There are a number of emerging surgical indications for deep brain stimulation. We have shown that modulation of activity within motor, mood, and cognitive circuits has beneficial effects in patients with Parkinson's disease, treatment-resistant depression, and perhaps Alzheimer's type dementia. We review the rationale, safety, and efficacy for each of these indications, focusing on disease ... [Show full abstract] mechanisms and relevant data that are necessary to document therapeutic value in each case. The review closes with some thoughts on possible future directions for deep brain stimulation. It is likely that applications for deep brain stimulation will continue to expand as accumulating data establish its safety and efficacy profile in these and other conditions.