Dengue Virus Infection Induced NF-kB-dependent Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Production

American journal of infectious diseases 01/2008; 4(1). DOI: 10.3844/ajidsp.2008.22.31
Source: DOAJ


Dengue virus (DV) infection can cause mild dengue fever or severe dengue hemorrhage fever and dengue shock syndrome. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine that plays an important role in the modulation of inflammatory and immune responses and serum levels of MIF are correlated with disease severity in dengue patients. However, the mechanism that induces MIFproduction during DV infection is unclear. In this study, we showed that DV infection, but not UVinactivated DV stimulation, dose-and time-dependently induced MIF secretion in human A649 epithelial cells. MIF promoter assays and RT-PCR demonstrated that MIF gene transcription was activated during DV infection. Furthermore, DV infection induced NF-κB activation, and the NF-κB inhibitors dexamethasone and curcumin inhibited DV-induced MIF production. Finally, we found that different cells have different abilities to release MIF after DV infection. Interestingly, DV infection andMIF production in the human monocytic cell line THP-1 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells increased in the presence of antibodies against DV. Taken together, these results suggest that DV infection of human cells induces NF-κB activation and MIF production, which can be increased in the presence of pre-existing antibodies.

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    ABSTRACT: Dengue virus (DENV) infection can cause mild dengue fever or severe dengue hemorrhage fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Serum levels of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) have been shown to be correlated with severity and mortality in DENV patients, but the pathogenic roles of MIF in DHF/DSS are still unclear. Increase in vascular permeability is an important hallmark of DHF/DSS. In this study, we found that DENV infection of the human hepatoma cell line (Huh 7) induced MIF production. Conditioned medium collected from DENV-infected Huh 7 cells enhanced the permeability of the human endothelial cell line (HMEC-1) which was reduced in the presence of a MIF inhibitor, ISO-1 or medium from DENV-infected MIF knockdown Huh 7 cells. To further identify whether MIF can alter vascular permeability, we cloned and expressed both human and murine recombinant MIF (rMIF) and tested their effects on vascular permeability both in vitro and in vivo. Indirect immunofluorescent staining showed that the tight junction protein ZO-1 of HMEC-1 was disarrayed in the presence of rMIF and partially recovered when cells were treated with ISO-1 or PI3K/MEK-ERK/JNK signaling pathway inhibitors such as Ly294002, U0126, and SP600215. In addition, ZO-1 disarray induced by MIF was also recovered when CD74 or CXCR2/4 expression of HMEC-1 were inhibited. Last but not least, the vascular permeabilities of the peritoneal cavity and dorsal cutaneous capillary were also increased in mice treated with rMIF. Taken together; these results suggest that MIF induced by DENV infection may contribute to the increase of vascular permeability during DHF/DSS. Therapeutic intervention of MIF by its inhibitor or neutralizing antibodies may prevent DENV-induced lethality.
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue virus (DENV) infection is the most common cause of viral hemorrhagic fever, which can lead to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Hemorrhage and plasma leakage are two major hallmarks of DHF/DSS. Because the mechanisms causing these pathogenic changes are unclear, there is no effective therapy against DHF/DSS. In this review, we focus on the possible pathogenic effects of a pleiotropic cytokine, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), on the pathogenesis of DENV infection. MIF is a critical mediator of the host immune response and inflammation, and there is a correlation between the serum levels of MIF and disease severity in dengue patients. Furthermore, MIF knock-out mice exhibit less severe clinical disease and lethality. However, the role of MIF in the pathogenesis of DHF/DSS is not limited to immune cell recruitment. Recent evidence indicates that DENV infection induced MIF production and may contribute to vascular hyperpermeability and viral replication during DENV infection. The expression of both adhesion and coagulation molecules on MIF-stimulated monocytes and endothelial cells is also increased, which may contribute to inflammatory and anticoagulatory states during DHF/DSS. Therefore, blocking MIF production or its function may provide a solution for the treatment and prevention of DHF/DSS.
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