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MODELI UČENJA ODRASLIH I PROFESIONALNI RAZVOJ

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Abstract

U radu su detaljno prikazani neki modeli učenja odraslih relevantni za profesionalni razvoj. Raspravljene su razvojne perspektive u odrasloj dobi polazeći od teorije životnog raspona. U okviru tog pristupa smatra se da razvoj određen biološkim, psihološkim i sociokulturnim činiteljima u cjeloživotnoj perspektivi istodobno uključuje i rast i opadanje.Opisana su neka obilježja kognitivnog funkcioniranja u odrasloj dobi – intelektualno funkcioniranje, pod Catellovim modelom fluidne i kristalizirane inteligencije, kvalitativne razlike u kognitivnom funkcioniranju u formalnom i postformalnom razdoblju, promjene u ekspertnosti i mudrosti te promjene u pamćenju vezane uz odraslu dob. Promjene u kognitivnom funkcioniranju u zreloj dobi rezultat su kontinuiranog učenja. U nastavku rada opisani su kognitivistički modeli učenja odraslih: procesni model obrade informacija Atkinsona i Shiffrina (1986.), model dubine obrade informacija Craika i Lockharta (1972.) i model socijalnog učenja Alberta Bandure (1978.) te je raspravljena njihova primjena u poučavanju odraslih. Osim spomenutih modela, prikazani su i modeli iskustvenog učenja: Kolbov model iskustvenog učenja (1984.), model s dvostrukom petljom Schöna i Argyrisa (1996.) te model refleksivnog učenja s višestrukim petljama (Cowan, 1993.). Opisana je i primjena ovih modela u poučavanju odraslih.

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... tijelo, te ima svoju dinamiku, rok trajanja, procese, pravila, podjelu uloga. Ima vlastite norme, psihološku atmosferu i očekivanja [39]. U ovom poglavlju upoznat ćete važnost grupe za učenje te se posebno fokusirati na grupnu dinamiku, uloge u grupi i potencijalne izazove u procesima grupe. ...
... Preporučen je kao oblik rada i u obrazovanju odraslih. U takvu obliku rada, u takvu okružju, polaznici mogu uspješno razmijeniti svoja bogata stručna iskustva [39]. Grupni rad možete upotrijebiti kad želite razbiti monotoniju učenja jer je poželjno polaznike povremeno podijeliti u skupine od tri do pet kako bi samostalno radili na određenim zadatcima. ...
... Nadalje, članovi grupe u kojoj je kohezija snažna pokazuju uzajamno prihvaćanje, pružanje uzajamne podrške i sklonost razvijanju za njih važnih odnosa. Ako se ostvari primjerena, podržavajuća i poticajna atmosfera u grupi koja uči, polaznici mogu razmijeniti i svoja negativna iskustva te učiti iz svojih, ali i tuđih neuspjeha [39]. Imajući u vidu gore navedene navode, ali i iskustva praktičara koji vode grupe, budite uvijek svjesni važnosti kohezije grupe i o njoj se aktivno brinite. ...
... Furthermore, in such a process the participant is mainly responsible as a passive recipient of knowledge who is expected to learn the contents prescribed by the program and reproduces them when the teacher asks for it [35,36]. In teaching based on such an approach or curriculum, the emphasis is placed on extrinsic motivation, neglecting interpersonal and intrapersonal competencies, self-evaluation of the teaching process and it is characterized by an authoritarian teaching environment [35,36,37,38,39,40]. The main criticism of such curricula and the planned and realized teaching process is that many authors have concluded that by their application, individuals end up with schools or studies with many Starting point for making the curriculum in adult education: the andragogical cycle theoretical knowledge that can not be used optimally in everyday life situations and that such forms of teaching do not prepare individuals for the labor market as well as for facing with ever faster and more important changes in the personal, social and economic plan. ...
... Each group, as well as educational, as a separate organism, ie the body, has its own dynamics, duration, processes, rules, and role-sharing. It has its own norms, psychological atmosphere and expectations [39]. ...
... Namely, group work is the form of work in the teaching process. In such a form of work, in such an environment, participants can successfully exchange their rich professional experiences [39]. You can use group work when you want to break the monotony of learning because it is desirable to periodically divide participants into groups of three to five to work independently on specific tasks.Tasks can be given orally or in the form of teaching leaflets. ...
... Simultaneously, although teachers prefer informal, experiential modes of professional training, it is not justified to reject formal education which provides individuals with an opportunity to organize a base of specific knowledge and procedures as a starting point for development of action strategies and metacognitive processes (Vizek-Vidović & Vlahović Štetić, 2007). Consequently, it is justified to consider professional teacher development as a construct of formal education and professional training in connection to practice as an opportunity to test theories and ideas, but also as a personal choice (Višnjić Jevtić, 2016) resulting in the development of professional competences. ...
... Metacognition is recognized as an awareness of personal (lack of) knowledge, understanding of the significance of learning and differentiating between various forms of learning, and socalled conditionalized knowledge as a decision-making capacity in relation to learning strategies. Metacognitive competences, as a hypothetical construct, include knowledge and the ability to plan and select optimal procedures or ways of dealing with problem situations, as well as to monitor and correct personal work in relation to quality and expected effects (Vizek-Vidović & Vlahović Štetić, 2007). They are recognizable on the manifest level in critical information and processes examination, quality assessment, reasoning and decision-making, as well as in efficient resolution of problem situations. ...
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Based on the belief that professional competences can partially be developed through professional training a cycle of ten educational workshops was designed. Combining theoretical knowledge, quality practice examples and discussions, the workshops strived to improve professional teacher competences. The assumed outcome was determined by difference between initial and summative participants’ self-evaluation results. Reliability of the “Teacher self-evaluation questionnaire” was determined through application of Cronbach`s Alpha coefficient and is high regarding all scales (0.919 ≤ λ ≤ 0.950). The sample is adequate and includes participants from both workshops cycles – global, held in United Kingdom and local, held in Croatia. The results of the empirical non-experimental research indicate that upon completion, in the second subsample, in which the workshops lasted for ten weeks, there was a statistically significant (p0.01) difference regarding teachers’ self-evaluation of knowledge (t=−3.566) and skills (t=−3.316) for cooperation with parents compared to initial results. Neither sample exhibits a statistically significant difference regarding self-evaluation of attitudes. Teachers estimate that they have developed knowledge and skills necessary for cooperation with parents by the systematic training in a specific period of time which allows for verification and practice of learned skills.
... Još jedan važan teorijski model koji se koristi u objašnjenju stilova učenja je i Kolbov model iskustvenog učenja. Inspirisan radovima Lewina, Kolb (1984; prema Vizek Vidović, Vlahović Štetić, 2007) je došao do zaključka da postoje četiri faze u učenju, koje slijede jedna iza druge: konkretno iskustvo, koje je praćeno refleksijom tog iskustva na personalnoj osnovi. To može biti praćeno izvođenjeg općih pravila ili primjenom poznatih teorija, što se označava kao apstraktna konceptualizacija, a time i na izgradnju načina mijenjanja slijedećeg pojavljivanja iskustva (aktivno eksperimentiranje), vodeći u novo konkretno iskustvo. ...
... Dakle, po njemu su dvije ključne dimenzije od kojih ovisi proces učenja: način pristupa informacijama (pristup informacijama kroz konkretno iskustvo ili simboličku reprezentaciju/apstraktno mišljenje) i način transformacije podataka (putem refleksivnog promatranja ili aktivnim eksperimentiranjem i praktičnom provjerom). Na osnovama Kolbovog modela učenja, Honey i Mamford (1992; prema Vizek Vidović, Vlahović Štetić, 2007) su izgradili tipologiju stilova učenja, na četiri stila: aktivist, refleksivac/interpretator, teoretičar i pragmatičar. Aktivist preferira rad i iskustvo, konkretno iskustvo mu je osnovni izvor znanja, oslanja se na " znanje poznatog". ...
... If we analyze this conception of the PD offer in terms of identifying the target group which the accredited program was designed for, we can reach the conclusion that the level of education of the working position of the teacher is taken into account: classroom teaching, vocational teaching, vocational secondary schools, grammar schools; moreover, the criterion of the type of the job being done can be taken into consideration: associate, director, teaching assistant, etc. Although it is extremely important to take into account the current career stage the teacher is in because of their cognitive orientation, learning strategies and decision-making (Vizek Vidović & Štetić Vlahović, 2007), in the current Catalogue for the school year 2012/13/14 this is not the case. ...
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Psihologija pamÊenja i uËenja
  • P Zarevski
Zarevski, P. (2002). Psihologija pamÊenja i uËenja