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Inhibitory Effect of Ginger Extract on Candida albicans


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Problem statement: To investigate the antifungal activity of zingiber offcinale (Ginger) on Candida albicans this study was designed based on laboratory investigations. Approach: Candida albicanse (PTCC 5027, ATCC...) was obtained from Iranian microbial collection and was confirmed by Germ Tube formation test. Ethanolic ginger extract was prepared. The antifungal activity of the extract was determined using Agar dilution and disc diffusion techniques. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test. Results: The results showed that the ethanolic extract was effective on Candida albicans (2 mg mL1) at the concentration of 1:5. Conclusion/Recommendations: The study indicates that ginger extract might be promising in treatment of oral candidiasis.
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American Journal of Applied Sciences 6 (6): 1067-1069, 2009
ISSN 1546-9239
© 2009 Science Publications
Corresponding Author: Zahra Atai, Department of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry,
Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
Inhibitory Effect of Ginger Extract on Candida albicans
Zahra Atai,
Manijeh Atapour and
Maryam Mohseni
Department of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry,
Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
Clinical Laboratory Doctor, Neuroscience Research Center,
Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
Dentist, Farhangian Dental Clinic, Khajoo Street, Kerman, Iran
Abstract:Problem statement:The fungal infections could be life-threatening in immunocompromised
patients. Candida albicans is the most frequent fungi in the oral cavity. Approach: The first step for
treatment could be done using topical antifungal agents. Nystatine is a choice for mentioned usage but
there are some problems in its using including: unfavorite taste, frequency of usage, etc. Finding better
replacements is the subject of many studies. Results: This study was carried out to find an alternative
for Nystatine. The study was designed based on laboratory investigations to investigate the antifungal
activity of zingiber offcinale (Ginger) on Candida albicans. Candida albicanse (PTCC 5027,
ATCC10231) was obtained from Iranian microbial collection and was confirmed by Germ Tube
formation test. Ethanolic ginger extract was prepared. The antifungal activity of the extract was
determined using Agar dilution and disc diffusion techniques. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test.
Conclusion/Recommendations:The results showed that the ethanolic extract was effective on
Candida albicans (2 mg mL
) at the concentration of 1:5. The study indicates that ginger extract
might have promise in treatment of oral candidiasis.
Key words: Zingiber officinale, antifungal activity, Candida albicans
The incidence of serious infections caused by
yeast, particularly species of Candida, has increased
dramatically during the past decade. Oral candidiasis,
formerly dismissed as an simple infection occurring in
denture wearers, is now one of the most common
opportunistic infections in immunocompromised
patients such those undergoing chemo therapy, HIV-
infected persons and transplant recipients
There are topical and systemic antifungal agents
that may be indicated to control oral candidiasis, but,
the development of resistance is an emerging trend that
may threaten their clinical effectiveness
. For
millions of people that traditional medicine serves as
the only opportunity for health care, plants are vital
sources. Safety and lower side effects of many herbal
extracts have also suggested them as sources of new
. History of ginger and its
applications are well documented
. It has been in
medical use since ancient times. Ginger is listed in
modern pharmacopoeias and repertories and has a wide
range of confirmed pharmacological properties
More recently studies have shown the antifungal
properties of ginger extract, Gingerol
In this study the antifungal activities of ethanolic
extract of the rhizomes of zingiber officinale on
Candida albicans was investigated.
The fungi used in this study, Candida albicans
(PTCC 5027 and ATCC 10231), was purchased
from Iranian microbial collection (Tehran, Iran).
Candida albicans was cultured and maintained on
subouraud’s dextrose agar medium at 30°C. Inoculums
of yeast like fungi were prepared for disc diffusion
assays. Sterile 705 mm diameter paper discs (3M, USA)
were impregnated with 2 mg (10 µL) ethanolic plant
extract, allowed to air dry and placed face down on the
inoculated agar surface. Nystatin solution 100000U/CC
used as positive control. Discs impregnated with 10 µL
of 1% normal saline and allowed to air dry served as
negative control. Plates were then incubated at 30°C in
dark for 48 h, after which the diameter of the fungal
Am. J. Applied Sci., 6 (6): 1067-1069, 2009
growth inhibition zone was measured. The well
containing the highest dilution of ginger extract that
still showed a zone of inhibition around it was
considered to be MIC
Extracts was prepared by blending approximately
500 g of the preserved plant material in 99%
ethanol (1:3 (W/V) ratio). The mixture was filtered
and the filtrate was retained and the residue was again
stored in fresh ethanol and processed as above. The
filtrates were collected and the solvent was rotary
evaporated at 45°C to near dryness, whereupon the
extract was freeze-dried for 48 h to achieve complete
The process yielded approximately 35-45 g of
dried extract. The dried extract (200 mg) was
reconstituted in 1 mL of 99% ethanol for a final
concentration of 10 mg mL
for antifungal disk assays.
Data were analyzed by ANOVA test.
The ginger extract was effective in inhibiting the
growth of Candida albicanse. The positive control
(Nystatin) produced significantly sized inhibition
zones with Candida albicans, while the negative
control produce no observable zones. The inhibitory
zone was measured with respect to the extract
concentration in 24 and 48 h. This assay showed that
the inhibitory zone was reduced while decreasing the
concentration (Fig. 1).
There was significant difference between the
extract and Nystatin in their inhibition activity in
comparison with Candida albicanse (p<0.01).
Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the ginger
extract was obtained for the concentration at 2 mg mL
(1:5 dilution).
Extract dilution (mg dL)
Inhibitory zone (mm
Ginger 24 h
Ginger 48 h
Nystatin 24 h Nystatin 48 h
Fig. 1: Inhibitory zone in comparison with dilution
Members of the Zingiberaceae family are
important in traditional medicine for the treatment of
many diseases such as inflammation, morning
sickness in pregnancy and many infective diseases.
Significant antifungal activities were evident with
extracts from members of the Zingiberaceae
. This
study showed that the extract of rhizomes of
Z.officinale has pronounced inhibitory activities against
Candida albicans. This result is comparable with other
suggesting that different antifungal
agents are present in the Ginger extract. In the ginger
rhizome there are several components which have
antibacterial and anti fungal effects. The gingerol and
shagelol identified as more active agents
Ginger extract containing Gingerol inhibits the
growth of many bacteria and fungi in vitro and the
activity might be contributed to the preventive effects
of its different agents
Recent studies have focused on the effect of Ginger
on the oral bacteria and fungi. Park et al. showed that
crude extract of the ginger can inhibit the growth of oral
bacteria in vitro
which is in good agreement with our
Antifungal activity of the ginger extract has been
reported before
. Our study focused on the effect of
ginger extract on the oral species of Candida (Albicans)
and showed the significant anticandidal effect the
extract. Although species belonging to the
Zingiberaceae family are generally regarded safe for
human consumption
, further bio-assay guided
analysis and clinical trial studies are required to
approve it as an anti fungal agent for oral species. Our
results suggest the ginger components as promising
candidates for development of antifungal agents for
topical applications.
The researchers would like to thank the Kerman
University of Medical Sciences (vice chancellor for
research) for sponsorship of the field research (Grant
number: 83/53).
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... A. melegueta seeds have also been used to provide a fictitious strength to alcoholic beverages, but this practice has been declared illegal and has been banned. Arylalkanoids such as paradols, shogaols, and gingerols, labdane diterpenoids such as zerumin A, sesquiterpenes such as humulene and caryophyllene, flavonoids such as quercetin and kaempferol 16,17 Antimicrobial, [19][20][21][22] antiparasitic, 24,25 antiinflammatory, 23 anticancer and chemopreventive activity, 28 Phenylpropanoids such as 1'S'-1'acetoxychavicol acetate, terpenes/ terpenoids such as β-pinene, flavonoids such as galangin and alpinin 43,44 Antimicrobial, [46][47][48][49][50] Monoterpenes such as β-pinene; labdane diterpenoids; diarylheptanoids; phenolic compounds such as coumarins and pinostrobin; desmethoxyyangonin [155][156][157][158] Antivenom, 152,159,160,162 analgesic, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory, 161 antimicrobial, [163][164][165] antiparasitic, 116,165 MAOinhibitory activity 169 Zingiber officinale Roscoe (common ginger; dyindya) Nausea and vomiting, microbial infections, parasitic infections, inflammatory conditions [176][177][178] Sequiterpene hydrocarbons such as zingiberol; 179 phenolic compounds such as gingerols, shogaols, paradols, and zingerone 179,180 Antiemetic, [182][183][184][185]188,189 antimicrobial, [191][192][193] antiparasitic, [194][195][196][197] antiinflammatory and analgesic activity [198][199][200][201][202] A. melegueta has a long traditional medical use in Africa and Afro-American communities including those of the Surinamese Maroons where it is known as 'nengrekondre pepre' ('pepper from the homeland of the Africans'). Seed preparations are used, among others, against infections and inflammations of the respiratory tract and the gastrointestinal system; to repel pests of stored grains; to fight cancer; for treating infertility; and against hypertension and diabetes mellitus. ...
... Indications for the usefulness of Z. officinale against microbial infections came from the broad in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity of organic extracts from the rhizome. 191,192 These effects might be associated with the flavonoid fractions of the extracts. 193 Various lines of evidence also support the usefulness of the plant against parasitic infections. ...
... It is evident from our results that ginger extracts were found very effective against H. oryzae. Presence of several components particularly gingerol and shagelol in ginger rhizome are considered responsible for their antibacterial and antifungal properties (Chen et al., 2008;Atai et al., 2009;Supreetha et al., 2011). Ginger essential oils are also important constituents of ginger with wide range of antimicrobial properties. ...
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The use of plant extracts is gaining importance in plant disease management as injudicious application of chemical fungicides has led to environmental concerns. There is dire need to explore potential alternatives to minimize the harmful effects of chemical pesticides. Therefore, the present work was designed to investigate the effect of different botanicals viz. ginger (Zingiber officinale), neem (Azadirachta indica), calotropis (Calotropis gigantean), garlic (Allium sativum), and datura (Datura stramonium) against Helminthosporium oryzae, the pathogen of brown spot of rice under lab conditions. Four concentrations (2, 5, 10, and 20 mL L-1) of each extract were used in three replications along with an untreated control. A 5 mm piece of actively growing fungal culture was placed aseptically on the treated and untreated potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. These Petri plates were incubated at 27 ºC for 15 days. The results revealed significant inhibition of fungal growth due to different extracts over control. Ginger extracts showed 94.11% reduction in mycelial growth followed by 82.13% inhibition produced by the neem extracts. Similarly, the extracts of calotropis, garlic, and datura were found effective over control with 78.86%, 76.25%, and 63.61% inhibition, respectively. These results suggest the antifungal potential of these extracts against H. oryzae. Their use can assist the ecofriendly management of brown spot disease of rice.
... It has antimicrobial activity on the growth of Streptococci mutans and Lactobacilli. Studies have shown that ehatnol extract of ginger was effective against Candida albicans, hence used in treatment of oral candidiasis 46 . ...
... In dentistry, ginger and its formulations are used for the treatment of oral candidiasis, recurrent apthous stomatitis (RAS), xerostomia, dental caries, and gingivitis [25]. Up to 2 mg/mL ethanolic ginger extract found to possess antimicrobial potential against C. albicans [26]. Ginger oil-modified heat cured PMMA denture base material with 3 v/v % of ginger oil exhibited significantly higher flexural strength. ...
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Denture stomatitis (DS) is one of the most common infectious diseases affecting edentulous patients, due to the colonization of candida albicans on the fitting surface dentures. Despite its multifactorial aetiology, most of the attempts at addressing this problem have been dedicated to the development of dentures or associated materials with antimicrobial activity. This review aims to provide an overview of the published literature on the development of denture base materials with antimicrobial activity and their properties. The published literature indicates that antimicrobial activity to the denture base materials was induced either by physically blending or chemically copolymerizing the antimicrobial agents into the polymeric matrix. A variety of materials such as chlorhexidine, silver and silver-based compounds, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NP), and quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), etc., have been physically blended with the denture base materials. Antimicrobial monomers such as methacryloyloxy dodecylpyridinium bromide (MDPB), methacryloyloxy undecylpyridinium bromide (MUPB), quaternary ammonium (QA), dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM), 2-tert-butylaminoethyl methacrylate (TBAEMA), methacryloxylethylcetyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DMAE-CB), acrylamide monomer (AAm), 2-methacryloxylethyl dodecyl methyl ammonium bromide (MAE-DB), 2-methacryloxylethyl hexadecyl methyl ammonium bromide (MAE-HB), 2-dimethyl-2-dodecyl-1-methacryloxyethyl ammonium iodine (DDMAI) and 2-Dimethyl-2-hexadecyl-1-methacryloxyethyl ammonium iodine (DHMAI), etc. have been copolymerized with methyl methacrylate to impart antimicrobial activity. These attempts have shown promising antimicrobial activity against C. albicans. However, significant differences in their antimicrobial activity as well as in their properties were noted. Incorporation of antimicrobial monomers to PMMA denture base resin decreased the biofilm formation with a consequent reduction in the acid production and metabolic activity of microbes. Such modifications showed promise as possible alternatives against Candida associated denture stomatitis.
... From the results, it could be found that the increment percentage of the total bacteria count after six weeks was decreased from 85.35% to 58.67% for biscuits made from 15% ginger when compared with control biscuits. The ginger had contained more constituency which has anti microorganisms influence due to it had contained rich amounts of natural antioxidants (Atai et al., 2009). Furthermore, the total fungi count was elevated in control biscuits by 95.19% after six weeks during the storage period. ...
... It was reported in previous studies that the antifungal effects of herbal extracts against candidal species were found to be less efficient when compared with fluconazole or any other anti-fungal drugs, [38][39][40][41][42]. This was in concordance with the results obtained in the present investigation wherein we found that the effects of garlic, turmeric, amla, honey on all the candidal species studied were less effective compared to efficacy of fluconazole. ...
Background and Purpose: Many innovations are constantly emerging with the advances in modern medicine and also it is occurring in various traditional medicines as they are considered to be safe and economical in current increasing health care financial burden. Due to emerging of MDR (multiple drug resistance) microorganisms and reduce efficacy of Modern medicines researchers and clinicians are required to revisit the traditional and alternative medicines. Material and Method: Extracts of garlic (Allium sativum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), amla (Emblica officinalis) and honey were prepared at concentration of 1mg/mL, 2mg/mL, 3mg/mL and were tested on different cancdidal species like Candida Albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida Parapsilosis and Candida Krusei and on Fluconazole as a positive control. Disc Diffusion Test for antifungal assay was performed. Results: The anti-fungal effect was maximum at 3mg/mL concentration for all the herbal extracts. Zone of inhibition for fluconazole, was highest (35.00 ± 1.73). Among herbal extracts zone of inhibition for garlic was maximum (16.67 ± 0.88), followed by turmeric (12.67 ± 1.20), honey (11.00 ± 0.58 ), amla (9.33 ± 0.67 ). Similarly for each dose, comparing the mean zone of inhibition between antifungal groups Tukey test showed significantly (p<0.001) different and lower zone of inhibition in herbal extracts (garlic, turmeric, honey and amla) as compared to fluconazole at all the doses. Conclusion: Among all the extracts garlic showed maximum efficiency. Also, the results obtained for herbal extracts showed that they were less efficient compared to fluconazole which was used as positive control.
... 25 Among these, volatile essential components, which constitute zingerone and shagelol, were reported to be responsible for their antibacterial properties. 10 Its ethanolic extract was found to be effective against C. albicans and E. faecalis by Atai et al. 26 Similar results were reported by Gulve et al. 27 Gingerol in ginger was found to act on P. gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, and P. intermedia by Park et al. 28 It was found to act on bacterial endotoxin in a study by Maekawa et al. 29 In the present study, MIC of ginger was the highest when the hydroalcoholic extract was used against ATCC or when the alcoholic extract was used against clinical isolate of E. faecalis. However, its ZOI was the largest for its alcoholic extract when used on both ATCC and clinical isolate. ...
... Ethanolic extract showed highest antibacterial activity. Strong antifungal activity of ethanolic extracts of Z. officinale against C. albicans was demonstrated by [37]. [38] conducted a study to examine antiviral action of gingerol, shogoal and ingenol isolated from Z. officinale rhizome. ...
Full-text available
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberacae) is widely used as medicine since ancient times. This review summarizes the most relevant reports implying diverse pharmacological efficacies of ginger. Several scientific investigations focus on isolation, purification and characterization of active phytoconstituents from Zingiber officinale with pharmacological benefits. These include flavonoids,
... Ethanolic extract showed highest antibacterial activity. Strong antifungal activity of ethanolic extracts of Z. officinale against C. albicans was demonstrated by [37]. [38] conducted a study to examine antiviral action of gingerol, shogoal and ingenol isolated from Z. officinale rhizome. ...
Full-text available
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberacae) is widely used as medicine since ancient times. This review summarizes the most relevant reports implying diverse pharmacological efficacies of ginger. Several scientific investigations focus on isolation, purification and characterization of active phytoconstituents from Zingiber officinale with pharmacological benefits. These include flavonoids,
In underdeveloped countries, microorganisms are frequently a cause of prevailing diseases, presenting a serious public health problem in a significant segment of the population as revealed by either private or officially granted health care systems. With the rise in-at risk patients, the number of invasive fungal infection has dramatically increased in both developed and developing countries. An antifungal drug is a medication used to cure fungal infections such as candidiasis (thrush), athlete’s foot, ringworm, serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis, and others. Such drugs are usually adviced by a medicinal practioner or purchased over-the–counter. But use of this types of drugs used in large way makes the unusable due to resistance to antibiotics and with the toxicity during prolonged treatment. There are large number drawback in synthetic drugs so people move towards herbal drugs which is safer. The presented review summarizes the information about introduction, treatment, herb and medicine for fungal infection and concerning the new profile of antifungal drugs obtaining from medicinal plants.
The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of 0.2%, 1%, and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX gel and CHX liquid), against endodontic pathogens and compare the results with the ones achieved by 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, 4%, and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). A broth dilution test was performed, and the timing for irrigants to kill microbial cells was recorded and statistically analyzed. Both 2.0% gel and liquid formulations eliminated Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans in 15 seconds, whereas the gel formulation killed Enterococcus faecalis in 1 minute. All tested irrigants eliminated Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia in 15 seconds. The timing required for 1.0% and 2.0% CHX liquid to eliminate all microorganisms was the same required for 5.25% NaOCl. The antimicrobial action is related to type, concentration, and presentation form of the irrigants as well as the microbial susceptibility.
Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of 13 Zingiberaceae species from the Alpinia, Costus and Zingiber genera were screened for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The antimicrobial activity of most of the extracts was antibacterial with only the methanol extract of Costus discolor showing very potent antifungal activity against only Aspergillus ochraceous (MID, 15.6 microg per disc). All the extracts showed strong antioxidant activity comparable with or higher that of alpha-tocopherol.
Four new diarylheptenones, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)hept-4-en-3-one (gingerenone A), 7-(3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) hept-4-en-3-one(gingerenone B), 1-(3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)hept-4-en-3-one (isogingerenone B) and 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)hept-4-en-3-one (gingerenone C) have been isolated from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale, and their structures established by spectral methods and some chemical transformations. The results indicate the similarity in the metabolic fates of the curcuminoid constituents to those of the arylalkanoids (dehydrogingerdione → gingerol → shogaol) of zingiberaceous plants. Gingerenone A exhibited a moderate anticoccidium activity in vitro and a strong antifungal effect to Pyricularia oryzae.
Alternative medicine is used extensively by patients with chronic pain due to e.g., osteoarthritis. Only few of these drugs have be tested in a controlled setting and the present study was undertaken to examine the effect of ginger extract, one of the most popular herbal medications. Ginger extract was compared to placebo and Ibuprofen in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee in a controlled, double blind, double dummy, cross-over study with a wash-out period of one week followed by three treatment periods in a randomized sequence, each of three weeks duration. Acetaminophen was used as rescue medication throughout the study. The study was conducted in accordance with Good Clinical Practice (European Guideline for GCP). A ranking of efficacy of the three treatment periods: Ibuprofen>ginger extract>placebo was found for visual analogue scale of pain (Friedman test: 24.65, P< 0.00001) and the Lequesne-index (Friedman test: 20.76, P< 0.00005). In the cross-over study, no significant difference between placebo and ginger extract could be demonstrated (Siegel-Castellan test), while explorative tests of differences in the first treatment period showed a better effect of both Ibuprofen and ginger extract than placebo (Chi-square, P< 0.05). There were no serious adverse events reported during the periods with active medications. In the present study a statistically significant effect of ginger extract could only be demonstrated by explorative statistical methods in the first period of treatment before cross-over, while a significant difference was not observed in the study as a whole.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) has been used widely as a food spice and an herbal medicine. In particular, its gingerol-related components have been reported to possess antimicrobial and antifungal properties, as well as several pharmaceutical properties. However, the effective ginger constituents that inhibit the growth of oral bacteria associated with periodontitis in the human oral cavity have not been elucidated. This study revealed that the ethanol and n-hexane extracts of ginger exhibited antibacterial activities against three anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 53978, Porphyromonas endodontalis ATCC 35406 and Prevotella intermedia ATCC 25611, causing periodontal diseases. Thereafter, five ginger constituents were isolated by a preparative high-performance liquid chromatographic method from the active silica-gel column chromatography fractions, elucidated their structures by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and their antibacterial activity evaluated. In conclusion, two highly alkylated gingerols, [10]-gingerol and [12]-gingerol effectively inhibited the growth of these oral pathogens at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of 6-30 microg/mL. These ginger compounds also killed the oral pathogens at a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) range of 4-20 microg/mL, but not the other ginger compounds 5-acetoxy-[6]-gingerol, 3,5-diacetoxy-[6]-gingerdiol and galanolactone.
An ethanolic extract of the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale was investigated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antimicrobial and hypoglycaemic activities. In rats, the extract reduced carrageenan-induced paw swelling and yeast-induced fever but was ineffective in suppressing the writhing induced by intraperitoneal acetic acid. The extract produced blood glucose lowering in rabbits. The growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was significantly inhibited. A dose-dependent inhibition of prostaglandin release effect was observed using rat peritoneal leucocytes.
Antimicrobial mouthrinses may represent a valid alternative to topical antifungal agents. However, the action of antimicrobials could be affected by the different ingredients incorporated into mouthrinse products. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the in vitro antifungal and fungicidal activities of antimicrobials alone. A broth macrodilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of 4 antimicrobial agents against Candida species. Minimum fungicidal concentration was also determined. All antimicrobials showed antifungal activity against all tested organisms, but cetylpyridinium chloride received significantly lower minimum inhibitory concentrations (P < .005). Cetylpyridinium chloride also showed a greater fungicidal activity than chlorhexidine digluconate and hexetidine (P< .005), whereas sanguinarine chloride appeared to be less fungicidal against most of the isolates tested. These findings suggest that cetylpyridinium chloride may be used as a topical antifungal agent. Clinical trials are now required to assess its value in the management of oral candidosis.
Petroleum ether, ethanol, butanol, and aqueous crude extracts of the whole aerial parts of nine plants exhibited variable degrees of antimicrobial activity against four bacterial and three fungal species. Methanol and hexane extracts did not show any activity. Compared with standard antibiotics, extracts had low to moderate activity. The activity spectrum is wide against gram-positive and negative bacteria as well as fungi tested. However, the butanol extracts at 4 mg/disc of Ononis spinosa (OS), Bryonia syriaca (BS) had high moderate antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium moniliforme and Candida albicans relative to miconazole nitrate at 40 microg/disc. Furthermore, higher antibacterial activity was observed though low to moderate compared with streptomycin and very comparable with chloramphenicol. Cyclaman persicum (CP) petroleum ether extracts only exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity.
In three different studies on rats, the effects of a patented standardised ginger extract, EV.EXT 33, on blood glucose, blood coagulation, blood pressure and heart rate were investigated. EV.EXT 33 had no significant effect on blood glucose levels at the doses used. It also had no significant effects on coagulation parameters or on Warfarin-induced changes in blood coagulation, indicating that it did not interact with Warfarin. EV.EXT 33 neither decreases systolic blood pressure nor increases heart rate in the rat. As also seen from the literature, ginger is thus pharmacologically safe regarding the investigated aspects.