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The arhitecture of Early and Middle Neolithic settlements of the Starčevo culture in Northern Croatia

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... Riječ je o jamama za vađenje gline te nekoliko peći (Minichreiter 1992, 35; 1993b, 97). Istraženi objekti pokazuju sve značajke dobro organiziranog naselja s izdvojenim, namjenskim prostorima za izradu keramičkog posuđa i kamenih alatki, za tkanje, pripremu hrane i ostalo (Minichreiter 1992Minichreiter , 2001). Rezultati radiokarbonske analize pokazali su vremenski raspon objekata iz naselja kod Zadubravlja od 6610 do 5300 cal. ...
... The western part of the settlement housed features that had a role in the production of ceramics, such as clay-extraction pits and several kilns (Minichreiter 1992, 35; 1993b, 97). The investigated structures and features exhibit traits of a well-organized settlement with areas designated for the production of ceramic vessels and stone tools, weaving, food preparation and other activities (Minichreiter 1992Minichreiter , 2001). The results of radiocarbon analysis revealed that the time span of the structures in the settlement at Zadubravlje was between 6610 and 5300 cal. ...
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The paper presents the results of the lithic analysis of chipped stone artefacts from a Starčevo culture site at Zadubravlje. Blanks for tool production (flakes, blades and bladelets) were produced at the site itself, mostly on the surface, although pit 19 probably functioned as a working area. It was established that the blades were produced by indirect percussion. Predominant tools are pieces with partial retouch and those with one retouched edge. Geometric forms are also present, although in small percentage.
... From Galovo site there are two structures dated to 6300±80 BP (5380–5290 BC) and 6190±130 (5300-4960 BC) (Minichreiter and Krajcar Broniae, 2006). From Zadubravlje site one structure was dated to 6260±130 BP (5370–5040 BC) (Minichreiter, 2001; Minichreiter and Krajcar Broniae, 2006). Here, the obvious problems are too low dates for clearly Starèevo culture structures from both sites that overlap with Sopot culture dates from other sites. ...
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Southern outskirts of Carpathian basin, namely the region between Sava, Drava and Danube rivers, have specific climate conditions today partially influenced by geological structure and geographical position. In this region Neolithic Starčevo and Sopot cultures are observed. Radiocarbon dates for Neolithic cultures are used to build a time frame which is compared with climate proxies, especially with Holocene rapid climate events (8.2, 5.9 and 4.2 ka), to draw a conclusion on when and how these cultures developed in southern regions of Carpathian basin. Lacking firm geoarchaeological data the results are not conclusive but can provide some insight on how the climate may have directly and indirectly influenced development of Neolithic and beginning of Eneolithic period in the region.
... These pits were provided with some sort of protective roofing against the harsher weather. The 'two-storied pit-dwelling' with postholes along its northern side uncovered at Pepelane may have been a pit of this type (Minichreiter 2001). It is also quite obvious that on sites where there was no need for such pits, only the remains of open-air hearths are found. ...
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According to our present knowledge, the Linear Pottery culture (LBK) longhouse evolved in the western Carpathian Basin. This chapter presents new evidence from recently investigated Transdanubian Early Neolithic sites on the emergence and spread of LBK longhouses. It also gives an account of the possible local Mesolithic and south-east European antecedents, and argues for a rather different cultural development of the east Hungarian Alföld LBK, giving the reasons why it seems to have had little direct impact on the spread of the LBK into central Europe. In discussing these processes, environmental, chronological and social issues are invoked to outline the beginnings of sedentary life in the mid-6th millennium bc central Europe.
... Another problem to be analysed in greater detail regards the chronological relationships between the Proto-Starèevo and the early Linear phase; 3. The radiocarbon dating of the Slavonian sites, located between the Drava and Sava Rivers. Although the typological subdivision elaborated by Dimitrijeviã (1974) seems to be confirmed by the results of recent excavations, at least as regards its earliest development phases (Minichreiter 2001a), the number of absolute dates of the Starèevo sites of this region is still largely insufficient; 4. The results recently obtained from the Hungarian sites of the Körös Culture, which do not greatly improve the chronological scheme proposed by Gläser (1991), Horváth (1991) and Horváth and Hertelendi (1994) some ten years ago. It was mainly based on the results obtained from Maroslele-Pana, Endrod 39, Méhtelek-Nadas and Röszke-Lúdvár. ...
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Two papers on the Radiocarbon Chronology of the Early Neoithic sites of the Balkan Peninsula and the spread of Neolithization in the region
... These pits were provided with some sort of protective roofing against the harsher weather. The 'two-storied pit-dwelling' with postholes along its northern side uncovered at Pepelane may have been a pit of this type (Minichreiter 2001). It is also quite obvious that on sites where there was no need for such pits, only the remains of open-air hearths are found. ...
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В монографии представлены материалы, отражающие процесс формирования неолита и земледелия в Китае. В первой главе рассматриваются особенности эпохи, переходной от палеолита к неолиту, много внимания уделено проблемам, связанным с установлением хронологии древнейшей керамики Китая. В главе, посвященной раннему неолиту, дается обзор раннеземледельческих культур Китая, их жилищ, поселений, погребальных и иных обрядов, керамической посуды и прочего инвентаря. В отдельной главе подробно рассматриваются обстоятельства и особенности формирования земледелия в Китае, анализируются текущие источники, а также сложившиеся подходы к их пониманию и интерпретации. Наконец, в последней главе разбираются возможные связи раннеземледельческих культур Китая с ранними земледельцами Западной Евразии и культурой дземон Японских островов.
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New radiocarbon dates for the Early Starčevo Culture confi rm that the process of Neolithization in continental Croatia began already around the year 6000 BC. Evidence of this includes discovery of settlements in Zadubravlje and Slavonski Brod that belong to the initial phases of Starčevo Culture development - Linear A phase. The long duration of the Starčevo Culture is demonstrated by over one hundred recorded settlements from all phases of its development, from Linear A to the closing Spiraloid B phase. This confirms that the territory of continental Croatia was an integral component of the central Starčevo Culture zone and one of the key such zones in its emergence and existence. Typological and stylistic analyses of archaeological material from the settlement at Galovo in Slavonski Brod established that it belongs to the Linear A phase, which lasted for a considerable period of time. The first radiocarbon dating of a Starčevo Culture settlement in Croatia have determined a more precise chronological status of Slavonski Brod and Zadubravlje within the chronological scale of Early Neolithic settlements of the Starčevo Culture complex. Archaeological methods applied resulted in the discovery of two construction phases (vertical stratigraphy), while the third phase (horizontal stratigraphy) could only be determined using the 14C dating method. The dating of residential pit-house 37 and burial pit 15 in the most recent structures in this part of the settlement allowed, for the first time, a scientifically-founded portrayal of the horizontal stratigraphy of one of the oldest Early Neolithic settlements in continental Croatia.
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Until recently the recovery of plant remains in Croatia was rare, resulting in few studies addressing the nature of Neolithic crop cultivation. This paper presents new archaeobotanical data from eleven Neolithic settlements in coastal and continental Croatia. Within continental Croatia, three sites dating to the Starčevo culture (early/middle Neolithic; ca. 6000–5300 cal bc) and six to the Sopot culture (late Neolithic; ca. 5300–4000 cal bc) are examined along with two Hvar culture sites (late Neolithic; ca. 4800–4000 cal bc) located along the coast. Different settlement types are included in the study: open air sites, tells and cave sites. From the data collected the most common crops identified were einkorn, emmer, barley, lentil, pea and flax, as well as the fruits Cornus mas (Cornelian cherry) and Physalis alkekengi (Chinese lantern), which were particularly dominant in the Sopot culture settlements. By examining formation processes, sieved crop processing products and by-products were identified at six of the sites, suggesting that cereals were processed on a day-to-day basis at the household level. In contrast, the remains from the late Neolithic coastal cave site of Turska Peć suggest two distinct formation processes. At the eastern side of the cave the plant remains suggest that episodes of dung burning occurred, possibly to clear the cave of excess waste during seasonal habitation of the cave by herders and livestock. Towards the back of the cave, cereal remains and higher charcoal densities may suggest an area used for food preparation or cooking.
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The present article wants to be am original approach over the funerary grave goods, from Starčevo-Criş graves. There will be analyzed all the Starčevo-Criş graves from Romania, Hungary and Yugoslavia. It would not be included in this analysis the discoveries from the North of Bulgaria (Kremikovci, Ovčaraovo and Tsonevo groups) and Macedonia (Anzabegovo-Vršnik group), as being considered related to Starčevo-Criş culture. This study has to dimensions: the first one will approach the variety of research directions and the main theoretical currents developed in time, to better underline the theoretical background based on which we will develop an analysis model; the second one will focus over the funerary grave goods from Starčevo-Criş culture. The analysis model will be structured on two segments: I. funerary grave goods and II. Ceramic fragments discovered near the body. For the first segment, we used a complex analysis model, structured on more elements - types of materials represented, the typology of these pieces, their frequency, the quantity and quality of these objects, the type of grave’s disposal, their sex and age, related to a symbolist and significant manner of grave goods interpretation. The second segment refers to ceramic fragments located in graves or related to the body that will be analyzed in a manner of quantity and quality, and from a point of view of their disposal related to the grave and body, their sex and age. In the Starčevo-Criş culture are just 244 graves. The majority of burials were deposited in previously-dug pits or open spaces in the settlement, to one side of the pit or in a slightly deepened grave. In some cases the dead were buried in specific shallow grave-pits among the houses. The dead were always buried in a contracted position lying on their side but without consistent orientation. One of the main characteristics is the rarity of the grave goods discovered. That is why out of the 244 graves discovered by now, 204 had no funerary goods. It represents 84% out of the total number of discoveries. The types of grave goods discovered are very few: pots, flints, bones tools, and ornaments. It reflects the relationship between the dead ones and the ones that are alive, metaphoric speaking. These objects might have social, family, economic, symbolic, spiritual and emotional connotations. The main role in placing those funerary goods in the grave, belonged to the ones alive (mourners, relatives, leaders etc.). Interesting for this culture is the way the ceramic fragments are disposed: under and over the body. This practice raises a lot of problems, giving the fact that besides representing a connection with the relatives, it is also the end of a ritual habit that involves breaking some pots and dispose them over and under the body. Besides all these matters, the Starčevo-Criş grave goods are still a sensitive matter, their identification being very hard to achieve. Also we do not have to ignore the intrinsic character of these funeral practices.
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