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Proximate Analysis of Dragon Fruit (Hylecereus polyhizus)

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Problem statement: Dragon fruit (Hylecereus polyhizus) is well known for the rich nutrient contents and it is commercially available worldwide for improving many health problems. Several studies show the proximity value of red pitaya fruits but the nutrient composition of the stem has not been extensively studied. Approach: This study was carried out to measure the proximate analysis of moisture content, water activity, ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, glucose and ascorbic acids content in premature and mature of dragon fruit. The dried powder was produced from the stem of dragon fruit and the proximate analysis of dragon fruit stem was compared between freeze drying process and drying oven process. Results: Results of this study showed that 96% moisture; 0.270 g of protein; 0.552 g L1 glucose and 132.95 mg L1 ascorbic acid of dragon fruit stem found higher than the fruit flesh of the dragon fruit. Conclusion: The premature stem had higher values than the mature stem of the dragon fruit which may helpful in preventing the risk factors of certain diseases.
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American Journal of Applied Sciences 6 (7): 1341-1346, 2009
ISSN 1546-9239
© 2009 Science Publications
Corresponding Author: Ruzainah Ali Jaafar, Department of Bioengineering, Section of Biosystem and Bioprocess Engineering Technology,
University Kuala Lumpur-Malaysian, Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering Technology, Taboh Naning,
Alor Gajah, Melaka, Malaysia Tel: 06-5512022 Fax: 06-5512005
Proximate Analysis of Dragon Fruit (Hylecereus polyhizus)
Ruzainah Ali Jaafar,
Ahmad Ridhwan Bin Abdul Rahman,
Nor Zaini Che Mahmod and
Department of Bioengineering, Section of Biosystem and Bioprocess Engineering Technology,
University Kuala Lumpur-Malaysian, Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering Technology,
Taboh Naning, Alor Gajah, Melaka, Malaysia
Molecular Biology Lab, Department of Biomedical Science,
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
Abstract: Problem statement: Dragon fruit (Hylecereus polyhizus) is well known for the rich nutrient
contents and it is commercially available worldwide for improving many health problems. Several
studies show the proximity value of red pitaya fruits but the nutrient composition of the stem has not
been extensively studied. Approach: This study was carried out to measure the proximate analysis of
moisture content, water activity, ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, glucose and ascorbic acids
content in premature and mature of dragon fruit. The dried powder was produced from the stem of
dragon fruit and the proximate analysis of dragon fruit stem was compared between freeze drying
process and drying oven process. Results: Results of this study showed that 96% moisture; 0.270 g of
protein; 0.552 g L
glucose and 132.95 mg L
ascorbic acid of dragon fruit stem found higher than
the fruit flesh of the dragon fruit. Conclusion: The premature stem had higher values than the mature
stem of the dragon fruit which may helpful in preventing the risk factors of certain diseases.
Key words: Red pitaya, proximate analysis, Malaysia
Dragon fruit or red pitaya belongs to the Cactaceae
family from the subfamily Cactoidea of the tribe
. In Malaysia, the red pitaya or dragon fruit is
commonly called as “buah naga”. Among the red pitaya
species Hylocereus polyrhizus (Red flesh) fruits are
edible and it has a great source of vitamin C and water
soluble fiber
. Hylocereus polyrhizus is a small fruit
climbing cactus that has received world-wide
recognition as an ornamental plant for its large, scented,
night-blooming flowers. The red skin fruit weighed up
to 1kg has translucent dark-red flesh considered as a
rich source of nutrients and minerals such as vitamin
B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B3 and vitamin C, protein, fat,
carbohydrate, crude fiber, flavonoid, thiamin, niacin,
pyridoxine, kobalamin, glucose, phenolic, betacyanins,
polyphenol, carotene, phosphorus, iron and
. It is also rich in phytoalbumins which
are highly valued for their antioxidant properties
Hylocereus polyrhizus is rich in fibers, vitamin C,
minerals and phytoalbumins which are highly valued
for their antioxidant properties. The dragon fruit helps
the digestive process, prevent colon cancer and
diabetes, neutralize toxic substances such as heavy
metal, reduce cholesterol levels and high blood pressure
and consumed regularly the dragon fruit can help
against asthma and cough. It is also rich with
potassium, protein, fiber, sodium and calcium which
goods for health than other fruits
. There are three
techniques for foods drying are commonly used such as
sun drying, drying oven and freeze drying. First, the
drying process is heated high to force out the moisture
from food. Secondly, dry air to absorb the released
moisture and finally the air movement to carried out the
moisture away from the food. The freeze dried product
should be passing through all the three stages which are
freezing process, primary and secondary drying
process. Freeze-drying is a technique that results in
high-quality dehydrated products due to the absence of
liquid water and the low temperatures required in the
process. The solid state of water during freeze-drying
protects the primary structure and minimizes changes in
the shape of the product, with minimal reduction of
. The drying process may alter these
properties, resulting in products with modified texture,
Am. J. Applied Sci., 6 (7): 1341-1346, 2009
optical, thermal and nutritional properties
. The
rehydration ratio can be considered as a measure of the
injuries caused by the processing and drying to the
material. It is generally accepted that the rehydration
capacity is dependent on the degree of cellular and
structural disruption. According to Jayaraman et al.
during the drying process, irreversible cellular rupture
and dislocation, results in loss of integrity and hence, in
a dense structure of collapsed, greatly shrunken
capillaries with reduced hydrophilic properties, which
are reflected by the inability to imbibe sufficient water
to fully rehydrate. Proximate analysis used to determine
the proximate principles of any substance, as contrasted
with an ultimate analysis. The proximate analysis of
food refers to the analysis of the total content of a food
component, not taking account of the individual
compounds making up that food component. The macro
components are generally analyzed for their proximate
. The main objectives of this study was to
produce the dragon fruit stem in powder form using
freeze drying process and to measure the proximate
analysis parameter such as moisture content, water
activity, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, ash,
glucose and ascorbic acid between mature stem and
premature stem and also comparing the proximate
analysis of dragon fruit stem between freeze drying
method and drying oven method.
Sample preparation: The dragon stem was cleaned
and drained off before used. Nearly 200 g of stem was
cut into small pieces using Warring blender (Warring
Commercial, Laboratory Blender) for 2 min and was
homogenized using homogenizer (Heidolph DIAX 900)
with ratio 1:3 w/v and filtered using Muslin Cloth. The
filtrate was transferred into freeze dryer bottle in and
kept at -18°C for four days or at -80°C for two days in
freezer before freeze-drying at -45°C, pressure
M bar for 4 days. Then the frozen sample was
freeze dried using freeze dryer (LABCONCO, Freeze
Dry System/ FREEZONE 4.5). The freeze dried sample
was kept into a tight container before further analysis.
Moisture, ash, fat, protein content, water activity and
fiber in the sample were determined using method by
AOAC International
Moisture content: The crucible was placed inside
drying oven for 105°C for 2 h. After that, the crucible
was placed in the desiccators for allowing cooling. The
beaker was weighed and 2 g of the powder was placed
in the beaker. The sample was drying in drying oven
(Memmert 600, Germany) for 3 h at temperature
105°C. Then the dried sample was weighed for percent
of dry weight and percent of moisture content in
Ash: The preparation of ash was same as preparing
crucible in moisture content. Two gram of sample was
put into crucible and weight was recorded and placed in
muffle oven (Furnace Nabertherm, Germany) at 550°C
for 8 h.
Fat: The fat content was determined directly extracting
the dried ground pitaya fruit with petroleum ether in an
intermittent Soxhlet extractor (Soxhlet Extractor
Darmstadt, Germany) and extracted the sample for 4 h.
The residue in round bottom flask after solvent removal
represents the fat content of the sample. The residue
was weight and checks the Reflective Index (RI) using
reflextrometer (Merck KGaA, 64271 Darmstadt,
Crude protein: Nitrogen was determined using
micro-Kjeldahl method. About 2 g of dried sample was
transferred into digestion tube by adding 2 tablets of
catalyst and 20 mL of sulfuric acid to digestion in
30 min using Kjeldahl digester (Tecator Kjeltec
System, Germany) at minimum temperature 400°C.
After that, 50 mL distilled water was added for
distillation using Kjeldahl distillation. Then, the sample
was titrated with hydrochloric acid (0.20 N) to calculate
the amount of HCL present in NaOH solution (40%).
The boric acid solution (4%) was used for the catalyst
reagent. The percentages of nitrogen were converted to
protein by multiplying by 6.25.
Water activity: The powder was placed inside the
plastic placing sample. It was measured using A
(Swiss made NOVASINA TH-500) water activity
Crude fiber: Two gram of sample was put into 250 mL
conical flask and 1.25% Sulfuric acid solution was
added. The sample was heated about 30 min and was
filtered using vacuum filter (today’s vacuum filtration
VF 100) and washed until traces of acid was undetected
using pH paper. The Whatman paper 5B which pore
size 125 micrometer was placed in the Buchner flask.
After that the acid extracted was transferred into 250 mL
conical flask and 1.25% NaOH solution was added. The
sample was heated again for 30 min and was filtered
using vacuum filter and washed with water until base
was undetected. The whole material was transferred
into crucible and dried for 12 h at 120°C. After that the
crucible was placed into muffle oven at 550°C for 12 h
and weight of crucible was recorded.
Am. J. Applied Sci., 6 (7): 1341-1346, 2009
Ascorbic acid: Five gram of fresh pitaya stem was cut
and homogenized using warring blender. The sample
was filtrated using Muslin cloth. The filtrate will used
to determine the ascorbic acid content using
reflectometer (Merck KGaA, 64271 Darmstadt,
Glucose concentration: The glucose concentration was
determined using 2 g of fresh pitaya stem. The sample
was cut into small particles and homogenized using
warring blender. Then, the sample was filtrated using
Muslin cloth and centrifuged with speed of 15000 rpm
for 15 min. The emulsion was analyzed using glucose
analyzer to measure the glucose concentration.
In this study, we determined the method of
production of Hylocereus polyrhizus stem powder using
freeze drying method and the proximate analysis
parameter was carried out using dried sample from
freeze dryer and drying oven. For proximate analysis,
we determined the moisture content, water activity, ash,
crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat determination,
glucose and ascorbic acid. All the analysis was done
through Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) in the
food analysis lab. Table 1 shows the comparison
between the operating system of freeze dyer and drying
oven. The data shows that drying oven was used at
50°C to dry the sample rather than freeze dryer system
was used at -45°C. About 184.02 g initial weight of
sample stem was homogenized using homogenizer with
water ratio 1:3 w/v and dried using freeze dyer at
temperature -45°C and vacuum pressure 89 × 10
M bar.
The final weight was 5.93 g and the weight of moisture
lost was 178.09 g due to high amount of water
contained in the pre mature stem.
Table 2 shows the proximity analysis in dragon
fruit stem. For freeze dried product, the percentage of
moisture content in mature stem was 96.04% and for pre-
mature stem was 97.62%. While, for drying oven
method, the percentages of mature stem was 96.11 and
96.42% for premature stem. Water activity analysis relies
on measuring the amount of moisture in the equilibrated
headspace above the sample, which correlates directly
with sample A
. A sample for water activity was placed
in a small closed chamber at constant temperature and a
relative humidity sensor was used to measure the
Equilibrium Relative Humidity surrounding the product
(ERH) of the sample atmosphere after equilibration. A
simple and accurate variation of this approach is the
chilled mirror technique in which the water vapor in the
headspace condenses on the surface of a mirror that was
cooled in a controlled manner. Water activity plays a
main role where it controls the microbial activity and it
keeps the key for the shelf life of the dragon fruit
product especially in stem. The higher moisture content
(high water activity, A
) will thus decrease the keeping
quality and the shelf life also shorter. The result shows
the water activities of the mature stem for freeze drying
and drying oven result was in range 0.545-0.563 A
While, for the pre-mature stem show that the result in
range 0.836-0.865 A
. There is a possibility for the
growth of halophilic organisms and xerophilic
organisms for minimum temperature at 25°C in the
stem of dragon fruit.
In this experiment, the percentage of nitrogen was
also calculated using the standard procedure of Kjeldahl
methods and the conversion factor was 6.25. The result
of this analysis showed that 7.18% of mature stem and
14.7% of premature stem using freeze drying product.
While, the percentage by without using freeze drying
product are 6.3% for mature stem and 11.9% for
premature stem. Nitrogen was the most distinguishing
element present in proteins. Figure 1 shows that
percentage of crude protein in premature stem was higher
than the mature stem because, the premature stem has
more nitrogen presented rather than mature stem.
To determine the crude fat, the Soxhlet method was
applied which involved a direct solvent extraction.
Table 1: Comparison of operating system of freeze dryer and drying
Measurement Freeze dryer Drying oven
Temperature -45°C 50°C
Air condition vacuum, cold Fresh air inlet,
Pressure 86×10
M bar hot normal air
Equipment brand LABCONCO, Memmert 600,
Freeze dry system Germany
Duration time 4 days 1 day
Fig. 1: Comparison between mature stem and premature
stem using freeze drying and drying oven
Am. J. Applied Sci., 6 (7): 1341-1346, 2009
Table 2: Moisture content analysis of Hylocereus polyrhizus
Freeze drying Drying oven
------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------
Sample Mature stem Premature stem Mature stem Premature stem
Weigh of aluminum dish (g) 54.800 55.160 53.980 54.960
Weigh of aluminum dish with sample before drying (g) 60.350 60.200 58.610 54.960
Weigh of aluminum dish with sample after drying (g) 55.020 55.280 54.160 55.150
Dry Metter (%) 3.960 2.380 3.890 3.580
Moisture content (%) 96.040 97.620 96.110 96.420
Water Activity (A
) 0.563 0.836 0.545 0.865
Temperature (T) 25.3°C 25.5°C 25.7°C 25.2°C
Time (t) 11 min 32 sec 5 min
41 sec 16 min 08 sec 5 min 52 sec
Crude protein
Amount of HCL required to titrate (mL) 10.000 18.600 9.000 15.000
Nitrogen (%) 1.480 2.350 1.010 1.900
Weight of protein (g) 0.144 0.294 0.126 0.238
Protein (%) 7.180 14.700 6.300 11.900
Crude fat:
Thimble + dry sample (g) 46.890 47.050 47.420 47.580
Weight of thimble after extraction (g) 46.800 46.880 47.310 47.350
Weight of fat (g) 0.090 0.170 0.110 0.230
Crude fat (%) 4.500 8.500 5.500 11.500
Reflective index (Brix%) 10.800 28.400 12.500 33.100
Crude fiber
Weight of crucible (g) 17.300 17.000 16.870 17.460
Weight of crucible + fiber (g): 17.350 17.030 16.910 17.480
Weight of fiber (g) 0.050 0.030 0.040 0.020
Crude fiber (%) 2.500 1.500 2.000 1.000
Weight of crucible (g) 16.910 17.440 17.010 17.920
Weight of crucible + ash (g) 17.000 17.480 17.100 17.950
Total ash (g) 0.090 0.040 0.090 0.030
Total ash (%) 4.500 2.000 4.500 1.500
The free lipid content consists of neutral fats
(triglycerides) and free fatty acids was determined by
extracting the dried and ground material with light
petroleum or diethyl ether in a continuous extraction
apparatus such as a Soxhlet extractor. The result for the
fat weight in the mature stem and premature stem for
freeze drying method was 0.09 and 0.17 g with
reflective index 8.0 and 28.4% Brix. For without freeze
drying result, weight of the mature stem and premature
stem was 0.11 and 0.23 g with reflective index 12.5 and
33.1% Brix.
Table 2 shows the crude fiber analysis for mature
stem and premature stem in dragon fruit. The result
shows that the percentage of fiber was low in dragon
fruit stem compared to the dietary standard of dragon
fruit flesh. The crude fiber percentage of mature stem
and premature stem using freeze drying are 2.5 and
1.5% while 2.0 and 1.0% for using drying oven. The
standard of high-fiber in food was above 40% or above
0.75 g. The percentage of fiber in mature stem and
premature stem are 4.5 and 2.0% respectively using
freeze drying process and 4.5 and 1.5% respectively for
drying oven process. The result shows that there was a
small amount of minerals left out in the stem. It was
because the content of starches of the stem contains
fiber, phosphate and calcium. Crucible selection was
critical to accurate results but each type of crucible has
its limitations. While platinum crucibles are the best,
they are prohibitively expensive. In Table 2, majority of
premature stem have higher value than mature stem.
The higher parameters for premature stem are moisture
content, water activity, crude protein crude fat, glucose
concentration and ascorbic acid. The higher parameters
for mature stem are crude fiber and total ash because of
little fiber in premature stem of dragon fruit. But the
Dragon fruit stem gets more fiber while growing up
into a mature stem. Figure 1 shows that comparison
between mature stem and premature stem using freeze
drying process and drying oven process.
Basically, the result that has been taken from the
experiment cannot be determined as same as the
standard value of dragon fruit flesh. Half of nutrient in
stem has higher value and another half has lower value.
The higher values for proximate analysis parameter are
moisture content and ascorbic acid. The lower values
for proximate analysis parameter are crude protein,
Am. J. Applied Sci., 6 (7): 1341-1346, 2009
Table 3: Comparison between stem and flesh of dragon fruit
Nutritional contents Flesh Stem
Moisture 82.5-83 g 96.0-98.0 g
Protein 0.159-0.229 g 0.120-0.270 g
Fat 0.21-0.61 g 0.09-0.23 g
Crude fiber 0.7-0.9 g 0.02-0.05 g
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) 8-9 mg 63.71-132.95 mg L
Ash - 0.03-0.09 g
Water activity (A
) - 0.545-0.865 A
Glucose - 0.263-0.552 g L
crude fat, crude fiber and analysis. The other parameter
such as glucose, ash and water activity cannot be
determined as a lower or higher because the reference
data cannot find. Table 3 shows comparison between
stem and flesh of dragon fruit. The result shows that a
small different value between freeze drying process and
drying oven process. In this experiment, there are some
different between freeze drying and drying oven. The
differentiation of this process has been shown in Table 3,
which was freeze drying process are used at -45
C and
vacuum pressure at 86×10
M bar. For drying oven
process, it was used at high temperature 50°C and
pressure at normal air. In this case, the value of ascorbic
acid has more affected to the others parameter because,
ascorbic acid has a biological role as a reducing agent
in hydroxylation reactions in the body, easily oxidized
by air and easily destroyed by during food processing
with high temperature. The results of this study were
similar to the study done by Khalili et al.
Pitaya is commercially cultivated in many parts of
and cultivation in Malaysia is more
. The pitaya fruit has medicinal value and
increases the excretion of heavy metal toxins and
lowers cholesterol and blood pressure. The peel of
dragon fruit has a high potential to be used as a natural
. However, ingestion of significant amounts of
red-fleshed dragon fruit may result in
This research was carried out from the production
powder from dragon fruit stem using freeze drying
method and the proximate analysis parameters such as
moisture content, water activity, crude protein, crude
fat, crude fiber, ash, glucose and ascorbic acid was
measured using freeze drying product (powder) and
without using freeze drying product (dried with drying
oven). Freeze dried products at lower temperatures
extends their shelf life. The shelf life of a freeze dried
product can be predicted by measuring the rate of
degradation of the product at an elevated temperature.
The drying oven process is used at 50°C and can make
an effect of proximate analysis parameter such as
glucose and ascorbic acid. Based on the result of
sample preparation by production of powder, to ensure
the powder process was success, several parameters
must be controlled such as cooling chamber,
temperature and vacuum pressure. The temperature and
the vacuum pressure must be in low temperature to get
perfect powder. In the manifold method, flasks, impulse
or vials are individually attached to the ports of a
manifold or drying chamber. The product is either frozen
in a freezer, by direct submersion in a low temperature
bath, or by shell freezing, depending on the nature of the
product and the volume to be freeze dried. The pre-
frozen product was quickly attached to the drying
chamber or manifold to prevent warming. The vacuum
must be created in the product container quickly and the
operator relies on evaporative cooling to maintain the
low temperature of the product. This procedure can only
be used for relatively small volumes and products with
high eutectic and collapse temperatures.
A well rich nutrient content has the possibility to
prevent various diseases. This study provides that
premature stem of dragon fruit has more nutritional
value than the mature stem. This selection of nutrients
from the premature stem has an important nutritional
quality to improve the benefit for health and therapeutic
potential by targeting the compounds present in the
premature stem. Red pitaya could be considered as a
valuable economic product.
The researchers would like to extend their gratitude
to Prof. Dr. Abu Talib Bin Othman, Deputy Vice
Chancellor (student’s affairs and Technopreneur) of
University Kuala Lumpur (UKL) for sharing his
knowledge, excellent cooperation and support for the
research by providing the samples.
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Pseudohaematuria due to dragonfruit ingestion.
... Nur Izalin et al. (2012) [14] has reported yield of pectin extracted from dragon fruit about 14.96 to 20.14 percent of the dried peels. Certain studies (Ruzainah et al., 2009) [16] have suggested that premature stem of dragon fruit being higher in ascorbic acid content compared to dragon fruit flesh. Ruzainah et al., (2009) [16] study on proximate analysis of dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) at Putra University, Malaysia. ...
... Nur Izalin et al. (2012) [14] has reported yield of pectin extracted from dragon fruit about 14.96 to 20.14 percent of the dried peels. Certain studies (Ruzainah et al., 2009) [16] have suggested that premature stem of dragon fruit being higher in ascorbic acid content compared to dragon fruit flesh. Ruzainah et al., (2009) [16] study on proximate analysis of dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) at Putra University, Malaysia. ...
... Certain studies (Ruzainah et al., 2009) [16] have suggested that premature stem of dragon fruit being higher in ascorbic acid content compared to dragon fruit flesh. Ruzainah et al., (2009) [16] study on proximate analysis of dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) at Putra University, Malaysia. They observed premature stem of dragon fruit has more ascorbic acid value than the mature stem. ...
... Dragon fruits have beneficial health benefits. Vitamin B1, B2, B3, and vitamin C are all abundant in it, as are protein, fat, flavonoid, thiamin, niacin, carbohydrate, crude fiber, pyridoxine, kobalamin, glucose, phenolic, carotene, phosphorus, iron, betacyanins, polyphenol, antioxidants, and phyto albumin [12]. It has a high concentration of phyto albumins, which are highly prized for their antioxidant effects. ...
... The dragon fruit tree's stem even has therapeutic qualities. According to some studies [12], Premature dragon fruit stems, which contain more ascorbic acid than the fruit's meat, may have helped lower the risk factors for some diseases. In addition to polyphenols and flavonoids, pitahaya also includes additional phytochemicals termed betacyanin and betaxanthins, which are a subclass of betalains. ...
Dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus F.A.C.Weber) is a popular fruit crop known for its enormous medicinal potential that has drawn the attention of numerous researchers in recent years. It is a rare tropical fruit that has many favorable impacts on human health because it has powerful natural antioxidants and bioactive components, which have a great nutritional value. It contains a lot of nutrients like calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin C. Improved digestion is one of dragon fruit's most well-known health advantages. It has a lot of fiber, which can aid in controlling bowel motions and avoiding constipation. Dragon fruit also has natural digestive enzymes that can aid in food digestion and nutrient absorption. Higher medicinal benefits include lowering diabetes and hypertension. Bioactive compounds found in these parts have a variety of beneficial biological effects, including antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticancer capabilities. These include steroids, saponins, betalains, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols, terpenoids, and carotenoids, all of which have been shown to be more effective than synthetic drugs in the treatment and prevention of a variety of diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, obesity, and hyperlipidemia, as well as pathogenic organisms like bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Furthermore, it demonstrates resilience to numerous abiotic stressors and needs relatively little water for growth and development. Therefore, it might be a fruit crop that is both healthy and profitable for sections of the country that are rainfed as well as degraded lands with good resources and abiotic stress. Due to its ecological qualities, advantages to commercial value and human health the dragon fruit has developed into a productive product for the economy and a catalyst for the sustainable development of the country, particularly in the promotion of sustainable use of ecosystem and biodiversity. The current study focuses on the nutritional and medicinal benefits of the dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus F.A.C.Weber).
... Dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.) is an exotic fruit that belongs to the family Cactaceae and is extensively disseminated across the globe [17], but is widely produced in Asian countries (Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, and Southern China), the middle east, and America as shown in Figure 1. There are many varieties of this fruit, but three are the most widely farmed and exploited worldwide. ...
Owing to the increasing worldwide population explosion, managing waste generated from the food sector has become a cross-cutting issue globally, leading to environmental, economic, and social issues. Circular economy-inspired waste valorization approaches have been increasing steadily, generating new business opportunities developing valuable bioproducts using food waste, especially fruit wastes, that may have several applications in energy–food–pharma sectors. Dragon fruit waste is one such waste resource, which is rich in several value-added chemicals and oils, and can be a renewable resource to produce several value-added compounds of potential applications in different industries. Pretreatment and extraction processes in biorefineries are important strategies for recovering important value-added biomolecules. There are different methods of valorization, including green extractions and biological conversion approaches. However, microbe-based conversion is one of the advanced technologies for valorizing dragon fruit waste into bioethanol, bioactive products, pharmaceuticals, and other valued products by reusing or recycling them. This state-of-the-art review briefly overviews the dragon fruit waste management strategies and advanced eco-friendly and cost-effective valorization technologies. Furthermore, various applications of different valuable bioactive components obtained from dragon fruit waste have been critically discussed concerning various industrial sectors. Several industrial sectors, such as food, pharmaceuticals, and biofuels, have been critically reviewed in detail.
... The amount of moisture content in a food sample regulates the stability, texture, and quality of the food sample (Park, 1996). The moisture content of fresh fruit of H. costariscensis was found to be 85.95 ± 0.53% which is in accordance with the value (86%) reported by Ruzainah (Ruzainah et al., 2009). Ash content refers to the inorganic materials remaining after the oxidation of organic material in a food sample, representing the mineral content (Sonkamble and Pandhure, 2015). ...
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Hylocereus costariscensis (Dragon fruit), an edible cactus species of the Cactaceae family, is rich in essential nutrients like antioxidants, dietary fibers, minerals, and vitamins. The aim of the study was to analyze the proximate composition and investigate the biological activities of the edible parts (flesh and seed) of H. costariscensis cultivated in Bangladesh. Air-dried fruits were successively extracted by n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol. The moisture and ash contents of the fruits were found to be 85.95 ± 0.53% and 0.99 ± 0.02%, respectively. UV and FT-IR spectral analysis showed the presence of different functional groups, which might be due to the presence of fatty acids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and phenolic compounds. The total carbohydrate content was 10.52g/100g as determined by the modified Molisch method. Fatty acid analysis revealed the presence of octanoic acid (5%), palmitic acid (16%), octadecanoic acid (41%), cis-9-oleic acid (29%), and linoleic acid (6%). The total phenolic content of different extracts was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteau method, and the value was found to be higher in the methanol extract (151.05 ± 0.34 mg GAE/g) than in the other two extracts. Total flavonoid content and total antioxidant content were determined by the aluminum chloride method and the phosphomolybdate assay, respectively. The methanol extract exhibited the highest activities (91.54 ± 0.22 mg QE/g and 40.08 ± 0.21 mg AAE/g, respectively) among all extracts in both cases.
... It has B group vitamins, which are crucial for good health (B1, B2, and B3). Due to its high antioxidant value, vitamins, and mineral content as well as its economic value and delightful red or pink colour has recently drawn much attention among Indian growers [4,5]. ...
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The dragon fruit (Hylocereus costaricencis) is a new emerging fruit crop, there is very less information available on the spacing and fertilizer dose requirements of this crop so the present study was carried out to find the effect of fertilizer doses, spacings, and interaction effect of both on plant growth of dragon fruit (Hylocereus costaricencis) at the Orchard, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. during the year 2022. The design of the experiment was a split plot with four main plots viz. M1 = 3.5 x 2.0 m2, M2 = 3.0 x 3.0 m2, M3 = 3.0 x 2.5 m2, M4 = 2.5 x 2.5 m2 and six sub plots viz. S1 = N540 P420 K360, S2 = N495 P385 K330, S3 = N450 P350 K300, S4 = N340 P260 K225, S5 = N225 P175 K150, S6 = N0 P0 K0 g per pillar was applied and replicate four times. A significant difference was observed in terms of vine length (m), cladode girth (cm), cladode length (cm), and cladode number when different doses of fertilizers were applied. The highest vine length (2.96), cladode girth (24.52), cladode length (67.21), and number of cladodes (67.48) were observed in S3 (N450 P350 K300). Similarly, the highest vine length (2.503) and cladode girth (19.78) were observed in M4 (2.5 x 2.5 m2). The highest cladode length (67.47) was observed in treatment combination M2S3. Hence, the application of fertilizer dose S3 (N450 P350 K300) and adoption of spacing M4 (2.5 x 2.5 m2) is good to enhance the vegetative growth characters of dragon fruit under Tamil Nadu conditions.
... A separate study by Wybraniec and Mizrahi (2002) found that the antioxidant properties of the pitaya fruit is partly attributable to betacyanin. Ali Jaafar et al. (2009) presented proximate analyses of purplered pitaya while Ariffin et al. (2009) described the extraction of pitaya seed oil and performed an analysis of its essential fatty acids content. Both the red pitaya flesh and peel are rich in polyphenols, with a higher level detected in the peel (Wu et al., 2006). ...
... Pitaya holds great economic importance owing to its capacity to promote human health. Extensive research has been conducted to document the health benefits of various pitaya types in humans (Ali Jaafar et al., 2009;Wybraniec et al., 2001) while continuing studies are contributing to novel discoveries regarding the impact of its functional constituents on human health enhancement. The beneficial health effects of pitaya are attributed not only to its three primary metabolites, namely betalain, plant-based albumin, and water-soluble dietary fiber, but also to its diverse range of constituents such as volatile glucose, organic acids, proteins, amino acids, vitamins, and mineral elements (Garcia-Cruz et al., 2013;Ibrahim et al., 2018;Villalobos-Gutiérrez et al., 2012). ...
Pitaya (pitahaya or dragon fruit) belongs to the genus Hylocereus or Selenicereus in the Cactaceae family, and is well-known all over the world, especially in tropical and subtropical regions, for its health-benefiting properties. Although the pitaya traits have been extensively studied, only few studies focus on the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of fruit quality traits in pitaya. The breeding improvement of pitaya is a complex task due to various factors, including its generation cycle, polyploidy, high heterozygosity, and complex physiological structure. Furthermore, the absence of effective methods and resources exacerbates the challenges in enhancing the breeding of this fruit crop. In recent years, advancements in biotechnology and sequencing technologies have played a vital role in supporting and expediting conventional breeding techniques, as well as providing insights into the molecular mechanisms and evolutionary processes of pitaya. This review puts a spotlight on an overview of the latest developments in pitaya research, including genome, transcriptome, metabolome, and proteome sequencing, functional gene identification and regulatory network analysis, as well as the novel tools, platforms, and programs that have emerged in this field. It paves the way for studying the gene functions and molecular breeding with desirable fruit traits of pitaya, which will help accelerate pitaya breeding progress.
Over the past few decades, there has been an increase in the industrial use of plant protein isolates as functional ingredients to enhance the nutritional quality of various products. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the composition, proximate analysis, storage proteins, and compound identification of T. occidentalis seed protein isolate (TOSPI). Protein was extracted from the defatted T. occidentalis seeds using acid and isoelectric precipitation methods. The proximate analysis was carried out using standard procedures, while compositional evaluation and compound identification were performed with sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) techniques. The results of the proximate analysis showed that the protein content of undefatted seeds, defatted seeds, and TOSPI was 36.86%, 46.17%, and 86.50%, respectively. Protein fractionation of TOSPI revealed the presence of albumin (17.72 ± 0.16 mg dL−1), globulin (10.57 ± 0.22 mg dL−1), prolamin (12.81 ± 0.08 mg dL−1), and glutenin (9.89 ± 0.12 mg dL−1). The SDS-PAGE patterns observed in the defatted seeds and TOSPI of T. occidentalis indicated that the most prominent bands were located in the molecular weight range of approximately 20 and 30 kDa, respectively. Additionally, GC–MS analysis identified the presence of lectin, vicilin CG-72, glycinin, β-conglycinin, oleosin, kunitz trypsin inhibitor, histone H2B, gluten, and legumin B. Therefore, considering these properties, T. occidentalis seed protein isolate indicates a promising source of materials for the pharmaceutical and industrial applications.
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Stem canker on dragon fruit caused by Neoscytalidium dimidiatum causes severe losses in production of this fruit worldwide. Biological control by Trichoderma species is widely used to control several plant diseases. However, environmental conditions affect the use of biocontrol agents in the field. The development of a new formulation may offer an alternative way to address the problem of stem canker on dragon fruit caused by N. dimidiatum. In this study, we sought to develop a Trichoderma asperelloides PSU-P1 formulation that would be effective against N. dimidiatum. Three vegetable oils, two emulsifier-dispersing agents (Tween 20 and Tween 80), and one source of carbon (dextrose) were tested for carrier additives. We assessed the viability and antifungal ability of formulations incubated at ambient temperature and at 10 °C during a storage period of 1–6 months. The formulation composed of coconut oil, DW, and tween 20 in a ratio of 30:60:10 required a mixing time of 1.14 min; this was significantly faster than the mixing times of other formulations. Application of this formulation suppressed canker development; a canker area of 0.53 cm2 was recorded, compared with a control (pathogen only) area of 1.65 cm2. In terms of viability, this formulation stored at ambient temperature showed a surface area percentage of T. asperelloides PSU-P1 ranging from 64.43 to 75.7%; the corresponding range for the formulation stored at cool temperature was 70.59–75.6%. For both formulations, percentage inhibition gradually decreased from 1 to 6 months, with ranges of 59.21–77% and 60.65–76.19% for formulations incubated at ambient and cool temperatures, respectively. Our findings suggest that the formulation developed in this study prolongs the viability of T. asperelloides PSU-P1 conidia by up to 6 months, effectively inhibits N. dimidiatum in vitro, and reduces stem canker in vivo.
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Dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus) are a host of fruit fly (Bactrocera spp.), and thus export to many markets will require a disinfestation treatment. This work investigated the potential for disinfestation by heat treatment (HT) of cv. Binh Thuan in order to meet the biosecurity requirements of importing countries. Main-season fruit from Viet Nam were subjected to hot air treatments and stored for 2–4 weeks storage at 5 °C in sealed polypropylene bags, and fruit quality examined during subsequent shelf-life at 20 °C. HTs applied were fruit core temperatures (FCT) of 46.5 °C for durations of 20 and 40 min, and 48.5 °C for 50, 70 and 90 min. Assessments included turgor of the bracts and stem, the appearance of the body of the fruit and presence of rots, skin colour, flesh firmness, soluble solids concentration, fruit acidity, taste, and flesh translucence. ‘Binh Thuan’ Dragon fruit proved to be tolerant of hot air treatment and at the lower HT temperature (FCT 46.5 °C for 20 min) fruit quality was not significantly different from non-heated control fruit, either after treatment at harvest, or after storage for up to 4 weeks. However, metrics quantifying the appearance of both control- and HT-fruit generally deteriorated with storage time at 5 °C, although the internal appearance of the flesh, and taste, remained acceptable throughout. Shelf-life effects were restricted to comparison of the lower HT temperature (FCT 46.5 °C for 20 min) and non-heated control fruit. Shelf-life after any of the storage periods was terminated after only 4 d, as fruit available for study had not been sprayed with fungicides during the season, and developed anthracnose rots readily at 20 °C. No differences in shelf-life characteristics were established between HT fruit and control fruit. Our results provide strong evidence that ‘Binh Thuan’ Dragon fruit are a suitable candidate for fruit fly disinfestation by hot air HTs, and that fruit quality during or after storage does not suffer as a consequence.
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Hylocereus species has generated a lot of interest as a source of natural red colour for food colouring, cosmetic industry and health potential for improving eyesight and preventing hypertension and combating anaemia. This study was conducted to determine the proximate composition, carbohydrate, crude fibres and minerals content in red pitaya fruits (Hylocereus sp.) which were obtained from organically grown plantation. Results showed that the red pitaya proximate composition were 87.30% moisture, 0.70 g ash, 0.16 g protein, 0.23 g fat, 10.10 g crude fibre and 1.48 g carbohydrate. The mineral content in red pitaya was calcium (5.70 mg), phosphorus (23.0 mg), magnesium (28.30 mg), sodium (50.15 mg), potassium (56.96 mg), iron (3.40 mg), zinc (13.87 mg) and copper (0.031 mg). The results showed that red pitaya fruits could have potential health benefits in preventing risk factors of certain diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, preventing hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, preventing anaemia and improving eyesight.
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Drying is an ancient process used to preserve foods. Conventional drying (hot air) offers dehydrated products that can have an extended life of a year. Unfortunately, the quality of a conventionally dried product is drastically reduced from that of the original foodstuff. Freeze-drying is based on the dehydration by sublimation of a frozen product. Due to the absence of liquid water and the low temperatures required for the process, most of deterioration and microbiological reactions are stopped which gives a final product of excellent quality.The comparison of both preservation processes, hot air and freeze-drying, was done taking into account several important characteristics such as shrinkage, glass transition temperature, process–quality interaction, drying kinetics, costs and new improvements. An updated bibliographic research served to compare both drying processes. Experimental data as well as theoretical results, from several years of research in the subject, were presented and compiled in order to support conclusions.
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Introduction. Still practically unknown in the mid-1990s in Europe, pitahaya (Hylocereus spp.) is now a full member of the 'small exotic fruits' category in shops. Nevertheless, these species are not very well known. The aims of our work were first to evaluate thoroughly the literature currently available on Hylocereus and secondly to supplement this review by agronomic works not yet published. Knowledge of Hylocereus. The study includes a presentation of the origin, botany, morphology and floral biology of the principal species cultivated within the Hylocereus genus and suggests a key for determination. Cultivation techniques. The agronomical practices used in Hylocereus orchards are broached: multiplication, cultivation practices (supports, density, pruning, mineral nutrition, irrigation, etc.), pollination and harvest. Pests and diseases are cited too. Physico-chemical composition of fruits. This work draws up a review of different studies regarding pitahaya composition, micronutrients and pigments. Post-harvest and processing. The life of the fruit after harvest (conservation and storage life) is approached as well as the various possibilities of processing. European market. The European market is analyzed for the various cultivated species of Hylocereus (imported quantity, market segment, origin of production, etc.) and its evolution prospects are evoked. Conclusion. Our review highlights the fact that the interest shown in these pitahayas is recent and, for these reasons, more detailed knowledge on these species is required (agronomic, genetic and technological).
Providing a thorough introduction to the core areas of food science specified by the Institute of Food Technologists, Introduction to Food Chemistry focuses on principles rather than commodities and balances facts with explanations. The text covers the major areas of food science, including food chemistry, food analysis and methods for quality assurance, nutrition, diet and health, food microbiology, food material science, biochemical changes in fresh foods, food enzymology, and food processing. Within each chapter, more complex ideas appear near the end. This provides beginning students and those new to the food industry with a complete spectrum of information, while assisting advanced students with specialized papers and research articles. This multi-level text presents a wealth of information in a clear and accessible style. It serves as an ideal introduction or supplementary textbook for undergraduate and graduate students in food science courses.
In Israel, scarcity of water, high input prices, and market competition limit the number of orchard crops that can be grown profitably. Our approach to the further development of the horticultural industry in the dry regions of Israel—the Negev and Judean deserts—is thus to establish new crops that will demand high prices in the export markets (Mizrahi and Nerd 1996). To this end, about 40 species of rare or wild fruit trees were introduced by us into these dry regions in a number of locations that differed in terms of soil, water, and climate (Nerd et al. 1990; Mizrahi and Nerd 1996). Emphasis was placed on candidates of the Cactaceae because of their high water-use efficiency (5–10 times higher than that of most conventional crops), resulting in low water requirement (Nobel 1988, 1994). The high water-use efficiency of cacti is provided by their unique photosynthetic pathway—crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). In CAM plants, the stomata open and CO 2 uptake takes place during the night when evaporation is low. Among the Cactaceae, there are about 35 species that have a potential for cultivation as fruit, vegetable, or forage crop species (Nobel 1994; Mizrahi et al. 1997). Starting in 1984, we have introduced, for investigation as potential crop species, 17 members of the subfamily Cactoidae (Nerd et al. 1990; Mizrahi and Nerd 1996). Among these, four climbing (epiphytic) species and one columnar species have already been planted as commercial crops, and their fruits are being exported successfully to European markets as exotic fruits from Israel. The main reasons that these crops have made their way onto the market within so short a time after introduction are their precocious early yield-ing (three to four years after seeding or one to three years after propagation from cuttings) and their accept-ability in the markets. At present, our studies are aimed at examining the environmental adaptations of the species and their reproductive biology mode and at developing appropriate agrotechnological practices. In addition, a breeding program accompanied by cytological and molecular studies is being carried out in order to develop improved clones for cultivation. This review is divided into two parts. The first part deals with the climbing cacti of the genera Selenicereus and Hylocereus and the other with the columnar cactus Cereus peruvianus. CLIMBING (EPIPHYTIC) CACTI Taxonomy We collected wild or cultivated types of climbing cacti from a variety of sources—amateur cactus lovers, growers, botanical gardens, and backyards. We very soon realized that there is tremendous confusion about the taxonomic identity of these cacti: accessions with the same name were found to be of different species. We are currently applying cytological and molecular techniques to determine the proper taxonomic identities of the species that we have introduced (Lichtenzveig 1997). These species belong to at least to two different genera, Selenicereus and Hylocereus. From the genus Selenicereus we will elaborate here only on one species S. megalanthus, currently grown in Israel and in Colombia, where it is known as yellow pitaya (Hunt 1989; Barthlott and Hunt 1993), Acces-sions of S. megalanthus were introduced by us as H. triangularis or H. undatus and were later classified as S. megalanthus (Weiss et al. 1995; Mizrahi et al. 1997). We have 37 selected clones from this species. From the genus Hylocereus, we have introduced the following species, some with a number of clones (Table 1): H. undatus, H. polyrhizus, H. purpusii, H. ocamponis, and H. costaricensis (Britton and Rose 1963; Barthlott and Hunt 1993). In addition, we have introduced some promising unidentified clones of Hylocereus (Hylocereus sp.), the best of which was designated as 10487. Of these species, only the ones that are currently being grown in Israel for export are described in this paper, as follows: H. undatus, H. polyrhizus, and Hylocereus Reprinted from: Perspectives on new crops and new uses. 1999. J. Janick (ed.), ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.
Dehydrated cauliflower was prepared by soaking the blanched pieces in solutions of different concentrations of common salt and sucrose (cane sugar), alone and in combination, prior to drying in a cabinet drier and evaluated for sensory, rehydration, storage, microbiological, histological and sorption characteristics. While sucrose alone produced considerable improvement, salt supplemented its effect. The optimum treatment was soaking in 3% salt and 6% sucrose for 12–16h at 4°C it markedly reduced shrinkage and improved rehydration without affecting palatability. It was necessary to boil the soak solution for 3 min and cool prior to soaking to reduce microbial contamination. The treatment increased ascorbic acid loss by 8%. Monolayer moisture content calculated from BET equation was 6.5% (moisture-free) basis for treated and 5.3% for untreated. The treatment increased the shelf-life of the product from 3 to 12 months at ambient temperature when packaged in paper-foil-polythene laminate.
Summary We tested the hypothesis that an optimum method of drying fruit could be designed. The effect of the method used for drying on colour of apple, banana, potato and carrot was investigated for five different methods of drying: conventional, vacuum, microwave, freeze and osmotic drying. Colour characteristics were studied by measuring lightness (L), redness (a) and yellowness (b) using a Hunter Lab chromatometer. The method used to dry the material was found to significantly affect the three colour parameters. The changes in redness (a) and yellowness (b) were found to follow a first order kinetic model. Air-, vacuum- and microwave-dried materials caused extensive browning in the fruits and vegetables, this was manifested by a significant drop of the L parameter and an increase of the a and b parameters. Osmotically pretreated samples did not brown as much as the untreated samples and the value for lightness (L) decreased only slightly while a and b increased slightly. Freeze drying seems to prevent colour changes, resulting in products with improved colour characteristics.
The peel of Hylocereus polyrhizus is often regarded as a waste hence this study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of using the peel as a natural colorant using simple water extraction method. Samples were subjected to a series of temperatures: Room temperature (RT), 50, 80 and 100 degrees C; varied length of heating time from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10 min and a varied range of pH using 1 M of citric acid solution. The best condition to obtain highest betacyanin content was heating samples at 100 degrees C for 5 min in a pH 5 citric acid solution. The next part of this study involved the stability test of the pigments obtained through the best method determined earlier. The pigments were dried and resuspended in distilled water. The samples were then exposed to light to monitor pigment changes. Initial resuspension of the dried pigments yielded a comparable high content of betacyanins to its juice counterpart. The results showed that resuspended pigments had high pigment retention and were stable up to 7 days. These initial findings must be further studied in more controlled conditions to understand the stability of betacyanin. Nevertheless, the results show that betacyanin obtained from the peel of dragon fruit has a high potential to be used as a natural dye.