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A Hettangian dinosaur footprint has been found near ancient petroglyphs in the Polish village of Kontrewers on the northern slope of the Holy Cross Mountains. This association of rock art with a dinosaur footprint in a place of possible occult gatherings is unique in Europe. Besides its intriguing association, the discovered ichnite is the earliest occurrence of a large ornithischian footprint referable to Moyenisauropus karaszevskii in Polish Liassic strata.
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Harris et al., eds., 2006, The Triassic-Jurassic Terrestrial Transition. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 37.
1Polish Geological Institute, Rakowiecka 4, 00-975 Warsaw, Poland, E-mail:;
2Al. Niepodleg³oœci 15/35, 02-653 Warsaw, Poland, E-mail:
Abstract—A Hettangian dinosaur footprint has been found near ancient petroglyphs in the Polish village of
Kontrewers on the northern slope of the Holy Cross Mountains. This association of rock art with a dinosaur
footprint in a place of possible occult gatherings is unique in Europe. Besides its intriguing association, the
discovered ichnite is the earliest occurrence of a large ornithischian footprint referable to Moyenisauropus karaszevskii
in Polish Liassic strata.
Kontrewers is a sparse, low population, rehabitated village that
was burned down by the Nazis during World War II. Kontrewers is
located 12 km south west of the Soltyków track-bearing outcrop in the
Zagaje Formation (Gierlinski 1991, 1994; Gierlinski and Sawicki, 1998;
Gierlinski and Pienkowski, 1999; Gierliñski and Niedzwiedzki, 2002;
Gierlinski et al., 2001, 2004). The northern part of Kontrewers lies on an
elevated patch of early Hettangian alluvial and lacustrine deposits of the
Zagaje Fm. (formerly labeled, on the geological map of Krajewski [1962]
as the Coal and Ore-bearing Series). According to local tradition, this
elevated point was a sacred site of occult gatherings in ancient times (E.
Gassowska and L. Wiewióra, unpubl. report for Voivodship Conserva-
tor of Monuments in Kielce, 1989). In 1988, the owner of this site, the
late Mr. Henryk Gaciaz, notified the Voivodship Conservator of Monu-
ments in Kielce, that petroglyphs had been found on a rock slab on his
grounds. The ensuing archeological investigation and some preliminary
fieldwork carried out by Gassowska’s team in August and September,
1989 revealed no further archeological data.
In May, 2005, independent of the previous studies of this area,
one of us (G.D.G.) found at the locality a sandstone slab bearing a
dinosaur footprint. Both slabs - the one with the petroglyphs and the
second one with the footprint - are large blocks of yellowish sandstone
of the Zagaje Formation. Both exhibit similar, highly eroded surfaces
covered partially by a brown, limonitic patina about 1 mm thick. This
suggests that both objects were exposed to the same environment for a
similar, presumably long period of time. Exact dating methods should be
attempted in further archeological research, beyond the scope of this
preliminary report.
So far, documented associations of fossil tracks with rock art
include examples from Lesotho (Lockley, 1991; Ellenberger et al., 2005),
Brazil (Mayor and Sarjeant, 2001) and Utah (Lockley, 1991; Mayor and
Sarjeant, 2001; Staker, 2005, this volume). However, such an association
has not been hitherto reported from Europe.
The footprint (Fig. 1) is preserved as a mold on an isolated slab
found at GPS coordinates N 51º03.323' and E 20º30.671'. A plaster cast
of the print is stored at the Geological Museum of the Polish Geological
Institute in Warsaw, Poland, cataloged as Muz. PIG 1560.11.68.
The footprint is large, tridactyl, and slightly longer (24 cm) than
wide (22 cm). The digits are highly divaricated (II – IV = 60º), the angle
between the axes of digits II and III (34º) is wider than between digits III
and IV (26º). The digits are relatively short and thick; the fourth toe is the
longest. The length of the second digit is 68% the length of the fourth
digit, while the length of the third is 80% of that of the fourth digit. These
features and proportions correspond closely to those of Moyenisauropus
karaszevskii Gierlinski, 1991, an ornithischian ichnotaxon hitherto known
from slightly younger (late Hettangian) coastal deposits of the Przysucha
Ore-bearing Formation of Gliniany Las near Mniów in Poland.
The petroglyphs (Fig. 2) were carved on the surface perpendicu-
lar to the bedding plane of the Zagaje Formation sandstone slab, found at
GPS coordinates N 51º03.300' and E 20º30.627'. A replica of the
petroglyphs is cataloged as PMA/MR/2656 and housed at the State
Archeological Museum in Warsaw, Poland. The surface with petroglyphs
slopes toward the northwest and comprises four, obviously man-made
engravings, as well as erosional structures. There are two engraved sil-
houettes and two carved symbols. The anthropomorphic figures depict
a pair of backpacked flute players with horn or antennae-like structures
above their heads. The larger (27 cm high) silhouette is an ithyphallic
male, while below it, a smaller (20 cm high) figure is labeled with a half-
moon symbol, which suggests it represents a female. The same lunar
symbol is known from the Bronze Age engravings of Valcamonica in
Italy (Citroni, 2001, fig.16). A second symbol, located to the left of the
supposed female figure, resembles Y-shape carvings from Bronze Age
sites in Sweden (Coles, 2000, pl. 98) except that pair of eye-like dots lie
between the fork of the Y-shape. Nevertheless, these symbols alone are
not enough to determine a Bronze Age for the Kontrewers petroglyphs.
The lunar symbolization of femininity seems to have been widely dis-
tributed since the Neolithic (W. Borkowski, personal commun., 2005),
while the Y-shaped symbol differs from Swedish ones by its “two eyes”
motif that is common, for instance, on Neolithic ritual vases in all coastal
regions of Atlantic Europe (De Laet, 1994). Moreover, the Kontrewers
silhouettes of two “horned” flute players do not fit well any other
European rock art, despite the fact that the flute seems to have been used
in Neolithic Europe (Doumas, 1994).
FIGURE 1. Moyenisauropus karaszevskii Gierlinski 1991, Muz. PIG
1560.11.68, from the Zagaje Formation of Kontrewers, Poland.
The Soltyków track assemblage of early Hettangian, Zagaje For-
mation alluvial plain deposits is dominated by large sauropod and theropod
ichnotaxa (Gierlinski and Sawicki, 1998; Gierlinski and Pienkowski, 1999;
Gierliñski et al, 2001, 2004). In contrast, the marginal-marine deposits of
the Zagaje Formation at Gromadzice has produced numerous, medium-
sized ornithischian tracks (Gierlinski and Pienkowski, 1999; Gierlinski
and Niedzwiedzki, 2001, 2004) that also occur, albeit as bigger speci-
mens, in the late Hettangian track assemblage of the Gliniany Las la-
goonal deposits of the Przysucha Ore-bearing Formation (Gierlinski,
1991, 1999; Gierlinski and Pienkowski, 1999). The Kontrewers find is
the first large ornithischian footprint from the Zagaje Formation. All of
these intriguing ornithischian ichnites were assigned to the controversial
ichnogenus Moyenisauropus Ellenberger 1974, originally known only
from the Lower Jurassic of Lesotho. Specifically, the tracks pertain to
the new ichnospecies M. karaszevskii (Gierlinski, 1991). Earlier, Olsen
and Galton (1984) considered Moyenisauropus a junior synonym of
Anomoepus Hitchcock 1848. However, they ignored the fact that the
type Moyenisauropus ichnospecies, the relatively robust form M. natator
Ellenberger 1974, does not fit well a gracile Anomoepus morphotype,
even if other specimens referred to Ellenberger’s Moyenisauropus should
be indeed referred to Anomoepus. Thus, the new specimens from the
Lower Jurassic of Poland necessitated an emendation of the
Moyenisauropus ichnotaxon. As a result, Moyenisauropus is represented
by fewer specimens, but the ichnotaxon remains valid (Gierlinski, 1991).
Abundant Polish Hettangian ornithischian tracks comprises vari-
ous distinct forms. There are classic, gracile forms pertaining to
Anomoepus (Gierlinski and Pienkowski, 1999, pls. II2, III4; Gierlinski et
al., 2004, fig.12A), including the medium form named Anomoepus
pienkovskii Gierlinski, 1991 (Fig. 3B). Larger tracks resemble the hereto-
fore exclusively African Moyenisauropus natator (Fig. 3C), and the most
robust footprints Moyenisauropus karaszevskii (Fig. 3D). There is there-
fore an allometric series of ornithischian ichnotaxa progressing from tiny
Anomoepus scambus Hitchcock 1848 footprints made by basal ornithis-
chians (Fig. 3A) to Moyenisauropus (Figs. 3C, D), distinguished by only
two phalangeal pads on digit III, of presumed scelidosaur origin
(Gierliñski, 1999). If this four stage series reflects phylogenetic rather
than ontogenetic (or both) changes in pedal morphology, each of these
four sister morphotypes qualifies as a distinct ichnotaxon, the nomencla-
ture of which would follow ICZN conventions and present ichnological
philosophy. However, Thulborn (1994) and, more recently, Olsen and
Rainforth (2003), did not share this view, referring all Liassic ornithis-
chian tracks to Anomoepus. Moreover, Olsen and Rainforth (2003) found
only one valid ichnospecies of Anomoepus, A. scambus Hitchcock 1848,
that encompasses almost all other specimens referred to either Anomoepus
or Moyenisauropus. These authors claimed that no morphological differ-
ences between Ellenberger’s Moyenisauropus material and Hitchcock’s
Anomoepus can be substantiated. They did not prove their claim by a
comparison of the Moyenisauropus type ichnospecies (i.e., M. natator)
with the Anomoepus footprints from the Connecticut Valley. Olsen and
Rainforth (2003) stated that the fusion of the distal and penultimate on
Moyenisauropus pedal digit III is due only to preservational mode, and it
is also seen in some Newark Anomoepus specimens. Their conclusion is
far-fetched, because no Anomoepus specimen from Connecticut Valley
demonstrates that feature as clearly as M. natator and M. karaszevskii.
Inconsistently with their lumping attempt, Olsen and Rainforth went on
to suggest that the robust Polish forms represented either a different
ichnospecies within Anomoepus or a new ichnogenus, but hesitated to
label the Polish material formally. They were simply not fully convinced
that the Polish specimens should be referred to A. scambus (partly
because of its allegedly worse preservation; actually the Polish foot-
prints are often preserved equally well or even better than typical New-
ark material). On the other hand, Olsen and Rainforth were convinced
that the African M. natator should be synonymized with A. scambus,
even though it definitely does not appear more gracile than the Polish A.
pienkovskii and M. natator. In short, the Moyenisauropus concept should
not be rejected until the conclusions based only on the Newark material
are proven by a thorough revision of tracks from Lesotho, Poland and
Moyenisauropus-like footprints described from France by Le Loeuff et
al. (1999).
The petroglyphs from Kontrewers seem to present an even more
intractable conundrum than that surrounding Moyenisauropus. Despite
the aforementioned evidence of a Neolithic or Bronze Age motif for the
petroglyphs, E. Gassowska and L. Wiewióra (unpubl. report for
Voivodship Conservator of Monuments in Kielce, 1989) interpreted the
anthropomorphic silhouettes as dancing devils related to some unknown,
much younger, Middle Ages ritual. These authors, in their report, have
cited local beliefs of occult gatherings in that place in ancient times. Such
an interpretation may indicate a connection between the petroglyphs
and the dinosaur footprint. Dinosaur tracks have indeed been regarded as
“the devil’s imprints” in local folklore (Mayor and Sarjeant, 2001, p.
149). Thus, it is possible that the presence of a dinosaur footprint in
Kontrewers led to the use of the site for alleged occult ritual during the
FIGURE 2. Petroglyphs, PMA/MR/2656, on a slab of Zagaje Formation
sandstone from Kontrewers, Poland.
FIGURE 3. Early Jurassic ornithischian footprints of the Anomoepus-
Moyenisauropus plexus. A, Anomoepus scambus Hitchcock 1848, AC 52/
10, from the Turners Falls Ss. of the Lily Pond Quarry, Massachusetts. B,
Anomoepus pienkovskii Gierlinski 1991, Muz. PIG 1560.11.28, from the
Przysucha Ore-bearing Fm. of Gliniany Las, Poland. C, Moyenisauropus
natator Ellenberger 1974, Muz. PIG 1651.11.3, from the Zagaje Fm. of
Gromadzice, Poland. D, Moyenisauropus karaszevskii, Muz. PIG 1560.11.9,
from the Przysucha Ore-bearing Fm. of Gliniany Las, Poland.
Middle Ages, and that the petroglyphs substantially post-date the Bronze
Age. Alternatively, petroglyphs may simply accentuated the mysteri-
ous, perhaps supernatural, character of the fossilized footprint. In other
words, petroglyphs might only represent the glyph maker’s interpreta-
tion of the track maker, whichever the age and the mythology of the
people who interpreted the track.
In general, petroglyphs are commonly associated with Europeans
of the Stone and Bronze Ages. During those times, the Holy Cross Mts.
region was inhabited mainly by several Neolithic cultures (W. Borkowski,
personal commun., 2005). Thus, some Neolithic culture of the region,
rather than Middle Ages occultists or pagans, is more likely responsible
for the petroglyphs. Yet, there are no figures of backpacked flute playing
devils in Polish folklore, nor “horned” flute players on numerous samples
of the Neolithic pottery from Poland, and there is nothing similar among
the Neolithic pictographs in the famous Krzemionki flint mine
(Krukowski, 1939; Zurowski, 1962) or in any other European rock art
The Kontrewers figures appear convergent on the flute player
images popularly known as Kokopelli from the Four Corners region of
the United States (e.g., Malotki, 2000). Their style is slightly different
from the majority of Kokopelli glyphs: they exhibit a more upright
posture, relatively larger head, shorter torso, and longer neck and legs
than the American figures. Generally, Kokopelli images show bent hunch-
backed silhouettes with a hump rather than a backpack.
On the other hand, however, there are some intriguing entomorphic
(insect-like) features to the Kontrewers figures. The “horns” above the
heads of the figures are very elongate and slightly lanceolate. Basically,
they could be interpreted as insect antennae rather than horns. The flute
is not separate from the head, but instead, as is visible in the larger male
figure, is integrally connected with the head, like a proboscis. Those
entomorphic features strongly resembles the Kokopelli meaning in Hopi
mythology. The Hopis, who are not Kokopelli makers, identify the
hunchbacked flute player petroglyphs as maahu, the cicada (Malotki,
To our knowledge, there are no entomorphic gods or enchanted
beings known among the European cultures, including the Celtic, Ger-
man and Slavic mythologies of peoples once inhabiting Poland.
A connection between the flute player engravings and the dino-
saur tracks is not firm in Kontrewers (nor in the southwestern United
States). But if a supernatural meaning to the petroglyphs (Lewis-Will-
iams, 2002) is assumed, then the presence of fossil footprints might have
inspired shamans to choose the site for sacred rock art (Lockley, 1991),
whatever the engraved images may represent.
We express our thanks to Beata M. Piechnik, who first noticed the
similarities between the Kontrewers petroglyphs and Kokopelli. We are
indebted to Monika Wojtala and Zbigniew Cisak for their help with
fieldwork and hospitality in Kontrewers. We are also grateful to Wojciech
Borkowski and Jacek Tomaszewski from the State Archeological Mu-
seum in Warsaw for their valuable comments and suggestions. Helpful
criticisms were also provided by the reviewers, especially Jerry D. Har-
ris from the Dixie State College.
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... The ambiguity expressed by our model, however, suggests that Anomoepus cannot be reliably distinguished based on pes track shape alone when context data are not available. Such difficulties may be illustrated by an isolated track from the Hettangian of Poland that was described as a particularly large example of the ornithischian ichnogenus Moyenisauropus (=Anomoepus) [35]. Our neural network, however, suggests that a theropod affinity is more likely (0.72). ...
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Fossil tracks are important palaeobiological data sources. The quantitative analysis of their shape, however, has been hampered by their high variability and lack of discrete margins and landmarks. We here present the first approach using deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) to study fossil tracks, overcoming the limitations of previous statistical approaches. We employ a DCNN to discriminate between theropod and ornithischian dinosaur tracks based on a total of 1372 outline silhouettes. The DCNN consistently outperformed human experts on an independent test set. We also used the DCNN to classify tracks of a large tridactyl trackmaker from Lark Quarry, Australia, the identity of which has been subject to intense debate. The presented approach can only be considered a first step towards the wider application of machine learning in fossil track research, which is not limited to classification problems. Current limitations, such as the subjectivity and information loss inherent in interpretive outlines, may be overcome in the future by training neural networks on three-dimensional models directly, though this will require an increased uptake in digitization among workers in the field.
... Muz PIG OS-221/63, oelad pes zachowany w formie naturalnego odlewu. Okaz równie¿ pochodzi z polnej kamionki przy drodze w Chybach (reprezentuje wiêc osady formacji zagajskiej -Gierliñski & Kowalski, 2006).Opis. OErednich rozmiarów, trójpalczasty oelad pes o d³ugooeci 17 cm i szerokooeci 16 cm. ...
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New Lower Jurassic material of dinosaur tracks has been found in the coastal siliciclastic and fluvial deposits of the Holy Cross Mountains (HCMts.), Poland. Three poorly preserved specimens of small to medium-sized theropod dinosaur footprints, assigned to cf. Grallator isp. and cf. Anchisauripus isp.,were found in the Sinemurian deposits exposed in the Starachowice outcrop. Sixteen specimens of dinosaur tracks, referred to ichnotaxa cf. Grallator isp., Anchisauripus isp., cf. Kayentapus isp., cf. Moyenisauropus isp., Theropoda indet., and Dinosaurio indet., have been found in the upper Hettangian deposits of the Przysucha Ore-Bearing Formation and the Lower Sinemurian Ostrowiec Formation exposed near Żarnów (Paszkowice and Żarnów sites) in the northwestern part of the HCMts. Dinosaur footprints (cf. Anchisauripus isp., cf. Kayentapus isp.; and cf. Moyenisauropus isp.) and non-dinosaur tracks were found at the Bielowice site, known also as Wólka Karwicka near Opoczno. Interesting large ornithischian footprint (cf. Moyenisauropus isp.) and small-medium theropod footprints (Anchisauripus isp.) were found in the Zagaje Formation of Chyby near Mniów. Ornithischian dinosaur tracks similar to Moyenisauropus were also found in Skłoby Formation at Szwarszowice near Ostrowiec Świȩtokrzyski. The last finds reported herein, the well preserved specimens of Anomoepus, Anchisauripus, Eubrontes and Kayentapus-like footprints, came from the new tracksite of Szydlówek. Tracks made by large theropods (cf. Megalosauripus isp.) and sauropods were also found at this site. The material came from the strata representing a large barrier-lagoon/deltaic sequence. These new finds confirm that the barrier-lagoonal association of theropod dinosaurs of the Lower Jurassic of the HCMts. is characterised by dominance of small and medium-sized forms but contains also prints made by larger animals. The analysis of the Liassic ichnocenosis suggests that Anchisauripus was a facies-independent ichnotaxon. In the Lower Jurassic of Poland this ichnogenus was identified in the fluvial (aluvial-plain), deltaic (delta-plain), and barier-lagoonal deposits.
... This resemblance is evident from the comparison of Cartesian diagrams ( fig. 4C, D) where the Stegopodus pes clearly appears as a derived "flattened" morphotype of Moyenisauropus Ellenberger, Olsen & Rainforth (2003), that ignored the Moyenisauropus concept of Gierliński (1991Gierliński ( , 1999 and was recently questioned by Lockley (2005), Gierlinski (2006), andGierlinski &Kowalski (2006). Olsen and Rainforth (2003) did not support their ichnosystematic conclusion by examination of the original Ellenberger's material stored in the Montpellier University, nor the available Polish and French Moyenisauropus tracks. ...
... According to Aboriginal beliefs, the nearby fossils of seed-ferns of the same period represent the feathers of the emu-man (Mayor and Sarjeant 2001). In Poland some petroglyphs occur next to a dinosaur footprint and have been suggested to have been prompted by the fossil track at the site Kontrewers, a place described as an ancient sacred site (Gierlinski and Kowalski 2006). Since sauropods are thought to have become extinct about 65 Ma years ago (Archibald and Fastovsky 2004) and palaeoart is a purely Quaternary phenomenon their 'identifications' in rock art are apparently fantasy -but not necessarily always so. ...
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It is assumed that occurrence of Palaeolithic cave art in Central and Eastern Europe is not typical for this part of the continent, as it is difficult to consider its few examples as a result of solely poor preservation. Looking into this issue from the perspective of region of modern Poland, several questions arise: Why is it registered on so few sites, and is it truly an atypical phenomenon for the region? In problem discussion, there are three key elements: research interest, state of preservation, and competences needed for making a discovery. These elements, covered in following paper, explicitly suggest that in terms of Polish cave sites, we do not possess enough information to conclude which type of occurrence we are dealing with.
Fossils have stirred the imagination globally for thousands of years, starting well before they were recognized as the remains of once-living organisms and proxies of former worlds. This volume samples the history of art about fossils and the visual conceptualization of their significance starting with biblical and mythological depictions, extending to renditions of ancient life as it flourished in long-vanished habitats, and on to a modern understanding that fossil art conveys lessons for the betterment of the human condition. The 29 papers and accompanying artwork illustrate how art about fossils has come to be a significant teaching tool not only about evolution of past life, but also about conservation of our planet for the benefit of future generations.
Thus far, prehistoric rock art has not been featured in the discourse concerned with the archaeology of Poland due to the absence of finds there belonging to this category. This text presents the very first identified specimens of cup marks in the present-day territory of Poland; all differ significantly in terms of context, which consequently determines the potential for interpreting the finds. The first is a boulder which was put in place as grave-marker at a Wielbark Culture site dated to Late Iron Age. The find appears to overlap with the general pattern of regularities observed in the funerary rituals of the Wielbark communities. The second instance is an isolated boulder with cup marks – most likely positioned ex situ – discovered at Wilcza (Greater Poland). Regarding the latter, available information contributes little to determination of chronology of the cup marks and the original location of the boulder in the landscape, thus obscuring the primary function of the feature. The third boulder yielded the most contextual information; it is situated within a complex of numerous Middle Bronze Age barrows in Smoszew, at a site which constitutes a part of the Bronze Age cultural landscape that has survived in the Krotoszyn Forest in southern Greater Poland. For the authors, this very feature served as a basis for a contextual and chronological analysis of rock art which has hitherto remained unknown in Poland. In light of obtained data, the cup-marked boulder from Smoszew should be approached as an element of the funerary landscape created by the Tumulus Culture community and evidence of broader cultural processes which linked particular regions of Europe in the Bronze Age.
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Compared with other parts of the world, the study of geomythology in southern Africa, and the associated documentation of non-western awareness of palaeontological and geological phenomena, is in an early phase. We focus on examples of rocks and fossils as items of special interest and curiosity, and we search for evidence of an indigenous palaeontology and geology. We review twenty-one sites or cases for which published accounts exist, and we describe a newly identified trilobite manuport site. In combination these sites provide various levels of evidence of palaeontological and geological awareness exhibited by non-western cultures in southern Africa, and how these cultures incorporated this knowledge into their understanding of their world. We anticipate that in time a diverse heritage of such 'natural knowledge' may become evident in southern Africa, aided in part by recognition of the possibility that rock art images may be associated with awareness of body fossils and trace fossils. We suggest ways in which further analysis may bolster this contention.
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The origin of a large ornithischian track Moyenisauropus karaszevskii Gierlinski, 1991, from the Hettangian of the Holy Cross Mountains of Poland, needs reappraisal, Hitherto, this taxon was difficult to compare with any known Liassic ichnotaxon from the Northern Hemisphere. Its previous taxonomic assignment is controversial as well. M, karaszevskii has been previously considered as a track of some unknown earliest iguanodontian, despite the lack of a supporting osteological record nor phylogenetic inferences based on timing and evolutionary patterns in advanced ornithopods, Thus, a new interpretation is proposed: this footprint may fit the foot of a basal thyreophoran such as Scelidosaurus harrisonii Owen, 1861 or a more stegosaur-like form. Also, the problematic Early Jurassic tracks Moyenisauropus natator Ellenberger, 1974 and Anomoepus pienkovskii Gierlinski, 1991, appear to be intermediate forms between the basal ornithischian tracks of Anomoepus Hitchcock, 1848 and the early advanced thyreophoran track of M. karaszevskii.
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Dinosaur tracks with the metatarsal impressions from the Newark Supergroup as well as from the Polish Liassic deposits were previously considered as the anomoepodids. Among them, however, Sauropus barrattii and Anomoepus sp. show cleary grallatorid type of structure, which is characterized by the longest pedal digit III. Therefore, they are in need of the ichnosystematic revision. -Author
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Almost all dinosaur tracks in Poland come from three lowermost formations of the Lower Jurassic in the Holy Cross Mountains: Zagaje Formation, Skloby Formation and Przysucha Ore-Bearing Formation. Floristic remains and sequence stratigraphy correlation indicate the Hettangian age of all three formations. They represent various continental and marginal-marine environments. Fluvial and lacustrine sediments dominate in the continental Zagaje Formation, while the nearshore and deltaic facies are dominant in the two overlying formations. Various ornithischian, sauropod and theropod tracks occur in these sediments. Parallel sauropod trackways reported herein are the earliest record of sauropod gregarious behavior. Moreover, the present paper summarises and systematises the whole existing material, addressing the ichnosystematic and preservational aspects. Dinosaur tracks assemblages are assigned to three parts of the lithostratigraphical succession in which they occur and are discussed against their palaeoenvironmental background. Two general assemblages are distinguished: lower Zagaje assemblage of an inland, humid habitat with both low- and high-growing vegetation, dominated by high browsing herbivores (sauropod trackmakers of Parabrontopodus) and medium- to large-sized predators (theropod trackmakers of Anchisauripus and Kayentapus), and upper Zagaje-Skloby-Przysucha assemblage, representing deltaic plain-shoreline habitats with low, dense vegetation, dominated by low browsing herbivores (ornithischian trackmakers of Anomoepus and Moyenisauropus), associated by small- to medium-sized predators (theropod trackmakers of Grallator and Anchisauripus). Dinosaur ichnofauna from Poland rather poorly reflects biostratigraphical vertebrate faunal change in Early Jurassic time, but it does reflect environmental and biogeographical differences quite well. The discussed data imply also a high dinosaur phylogenetical diversity as early as in the Hettangian age.
Numerous specimens of dinosaur footprints with metatarsal impressions were collected from the Early Jurassic deposits of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. These elongate theropod and ornithischian footprints came from the Hettangian sites of Sołtyków, Gromadzice, and Gliniany Las. The following dinosaur ichnogenera were identified among them: Anchisauripus Lull, 1904; Kayentapus Welles, 1971; Moyenisauropus Ellenberger, 1974; Anomoepus Hitchcock, 1848.
The second find of sauropod tracks from the Early Jurassic strata of Poland is reported. Sauropod trackway referred to the ichnogenus Parabrontopodus Lockley, Farlow, Meyer, 1994 has been discovered in the early Hettangian of Soltykow, on northern slope of the Holy Cross Mountains.