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Sémiotique: Dictionnaire Raisonné de la Théorie du Langage

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... Disciplinas o campos de estudio como la psicolingüística, la sociolingüística, la semiótica, la psicología social, la antropología y sus estudios etnográficos, la revisión histórica de documentos, las ciencias políticas y de la comunicación, entre otras, se enfrentan inevitablemente a discursos escritos y orales que demandan una metodología de análisis. Dentro de las múltiples perspectivas teóricas que existen para analizar el discurso, este trabajo se apoya en la propuesta teórico-metodológica de la semiótica discursiva de la Escuela de Paris y específicamente en el modelo del recorrido generativo propuesto por Greimas y Courtés (1979). El fundamento teórico del trabajo, además, se sostiene en varias fuentes teóricas de origen francófono, en el que se integran diversas propuestas de la narratología para abordar desde allí la noción de folletín mediático y su relación con el relato factual, ficcional y de la posverdad. ...
... Investigadores como Françoise Revaz (2007), Jean Michel Adam (1997, Raphaël Baroni (2002Baroni ( , 2010Baroni ( , 2017, A. J. Greimas (1979) y Josep Courtés (1991), han señalado desde los estudios narratológicos que detrás de una buena historia hay unas categorías textuales de la narratividad: (i) Todo relato es una representación de acciones (humanas) y de eventos (naturales), (ii) que se estructura a partir de una situación inicial y una situación final, (iii) que tienen un desarrollo cronológico, (iv) cuyo encadenamiento es de orden causal (v), en el que surgen giros e imprevistos en el curso de las acciones configurando una intriga. Una buena historia es portadora de estos rasgos en su conjunto. ...
... Para Voloshinov (1998), el diálogo incluye acuerdo y desacuerdo. Para Greimas y Courtés (1979), todo discurso se enuncia sobre una base polémica, de confrontación no necesariamente actualizada, sino también virtual, eventual. La idea esencial es que todo discurso se opone a otros discursos eventuales o actuales. ...
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El carácter parcelado de la información mediática y, en consecuencia, la dificultad para reconocer los acontecimientos como totalidad, permite proponer al folletín mediático como un dispositivo de lectura de los medios de información. Esta investigación tiene por objeto analizar las estructuras narrativas del folletín y los recursos léxicos y discursivos de que se valen los medios para cimentar la información y darle forma al macrorrelato. Asimismo, se identifican las convergencias que existen entre relato ficticio y factual y la colonización de lo factual por lo ficticio en la narrativa de la posverdad. Finalmente, se analiza el folletín mediático de los falsos positivos 2.0 en Colombia, con el propósito de poner a prueba un modelo de lectura crítica que ponga en evidencia la interacción de lo factual y lo ficcional en el relato noticioso.
... 2. The "senses of space" (the meanings that can be attributed to a particular spatial configuration) are always produced and then interpreted by a "subjectivity". Space can be considered as a "constructed object" that acquires meaning only from the point of view of a "subject" that produces and consumes it (Greimas 1976;Greimas, Courtés 1979;Hammad 2006). Since the point is to imagine a spatial configuration capable of communicating across centuries, it is important to emphasize that both subjects involved (the producer of the message and its interpreter) have a relationship to the spatial message that is both "pre-personal" insofar as it depends on the way our bodily schemas are involved in our experience of space (which is also a perceptual, proprioceptive, motor, and psychophysical one), 5 and "supra-individual," insofar as it involves social and cultural codes about spatiality. ...
... 4. Space has also a narrative structure, and the subject-object relationship in space can be formalized by the narrative models proposed by Greimas (Greimas, Courtés 1979). On the basis of a combination of Greimas' canonical narrative scheme with Umberto Eco's narrative theory (Eco 1979), Gianfranco Marrone (2001) proposes to distinguish between three possible levels of subjectivity that can be inscribed in space: 1) the "enunciated subjects", i.e., the portions of the space that perform certain actions or "programs of action". ...
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Drawing on the field of nuclear semiotics, this article critically discusses the classic problem of marking the location of a deep geological repository to communicate – in the distant future – its presence and potential threats to intruders. The article is divided into two parts. The first part reviews some site-marking solutions that have been proposed in the nearly 40 years of nuclear semiotics’ existence. These solutions are analyzed through the lens of semiotics of space and memory, highlighting different ideas about the purposes of site-marking, ranging from the idea of communicating a warning message to that of transmitting a memory. The second part addresses these strategies of memory transmission by examining some recent “speculative experiments” that use art to convey information about nuclear repositories to future generations. This part of the article examines artistic proposals submitted to a competition organized by ANDRA (the French Agency for Nuclear Waste).
... Tiesiogiai ši samprata buvo perimta iš Vladimiro Proppo (Greimas, Courtés 1979: 222-223), bet jos šaknis daug gilesnė -tai ne kas kita kaip platoniška eroso, stokos ir geismo samprata, kuri apibūdina žmogaus buvimo būdą, atsiveriantį per šią giliausią intencionalumo sąrangą (Sverdiolas 1996: 31-42). Ši giliausia egzistencijos plotmė lemia du plačiausius problematikos laukus: 1) veikimo su subjektais, nelabai elegantiškai vadinamo manipuliacija (Greimas, Courtés 1979: 220-222) ("darymu, kad darytų"), tarpasmeniškumo, komunikacijos, socialumo, ir 2) veikimo su objektais, vadinamo faktityvumu (Greimas, Courtés 1979: 143-144) ("darymu, kad būtų"), kurį Greimas kaip tik ir pradeda projektuoti šioje esė. Tai žmogaus aktyvios sąveikos su gamtiniais buviniais arba materialiosios kultūros sritis. ...
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Semiotics and philosophy both claim the status of a meta-language, hence enter into a dialogue with one another and each tries to translate the other into its own language. Contemporary analysis of material culture is informed by the so-called linguistic turn, which was performed by structuralism and affected all humanities. Ferdinand de Saussure’s semiology and the semiotics of Algirdas Julien Greimas and his colleagues work in this area by extrapolating the notion of the text to various fields of inquiry. The problematics of archeology, architecture, and other artifacts demand thinking through the issue of the matter. The paper provides proof that, in its attempts to respond to this demand, semiotics either stays within the frame of the idealistic semiotic existence of an indeterminate status or deploys metaphysical rudiments-and-supplements.
... Ao contrário da debreagem, que é a projeção para fora da instância da enunciação dos tempos que servem para constituir o enunciado, seja um enunciado que institui um simulacro da enunciação, seja um enunciado que não representa uma enunciação, a embreagem temporal é o efeito de retorno à instância da enunciação, produzido pela suspensão da oposição entre certos termos da categoria de tempo (GREIMAS; COURTÉS, 1979). De fato, a debreagem cria seja uma enunciação enunciada, em que os tempos do enunciado simulam os tempos da enunciação, seja um enunciado enunciado, em que se tem a ilusão de estar diante da temporalidade dos acontecimentos. ...
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Este trabalho parte da ideia de que a semiótica pode fornecer aos linguistas conceitos que permitam explicar a discursivização das categorias da língua, não para estabelecer um catálogo de seus múltiplos usos, mas para compreender a “lógica” de seu funcionamento no discurso. Nessa perspectiva, este trabalho mostra como os conceitos de debreagem e de embreagem podem dar uma explicação global para a discursivização das categorias de pessoa, de espaço e de tempo.
... In this sense, semi-structured interviews are based on predefined questions and the interviewer is then free to introduce additional questions to specify concepts or obtain more information on the desired topics. The interviews seek to contextualize and verify some findings in this exploratory research through an information triangulation exercise [33,34]. Throughout their careers, the interviewees have provided complementary perspectives on environments, impacts (involving the environment, health, social factors, economic factors, and citizen participation), media (ideological approaches, responsibility, content generation), educommunication, academia in Ecuador, and governments (public policies and financing), thus expanding the convergence of the media in the digital world and, of course, the development of content that has an impact on the environment. ...
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The objective of this research is to analyze the role of two different digital media in the message development for care of the environment in Ecuador in the context of the United Nations Conference on Climate Change (COP 26). To address this qualitative research, we worked on a comparison of contents, complemented with text analysis and interviews with experts related to protecting the environment and journalists who generated content on this topic. In one case, the journalistic coverage had limitations, and, in the other, some superficial issues were addressed. In both cases, the wording was relatively complex, and each medium adapted the news to its ideological bias. It is necessary to change how journalism has been built; in other words, we need to “build” environmental journalism in Ecuador. Independent spaces for analysis, specialized personnel in topics related to this area, and professional training processes, research, and dissemination of content to raise citizens’ awareness of environmental issues are required.
... In addition to this treatment, semiotics was supposed to fulfil the explicative and federative role of what later Posner would define as 'a metadiscipline of all academic disciplines' (Posner 2003(Posner , 2366. Similarly, both Greimas and Lotman conceived of semiotics as a scientific project that encompass all manifestations of meaning, the former as a 'science of meaning' whose main aim was to provide a link between all the humanities and social sciences so that a scientific revolution could take place in humanities (Greimas 1976;Greimas,Courtés 1983), and the latter as a presumed 'method of the humanities' (Lotman 2000, 4). ...
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The current status of semiotics in society and the academic environment is rather marginal, and this is one of its many paradoxes (Gaines 2015). It is paradoxical because semiotics deals with all aspects of meaning; it is relevant to every field of inquiry (Posner et al. 2003) and is applicable to everyday experiences producing meaning. Yet, it is not an established field in most academic systems, and it lacks full recognition in the disciplinary ‘market’ (Rastier 2001). This paper discusses a particular aspect coming from a larger study carried out with 40 semiotics scholars in 12 countries in 3 languages (English, French and Spanish). I will focus on the construction and development of a prevailing discourse that intends to convey the practitioners’ own subjective experiences of living and working in a marginalised field.
... O presente trabalho está estruturado da seguinte forma: procuramos inicialmente introduzir a discussão sobre o fenômeno da enunciação através de teóricos como Benveniste (1991), Greimas e Courtés (1979), Ducrot (1982) e Bakhtin (1997). Em seguida, mostramos como o locutor se relaciona com o discurso que enuncia nas três línguas acima citadas e, na sequência, apresentamos nossas considerações finais. ...
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Neste trabalho mostramos aspectos da enunciação e autoria discursiva em três diferentes línguas indígenas brasileiras. Em algumas partes, fazemos uma ligeira comparação desses aspectos nessas línguas com os da língua portuguesa. Procuramos demonstrar que em cada uma dessas línguas, o enunciador tem uma forma peculiar de se relacionar com a informação que enuncia, ora apresentando a fonte da informação como provinda dele mesmo, ora tomando distância e reportando a responsabilidade do que enuncia a outrem.
... La construction de ces collectifs étant bien plus qu'un agrégat de « mêmes », elle prend en charge la diversité et l'altérité de ses membres. Nous avons donc affaire à des actants collectifs superposés, enchaînés, voire entremêlés, qui témoignent d'un mode de socialisation bien différent de celui que propose la définition sémiotique classique de l'actant collectif (Greimas et Courtés, 1997), et plus encore celle de la masse sociale (Couégnas, Halary et Alonso, 2011). Chaque agrégat est unifié autour d'un programme narratif, mais aucun ne peut être entièrement dissocié de tous les agrégats auxquels ses membres participent successivement ou simultanément. ...
... Sans développer ce point ici, on retiendra que la séduction correspond à un pouvoir faire qui a pour conséquence la passivation de l'objet de cette forme de manipulation, sans passer par aucune forme d'argumentation, mais en donnant lieu, par des voies plus ou moins indéfinissables, à une première polarisation thymique (séduire, c'est persuader de la positivité de l'objet), sans doute avant tout jugement de valeur. Pour Greimas et Courtés (1979), la séduction correspond à une manipulation selon le savoir. Elle peut ainsi entrer dans le processus de l'incitation. ...
Thesis
Cette thèse a pour objectif l’étude des traductions espagnoles de trois romans de la « série de Marie » de l’écrivain belge francophone Jean-Philippe Toussaint. Composée de quatre romans - Faire l’amour, Fuir, La Vérité sur Marie et Nue – cette tétralogie a été traduite en espagnol de manière partielle et fragmentaire, dans deux variétés d’espagnol – péninsulaire et rioplatense – par un Argentin et deux Espagnols. Notre recherche s’articule autour de trois problématiques centrales : la traduction fragmentaire avec la coprésence de deux variétés d’une même langue, la résistance à la traduction et son corollaire l’(in)traduisibilité, et la traduction de la temporalité comme recours stylistique. Pour mener à bien notre recherche, nous avons adopté une approche herméneutique, à laquelle nous avons ajouté d’autres sources théoriques et bibliographiques de nature multidisciplinaire, qui ont apporté des outils conceptuels et méthodologiques complémentaires. Nous nous sommes d’abord arrêté sur l’auteur et sur les caractéristiques générales du corpus. Ensuite, nous avons abordé la problématique de la coprésence de deux variétés d’espagnol. Cela nous a mené, outre les analyses des stratégies traductives employées par les traducteurs, vers celles du marché de l’édition en espagnol. Puis, nous avons étudié les traductions comme un ensemble, en focalisant notre attention sur les parties des textes les plus résistantes à la traduction. Cette analyse nous a permis d’identifier la temporalité comme un cas particulier de résistance que nous avons traité de manière spécifique. Finalement, nous avons étudié les paratextes, en nous arrêtant sur les couvertures et leur caractère de traduction intersémiotique. Ces analyses nous ont permis d’identifier les pertes et les gains générés par les traductions étudiées dans la production du sens par rapport aux originaux en français. Avec cette thèse, envisagée comme un exercice « critique », dans le sens positif du terme, nous avons cherché à mettre en valeur le travail du traducteur, et celui du traductologue, ainsi que l’importance de la traduction de la littérature belge francophone.
Thesis
Cette étude porte sur l'usage de la formule esprit critique dans les discours institutionnels contribuant à forger le lieu discursif « Former l'esprit critique des élèves » (Eduscol, 2016). Située dans la sphère des discours de l'institution scolaire française, cette recherche entend questionner cet impératif de l'esprit critique en éclairant le contexte discursif et les enjeux politiques, sociaux et pédagogiques que sous-tend l'usage de cette formule en discours. L'étude s'appuie à cette fin sur une analyse qualitative d'un corpus de discours institutionnels et de contre-discours. La posture herméneutique adoptée nous autorisant à questionner les mises en mots de l'esprit critique. Observée sous l'angle des Sciences de l'information et de la communication et située dans une approche interdisciplinaire, cette recherche soulève la prise de conscience éducative liée aux enjeux de la transmission d'une culture critique de l'information et interroge dès lors son institutionnalisation.
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Does it make sense to introduce the notion of hotspot as a heuristically valuable category in the study of religion? In the first part of the article, I argue for the value of the notion by teasing the term apart into semiotic categories. Over and against the customary sacred–profane binary, which in my view does not represent a dichotomy but two opposite poles on a continuum, the hotspot model has the advantage of presenting itself in both temporal and spatial terms. Moreover, it includes the intermediary stages, signified by the distinction between lukewarm and lukecold locations and periods. Furthermore, I supplement this model with the Weberian typology of the different forms of authority needed in order to be able to differentiate between different types of hotspots. In the second part of the article, I try to demonstrate the value of the model by applying it to a variety of cases in the history of religions. Finally, I present reflections on the evolutionary origin of hotspots as a bridge between the two main parts holding that, to explain any phenomenon in the phenomenology of religion, it is urgent to find the evolutionary building blocks for it.
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L’ambition de cet article est de proposer une sémiotique de la star qui prend en compte de la transversalité de l’objet : « L’intérêt d’étudier les stars réside dans leur contribution à la construction du sens des films, leur rôle signifiant dans la culture et la société et leur dimension socio-esthétique centrale au cinéma ainsi que dans leur importance dans l’économie du cinéma » (Le Gras, 2014, n.c.).Dans cette perspective, notre proposition sémiotique s’emploie à reconnaitre et à retraduire la diversité épistémique des études notables qui ont déjà été faite sur les stars - études sociologiques, esthétiques, culturelles, mais également socioéconomiques et économiques – afin d'établir un cadre méthodologique permettant une analyse sémiotique approfondie d’une star.
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In the article, we consider special cases of technological progress and social dystopia studied by Yuri Lotman from the point of view of the inhabitants of the first quarter of the twenty-first century. The analysis is illustrated by works of literary fiction: Kazuo Ishiguro's dystopian novels Never Let Me Go (2005) and Klara and the Sun (2021). Among the central issues discussed are the limits of technological progress, the ethics of the relationship between man and a highly intelligent artificial device, the revival of archaic models of human consciousness, the prospect of (im)possible worlds. At the end of the article, we point out the problem of maintaining the ethical memory of mankind as the mission of a scientist and humanities writer, indicated by Lotmanian perspective.
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Can the perpetrator or the collaborator “speak”? How, and for whom? Do they have a “right to a biography” and, if so, what are the terms of this right? Who can speak for them? In short, what does it mean to work through their lives and the crimes they committed for those who decide to tell their stories? The main goal of this paper is to answer these questions using a particular kind of documentary directed by those who, in a certain moment of their lives, have discovered that a member of their families was a perpetrator or a collaborator relating to a dictatorship. Using Lotman’s theory of culture and memory, we discuss the positionalities of those who “wrote” these documentaries, located constantly between the individual and the collective semiosphere. Taking into account two case studies – El pacto de Adriana directed by Lissette Orozco (Chile, 2017) and L’occhio di vetro directed by Duccio Charini (Italy, 2020) – we look at the mechanisms of investigation and recollection that they use and “show,” in order to elucidate family secrets within the broader contexts of the collective traumas of Chile’s and Italy’s post-conflict societies.
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Afin de remettre en cause le problème de l’identité collective, le présent essai prend pour objet les discours de la mémoire post-dictature au Chili et en Argentine, dont il souligne les contradictions et les points de fracture. On voudrait montrer ici comment “l’ancrage ontologique” des “rôles thématiques” (héros, militant de la résistance, tyran, tortionnaire), essentiel pour l’engendrement des récits historique et judiciaire, se voit questionné par les micro-récits dévoilant la complexité immanente aux individus qui leur prêtent une concrétude corporelle. Entre collaboration contrainte, dissidence, Syndrome de Stockholm et “honte du survivant”, cet article passe en revue les multiples “instances énonçantes” qui, en amont des acteurs collectifs, nous font problématiser le concept même d’une “identité”, tout en dissociant ses différents domaines de manifestation (historique, juridique, politique, intersubjectif, intime...).
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Parmi les textes laissés par Marx figuraient des notes sur des livres de mathé-matiques et des essais concernant le calcul différentiel. Dans le discours prononcé sur la tombe de Marx, Engels après avoir mentionné les deux plus grandes réalisations de Marx (« la loi du développement de l'histoire humai-ne» et «la loi particulière du mouvement du mode de production capitaliste actuel et de la société bourgeoise qui en est issue») indique que «dans chaque domaine que Marx a soumis à ses recherches (et ces domaines sont très nom-breux et pas un seul ne fut l'objet d'études superficielles), même dans celui des mathématiques, il a fait des découvertes originales» 1. les échanges de lettres entre Marx et Engels contiennent de nombreuses allusions aux recherches mathématiques du premier qui s'étalent des années 1858/9 aux dernières années de la vie de Marx. on aurait pu s'attendre que ces manuscrits mathématiques soient rapidement publiés si ce n'est pas Engels lui-même qui effectivement a eu fort à faire avec les écrits concernant l'évolution du capi-talisme mais au moins dans les tentatives successives d'oeuvres complètes qui se sont succédés jusqu'à nos jours. le premier éditeur David Riazanov avait trouvé en Emil Julius Gümbel; un mathématicien de tout premier rang pour classer les notes et essais mathématiques de Marx (cf. Vogt 1992). Malheureusement alors que Gümbel estimait avoir réalisé un manuscrit prêt pour l'impression dès 1926, la première entreprise d'Oeuvres complètes et son maître d'oeuvre David Riazanov devaient disparaître dans la tourmente stali-nienne. Seuls des mathématiciens choisis pour leur orthodoxie allaient pouvoir en publier des extraits choisis (Ernst Kolman 2) ou les commenter (David Struik 3). finalement si tant est selon Maximilien Rubel que «l'occident doit à Marx et à Engels une édition monumentale de leurs oeuvres» avant d'entreprendre lui-même une nouvelle tentative d'oeuvres complètes, il ne pouvait que déplorer en 1952 que l'on soit loin du compte (cf. Rubel et Desrousseaux 1952). Enfin sans que le nom de Gümbel soit mentionné, sa sélection d'essais et 201 1 Prononcé par Engels en anglais à Highgate le 17 mars 1883,
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This research aims to study primary source documents, manuscripts by the composer Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887–1959), provided by the Villa-Lobos Museum from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The aim of this research is to reveal the relationships between musical signifiers, among the composer’s creation process, based on the critical interpretative analysis of the symphonic poem Uirapuru, highlighting comparative materials and methods with the aesthetic influence of the Firebird suite by Igor Stravinsky (1882–1971), and the symphonic poem Tapiola by Jean Sibelius (1865–1957), through the theoretical basis of semiotics epistemology.KeywordsSemiotic epistemologyMyths and legends in musicBrazilian folkloreFinnish mythologyRussian legends
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The space in which the events take place in a novel is not chosen randomly; therefore, the connection of the fictional or real space with the place it represents is a matter to be considered carefully. Moreover, it is a fact that in the literary texts about the city, not only the city but also certain stereotypes of the culture it is part of are exposed. From Russia With Love (1957) by Ian Fleming, the creator of James Bond, is perhaps the most popular of the spy novels set in Istanbul. Even though Fleming uses Istanbul as the novel’s setting, he has carried over prejudices toward Turkey and Turks in his book. The corpus of this study consists of the novel titled From Russia With Love and its Turkish and French translations. An interdisciplinary approach is adopted on the basis of the interplay between translation and semiotics, and significant transformations of meaning related to space in the comparison of source text and target texts are discussed based Sündüz Öztürk Kasar’s approach to Semiotics of Translation. For this purpose, “segmentation of the text” and “isotopies in the text” compiled by Öztürk Kasar from the studies of Paris School of Semiotics and the semiotic square developed by Algirdas Julien Greimas are adopted as operations of analysis, and the analysis is scrutinized in the light of the concept of Orientalism by Edward Said. Finally, the signs related to Istanbul and Turks in the source text and their reflections in the target texts are compared and evaluated through “Systematics of Designification in Translation” (2020) developed by Öztürk Kasar. The study concludes that Orientalist clichés explicitly or implicitly reproduced in the English source text are transmitted in the same way in the French target text; Turkish translations, on the other hand, overturn the negative image created by the source text for Istanbul. Keywords: Semiotics of Translation, Systematics of Designification in Translation, Orientalism, Ian Fleming, From Russia with Love.
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Le design est mobilisé depuis une quinzaine d’années dans les administrations françaises, et en particulier dans les collectivités, dans le but de concevoir des politiques publiques et des services plus adaptés aux besoins des citoyens et des acteurs concernés. Cependant, les difficultés et les bénéfices sont peu documentés et l’utilisation de la démarche de design dépend de la volonté de quelques individus convaincus. Cette recherche vise à apporter des connaissances, issues du terrain, sur l’usage du design pour concevoir des politiques publiques territoriales, et en particulier préciser les conséquences pour les agents publics et les designers mobilisés. Pour ce faire, deux hypothèses de recherche sont étudiées : la collaboration est à la fois une étape du processus de design et l’un de ses résultats ; le designer facilite la conception collaborative grâce à des outils et méthodes spécifiques. Dans le cadre d’un financement CIFRE avec la Région Occitanie, nous avons été doctorante-designer pendant trois ans, au sein du laboratoire d’innovation (Lab’) de cette collectivité. Les données collectées sont issues de six projets de co-conception de politiques publiques régionales, sélectionnés comme cas d’étude et auxquels nous avons pris part. L’observation participante, réalisée d’octobre 2018 à décembre 2020, a été complétée d’entretiens avec vingt agents publics impliqués dans ces projets. Ces données empiriques sont discutées à l’aide d’apports théoriques des sciences du design, ainsi que des sciences de gestion et de la sociologie des organisations, pour développer des conclusions visant deux types d’acteurs : les agents publics et les designers. La participation à une démarche de co-conception entraîne à la fois des changements de pratiques individuelles pour les agents publics, ainsi que la pérennité des pratiques collectives. Le designer, qui accompagne les projets, développe des outils et des postures spécifiques pour favoriser la collaboration. Son métier évolue pour s’ajuster au contexte des administrations publiques, ce qui, par conséquent, interroge l’adaptation de sa formation.
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