creativity of children, the psychological mechanisms of scientific and technological innovation, and the failure of computer artificial intelligence to replicate human creativity.
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This article-based doctoral thesis explores the stakeholder perspectives and experiences of crowdsourced creative work on two of the leading crowdsourcing platforms. The thesis has two parts. In the first part, we explore creative work from the perspective of the crowd worker. In the second part, we explore and study the requester's perspective in different contexts and several case studies. The research is exploratory and we contribute empirical insights using survey-based and artefact-based approaches common in the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). In the former approach, we explore the key issues that may limit creative work on paid crowdsourcing platforms. In the latter approach, we create computational artefacts to elicit authentic experiences from both crowd workers and requesters of crowdsourced creative work. The thesis contributes a classification of crowd workers into five archetypal profiles, based on the crowd workers' demographics, disposition, and preferences for creative work. We propose a three-part classification of creative work on crowdsourcing platforms: creative tasks, creativity tests, and creativity judgements (also referred to as creative feedback). The thesis further investigates the emerging research topic of how requesters can be supported in interpreting and evaluating complex creative work. Last, we discuss the design implications for research and practice and contribute a vision of creative work on future crowdsourcing platforms with the aim of empowering crowd workers and fostering an ecosystem around tailored platforms for creative microwork. Keywords: creative work, creativity, creativity support tools, crowdsourcing
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This article presents an experimental first-year seminar that uses game-based learning to develop the creative problem-solving abilities of first-year college students at a mid-sized university. A discussion on how the computer game, The Witness, was incorporated into the first-year seminar is given along with an overview of teaching practices. An exploratory study was conducted that tracked students’ personal beliefs about their creative abilities and identities along with their performance completing a series of insight problems that have unexpected solutions. The quantitative data that was collected indicates that students’ confidence in their creative problem-solving abilities increased during the course of the semester, while their beliefs regarding their creative personal identity decreased slightly. The results of this initial investigation are analyzed and discussed and future research directions for conducting a more significant study are proposed.
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Buku ini memuat sejumlah bab yang menjabarkan kedudukan entrepreneurship sebagai bagian keterampilan yang dibutuhkan oleh peseta didik pada Abad 21, karakteristik seorang entrepreneur/wirausaha, dan strategi pengembangan keterampilan entrepreneurship melalui biologi. Pada buku ini juga dikenalkan model pembelajaran bioentrepreneurship berbasis CAPAB(L)E yang dikembangkan oleh penulis. Di bagian akhir, diberikan beberapa contoh rencana usaha (business plan) yang dibuat oleh kelompok mahasiswa yang dibimbing oleh para penulis.
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The purpose of this study was to describe the practice of art learning in Kindergarten during the COVID-19 pandemic. The research method used was a survey. The research target is that a detailed description of art learning practices in Kindergarten during the COVID-19 pandemic can be drawn up as a basis for formulating the basic needs for improving the quality of learning. The results of the research can be used to improve educational praxis, formulate hypotheses, create initial development plans, evaluate programs, and evaluate policies, especially art learning in Kindergarten units. The results showed that PAUD teachers developed an art lesson plan and implemented it. However, the type of art that was taught was visual art, while dance and music were never performed. Likewise, the use of WhatsApp media is more widely used in online art learning than other social media. Also using audio media and taking examples of art learning from social media. Parents actively participate in taking learning media to school and sending photos and videos of the learning process at home. With online learning, teachers have difficulty using technology for early childhood art learning, and prefer to use face-to-face learning. Likewise with parents, parents prefer their children to learn face to face so they can meet the teacher directly.
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