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Water Activity, Color Characteristics and Sensory Properties of Egyptian Gouda Cheese during Ripening

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The objective of this study was to monitor the changes in water activity (a w), color characteristics (color values and parameters) and sensory evaluation of Egyptian Gouda cheese during 60 days of ripening, and to determine the correlations between the changes in water activity or sensory evaluation and color parameters during the ripening time of cheese. Intravarietal comparison of water activity and color values in Egyptian Gouda cheese was performed by evaluation of instrumental values (a w) and color parameters in terms of CIELAB color space (L*, a*, and b*). In addition to water activity and color parameters, color parameters and sensory tests were performed. The results were evaluated with statistical methods (single valued and multivariate analysis). During the first 15 days of ripening, a decrease in water activity values occurred. Simultaneously, L* and H* values decreased. After 60 days of ripening a*, b*, C* and visual color increased. The ripening time of Egyptian Gouda cheeses can be estimated with 6 variables: L*, a*, b*, H*, C* and a visual color. Evaluation of water activity, color characteristics and related sensory characteristics of Egyptian Gouda cheese (with 60 days of ripening) revealed correlations between these parameters. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):447-453]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).
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Journal of American Science 2010;6(10)
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447
Water Activity, Color Characteristics and Sensory Properties of
Egyptian Gouda Cheese during Ripening
A.A. El-Nimr1; Hesham A. Eissa*2; M.M. El-Abd3; A.A. Mehriz3; Hayam M. Abbas1; and Hala M. Bayoumi1
1Dairy Department, 2Food Technology Department, National Research Centre, 3Agriculture Faculty, Cairo
University, Cairo, Egypt
*hamin_essa@yahoo.com
Abstract: The objective of this study was to monitor the changes in water activity (aw), color characteristics (color
values and parameters) and sensory evaluation of Egyptian Gouda cheese during 60 days of ripening, and to
determine the correlations between the changes in water activity or sensory evaluation and color parameters during
the ripening time of cheese. Intravarietal comparison of water activity and color values in Egyptian Gouda cheese
was performed by evaluation of instrumental values (aw) and color parameters in terms of CIELAB color space (L*,
a*, and b*). In addition to water activity and color parameters, color parameters and sensory tests were performed.
The results were evaluated with statistical methods (single valued and multivariate analysis). During the first 15
days of ripening, a decrease in water activity values occurred. Simultaneously, L* and H* values decreased. After 60
days of ripening a*, b*, C* and visual color increased. The ripening time of Egyptian Gouda cheeses can be
estimated with 6 variables: L*, a*, b*, H*, C* and a visual color. Evaluation of water activity, color characteristics
and related sensory characteristics of Egyptian Gouda cheese (with 60 days of ripening) revealed correlations
between these parameters. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):447-453]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).
Key Words: Egyptian Gouda cheese • Water activity • color • sensory • ripening
1. Introduction:
Cheese is one of the most popular food
products consumed in the world. It is high in protein,
calcium, essential fatty acids as well as nutritive
values. The history of cheese dates back thousands of
years - with the techniques and cultures often taken
from one society to another by conquering forces.
The individual characteristics of each cheese variety
are due to the type of milk, the microbial starter
culture and the make procedure used. Many
consumers do not realize the difference between
natural vs. processed cheese varieties. Natural cheese
is produced by the culture of milk to form a cheese
curd; through a series of steps to remove moisture,
this curd becomes the finished cheese. Natural cheese
is most often classified according to moisture content
with the higher moisture content of the cheese
correlated with a shorter shelf-life. Very high
moisture cheeses, such as cream and cottage, are not
aged and, thus, are often called “fresh cheeses.”
Gouda is also a semi hard Dutch cheese which first
made in the town of its name in Holland. Gouda is a
wheel-shaped cheese typically ranging in size from 8
to 45 pounds. Gouda cheese is a sweet curd cheese
with a limited number of eyes (wong, 1974, Zall,
1992 and Kosikowski and Mistry 1997).
Color is an essential ingredient in cheese
product. Gouda cheese slice individually wrapped
singles and cheese sauces all rely on color to provide
an appetizing appearance. Cheese colors may range
from pale yellow to deep red-orange, depending upon
the application and consumer preference.
Color of food is mostly due to the presence
of natural coloring stuffs material present. Moreover
color can also be changed by enzymatic and non-
enzymatic reactions. The optical characteristics of
foodstuffs are complex and depend on chemical
composition and surface texture. Any color can be
matched by mixing together suitable proportions of
three primary lights, that is red, blue and green.
Expressing each color proportion in a mixture as a
fraction, a color space is transformed to the two
dimensional chromaticity diagram. Hence,
coordinates x and y define position of a color on the
chromaticity diagram. An alternative method of
determining the color of food is measuring surface
reflectance instrumentally. Included in these are the
tristimulus colorimetric method, which locate a color
as a point in three-dimensional space using, in the
case of the Hunter Color Meter, the L (white-black),
A (green-red) and B (blue-yellow) axes (Francis,
1980). Texture and color are important criteria used
to evaluate cheese quality; these 2 parameters are
often a primary consideration of consumers when
making purchasing decisions. This is especially true
for "Protected Denomination of Origin" (PDO)
cheeses, which often represent a large variety of
textures and tastes. Ensuring consistently high-quality
cheeses continues to be a challenge for people
involved in the chain of production. Thus, there is an
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increasing need for characterization of PDO cheeses,
including study of changes that occur during ripening
and intravarietal comparison (Lebecque et al., 2001).
For this reason, some research groups have carried
out studies on chemical, physical, and sensory
characteristics of different cheese varieties (Bertola et
al., 2000; Bugaud et al., 2001; Lebecque et al., 2001;
Romani et al., 2002; Gómez-Ruiz et al., 2002;
Pillonel et al., 2002; Pinho et al., 2004), helping to
assess maturity and preventing such cheeses from
adulterations and imitations.
The consumption of cheese is dependent
upon the good consumer perception (IDF, 2001). The
chemical aspects of cheese ripening include many
significant changes in the constituents and properties
of cheese, contribute very much to the development
of it physico – chemical, color and organoleptic
properties (Vasterdis, 1989). During cheese ripening
characteristic flavor and texture of the individual
cheese verities develop as a result of chemical, color
and physical changes, which are more complex and
their monitoring is difficult (Farkye and Fox, 1990).
The sensory value is a determinate of food quality, it
is greatly influenced by the sensory properties much
as taste, behavior body and texture (Molnar, 1991).
Determination of quality level of cheese is based on
applying standard sensory tests. These sensory tests
usually screen the deficiencies originating from the
technology as from microbiological contamination,
but partially grade the degree of maturity. Based on
the abovementioned background it was thought while
to study the consolation between chemical, physical
and color properties of cheese and its sensory
properties during ripening. The aim of this study is to
establishment the degree of response of cheese and to
traces the changes in color characteristics and
organoleptic properties.
Therefore, the main objective of this work was to
determine of cheese color characteristics, water
activity released low molecular weight components,
organoleptic properties and ripening indices.
2. Materials and Methods:
Gouda cheese was manufactured under the
Egyptian marketing conditions in DEINA dairy
factory according to the method described by Scott,
(1981). Gouda cheese samples were ripened at 15o C
for 0, 15, 30 and 60 days
Methods of analysis:
Water activity (aw) determination:
Water activity (aw) determination was
carried out using ROTRONIC HYGROSKOP DT
(USA). This method was based on placing of Gouda
cheese sample in an air tight chamber. As long as the
quantity of water in the sample is much larger than
the quantity of water in the air of the chamber, the
measurement is accurate. The water activity was
calculated as ERH i.e. equilibrium relative humidity.
Color assessment of Gouda Cheese:
Gouda cheese color was determined
according to Hunter (1975). Color of Egyptian Gouda
cheese was measured using spectro-colorimeter
(Tristimulus Color Machine) with the CIE lab color
scale (International Commission on Illumination).
This color assessment system is based on the Hunter
L*-, a*- and b*- coordinates. Whereas, L*-
represents lightness and darkness, + a*- redness, -a*-
greenness, + b*- yellowness and - b*- blueness
(Hunter, LabScan XE, USA). The instrument was
standardized against a White Tile of Hunter Lab
Color Standard (LX No.16379): X= 77.26, Y= 81.94
and Z= 88.14. ) (Sapers and Douglas, 1987). Color
difference, Delta E, was calculated from a*, b* and
L* parameters, using Hunter-Scotfield’s equation
(Hunter., 1975) as follows.
Delta E = (delta a2+ delta b2 + delta L2) 1/2 …………..(1)
where: a-ao, b-bo and L-Lo; subscript "o" indicates
color of control or untreated sample.
The Hue angle (H*) and Chroma (C*) were
calculated according to the method of Palou et al.,
(1999) as follows:
H* = tan-1 [b*/a*]……………….…………….(2)
C* = square root of [a2* + b2*]....…………….(3)
Sensory evaluation:
Panel for judging Gouda cheese
manufactured at the dairy factory of DINA,
agricultural investments during ripening period
(fresh, 15, 30, 60 days) included 20 experienced
panelists. The attributes such as: flavour intensity,
body, texture and color were organolptically assessed
at stated by Nelson and Trout (1956) using a 10
points scale.
Statistical analysis:
The ability of the descriptive vocabulary to
discriminate between cheese was tested using one-
way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and least
Significant Difference (LSD) multiple comparison
test of the panel mean scores for each cheese. These
analyses were carried out using SPSS V6.1 (SPSS
Inc, Chicago IL 60611, USA) Duplicate scores were
subsequently averaged, standardized (1/standard
deviation of the mean score for each attribute) and
analysed using Principle Components Analysis
(PCA). (PCA was carried out using Unscrambler
V6.1 (CAMO AS, N-7041 Trondheim Noway). How
each Principle Component (PC) discriminated
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449
between the sensory characters of the cheese was
then investigated using ANOVA (SPSS V6.1, SPSS
Inc) according to Piggott and Sharman (1986).
3. Results and Discussion:
Effect of ripening on water activity (aw) of Egyptian
Gouda cheese:
The water activity of fresh and ripened
Gouda cheese was determined and presented in
Figure (1). It is obvious that (aw) markedly lowered
during ripening, it was 0.93 for fresh Gouda cheese at
zero time and decreased to 0.75, 0.54, 0.51 for 15, 30
and 60 days ripening of old Gouda cheese,
respectively. These results are quite similar to those
reported for Trappist and Hajdu cheese (Bara-
Herezegh et al., 2000). These results are close the
results of Walter and Seeger, (1990) who found no
relationship between total moisture content of
selected ethnic foods and aw.
The results are partially confirmed by those
results of Todorova and Kozev, (1995) who
concluded that water activity (aw) was > 0.965 and
combined with water contents of samples. Water
activity (aw) was proposed as an appropriate index
for Kachkaval cheese quality determination. Also, the
results of Sendra et al, (1999) showed that
composition, moisture loss, water activity, lipolysis.
There were no differences in moisture loss in chesses
made from frozen curd that had 'ripened for 60 days.
Proteolysis increased in all curds and cheeses. Water
activity decreased in all cheeses with increasing of
ripening for 60 days.
Figure (1): Effect of ripening on water activity (aw) of Egyptian Gouda cheese
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0 15 30 60
Ripening time (days)
Water activity (aw)
Effect of ripening time on Color characteristics of
Egyptian Gouda Cheese:
Tristimulus Reflectance Colorimetry (TRC)
measuring the reflectance L*, a* and b* values was
used to follow the extent of browning in cheese and
change of color in foods (Sapers and Douglas., 1987).
The results illustrated in figure (2) showed the effect
of ripening time on Gouda cheese color.
These results illustrated the changes in color
of Gouda cheese in terms of redness a*, yellowness
b* and lightness L* during 60 days of ripening. It can
be observed that the a*-value of the fresh Gouda
cheese was 25.2 compared to 20.4 after 15 days, 15.1
after 30 days and increased 20.0 after 60 days, as
seen in Fig 2 .
Regarding the lightness L* and the
yellowness b*. It is clear that the lightness L* as well
as the yellowness b* were decreased as a result of
increasing the time of ripening up to 60 days. The
effect of ripening time on increasing the a*-value
from 15.0 at 30 Says to 20.0 after 60 days was
noticed. The change in color may be referred to
chemical changes occurred during ripening. Kumar et
al. (2006) confirmed that cheese is a biologically and
biochemically dynamic product in which series of
sequential changes take place through its
manufactured and subsequent ripening.
The analysis of variance identified the
significant (p<0:05) effect of ripening time on Hunter
values of Egyptian Gouda cheeses. Although the a-
value showed a definite increased trend throughout
ripening, the L-value decreased and the b-value
increased as the cheese aged, as seen in Figure (1).
Previous research on cheese colour as a function of
ripening time by Rohm and Jaros (1996a) reported a
decrease of L-value and an increase of a- and b-
values during ripening of Gouda cheese. Martin et al.,
(2001) showed that the a-value did not show a
definite trend throughout ripening, the L-value
decreased and the b-value increasedas the cheese
aged. Ginzinger et al. (1999) reported that yellowness
index, a one dimensional measure of cheese colour
highly correlated with b; increased as cheese aged.
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450
Fig (2): Effect of different ripening time on Hunter color values (CIELab) of Egyptian
Gouda cheese
0
20
40
60
80
100
0 15 30 60
Ripening times (days)
Hunter Colour values
(CIELab)
L*-values a*-values b*-values R-values (460nm)
Color parameters during ripening time of Gouda
cheese: In addition to determination of the lightness
L*, redness a* and yellowness b*, for experimented
Egyptian Gouda cheese. Hue angle (H*) as well as
the chromaticity (C*) were determined. Hue is the
aspect of color that we describe by words such as
green, blue, yellow or red. The chroma refers to
reflection at given wavelength and indicates how
much a color differs from gray (Eissa and Moharam,
2001). The equations No. 1, 2 and 3 are showed the
DE, H* and C*.
The results in Table (1) show that the H*
values were closely stable in all samples with
increasing of ripening time up to 60 days at 15°C.
The chromaticity (C*) increased by the
increasing of ripening time in Gouda cheese up to 30
days. Thereafter, no relation was noticed. It can be
concluded that the ripening of Gouda cheese slightly
inhibited the changes in color of cheese.
The total color differences (DE) increased by the
increasing of ripening time in Gouda cheese up to 30
days As presented in Table 1, total colour differences
of Egyptian Gouda cheeses were small, which almost
correspond to the sensory difference threshold (Rohm
& Jaros, 1996b). However, greatly different values of
DE were found for cheeses at 15, 30 and60 days of
ripening. The almost identical colour values found in
cheeses could be attributed to their similar structure.
Table (1): Correlation between the different color parameters instrumentally measured L*, a*, b*, C* and
H* and the visual color score during 30 days ripening at 150C.
Ripening time (days) L* a* b* H* C* DE aW visual color
Fresh 84.51 8.46 31.10 0.064 32.230 0.00 0.93 6.55
15 days 79.05 9.54 32.86 0.060 34.217 5.84 0.75 8.70
30 days 76.57 9.99 35.05 0.061 36.446 9.00 0.54 8.85
60 days NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
R2-values 0.94 0.95 0.75 0.91 0.77 0.92 0.76
NR = no relation
Sensory evaluation of Egyptian Gouda cheese:
Sensory evaluation of the Egyptian Gouda
cheese samples was carried out during 60 days of
ripening at 15°C by 20 experienced panels using 10
points scales at 0, 15, 30 and 60 days. Difference in
sensory properties of cheese samples due to the effect
of ripening Gouda cheese was determined by analysis
of variance (ANOVA).
The sensory scores for the quality attributes
of the Egyptian Gouda cheese samples were given in
Table (2). The scores were recorded at 0, 15, 30 days
of ripening at 15°C. Anaylsis of variance showed
high significant differences between Gouda cheese
samples due to the source of samples. F-values were
significant at 5% level.
The mean value for color of Egyptian Gouda
cheese scored during ripening period was 6.55, 8.70,
8.85 and 9.70 at 0, 15, 30 and 60 days of ripening,
respectively as seen in Table (2). Excellent color was
related to the samples after 60 days of ripening. The
scores for these samples were in the range of 6.55 to
9.70. The low score value was 6.55 for fresh samples
at zero time.
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451
Table (2): Sensory evaluation during 60 days ripening at 15oC of Egyptian Gouda cheese.
Ripening time (days) Color Flavour Texture Body
Fresh (zero time) 6.55C 6.95C 6.50C 6.85C
15 days 8.70B 8.10B 8.35B 8.20B
30 days 8.85B 8.15B 8.30B 8.20B
60 days 9.70A 9.70A 9.75A 9.35A
LSD 0.51038 0.50781 0.61942 0.57574
The mean value of flavor scores for all
treatments of Egyptian Gouda cheese stored was
6.95, 8.10, 8.15 and 9.70 at 0, 15, 30 and 60 days of
ripening respectively. Corresponding F-value for
differences in flavor between the samples was 39.126
for Gouda cheese tested at 0, 15, 30 and 60 days of
ripening respectively. Excellent flavor was related to
the samples after 60 days of ripening (Table. 2).
The texture of the tested samples was
affected by refrigeration. The over all mean score for
the texture of Gouda cheese was only 6.50, 8.35, 8.30
and 9.75 at 0, 15, 30 and 60 days of ripening
respectively. Corresponding calculated F-value for
differences in texture between the samples was
36.690 for Gouda cheese at 0, 15, 30 and 60 days
ripening respectively. Like color and flavor ripening
time showed the highest score for texture, being 6.55,
8.35, 8.30 and 9.75 at 0, 15, 30 and 60 days ripening
respectively (Table 2).
The overall mean score for the body of the
tested samples of Gouda cheese was 6.85, 8.20, 8.20
and 9.35. at 0, 15, 30 and 60 days of ripening period
at 15°C, respectively. Corresponding calculated F-
value for differences in body between the samples
was 25.014 for Gouda cheese at 0, 15, 30 and 60 days
of ripening respectively. These levels of score
indicate the importance of the ripening period in
keeping a body for the tested Gouda cheese.
However, there were significant differences between
the individual ripening. Samples ripened for 60 days
showed the highest score (9.8) in body stored at
15°C. All these results are in agreement with the
results of Davide et. al., (1988) who found that the
buffalo milk Gouda cheese requires a longer ripening
period in order to develop the characteristic Gouda
flavor as compared with % the cow Gouda, which
develops its characteristics flavour, aroma, body and
texture after 2 months. The buffalo Gouda acquires
these sensory properties, although to a slightly lower
degree, after a longer ripening period of 4 months.
Also, Kampf and Nussinovitch, (2000)
found that the coating contributed to a better color
and gloss. The roughness of the coated cheese
decreased after coating, since the film filled in
surface ruggedness. Advantages in the textural
properties of the coated cheese were observed, since
the coated cheese lose less water by evaporation, a
desirable softer and a less brittle texture was detected.
.
The relation between the color values of Gouda
cheese slices according to the visual judgment and
those of color parameters obtained by instrumental
determination as well as with water activity (aw):
Table (1) lists the values of the different
color parameters L*, a*, b*, C* and H* as well as the
mean visual color and water activity (aw) of the
Gouda cheese ripened for 60 days at 15°C. A
technique of regression analysis was used to predict
the coefficient of the correlation between the visual
color score and each of the five color parameters. The
estimated values of r was found to range between
0.77 (in case of C*) to 0.95 (in case of a*) after 30
days of ripening at 15°C for Gouda cheese slices.
Also, it was 0.76 (in case of aw) after 30 days
ripening at 15°C Gouda cheese slices. However, the
results showed that the characteristic color was
different in all color parameters or no relationship
after 60 days of ripening at 15°C but increased to
9.70 as a visual color. The relation between the water
activity (aw) of the Egyptian Gouda cheese slices and
those of color parameters obtained by instrumental
determination:
Table (3) lists the values of the different
color parameters L*, a*, b*, C* and H* as well as the
water activity (aw) of the Gouda cheese slices for 60
days ripening at 15°C. a technique of regression
analysis was used to predict the coefficient of the
correlation between the water activity (aw) and each
of the five color parameters.
Table (3): Correlation between tKe different color parameters instrumentally measured L*, a*, b*, C* and
H* and water activity (aw) during 60 days ripening at 15oC.
Ripening time (days) L* a* b* H* C* DE aW
Fresh 84.51 8.46 31.10 0.064 32.230 0.00 0.93
15 days 79.05 9.54 32.86 0.060 34.217 5.84 0.75
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30 days 76.57 9.99 35.05 0.061 36.446 9.00 0.54
60 days NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
R2-values 0.93 0.92 0.99 0.47 0.99 0.95 -
NR = no relation
The estimated values of R2 was found to
range between 0.99 (in case of b* and C*) and 0.95
(in case of DE) to 0.92 (in case of a*) after 30 days of
ripening at 15°C of Gouda cheese slices. Also, it was
0.93 (in case of L*) after 30 days of ripening at 15°C.
The results are partially confirmed by those of
Todorova and Kozev, (1995) who proved that a
relationship was found between water activity and
water contents during cheese storage, and
consequently organoliptic characteristics (taste, color
and flavor). Also, they concluded that the water
activity (aw) indexes could be used for predicting the
keeping quality of both Vitosha and Balkan
Kachkaval cheeses. The high relationship between
DE or b* -value and water activity (R2-value=0.99)
was confirmed by those of Frau et al., (2000).
However, the results showed that the characteristic
color was different in all color parameters and water
activity (aw). No relationship between color and
water activity (aw) after 60 days of ripening at 15°C.
4. Conclusions:
Color evaluation showed significant
differences between Egyptian Gouda cheese related
to ripening time, although due to the similar structure
the cheeses, the more identical values were found for
Water activity and sensory evaluation in Egyptian
Gouda cheese.
Corresponding author
Hesham A. Eissa
Food Technology Department, National Research
CentreCairo, Egypt
hamin_essa@yahoo.com
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7/9/2010
... These increases in fat and protein levels can also be induced by lipolysis and proteolysis phenomena as well as subsequent production of different kinds of products, such as volatile compounds produced during the metabolism of fatty acids and amino acids [6]. Several studies presented a relationship between the initial salt content in the matrix of cheese and changes in the composition and geometrical arrangement of casein, which in turn, influences the texture of cheese, namely regarding hardness, adherence, and viscosity [20][21][22][23][24]. Odor intensity showed a positive and significant correlation with S/W (Table 4), and cheeses in stage 1 were significantly different from the cheeses in stages 2 and 3 (Table 1) regarding odor intensity perception, which shows the influence of ripening on odor development. ...
... Salt is considered an important provider of cheese flavor and has been shown to increase the flavor intensity of ripened cheese while reducing bitterness [24]. According to El-Nimr et al. [24], texture and color are important criteria used to evaluate cheese quality; these two parameters are often the primary consideration of consumers when making purchasing decisions. ...
... Salt is considered an important provider of cheese flavor and has been shown to increase the flavor intensity of ripened cheese while reducing bitterness [24]. According to El-Nimr et al. [24], texture and color are important criteria used to evaluate cheese quality; these two parameters are often the primary consideration of consumers when making purchasing decisions. However, in this study, the intent of purchase and the global appreciation results were not significantly different, showing the high-level satisfaction of tasters with any of the cheese stages, regardless of the stage of ripeness. ...
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The variability and heterogeneity found in Évora cheeses, Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), can affect consumers' choices. Assessing the ripening conditions and their effect can be helpful. To study the effect of ripening duration in Évora cheese PDO, sensory and chemical analyses were performed in cheese samples subjected to 30, 60, and 120 days of ripening under controlled conditions (temperature 14 to 15 • C and humidity 65 to 70%). Sensory analysis was conducted with a homogenous panel previously familiarized with the product after a short training period, and chemical analyses including pH, moisture, NaCl content, a w , and salt-in-moisture were determined. Panelists were able to distinguish the differences in the organoleptic characteristics of the three cheese stages, and chemical determinations showed significant differences between stages. Interrater agreement was higher in the sensory evaluation of cheeses with a longer maturation period. As expected, cheeses in the 120 days ripening period presented lower pH, moisture, and water activity and had higher salt-in-moisture content. This stage received the highest scores in hardness and color of the crust, intensity, pungency of the aroma, intensity of taste and piquancy, and firmness and granular characteristics of texture. Overall acceptance of cheese samples was positive, regardless of the ripening stage, which probably reflects both the homogeneity of taster profiles and the previous knowledge of this particular product. The degree of ripeness influences the physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics but does not affect the acceptance of this product by the consumer.
... Based on the value, the color was determined. L* denotes brightness or whiteness, a* denotes redness, and b* denotes a greenish hue [7]. ...
... The addition of herbal extracts result in a highly significant effect on the color of herbal cheese (P<0.01) when compared to the control (full-fat cheese without herbal extracts). Color was measured with a colorimeter, where the L* value denotes light and dark, +a* reddish; -a* greenish; +b* yellowish; and -b* bluish (Hunter, LabScan, USA) [7]. Cheese without herbs and manufactured with full-fat milk (P1) and low-fat milk (P2) had a higher L* value than herbal cheeses (Figure 1b.). ...
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This study was conducted to investigate the processability of herbal cheese made from low-fat milk with herbs extract: moringa, bay, and bidara leaves, and their combination. Herbal cheeses were manufactured from commercial low-fat milk with a fat content of approximately 1%, and the percentage of herbs added was 20%. Nine treatments applied in this research were (P1) Full fat milk without herbs as control; (P2) Low-fat milk without herbs; (P3) low-fat milk + 20 % bidara leaves extract; (P4) low-fat milk + 20 % bay leaves extract; (P5) low-fat milk + 20% moringa leaves extract; (P6) low-fat milk + mixes of bidara leaves and bay leaves extracts (10:10%); (P7) low-fat milk + mixes of bidara leaves and moringa leaves extracts (10:10%); (P8) low-fat milk + mixes of bay leaves and moringa leaves extracts (10:10%); and (P9) low-fat milk + mixes of bay; moringa and bidara leaves extracts (6.67:6.67:6.67%). A completely randomized design was used with three replicates. Variables measured were instrumental total solids, acidity, and color of the cheese. A colorimeter estimated cheese color as L* (brightness), a* (green to red), and b* (blue to yellow). Results showed that, total solids, L*, and b* values were significantly different; however pH and a* values were similar. The low-fat cheese pH ranged from 6.12-6.63 and the total solid ranged from 36.82 to 55.26 %. Herbal cheese showed L* value 74.21-90.86; b* value 14.47-22.98. The pH and a* value of all low-fat cheeses were not significantly different to control. From this preliminary experiment, it can be concluded that the processability of low-fat cheeses with the addition of 20% moringa leaves extract produces the highest yellowness. In contrast, full cream milk produces fresh cheeses with highest total solid and brightness.
... At the beginning of the ripening time, the tested samples exhibited an average L* value of 77.26, which decreased during the storage period until reaching, at the end of the ripening (80 d), an average value of 75.08, indicating cheeses with lower brightness. The above was also observed in the studies conducted by other authors as Pinho et al. [46] in Terrincho cheese, El-Nimr et al. [47] in Gouda cheese, Tarakci et al. [45] in herby pickled cheese, and Lee et al. [48] in Appenzeller cheese. Ibáñez et al. [49] reported that the increase in proteolysis and the reduction in the proportion of insoluble calcium could reduce L* values. ...
... Redness (a* value) in the cheese samples increased with ripening time. In the beginning, with an average value of −3.88, it reached at the end of period (80 d) an average value of −0.59; this is in agreement with the results of Tarakci et al. [45] and El-Nimr et al. [47] in herby pickled and Egyptian Gouda cheeses, respectively. Juric et al. [50] and Kristensen et al. [51] also studied the color changes during storage in slices of semi-hard cheeses packed in modified atmospheres, reporting increases in the redness of the cheeses during the ripening time. ...
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The influence of nano-emulsified curcumin (NEC) added to the hair sheep milk, prior to cheese-making, on the chemical composition, lipolysis, and proteolysis of manchego-style cheeses were evaluated throughout 80 days of ripening. The addition of NEC to the milk resulted in cheeses with the same moisture content (42.23%), total protein (23.16%), and water activity (0.969) (p > 0.05). However, it increased the fat and ash levels from 26.82% and 3.64% in B 10 ppm to 30.08% and 3.85% in C 10 ppm, respectively, at the end of the ripening (p < 0.05). The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of experimental cheeses increased during ripening, and the fatty acid groups showed significant changes occurred to a greater extent in the first days of ripening (p < 0.05). The lipolysis increased consistently in all cheeses until day 40 of ripening, to decrease at the end, while proteolysis increased during all ripening time in all samples (p < 0.05); the addition of NEC did not alter the primary proteolysis of manchego-style cheeses, but it modified secondary proteolysis and lipolysis (p < 0.05). Principal component analysis was useful for discriminating cheeses according to their chemical composition and classified into four groups according to their ripening time. This research highlights the potential of CNE to fortify dairy foods to enhance their functionality.
... The water activity (A w ) of all RUTF samples was determined using a water activity meter (Rotronic HygroPalm HP23-AW-A-set-14) following the procedure of El-Nimr et al. (2010). The meter was first standardized using 6 mol/kg sodium chloride and 13.41 mol/kg lithium chloride. ...
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Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is most prevalent and affecting a large number of children in Pakistan. Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is a tackling strategy to overcome the PEM in Pakistan. The present research was designed to formulate RUTF from different indigenous sources. After conducting some preliminary trials, 14 RUTF formulations were developed by mixing peanut, mung bean and chickpea alone as well as in various combinations with the addition of sugar, powdered milk, oil and vitamin-mineral premix. Freshly prepared RUTF were stored at room temperature (20±5oC) and packed in aluminium foil for 90 days to investigate the microbiological analysis (total plate count and mold count), water activity (Aw), peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value. All the parameters showed significant (P<0.05) differences among peanut, chickpea and mung bean-based RUTF except water activity. The storage days and interaction between treatments and storage days also showed a significant (P<0.05) effect on water activity, total plate count, mold count, peroxide value and TBA of RUTF formulations. The present study revealed that the peanut, chickpea, and mung bean can be used in the formulation of RUTF due to their shelf stability and help to mitigate the PEM in Pakistan.
... The cheese color was tested using a colorimeter (CS-10, CHNSpec, China) with a CIE color scale (International Commission on Illumination). Color testing was based on the coordinate of L*, a*, and b* (El-Nimr et al., 2010). The whiteness index (WI) was calculated using the formula WI = ((100-L* 2 ) + a* 2 + b* 2 ) 1/2 ...
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This study aimed to understand the physical characteristics of cheese made of cow milk, colostrum, and milk+colostrum ripened for 20 days. Two factors in this study were cheese made of three materials: A (100% cow milk), B (50% cow milk + 50% colostrum) and C (100% colostrum), and ripening time, i.e. 0, 10, and 20 days. The process of cheese production started by heating the raw material, followed by decreasing the temperature, incorporating kefir as the starter. The next step was and the rennet and re-incubate the mixture for one hour until the fluid became solid granules, then the granules were filtered and pressed. The cheese was stored at a low temperature (4-8oC) according to each treatment. Each combination was repeated three times. The physical properties of cheese examined in this study were color, texture, pH, and microstructure. The result showed that the raw materials of cheese would produce different cheese colours in terms of lightness (L*), yellowness (b*), and whiteness index (WI) as well as cheese texture (hardness and gumminess). Also, ripening time would affect the hardness, springiness gumminess, chewiness, L*, a*, and WI of cheese. Colostrum added in cheesemaking has increased both yellowness and cavities in the microstructure.
... With regard to the chemical composition of cheese, no differences in the content of total fat were highlighted, while the color evaluation evidenced a significant reduction in lightness in the EG samples, at the end of the ripening period (T60). As previously reported by El-Nimr et al. [27], the lightness in a dairy product can be directly related to the moisture content. Since our study has shown a greater loss of humidity by the EG cheese after 60 days from the cheesemaking, it is plausible that this could represent the most obvious key reading of the observed finding. ...
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Simple Summary: This study aims to investigate the effects of cheese obtained from goats fed a dietary supplementation with olive leaves. Thirty Saanen goats were allocated into two groups, (1) a control group that received a standard diet, and (2) an experimental group whose diet was supplemented with olive leaves. The results suggest a positive role of olive leaves in improving the cheese fatty acids composition and oxidative stability during ripening. Moreover, there were several variations in the development of volatile flavor compounds, even if no changes were evidenced in the sensory properties. Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the physical, nutritional, and sensory properties of cheese obtained from goats fed a dietary supplementation with olive leaves (OL). Thirty Saanen goats were randomly allocated into two groups of 15 goats each, (1) a control group fed with a standard diet (CG), and (2) an experimental group (EG) fed an OL-enriched diet. The trial lasted for 30 days. The milk of each group was then collected and used to produce Caciotta cheese, which was analyzed at the beginning and at the end of the ripening period (60 days). The results showed a positive effect of dietary OL supplementation in improving the fatty acid profiles due to the significant increase of unsaturated fatty acids, mostly α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3), with the consequent reduction of the ω-6/ω-3 ratio, a condition commonly associated with an increased health functionality of food products. Moreover, improved oxidative stability was observed in cheese during ripening, a presumable consequence of the transfer into the milk of dietary bioactive compounds, mainly polyphenols of high biological value, and credited as a marked antioxidant potential. Furthermore, reduced lipolytic action was observed in 60-day ripened cheese, even if no significant changes in sensory properties were evidenced.
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It was aimed to elaborate the production method of the traditional Diyarbakir Örgü (Knitting) cheese, and to evaluate in terms of food safety as well as the determination of the characteristics of the cheese. For this purpose, raw milk samples and fresh Diyarbakir Örgü cheese samples were taken from 8 small dairy plants after the production process of the cheese. The approximate composition, acidity and total mesophilic aerobic bacteria load of the raw milk samples were analyzed. Also, composition, biochemical, microbiological, and textural parameters of the cheese samples were investigated on the 1th, 15th, 30th, 60th, 90th, and 120th days of storage. The averages of dry matter (%), fat (%), fat-free dry matter (%), protein (%), lactose (%), ash (%), SH, pH and total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (log cfu/g) load of the raw milk used in the production of the cheese were determined as 14.28, 4.37, 9.91, 4.41, 4.63, 0.87, 11.55, 6.54 and 7.51, respectively. It was observed that raw sheep's milk with trace amount of cow or/and goat milk is used in the production of the traditional cheese. After renneting about 54-70 min, the curd is broken, whey off and fermented until the acidity reached to 5.10-5.47 pH. Then, the curd is scalded in hot water at 75-87 ºC. And then, the curd is shaped by weaving typically in the form of braiding and placed in the brine. After that, the cheese is consumed freshly or stored in brine at 6±1ºC at least for 1 month. The average values of some parameters of the mature cheese (120 days) can be listed as follows: Dry matter 52.84%, fat-in-dry matter 37.88%, protein 23.47%, salt-in-dry matter 15.48%, titratable acidity 22.96 SH, pH 5.47, acid value 0.46 mg KOH/g fat, and ripening index 5.61%. The average values of the hardness, the gumminess, and the chewiness, which textural properties of the ripened cheese, 6852 N, 4480 N and 3408 mJ were determined at the end of the ripening period, respectively. On the other hand, the presence and loads (log cfu/g) of coliforms, fecal coliforms, E. coli, and yeast-mold of the ripened cheese were calculated <1.00, <1.00, <1.00, and 2.60, respectively. Considering the microbiological data, it could be said the fresh cheese has a potential infectious risk poses in terms of consumer health. However for ripened cheese, the risk is minimized and showed compliance with the relevant Standard in terms of coliform bacteria on the 90th day, in terms of E. coli on the 60th day of ripening.
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Electrostatic coating is being developed as an attractive alternative to overcome the problems encountered during conventional coating which includes non‐uniform coating, dust generation, high energy and time consuming, equipment cleaning, and operating expenses. In this method, powder particles are charged by passing through an ion‐rich region, which repel each other to produce an evenly distributed coating. This results in a uniform distribution of powder on target surface. In this study, the electrostatic coating of black pepper powder was applied by varying the applied voltage (0–20 kV), at a conveyor belt speed of 10 m/s and compared with manually coated cheese slices. The values of transfer efficiency (52.7%–87.0%), dust reduction (76.2%–85.8%), and adhesion (20.8%–85.3%) were higher for electrostatic coatings. The weight losses were lower (0.19%) at 15 kV as compared to 20 kV (0.67%). The total plate count of cheese slice coated at 20 kV was significantly higher (p < 0.05), whereas at 15 kV it was lower than all other treatments. The shelf life of coated cheese slices at 15 kV lasted up to 1 month due to better coating compared to other treatments. From the results, it can be concluded that electrostatic coating of cheese slice with black pepper is best at 15 kV along with higher transfer efficiency and dust reduction. Electrostatic powder coating of cheese resulted in higher transfer efficiency and reduction in dust production. later one has reduce the coating material requirement, thereby, reducing the processing cost. Moreover, dust reduction will reduce the burden of cleaning cost of environment and enhance worker health.
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The physicochemical properties, color characteristics, and biogenic amine (BA) concentrations of Konya Green cheese during ripening process with mold were investigated. Four productions were made in different periods, and the samples were analyzed at the end of the cold storage period (0) and on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 21, 24, and 30 of mold ripening. It was found that dry matter, acidity, and salt values tend to increase, whereas pH and aw values tend to decrease during the mold‐ripening period in all production groups. Total BA content increased significantly from 70.91 mg/kg to 136.95 mg/kg during the ripening period ( p < 0.01 ). Principal component analysis explained 92.5% of the total variation among the four production group cheese. Based on the Hierarchical clustering analysis, 3 clusters were obtained: 1st (0, 3, 15), 2nd (1, 24, 30), 3rd (7, 21). Tyramine, cadaverine, putrescine and histamine were observed in 2nd cluster as per the PCA.
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Changes in physical (colour), chemical (moisture content and proteolysis index), texture and sensory characteristics of differently packed portioned Parmigiano Reggiano cheese were monitored during three months of storage at 4°C. Packaging conditions were under vacuum (UV) and in modified atmosphere (MA) with 50:50 (MA1) and 30:70 (MA2) CO2/N2ratios. The results showed, in general, substantial changes in the differently packed products. All samples underwent proteolysis phenomena together with changes in the textural and sensory characteristics. The UV packed sample showed the occurrence of an oil dropping up phenomenon which caused significant changes in product characteristics such as an increase of cohesion, sourness and yellowness. The MA packed samples showed different textural behaviour (MA2 sample evolved towards a more cohesive and friable structure than MA1) and a similar evolution of the flavour profile that, after 90 days of storage, determined a softer taste than the unpacked cheese. Parmigiano Reggiano cheese hardness showed discordant results according to the testing method (compression, shear or shear—compression), whether it involved the fracture of cheese structure or not.
Article
Refrigeration and the use of certain food additives were studied as optional means of influencing the water activity (aw) of a selection of ethnic foods in Hawaiian commerce. The aw was measured at 27.6 and 6.7°C. The former temperature did not result in any of the aw<0.97, a value conducive to spoilage and the growth of Clostridium botulinum, whereas the latter temperature did not result in aw>0.89, a value more in the vicinity of a biologically safe food environment. The foodstuff (Manapua) with the lowest gravimetric moisture content (35.9%) gave among the highest aw (0.88) at the lower temperature, thereby showing no relationship, necessarily, between total moisture content and aw. The lower temperature was recommended as the storage and holding temperature for the ethnic foods in the tropical environment. The additives (acetic, propionic and butyric acids, glycerol, propyleneglycol, potato starch, and Guar gum) did not have any appreciable impact on aw (at 26.7°C). Copyright © International Association of Milk. Food and Environmental Sanitarians.
Article
Production of cheese from sheep's milk is subject to the seasonal lactation. The objective was to test various conditions of pressed curd freezing to ensure a more consistent supply of ovine cheese. The processing variables evaluated were packaging conditions (polyethylene bags, vacuum-packaging in barrier film, and CO2 atmosphere in barrier film), freezing rate (1.4, 4.8, and 10.2cm/h), and storage time (4 and 10 months at - 23°C). Vacuum-packaging altered the external appearance of cheese. The freezing rate of 10.2cm/h cracked some units. Composition, moisture loss, water activity, lipolysis, and proteolysis were followed both in curds and aged cheese. No differences in moisture loss were observed in 60 d aged cheese from frozen curds. Proteolysis increased in all curds and cheese. Water activity decreased in all cheeses. No significant changes in the main components of cheese or in lipolytic activity were observed. All of the groups behaved similarly despite the freezing process.
Article
During ripening, body colour of Emmental cheeses was evaluated by tristimulus reflectance measurements. Tristimulus primaries were transformed to the Helmholtz system and into CIELAB-coordinates in order to obtain interpretable results. Apart from lightness decreasing with increasing maturation time, it was found by using both systems that, (1) colourfulness increased continuously up to a cheese age of approximately 10 weeks and then remained constant, and (2) the hue of the cheese body shifted towards a slightly more orange colour in the last stage of ripening. The yellowness index, which represents a one-dimensional measure calculated from tristimulus primaries, is proposed as a simple and adequate measure of cheese body colour, and interrelations with CIELAB-values commonly used in food science are outlined.
Chapter
Whey, a by-product from cheese or casein manufacture, originates from mammal’s milk, as do its permeates. (The clear yellowish liquid resulting from making soybean curd or soy cheese is sometimes called whey, which should not be confused with whey from mammal milk.) Milks differ depending on origin of specie but all varieties will contain similar gross components but in different amounts.
Article
Changes in physical (colour), chemical (moisture content and proteolysis index), texture and sensory characteristics of differently packed portioned Parmigiano Reggiano cheese were monitored during three months of storage at 4°C. Packaging conditions were under vacuum (UV) and in modified atmosphere (MA) with 50:50 (MA1) and 30:70 (MA2) CO 2/N2 ratios. The results showed, in general, substantial changes in the differently packed products. All samples underwent proteolysis phenomena together with changes in the textural and sensory characteristics. The UV packed sample showed the occurrence of an oil dropping up phenomenon which caused significant changes in product characteristics such as an increase of cohesion, sourness and yellowness. The MA packed samples showed different textural behaviour (MA2 sample evolved towards a more cohesive and friable structure than MA1) and a similar evolution of the flavour profile that, after 90 days of storage, determined a softer taste than the unpacked cheese. Parmigiano Reggiano cheese hardness showed discordant results according to the testing method (compression, shear or shear—compression), whether it involved the fracture of cheese structure or not.
Article
Semi-hard and dry white brined cheeses were coated with hydrocolloid films based on κ-carrageenan, alginate and gellan. The cheeses were immersed in the gum solution followed by cross-linking of the gum solution to produce a coated product. A few coating films were then dried by airflow to induce better adherence of the coating to the coated object. The coated cheeses were stored at 4°C and at a relative humidity of 73%. Weight loss, gloss, roughness of surface area, changes in mechanical properties versus time (i.e. stress and strain at failure, stiffness and elastic properties), peel-bond strength of the coating film from the cheese and sensory evaluation were studied for each coated system. For the semi-hard cheese, all kinds of coatings reduced weight loss during 46days of storage. With regard to weight loss, no significant differences between the various coatings were found. The coating contributed to a better color and gloss. The roughness of the coated cheese decreased after coating, since surface ruggedness was filled in by the film. Advantages in the textural properties of the coated cheese were observed. Since the coated cheese lost less water by evaporation, a desirable softer and a less brittle texture was detected. The elastic properties of the cheeses were estimated by calculating the recoverable work (the ratio between recoverable and total compressive deformation) of coated and non-coated cheeses. This parameter appeared to decrease from ∼48 to 34% after 24days of storage; no advantage of the coated cheese was observed. The peel-bond strength of the film based on alginate was ∼1gforce/cm. In the case of the dry white brined cheese, no deliberate drying of the coated film was performed. All coatings reduced weight loss of the cheese with a significant advantage of the κ-carrageenan-based coating. The coatings contributed to a lower reduction in pH, thus a higher-quality cheese was obtained. In addition, the coated cheeses were softer and less brittle when compared to the non-coated cheese. The percentage of recoverable work of cheeses did not change even after 24days of storage. The coatings increased the gloss of the cheese fivefold in comparison to the non-coated cheese. In a sensory evaluation, the coated cheese was found to be advantageous over the non-coated system. In general, cheese coating based on hydrocolloid films improved textural and sensorial properties when compared to non-coated cheeses. The coatings did not influence the taste of white brined cheese, and the technology involved is simple and relatively inexpensive.
Article
Summary The effects of ripening temperature, type of packaging film and storage period before packaging were related to the degree of proteolysis and the texture of Gouda cheese, so as to determine the optimum ripening conditions. Gouda cheeses from a local plant were subjected to different ripening conditions. A factorial design of 23× 5 was used, where the three factors selected in two levels were: (1) time of storage before packaging, 4 and 10 days, (2) ripening temperature, 10 and 20 °C and (3) plastic film, BK1 and BK5 (Grace, Quilmes, Argentina). Ripening time was a fourth factor analyzed; sampling times were 15, 25, 35, 49 and 70 days after production. Cheeses traditionally ripened (without packaging) were also analyzed. Water content and pH were determined. Nonprotein nitrogen (soluble in 12% trichloracetic acid (TCA)) was quantified by the Kjeldhal method. Cheese texture was analyzed by compression and relaxation tests which were done by using an Instron Universal Testing Machine (Instron Corp., Canton, MA, USA). The pH and water content of cheeses which ripened at 20 °C were lower than the corresponding ones ripened at 10 °C. Only ripening time and temperature had a significant effect on water content, nonprotein nitrogen concentration and rheological parameters. Results show that texture properties of Gouda cheese ripened in plastic films with low gaseous permeability are similar to those of traditionally ripened Gouda. Texture development was accelerated by increasing the storage temperature.