ArticlePDF Available

Distribution of Microorganisms in Water, Soils and Sediment from Abattoir Wastes in Southern Nigeria

Authors:

Figures

Content may be subject to copyright.
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci
(201
4) 3(9) 1183-
120
0
1183
Original Research Article
Distribution of Microorganisms in Water, Soils and Sediment
f
rom
Abattoir Wastes in Southern Nigeria
David N Ogbonna
*
Department of Applied and Environmental Biology Rivers State University
of Science and
Technology,
PMB
5080, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
*Corresponding author
A B S T R A C T
Introduction
The continuous drive to increase meat
production for the protein need of the ever
increasing world population has been
accompanied by some pollution problems
(Adesemoye
et al., 2006; Nafarnda et al
.,
2012). In Nigeria, the abattoir industry is an
important component of the livestock
indus
try providing domestic meat supply to
over 150 million people and employment
opportunities for teaming population
(Nafarnda
et al., 2012). Adeyemi and
Adeyemo (2007) reported that cities face
ISSN: 2319
-7706
Volume
3
Number
9
(201
4
) pp.
1183-
120
0
http://
www.ijcmas.com
Keyw ords
Abattoir
wastes,
Micro
-
organisms,
soil,
wastewater,
sediment,
public health
This study was carried out to determine the distribution of microorganisms
particularly those of public health importance in areas where abattoir activities are
in operation. Abattoirs located at Egbu in Imo State and Trans-Amadi in Port
Harcour
t, Rivers State was selected for sampling using standard analytical
methods. A total of twenty sampling points were established using Global
Positioning System (GPS). Sampling was carried out both in wet and dry seasons.
Result showed that soil samples from Trans-Amadi abattoir had highest levels of
total coliform and total
Vibrio
counts of 2.9x107cfu/g and 6.0x106 cfu/g,
respectively while surface water had the highest
Salmonella
and
Shigella
counts of
1.5x10
7 cfu/ml. In Egbu abattoir, statistical analysis using ANOVA revealed a
significant difference at 0.05 level in the total heterotrophic bacterial count from
sediment and those from soil, waste water and surface water samples. The
predominant bacterial genera identified were Pseudomonas, Bacillus,
Staphy
lococcus, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Vibrio,
Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter, Acinetobacter, Serratia, Proteus,
Enterobacter, Shigella, Flavobacterium, Achromobacter
species. Pollution of water
resources by abattoir wa
stes might lead to destruction of primary producers and this
in turn leads to diminishing consumer populations in water. The consequences of
such
anthropogenic pollution can also lead to the transmission of diseases by
water
borne pathogens. Therefore, continuous monitoring should be maintained in
order to promote and maintain a safe working environment and ensure detection
when abnormalities that c
ould endanger both workers and environment occur.
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci
(201
4) 3(9) 1183-
120
0
1184
serious problems of high volume of wastes
from abattoir due to inadequate disposal
technologies and high cost of management.
In Nigeria, adequate abattoir waste
management is lacking in all public abattoirs
such that large solid wastes and untreated
effluents are common sites (Odeyemi, 1991;
Adeyemo, 2002; Adebowale
et
al., 2010)
unlike in developed countries where these
facilities are adequately provided
(Ogbonnaya, 2008). These abattoir wastes
could be a source of embarrassment since
conventional methods of waste management
have been grossly neglected (Adedipe, 2002;
Adeyemi and Adeyemo, 2007).
Wastewater or effluent generated from the
abattoir is characterized by the presence of a
high concentration of whole blood of
slaughtered food animals and suspended
particles of semi- digested and undigested
feeds within the stomach and intestine of
slaughtered and dressed food animals
(Coker
et al., 2001). In addition, there may
also be the presence of pathogenic
microorganisms, such as
Salmonella,
Escherichia
coli
(including serotype
0157:H7),
Shigella, parasite eggs and
amo
ebic cysts (Bull and Rogers, 2001;
Adebowale
et al., 2010) which are of public
health importance.
Also, several pathogenic bacteria and fungi
species has been isolated from abattoir
wastewater and surface water; including
Staphylococcus, Escherichia coli,
Streptococcus, Salmonella, Aspergillus,
Mucor, Saccharomyces
and
Penicillium
species (Coker et al., 2001; Adesomoye et
al
., 2006; Adebowale et al., 2010). These
pathogens might threaten public health by
migrating into ground water or surface
water; wind or vectors like animals, birds
and arthropods can transmit diseases from
these microorganisms (Mason, 1991;
Meadows, 1995; Gauri, 2004 Raheem and
Morenikeji, 2008).
Bacteria from abattoir waste discharged into
water columns can subsequently be
absorbed to sediments, and when the bottom
stream is disturbed, the sediment releases
the bacteria back into the water columns
presenting long term health hazards (Sherer
et al., 1992; Nafarnda et al., 2012).
Pathogens present in animal carcasses or
shed in animal wastes may include
rotaviruses, hepatatitis E virus, Salmonella
spp.,
E.coli
0157:H7,
Yersinia
enterocolitica,
Campylobacter
spp.,
Cryptosporidium parvum, and
Giardia
lamblia
(Sobsey et al., 2002). Fecal wastes
from domestic livestock in the abattoir are
excr
eted on the floors of the animal pens,
the accumulation of these fecal materials act
as a collection basin for pathogenic
microorganisms which may spread between
animals and man leading to zoonoses
(Adeyemo
et al., 2002). These zoonotic
pathogens can exceed millions to billions
per gram of feces, and may infect humans
through various routes such as contaminated
air, contact with livestock animals or their
waste products, swimming in water
impacted by animal feces, exposure to
potential vectors (such as flies, mosquitoes,
water fowl, and rodents), or consumption of
food or water contaminated by animal
wastes (Armand-
Lefevre
et al., 1998;
Schlech
et al
., 2005).
In Rivers state, wastes generated from a
slaughterhouse in Trans-Amadi abattoir,
Port Harcourt, Nigeria are channeled
directly into one of the tributaries of the
River Niger. This act could introduce enteric
pathogens e.g.
Bacillus
sp
.,
Escherichia
sp.,
etc and excess nutrients into the river,
resulting to eutrophication (Odeyemi, 1991;
Adeyemo
et al., 2002). These consequences
of anthropogenic pollution during abattoir
operations can lead to the transmission of
diseases by water borne pathogens,
eutrophication of water bodies,
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci
(201
4) 3(9) 1183-
120
0
1185
accumulation of toxic or recalcitrant
chemicals in the soil, destabilization of
ecological balance and negative effects on
human health (Amisu et al., 2003; Nafarnda
et al., 2012). Abu-
Ashour
et al (1994)
revealed that some bacteria also possess the
ability to attach to solid/substrate surfaces
by electrostatic hydrogen bonding and
hydrophobic interactions. After attachment,
they secrete slimy materials that can attract
other organisms and nutrients to the
interface. Attachment to surfaces benefits
microorganisms in several ways both on
nutritional and survival basis which
invariab
ly enhances bioremediation (Abu-
Ashour
et al., 1994). This study therefore is
aimed at assessing the distribution of
microorganisms in the various location sites
where abattoir operations are carried out,
considering the environmental and public
health imp
lications.
Materials and Methods
Study Area
The study was carried out in abattoirs
located at Egbu in Imo State; and Trans-
Amadi in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Egbu
lies within longitude 05° 28.432 - 05°
29.802 N and latitude 007° 03.200 - 007°
04.215 E (Fig 1). This area Egbu has a
tropical climate. The average relative
humidity is about 80%. The inhabitants of
the areas are mainly farmers, civil servants,
petty traders and casual workers.
Port Harcourt is located on longitude 4°
48.442 - 4° 49.444 N and latitude 007°
02.303
007° 03.545E. The climate of Port
Harcourt falls within the sub equatorial
climate belt. Temperature and humidity are
high throughout the year. The area is ma
rked
by two distinct seasons, the wet and dry
seasons, with 70% of the annual rain fall
between April and August, while 22% is
spread in the three months of September to
November. However, the driest months are
from December to March. The river located
at
the abattoir in Egbu in Imo state is
popularly called the Otamiri River while the
river in Trans Amadi abattoir in Port
Harcourt is called the Oginigba creek.
Sampling Points
A total of twenty (20) sampling points were
considered for the study. The sam
pling
stations, sampling points codes, sampling
points coordinates and types of samples
collected are presented in Table 1. During
sample collection, Global Positioning
System (GPS) machine (Model GPS 76) was
used for the location of the sampling points.
Collection of Samples
Soil Samples
Soil samples were collected from four
different sampling points coded A, B, C and
D from a depth of 0-15cm using soil auger.
About 500g of bulked composite soil
samples was collected from points A, B and
C; then prepared using the method of
Ekundayo and Obuekwe (1997). Soil sample
from point D, which is about 400m from
Egbu and Trans Amadi abattoirs served as
control sample. The soil samples were
collected into labeled polyethylene bags and
transported to the laboratory in a cooler
packed with ice blocks for analysis.
Surface Water samples
Surface water samples were collected using
the method of Odokuma and Okpokwasili
(1993). The collection was carried out using
4 litre plastic bottles previously sterilized
with 70% alcohol 24 hours before the final
collection. The bottles were rinsed 3 to 4
times with the water sample before the final
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci
(201
4) 3(9) 1183-
120
0
1186
collection. The water samples were collected
along the course of the river at two different
points coded A and B. Point A is the
immed
iate point of discharge of the abattoir
wastes into the river, Point B is about 400m
upstream from Point A. The sample from
point A served as the test sample while that
from point B served as the control sample.
To collect the water sample, base of the
ste
rilized sample bottle was held with one
hand, the bottle was plunged about 30cm
below the water surface with the mouth of
the sample bottles positioned in an opposite
direction to water flow. The bottle was filled
with water sample leaving a gap of about
2cm and covered immediately as described
by Onyeagba and Umeham (2004).
Immediately after collection, the samples
were labeled and transported to the
laboratory in a cooler packed with ice blocks
for analysis.
Sediment samples
Sediment samples were collected from the
same sampling points where surface water
samples were collected using a grab
sampler. The sediment sample was scooped
from the grab s cup and transferred into
sterile sample bottle. The sample was
labeled and then transported to the
laboratory
in a cooler packed with ice blocks
for analysis.
Waste water Samples
Waste water samples were collected using
the method of Adesemoye et al. (2006).
Sterile 2.0 litre sample bottles were used to
aseptically draw part of the abattoir waste
water. The samples were collected at four
different points coded A, B, C and D as the
waste water was running off the drainage
system. About 500ml of the sample
collected from each point were pooled
together to get a composite sample. Control
samples were collected from water stored in
buckets used for washing meat and utensils
in the abattoirs. The samples were placed in
a cooler containing ice blocks and
transported immediately to the laboratory
for analysis.
Preparation of Samples
Sediment and Soil samples were processed
using the method of Adesemoye et al
.
(2006). Ten grams of the soil sample was
weighed and added to 90ml of sterile
distilled water to get an aliquot, similarly,
ten grams of the sediment sample was added
to 90ml of sterile distilled water to get an
aliquot. One milliliter of the aliquots, waste
water and surface water samples were then
serially diluted using the ten-fold serial
dilution method as described by Prescott
et
al
(2005).
Microbiological Analysis
The presence of various microorganisms in
the water samples from Otamiri River in
Imo state and Oginigba creek from Trans
Amadi abattoir in Port Harcourt were
identified using standard procedures. One
milliliter each of the waste water samples
was separately added to 9 ml of 0.1%
peptone water diluents to give a 10-3
dilution. After thorough shaking further
serial 10- fold (v/v) dilutions were made by
transferring 1 ml of the original solution to
freshly prepared peptone water diluents to a
range of 10-3 dilutions. Aliquots (0.1 ml) of
various dilutions were transferred to plates
of surface dried Nutrient agar in duplicate
and inoculated by spreading with flamed
glass spreaders and incubated at 370C for 24
hours. Aerobic bacteria were subjected to
further identification according to
determinative schemes of Cowan and Steel
(1994).
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci
(201
4) 3(9) 1183-
120
0
1187
Total heterotrophic bacterial counts: This
was determined with the nutrient agar using
the spread plate technique as described by
Prescott
et al (2005). Here 0.1ml of the
serially diluted samples was each inoculated
onto different sterile nutrient agar plates in
triplicates. The plates were incubated for 24
hours at 37oC. After incubation, colonies
that appeared on the plates were counted and
the mean expressed as cfu/ml for surface
water, wastewater and cfu/g for soil and
sediment samples.
Total coliform counts: The method of
Prescott
et al. (2005) was adopted where 0.1
milliliter of the serially diluted samples were
each inoculated onto different sterile
MacConkey agar plates in triplicates, the
inoculums were then spread evenly on the
surface of the media using a sterile spreader.
This was followed by incubation at 37oC for
24 hours, after which the colonies were
counted and the mean total coliform count
expressed as cfu/ml and cfu/g as applicable.
Total
Salmonella
-
Shige
lla
counts
This was determined with the
Salmonella
-
Shigella
agar using the spread plate method
as described by Prescott et al. (2005). One
milliliter of the serially diluted samples was
inoculated onto sterile pre-dried Salmonella-
Shigella
agar plates in duplicates. The
inocula were then spread evenly on the
surface of the media using a sterile spreader.
The plates were then incubated at 37oC for
24 hours, after which the colonies that
developed were counted and the mean total
Salmonella
-
Shigella
counts re
corded
accordingly for water, sediment, soil and
waste water samples.
Total
Vibrio
count
Total
Vibrio
count was determined with the
thiosulphate citrate bile salt (TCBS) agar
using the spread plate technique as described
by Prescott et al (2005). One milliliter of the
serially diluted samples were inoculated
onto sterile pre-dried TCBS agar plates in
triplicates and then spread evenly with a
sterile bent glass rod. The plates were
incubated at 37oC for 24 hours, after which
the colonies that developed were counted
and the mean recorded accordingly for
surface water, wastewater, sediment and soil
samples.
Total fungal counts
This was determined using the potato
dextrose agar (PDA) onto which sterile
streptomycin (50 mg/ml) had been added to
suppress bacterial growth (Okerentugba and
Ezereonye, 2003). The spread plate
technique as described by Prescott et al
(2005) was adopted. An aliquot (0.1ml) of
the serially diluted samples were inoculated
in triplicates onto sterile pre-dried PDA
plates and then spread evenly with a sterile
glass spreader. The plates were incubated at
room temperature for about 3-5 days after
which the colonies were counted and the
mean of the count recorded accordingly.
Total hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial
counts.
The population of hydrocarbon utilizing
bacteria was determined by inoculating
0.1ml aliquot of the serially diluted samples
onto mineral salt agar media using the
spread plate technique as described by
Odokuma (2003). The vapour phase transfer
method of Mills and Colwell (1978) was
adopted. It employed the use of sterile filter
paper discs soaked in filter-sterilized crude
oil which served as the only carbon source
in the mineral salt agar. The sterile crude
oil
-soaked filter papers were then aseptically
transferred to the inside covers of the
inoculated petri dishes and incubated for 5
days at room temperature. After the
incubation period, mean of the colonies
were recorded.
1188
Fig.
1
Map of Imo and Rivers states showing the study areas
1189
Table
.1
Identification of Samp
ling stations, points, coordinates and sample types in the study areas
Sampling point Co
-ordinates
Sampling
Stations
Sampling
Points
Northing (N)
Easting (E)
Types of Samples
A
05
0
28.432
/
007
0
03.200
/
Soil (Test sample)
B
05
0
28.441
/
007
0
03.209
/
Soil (Test sample)
C
05
0
28.582
/
007
0
03.312
/
Surface water and Sediment
(Test samples)
Egbu Abattoir I
D
05
0
28.559
/
007
0
3.231
/
Soil (Control sample)
A 050
29.651
/
007
0
04.205
/
Waste water
B
05
0
29.668
/
007
0
04.215
/
Waste water
C
05
0
29.705
/
007
0
04.285
/
Waste water
Egbu Abattoir II
Otamiri River
D
A
B
05
0
29.802
05
0/
28.426
05
027.423
007
0
04.918
/
007
003.179
007
004.156
Waste water
Surface water and
Sediment(Test sample)
Surface water and Sediment
(control)
A
04
0
48.886
/
007
0
2.707
/
Soil (Test sample)
B
04
0
48.782
/
007
0
2.608
/
Soil (Test sample)
C
04
0
48.615
/
007
0
2.405
/
Surface water and Sediment
(Test samples)
Trans
-
Amadi Abattoir I
D
04
0
48.442
/
007
0
2.303
/
Soil (Control sample)
A
04
0
49.789
/
007
0
03.801
/
Waste water
B
04
0
49.628
/
007
0
03.702
/
Waste water
C
04
0
49.522
/
007
0
03.665
/
Waste w
ater
Trans
-
Amadi abattoir II
Oginigba Creek
D
A
B
04
0
49.444
04
0/
50.001
04
050.111
007
0
03.545
/
007
004.425
007
0
04.225
Waste water
Surface water and Sediment
(Test samples)
Surface water and Sediment
(Control)
Total hydrocarbon utilizing fungal counts
Total hydrocarbon utilizing fungi was
determined by inoculating 0.1ml of the
serially diluted samples onto mineral salt
agar using the method of Odokuma (2003).
Eight hundred milliliter of the mineral salt
medium was supplemented with 70mg of
Aureomycin hydrochloride in 200ml of
steri
le distilled water (Odokuma, 2003). The
vapour phase transfer method of Mills and
Colwell (1978) was adopted. It employed
the use of sterile filter paper discs soaked in
filter
-sterilized crude oil which served as the
only carbon source in the mineral salt agar.
The sterile crude oil-soaked filter papers
were then aseptically transferred to the
inside covers of the inoculated petri dishes
and incubated for 5-10 days at room
temperature. After the incubation period,
mean of the colonies for the triplicate plates
were calculated and recorded accordingly.
1190
Results and Discussion
The results of the microbial counts obtained
during the study period for Egbu abattoir in
the rainy season are presented in Table 1 for
the test and control samples respectively.
Tot
al heterotrophic count of 2.5 x 10
6
cfu/g
was obtained from the sediment sample
collected from Otamiri River in Egbu while
the waste water sample had the least
observed count of 1.2 x 106 cfu/ml during
this period. Results further showed that the
total fungal count of 6.0 x 10
5
cfu/g was
obtained for the sediment sample which was
observed to be significantly different from
those obtained from soil, waste water and
surface water samples (Table 1). Statistical
analysis using ANOVA revealed a
significant difference at 0.05 level of
significance in the total heterotrophic
bacterial count from sediment and those
from soil, waste water and surface water
samples.
Total hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial counts
gave the highest and least values of 7.4 x 105
cfu/ml and 3.0 x 10
5
cfu/ml
from surface
water and waste water, respectively. While
there was no significant difference in the
total hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial count
values obtained for sediment and waste
water samples, there were significant
differences between total hydrocarbon
utilizing bacterial count from surface water
and that from waste water, sediment and soil
at 0.05 level of significance. Total
hydrocarbon utilizing fungal count recorded
the highest and least values of 2.5x10
5
cfu/ml and 1.8x10
5
cfu/g, respectively from
surface water and soil samples. There was
no significant difference observed in the
values obtained from soil, sediment, waste
water and surface water. There were
significant differences in the total coliform
counts from the soil and surface water
samples analyzed accounting for the highest
and lowest values of 2.0x10
6
cfu/g and
1.210
6
cfu/ml, respectively. Salmonella
and
Shigella
counts revealed that there was no
significant difference between values of
1.0x10
6
cfu/g and 9.0x10
5
cfu/ml o
btained
for soil and waste water, respectively.
Likewise there was no significant difference
between the counts from sediment and
surface water samples. Analysis also showed
that while there was no significant
difference in the total
Vibrio
counts of
3.0x10
5
cfu/g and 3.5x10
5
cfu/g obtained
from soil and sediment, respectively,
significant difference existed between these
counts and that obtained from surface water.
From the test results in the dry season, soil
sample was found to be richer in total
hetero
trophic bacteria while surface water
had the least (Table 2). Results of analysis
of variance (ANOVA) indicated a
significant difference in the total
heterotrophic bacterial count at 0.05level of
significance between the samples analyzed.
There was no significant difference in the
total fungal counts of 3.0x105 cfu/g and
3.2x105 cfu/g from soil and sediment
samples, respectively. Surface water had the
highest fungal count of 6.0x10
5
cfu/ml,
which was found to be significantly different
from the values obtained from other
samples. Total hydrocarbon utilizing
bacterial count was found to have the
highest value of 1.0x10
6
cfu/g in the
sediment sample which was revealed
through statistical analysis (ANOVA) at
0.05 levels to be significantly different from
the values obtained for soil, surface water
and waste water samples. Total hydrocarbon
utilizing fungal count was observed to be
more in the surface water with a value of
2.5x10
5
cfu/ml, while waste water had the
least value of 8.0x10
4
cfu/ml. Analysis of
varian
ce (ANOVA) also showed a
significant difference in the values obtained.
1191
Table
.1
Microbial counts of samples contaminated by Egbu abattoir wastes for Rainy season
THBC
TFC
THUB
THUF
TCC
SSC
TVC
SAMPLES
Test
Control
Test
Control
Test
Control
Test
Con
trol
Test
Control
Test
Control
Test
Control
SOIL (cfu/g)
c
1.30X10
6
1.6X10
6
b
4.5X1O
5
4.0X10
5
b
5.4X10
5
3.0X10
5
a
1.8X10
5
2.5X10
5
a
2.0X10
6
8.0X10
5
a
1.0x10
6
3.0X10
5
a
3.0x10
5
2.5X10
5
SEDIMENT
(cfu/g)
a
2.5x10
6
2.0X10
6
a
6.0x10
5
5.1X10
5
c
3.5x10
5
3.0X10
5
a
2.0x10
5
3.0X10
5
b
1.5x10
6
1.0X10
6
b
4.0x10
5
3.0X10
5
a
3.5x10
5
3.0X10
5
WASTE
W
ATER
(cfu/ml)
c
1.2x10
6
9.5X10
5
c
2.5x10
5
3.0X10
5
c
3.0x10
5
2.5X10
5
a
2.0x10
5
2.5X10
5
d
1.0x10
6
6.0X10
5
a
9.0x10
5
0.00
c
0.00
0.00
SURFACE
WATER
(cfu/ml)
b
2.0x10
6
1.5X10
6
b
4.0x10
5
3.0X10
5
a
7.4x10
5
0.00
a
2.5x10
5
2.0X10
5
c
1.2x10
6
7.0X10
5
b
3.0x10
5
3.0X10
5
b
1.3x10
5
0.00
Means in the same column with the same letter are not significantly diff
erent at 5% level of significance according to LSD test.
Table
.2 Microbial counts of samples contaminated by Egbu abattoir wastes for Dry season
THBC
TFC
THUB
THUF
TCC
SSC
TVC
SAMPLES
Test
control
Test
control
Test
control
Test
control
Test
control
T
est
control
Test
control
SOIL (cfu/g)
a
2.8X10
6
1.9X10
6
b
3.0X10
5
3.0X10
5
c
3.6X10
5
3.1X10
5
b
1.8X10
5
1.0X10
5
b
1.5X10
6
1.1X10
6
a
8.0X10
5
4.0X10
5
b
2.5X10
5
3.0X10
5
SEDIMENT
(cfu/g)
b
2.5X10
6
2.0X10
6
b
3.2X10
5
4.5X10
5
a
1.0X10
6
6.5X10
5
c
1.0X10
5
1.5X10
5
c
1.0X10
6
7.6X10
5
b
2.5X10
5
3.0X10
5
a
3.5X10
5
2.5X10
5
WASTE
WATER
(cfu/ml)
c
2.2X10
6
1.7X10
6
c
1.5X10
5
0.00
d
2.0X10
5
3.5X10
5
d
8.0X10
4
0.00
a
2.0X10
6
1.0X10
6
c
1.2X10
5
2.5X10
5
c
1.0X10
5
0.00
SURFACE
WATER
(cfu/ml)
d
2.0X10
6
1.5X10
6
a
6.0X10
5
2.5X10
5
b
7.4X10
5
5.0X10
5
a
2.5X10
5
2.5X10
5
d
3.4X10
5
5.0X10
5
c
1.0X10
5
3.0X10
5
c
1.0X10
5
0.00
Means in the same column with the same lette
r are not significantly different at 5% level of significance according to LSD test.
1192
0
5
10
15
20
25
Acinetobacter
sp.
Bacillus sp.
Citrobacter sp.
Enterobacter
sp.
Escherichia sp.
Flavobacterium
sp.
Klebsiella sp.
Lactobacillus
sp.
Micrococcus
sp.
Proteus sp.
Pseudomonas
sp.
Salmonella sp.
Serratia sp.
Shigella sp.
Staphylococcus
sp.
Streptococcus
sp.
Vibrio sp.
Waste water
Soil
Sediment
Surface water
Percentage occurrence of bacterial isolates (%)
Fig
.1
Percentage occurrence of bacterial isolates from samples contaminated by Egbu abattoir wastes for Rainy Season
0
5
10
15
20
Bacillus sp.
Citrobacter sp.
Enterobacter
sp.
Escherichia sp.
Flavobacterium
sp.
Klebsiella sp.
Lactobacillus
sp.
Micrococcus
sp.
Proteus sp.
Pseudomonas
sp.
Salmonella sp.
Serratia sp.
Shigella sp.
Staphylococcus
sp.
Streptococcus
sp.
Vibrio sp.
Waste water Soil Sediment Surface water
Percentage occurrence of bacterial
isolates (%)
Bacterial
isolates
Fig.2
Percentage occurrence of bacterial isolates from samples contaminated by Egbu abattoir wastes for Dry Season
1193
Table
.3
Microbial counts of samples contaminated by Trans
-
Amadi abattoir wastes for rainy sea
son
THBC
TFC
THUB
THUF
TCC
SSC
TVC
SAMPLES
Test Control Test
control
Test
control
Test
control
Test
control
Test
control
Test
control
SOIL (cfu/g)
a
2.8X10
7
2.2X10
7
a
1.3X10
7
1.0X10
7
b
5.2X10
6
3.5X10
6
ba
1.1X10
6
2.0X10
6
a
2.5X10
7
1.4X10
7
b
9.5X10
6
4.0X10
6
a
6.0X10
6
3.0X10
6
SEDIMENT
(cfu/g)
a
3.0X10
7
2.5X10
7
b
8.0X10
6
5.0X10
6
d
1.3X10
5
6.0X10
6
a
2.
0X10
6
2.0X10
6
c
2.1X10
7
1.2X10
7
c
6.0X10
6
4.0X10
6
c
2.0X10
6
3.0X10
6
WASTE
WATER
(cfu/ml)
a
2.1X10
7
1.0X10
7
c
3.0X10
6
3.0X10
6
c
3.3X10
6
2.5X10
6
b
1.0X10
6
0.00
d
1.5X10
7
5.0X10
6
d
4.0X10
6
3.0X10
6
c
1.0X10
6
0.00
SURFACE
WATER
(cfu/ml)
a
2.8X10
7
2.4X10
7
c
3.0X10
6
4.0X10
6
a
1.0X10
7
6.0X10
6
b
9.0X10
5
1.5X10
6
b
2.5X10
7
8.0X10
6
a
1.5X10
7
7.0X10
6
b
3.6X10
6
3.2X10
6
Means in the same column with the same letter are not significantly different at 5% level of significance according to LSD tes
Table
.4
Microbial counts of sa
mples contaminated by Trans-
Amadi abattoir wastes for dry season
THBC
TFC
THUB
THUF
TCC
SSC
TVC
SAMPLES
Test
Control
Test
control
Test
control
Test
control
Test
control
Test
control
Test
control
SOIL (cfu/g)
a
3.0X10
7
2.5X10
7
a
1.5X10
7
1.1X10
7
d
3.2X10
6
3.0X10
6
b
3.5X10
6
3.0X10
6
a
2.9X10
7
1.2X10
7
a
1.7X10
7
8.0X10
6
a
5.0X10
6
3.5X10
6
SEDIMENT
(cfu/g)
a
2.8X10
7
2.2X10
7
b
1.2X10
7
1.0X10
7
a
1.4X10
7
6.0X10
6
a
5.0X10
6
3.5X10
6
a
2.5X10
7
1.0X10
7
b
9.4X10
6
6.0X10
6
a
5.0X10
6
3.0X10
6
WASTE
WATER
(
cfu/ml)
a
2.5X10
7
1.5X10
7
c
3.5X10
6
3.0X10
6
c
5.0X10
6
4.0X10
6
c
2.0X10
6
2.0X10
6
b
1.1X10
7
7.5X10
6
c
2.5X10
6
3.0X10
6
b
1.5X10
6
0.00
SURFA
CE
WATER
(cfu/ml)
a
2.5X10
7
2.0X10
7
c
3.0X10
6
3.0X10
6
b
8.5X10
6
7.0X10
6
d
1.8X10
5
2.0X10
6
ab
2.0X10
7
9.0X10
6
b
1.0X10
7
5.0X10
6
b
2.1X10
6 3
.0X10
6
Means in the same column with the same letter are not significantly different at 5% level of significance according to LSD test.
1194
While waste water had the highest value for
total coliform count of 2.0x10
6
cfu/ml,
surface water samples had the least count of
3.4x10
5
cfu/ml. It was also observed that
waste water and surface water samples
showed no significant difference in the
S
almonella
-
Shigella
and total
Vibrio
counts.
But while
Salmonella
-
Shigella
count had the
highest value of 8.0x10
5
cfu/g from the soil
samples, sediment sample had the highest
Vibrio
count of 3.5x10
5
cfu/g.
T-test revealed that there were significant
differences between the total heterotrophic
bacterial counts of test and control samples
from sediment and surface water samples,
soil and waste water samples. There was no
significant difference however in the total
fungal counts of tests and controls of
sediment and soil samples from Otamiri
River. While there was difference
statistically at 0.05 level of significance
using the t-test in the total hydrocarbon
utilizing bacterial counts obtained from the
test and control samples of sediment, soil
and surface water.
Results of Microbial counts obtained from
samples collected from Trans-
Amadi
abattoir during the rainy season are
pres
ented in Table 3. From the test results,
sediment samples from Oginigba Creek in
Trans Amadi had the highest values for total
heterotrophic bacterial count and total
hydrocarbon utilizing fungal count of
3.0x107 cfu/g and 2.0x106 cfu/g,
respectively. Further analysis revealed that
the soil and surface water had more and
equal levels of total heterotrophic bacterial
and total coliform counts than other
samples. While the soil had higher levels of
total fungal count and total V
ibrio
count of
1.3x10
7
cfu/g and 6.0x106 cfu /g,
respectively,
Salmonella
-
Shigella
count had
higher value of 1.5x10
7 cfu/ml in the surface
water samples. In all, waste water had the
least values for all the microbial groups
enumerated. It was further ascertained
through statistical analysis (ANOVA) at
0.05 confidence limit that while there was
no statistical difference in the total
heterotrophic bacterial counts values from
the samples, there was a statistical
difference in the values obtained for total
hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial, to
tal
coliform and
Sallmonella
-
Shigella
counts.
However, while there was statistical
difference between total fungal and total
Vibrio
counts from soil and other samples,
there was no statistical difference in the total
fungal counts from the waste water and
surface water samples. The same was
applicable to the total
Vibrio
counts
obtained from sediment and waste water.
T-test at 0.05 confidence limit showed that
there was no statistical difference in the total
heterotrophic and total hydrocarbon utilizing
bacterial counts from test and control of
sediment samples from Oginigba Creek,
while there was a significant difference in
the counts from soil samples, surface water
and waste water samples. Total fungal
counts from sediment and soil samples
showed significant difference, while that
from surface water and waste water samples
did not show any significant difference.
From the Trans Amadi abattoir, the soil
samples had more total heterotrophic
bacteria, total fungi and total
Vibrio counts
of 3.0x10
7
cfu/g, 1.5x10
7
cfu/g and 5.0x106
cfu/g, respectively while total hydrocarbon
utilizing bacteria had 3.2x106 cfu/g in the
dry season. Lower counts of total
heterotrophic bacteria, total fungi, total
coliform, S
almonella
-
Shigella
and total
V
ibrio
counts, were recorded for both
sediment and surface water samples, while
waste water also had low values for all the
microbial groups enumerated within the
same abattoir. There was statistical
difference in the total coliform count value
from waste water and those from soil and
1195
sediment samples. Furthermore, total V
ibrio
counts from the soil and sediment showed
no significant difference; likewise no
significant difference existed between total
V
ibrio
count from the waste water and that
from surface water. Microbial count
results
also indicated statistical difference in the
total hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial values
obtained from test and control samples of
sediment, while counts from test and control
samples of soil, surface water and waste
water did not show any signifi
cant
difference.
Microorganisms are said to be ubiquitous
and are known for essential functions which
include; decomposition of organic materials,
bioaccumulation of chemicals and
biogeochemical cycling of elements. Their
presence, abundance and growth in the
environment are greatly influenced by
factors such as pH, temperature, pressure,
availability of nutrients and salinity
(Ogbonna and Ideriah, 2014).
The result in Table 1 revealed that sediment
from the Otamiri River (contaminated by
Egbu abattoir) contained more total
heterotrophic bacteria and fungi than the
soil, waste water and surface water during
the rainy season. This might be as a result of
increased microbial load washed into the
river from the soil by the rain and the fact
that more nutrien
ts are brought in by the rain
through leaching of the soil which
eventually settles at the bottom of the river,
leading to increased nutrient levels which
encouraged rapid multiplication of bacteria
and fungi present. During the dry season, the
soil had higher total heterotrophic bacterial
count of 2.8x10
6
cfu/g than the other
samples. This, according to Adesemoye
et
al
(2006) could be as a result of
destabilization of the soil ecological balance
arising from contamination with abattoir
wastes. Another pos
sible reason for this high
bacteria count in the soil during this period
could be as a result of accumulation of
wastes which are sources of microbial
nutrients, since there was no rain to wash
them off. The surface water had total
heterotrophic fungal count of 6.0x105 cfu/ml
which was higher than that from other
samples. This could probably be due to high
contamination of the river by air-
borne
fungal spores. Generally, the counts of
bacteria and fungi from sediment, waste
water and surface water samples from the
test samples are higher than those from
controls which signified contamination of
the test samples by untreated abattoir
wastes. However, counts of bacteria and
fungi from test and control soil samples
were almost equal which could be as a result
of droppings from cattle that move around
the abattoir and within the neighbourhood.
Coliforms were isolated from all the samples
collected from the two abattoirs. The
presence of this physiologic group in these
samples is an indication of feacal
contam
ination of the samples (Prescott
et
al.,
2005). This is possible since the cow
dung is indiscriminately deposited within
and around the abattoir. Through surface
run
-off, some of the feacal materials are
carried to the nearby water body, leading to
the presence of coliforms in such water
body. Statistically, difference existed at 0.05
confidence limit in the level of total
coliforms in all the samples from Egbu in
the rainy and dry seasons, than the Trans-
Amadi abattoir in the rainy season, this
could be as a result of uneven contamination
of these samples with fecal materials from
the cows during these periods. However, the
situation was not the same with the level of
coliform counts in the samples from Trans-
Amadi abattoir in the dry season. This could
be as a result of even contamination of the
samples with cow dung.
1196
0
5
10
15
20
25
Achromobacter
sp.
Acinetobacter
sp.
Bacillus sp.
Enterobacter
sp.
Escherichia sp.
Flavobacterium
sp.
Klebsiella sp.
Micrococcus
sp.
Proteus sp.
Pseudomonas
sp.
Salmonella sp.
Serratia sp.
Shigella sp.
Staphylococcus
sp.
Streptococcus
sp.
Vibrio sp.
Waste water
Soil
Sediment
Surface water
Percentage occurrence of bacterial isolates
(%)
Bacterial isolates
Fig
.3
Percentage occurrence of bacterial isolates from samples contaminated by Trans Amadi abattoir wastes for rainy season
Fig
.4
Percentage occurrence
of bacterial isolates from samples contaminated by Trans Amadi abattoir wastes for dry season
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Achromobacter
sp.
Acinetobacter
sp.
Bacillus sp.
Enterobacter sp.
Escherichia sp.
Flavobacterium
sp.
Klebsiella sp.
Micrococcus
sp.
Proteus sp.
Pseudomonas
sp.
Salmonella sp.
Serratia sp.
Shigella sp.
Staphylococcus
sp.
Streptococcus
sp.
Vibrio sp.
Waste water
Soil
Sediment
Surface water
Bacterial isolates
Percentage occurrence of bacterial isolates (%)
1197
Salmonella
and
Shigella
were present in the
samples collected from the abattoirs. Their
presence was not astonishing since they co-
habit with coliforms in the intestinal tract of
warm blooded animals. Cow dung could be
a good source of coliforms around the
abattoirs. Statistically, there was little or no
difference at p < 0.05 in the level of
Salmonella
-
Shigella
counts from all the
samples collected from the Otamiri River
and Ogingba creek abattoirs in the rainy and
dry seasons. This could be as a result of
even distribution of these organisms during
these seasons. The soil had higher counts
of 3.0x104cfu/g and 3.7x104 cfu/g,
respectively within the periods. This could
be due to random and uncontrolled
deposition of wastes including cow dung
within and around the abattoir environment.
There was statistical difference at 0.05
confidence limit in the level of
Salmonella
-
Shigella
counts from samples collected both
in the rainy and dry seasons from Trans-
Amadi abattoir. Surface water from
Oginigba Creek and soil samples had higher
counts of 1.5x107 cfu/ml and 1.7x104 cfu/g
in both the rainy and dry seasons
respectively. This can be as a result of
increased surface run-off from the abattoir
into the river in the rainy season and
accumulation of organic wastes including
cow dung in the soil around the abattoir in
the dry season respectively. However, there
was much difference in the counts of
Salmonella
-
Shigella
obtained in the test and
control samples from Trans-Amadi abattoir,
with the test samples giving higher counts
than the control samples. This is probably
due to domestic activities that take place at
different points around these abattoirs which
can equally be a means of contaminating the
environments outside these abattoirs with
pathogenic organisms like Salmonella
and
Shigella
.
Vibrio
was isolated from most of the
samples. This indicates that the sampling
points were impacted by human activities.
However,
Vibrio
was not isolated from
waste water from Egbu abattoir during the
rainy season. This is an indication that these
samples were not impacted by human
activities. It is equally possible that the
samples were contaminated with organic
wastes that were devoid of
Vibrio
species
The relatively high incidence of
Klebsiella,
Enterobacter, Escherichia, Salmonella,
Shigella, Citrobacter, Serratia and
Proteus
around the test sampling points may be
connected with high rate of cattle defecation
near the sites. The introductions of wastes
from the abattoir and the surface run
-
off into
the sites and nearby rivers during the rains
are also contributory factors (Ezeronye and
Ubalua, 2005). The presence of these
isolates in this study gives credence to these
findings. The isolation of
E.coli
and other
coliforms is an indication of recent human
contamination of the sampling points, and is
of great public health concern (Ezeama and
Nwamkpa, 2002).
The presence of
Bacillus
sp supports the finding by Ezeronye
and Ubalua (2005). The organism is mostly
a soil inhabitant and its presence could be as
a result of contamination from overland run-
off. The presence of Pseudomonas,
Acinetobacter, and Lactobacillus around the
abattoir is possible since they have been
reported to be agents of meat spoilage
(Frazier and Westhoff, 2003). Occurrence of
Pseudomonas sp as a heterotrophic and
hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria has been
reported (Loureiro et al. 2005). The
presence of Pseudomonas sp. within the
abattoir environment is possible. This is
probably due to the presence of
hydrocarbons (PAHs) within the abattoir.
This observation supports the report by Faria
and Bharathi (2006) that Pseudomonas sp is
widespread in the environment and
concluded that they could contribute to the
1198
oxidation of hydrocarbons in the
environment. The same reason is applicable
to
Achromobacter
and Acinetobacter, which
according to Leahy and Colwell (1990) are
among the hydrocarbon degraders. The
incidence of
Staphylococcus
in this study is
in agreement with the report by Chen et al
(2001) who reported that
Staphylococcus
is
naturally found in the hides of cattles. The
recovery of Flavobacterium which is said to
be authochthonous to the environment,
agrees with the report of Austin (1988). The
isolation of
Streptococcus
sp. and
Micrococcus sp in this study agrees with the
report of Adeyemo et al (2002), who
isolated these organisms from abattoir
environments.
Abattoir wastes pollution has adverse
impacts on aquatic environment thus
triggering algal blooms (eutrophication),
depletion of dissolved oxygen, destruction
of habitat and fish kills, thereby reducing the
population of fishes and other aquatic
organisms (Meadows, 1995; Chukwu et al
.,
2008). Some of the consequences of abattoir
pollution are transmission of diseases by
water borne pathogens, eutrophication of
natural water bodies, accumulation of toxic
or recalcitrant chemicals in the soil,
destabilization of ecological balance and
negative effects on human health
(McLaughlin and Mineau, 1995; Sinha,
1997; Bridges et val., 2000; Boadi and
Kuitunen, 2003; Amisu et al., 2003).
Potential health risks from waterborne
pathogens can exist in water contaminated
by abattoir effluents (Cadmus et al., 1999),
runoff from feedlots (Miner et al., 1966),
dairy farms (Janzen et al., 1974), grazed
pastures (Doran and Linn 1979; Kunkel
et
al
., 1983), fallow and sod amended with
poultry litter (Giddens and Barnet, 1980),
grassland treated with dairy manure
(McCaskey
et al., 1971), and sewage sludge
treated land (Dunigan and Dick, 1980).
Po
llution of water resources by abattoir
wastes might lead to destruction of primary
producers and this in turn leads to
diminishing consumer populations in water.
The direct repercussion of this is
diminishing fish yield hence human diet
suffers. Therefore, continuous monitoring
should be maintained in order to promote
and maintain a safe working environment
and ensure detection when abnormalities
that could endanger both workers and
environment occur.
References
Abu
-Ashour, J., Joy, D.M., Lee, H., Whitele
y,
H.R. and Zelin, S. (1994). Transport of
microorganisms through soil. Wat., Air
and Soil Pollut. 75: 141
-
158.
Adebowale, OO; Alonge, DO; Agbede, SA and
Adeyemo, O (2010)
.
Bacteriological
assessment of
quality of water used at
the Bodija municipal
abatto
ir, Ibadan,
Nigeria.
Sahel J. Vet.Sci
.
9(2): 63
-
67.
Adedipe, NO (2002
).
The challenge of urban
solid waste management in Africa, in:
H.
Baijnath and
Y. Singh (Eds) Rebirth
of Science in Africa (Hatfield, S
outh
Africa: Umdaus Press), pp.
175
192.
Adese
moye, A.O., Opere, B.O. and Makinde,
S.C.O. (2006). Microbial content of
abattoir waste water and its contaminated
soil in Lagos, Nigeria. Afr. J. Biotechnol
.
5
(20): 1963
-
1968.
Adeyemi, I.G. and Adeyemo, O.K. (2007).
Waste management practices at the Bodij
a
abattoir, Nigeria. Int. J. Environ. Stud. 64:
71
-
82.
Adeyemi, IG and Adeyemo, OK(2007).
Waste
Mana
gement Practices at the Bodija
Abattoir,
Nigeria.
International Journal
of Environmental Studies, 64(1):71-
82.
Adeyemo, O.K., Ayodeji, I.O. and Aiki-
Raj
i,
C.O. (2002). The water quality and
sanitary conditions in a major abattoir
(Bodija) in Ibadan, Nigeria. Afr. J.
Biomed. Res.5:
51
-55.
1199
Adeyemo, OK (2002). Unhygienic operation of
a city abattoir in Southwestern
Nigeria:
Environmental implication.
Af
ric
an
Journal of Environmental Assessment and
Management,
4(1): 23
-
28
Amisu, KO; Coker, AO and Isokphehi, RD
(2003). 4Arcobacter butzlieri strains from
poultry abattoir effluent in Nigeria.
East
Afr. Med. J. 80
: 218
-
221.
Austine, B. (1988). Marine Microbiol
ogy.
Cambridge University press, London.
Boadi, KO and Kuitunen, M (2003). Municipal
solid waste management in the
Accra
metropolitan
area, Ghana.
The
Environmentalist
23:211
-
218.
Bridges, O; Bridges, JW and Potter, JF (2000).
A generic comparison of the
airborne
risks to
human health from landfill and
incinerator disposal of municipal solid
waste.
The
Environmentalist
20:325
-
334.
Bull, W and Roger, SS (2001).
Microbial
properties of abattoir effluent. Oxford,
London
Publishing Coop. Pp 14.
Cadmus, SIB; Olugasa, BO and Odundipe,
GAT
(1999). The prevalence and zoonotic
importance of bovine tuberculosis in
Ibadan, Nigeria. Proceedings of the 37th
Annual
congress of the Nigerian
Veterinary Medical Association, 65
-
70.
Chen, T.R., Hsiao, M.H, Chiou, C.S and Tsen,
H.Y (2001). Development and use of PCR
primers for the investigation of C1, C2 and
C
3
enterotoxin types of
Staphylococcus
aureus
strains isolated from food borne
outbreaks.
Int l J. Food Microbiol
. 71
: 63
-
70.
Chukwu, O; Mustapha, H I and Abdul Gafar, H
B (2008). The effect of Minna Waste on
surface Water Quality 11.
Environmental
Research Journal
2(6):339
-
342
Coker, AO; Olugasa, BO and Adeyemi, AO
(2001).
Abattoir waste water quality in
Southwestern Nigeria. Proceedings of
the 27th WEDC confere
nce
, Lusaka,
Zambia.
Loughborough University press,
United Kingdom. 329
-
331.
Control Federation
38: 1582,
Cowan, S T and Steel, K J (1994). Manual of the
Identification of Medical Bacteria. 2
nd
edition Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge.
Doran, JW and Linn, DM
(19
79). Bacteriological quality of runoff
water from
pastureland, Applied and
Environmental
Microbiology
37 (5):
985 991
Dunigan, EP and Dick, RP (1980). Nutrient and
coliform losses in runoff from
fertilized
and
sewage sludge-
treated
so
il, Journal of Environmental Quality 9
(2): 243
250
Ekundayo, E.O. and Obuekwe, C.O. (1997).
Effects of an oil spill on soil physico-
chemical properties of a spill site in a
typical paleudult of Midwestern Nigeria.
Environ. Monit. Assess. 45:
209
-
221.
Ezeama, C.F and Nwamkpa, F (2002). Studies
on the longitudinal profile of the
bacteriological quality of Aba river,
Nigeria.
Global J. Pure Appl. Sci. 8
(4):
469
-
473.
Ezeronye,O.U and Ubalua, A.O (2005). Studies
on the effect of abattoir and industrial
eff
luents on the heavy metals and
microbial quality of Aba river Nigeria.
Afr. J. Biotech. 4
(3): 266
-
272.
Faria, D and Bharathi, L. (2006). Marine and
Estuarine methylotrophs: Their
abundance, activity and identity. Curr.
Sci.
90
(7): 984
-
989
feedlot runoff and its nature and
variation,
Water Pollution
Frazier, W. C and Westhoff, D. C (2003).
Food
Microbiology,
4
th
ed. Tata McGraw-
Hill
Publishing Company Ltd. New Delhi. Pp.
218
242.
Gauri, SM (2004
).
Characterization of effluent
waste water from abattoirs for land
applications.
Food Reviews
International
, 20(3): 229
-
256.
Giddens, J and Barnett, AP (1980). Soil loss and
microbiological
quality of
runoff
from land
treated with poultry
litter, Journal of Environmental Quality
9 (3): 518
520
Janzen, JJ; Bodine, AB and L. I. Luszoz, LI
(1974).
A survey of effects of animal
wastes on
stree
t pollution from
selected dairyfarms, Journal of Dairy
Science
57 (2): 260
263
Kunkel, JR; Murphy, WM; Rogers, D and
1200
Dugdale, DT (1983). Seasonal control of
gastrointe
stinal parasites among
dairyheifers,
Bovine Practitioner
18: 54
Leahy, G.J. and Colwell, R.R (1990). Microbial
degradation of hydrocarbon in the
environment.
Microbiol. Rev.
54
(3): 303-
315.
Loureiro, S.T.A, Calvalcanti; M.A.D., Neves,
R.P and Passavante, J.Z.D (2005). Yeasts
isolated from sand and sea water in
beaches of Olinda, Pernambuco state,
Brazil.
Braz. J. Microbiol. 36
: 333
-
337.
Manson, C.F. (1991). Biology of Freshwater
Pollution
. 2nd ed. Longman Scientific and
Technical John Witey and sons, Inc.
New
York, P. 351.
McCaskey, TA; Robins, GH and Little, JA
(1971). Water quality of runoff from
grassland applied
with liquid,
semi liquid and ISRN Veterinary Science
5 dairy day waste, in
Livestock
Waste
Management and Pollution Abatement
,
pp.
239 243
,American
Society of
Agricultural and Biological Engineers,
St.
Joseph, Mich, USA, 1971.
McLaughlin, A and Mineau, P (1995). The
impact of agricultural practices on
biodiversity.
Agric.
Ecosystem
Environ
. 55:201
-
212.
Meadows, R. (1995). Livestock legacy
:
Environ.
Health Perspect.
103
(12): 1096
-
1100.
Mills, A.L. and Colwell, R.R. (1978).
Enumeration of petroleum-
degrading
marine and estuarine microorganisms by
the most probable number method.
Can. J.
Microbiol. 24:
552
-
557.
Miner, JR; Lipper, RI; Fina, LR and J. W.
Funk, JW (1966).
Cattle
Odeyemi, O. (1991). Consequences of water
pollution by solid wastes and faecal
materials in Nigeria. In: Akinyele, L.,
Omoeti, J. and Innevbore, T (eds).
Proceedings of the Third National
Conference on Water Pollution. Port
Harcourt, Nigeria. Pp. 45
-
50.
Odokuma, L.O. (2003). The Techniques in
Aquatic Microbiology. In: Onyeike, E.N.
and Osuji, J.O. (eds), Research
Techniques in Biological and Chemical
Sciences.
1
st
ed. Springfield Publishers
Ltd, Owerri. Pp. 156
-
173.
Od
okuma, L.O. and Okpokwasili, G.C. (1993).
Seasonal influences on inorganic anion
monitoring of the New Calabar River,
Nigeria.
Environ. Manage. 17(4): 491-
496.
Ogbonna, D N and Ideriah, T J K (2014).
Effect
of Abattoir wastewater on the
physico
-
chemi
cal
characteristics of soil and sediment in
Southern Nigeria.
Journal
of
Scientific Research and Reports
3
(12):1612
-
1632
Ogbonnaya, C (2008). Analysis of groundwater
pollution from Abattoir waste in
Minna,
Nigeria.
Research Journal of Dairy
Sciences 2
(4): 74
-77
Okerentugba, P.O. and Ezeronye, O.U. (2003).
Petroleum
-degrading potentials of single
and mixed microbial cultures isolated
from rivers and refinery effluents in
Nigeria.
Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2
(9): 288
-
292.
Onyeagba, R.A. and Umeham, S.N. (2004)
.
Analytical Methods in Water
Microbiology. In: Onyeagba, R.A. (ed.).
Laboratory Guide for Microbiology. 1
st
ed. Crystal Publishers Okigwe, Nigeria.
Pp. 178
-
191.
Prescott, L.M., Harley, J.P. and Klein, D.A.
(2005).
Microbiology
. 6
th
ed. McGraw
Hill, London
. Pp. 135
-
140.
Raheem, N K and Morenikeji, O A (2008).
Impact of abattoir effluents on surface
waters of the Alamuyo stream in Ibadan.
J
Appl. Sci. Environ Manage
12 (1): 73
-77
Sinha, RK (1997). Fluorosis
A case study from
the Sambher Salt Lake Region in Jaipur,
Rajasthan, India. The Environmentalist
17: 259
-
262
... This bacterial number was high compared to those previously reported at Ikpoba River (Atuanya et al., 2012) and Ogun River Course (Taiwo et al., 2014) in both upstream and downstream river. However, the CFUs in our study were lower than the results reported in both Otamiri River and Oginigba Creek (Ogbonna, 2014). Possible explanations for this difference could be the release of abattoir wastes and effluent rich in high bacterial load and biodegradable organic matter (blood, manure) from the abattoirs into the river (Ighalo & Adeniyi, 2020). ...
... In upstream river, positive relationship existed between Salmonella and Shigella spp. Ogbonna (2014) recently found large numbers of Salmonella and Shigella spp. in surface water located near abattoirs in Otamiri River and Oginigba Creek. Apart from the likely presence of organic matter in water from the abattoirs and other related sources, abattoir effluents can also introduce directly potential pathogenic organisms into receiving water bodies. ...
... Salmonella and E. coli were predominant bacteria among the bacterial species identified in river samples. Ogbonna (2014) also reported that E. coli was the predominant bacteria in river located near abattoirs. Our data showed that the same bacterial spp. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the impact of continual discharge of untreated abattoir effluents on the water quality of River Benue. Three major abattoirs (Wurukum, Wadata and Northbank) in Makurdi, Nigeria, and their polluting strength in river upstream and downstream were measured and compared. Two water quality parameters: physicochemical and bacteriological were investigated. Water quality index (WQI) was computed for all sampling sites. Results revealed that some of the physiochemical parameters were above recommended limits, especially in downstream river, in particular, the turbidity (24.0–55.5 mg/l), TSS (62.6–92.0 mg/l), DO (8.0 mg/l), and total hardness (160–240 mg/l). All sampling sites indicated an increased bacterial population while Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli were the predominant bacteria among the ten genera identified in water upstream and downstream. Faecal coliforms increased from upstream to downstream in two sampling sites (Wurukum and Wadata). Strong positive correlations were observed between upstream and downstream samples for pH, EC, turbidity, TSS, DO, COD, SO42–, TC, and Shigella spp. WQI revealed that all sampling locations were heavily polluted and unsuitable for drinking purposes (WQI > 300) based on both the physicochemical and bacterial parameters. The sampling sites, however, showed excellent water quality based only on physicochemical properties especially upstream at both Wurukum and Northbank sampling sites (WQI < 50). It was suggested that anthropogenic activities around the river may be responsible for the high concentration of some physiochemical parameters and bacterial loads observed in the river downstream. Moreover, it was concluded that microbial loads should be fully considered in WQI computation in terms of water quality. Our results are useful for water resource and waste management in terms of practices and policy guidance, especially for developing countries.
... The result showed a high level of THBC, THFC, total coliform and total Staphylococci Count, which were responsible for the generation of the said biogas. This was in agreement with the findings of Ogbonna and Inana (2014). ...
... The figure 2 showed a level of 6.17 colonial count of total heterotrophic bacterial count, 3.47 colonial counts of total heterotrophic fungal count; total coliform count and total Staphylococci count were 4.25 and 4.45 total coliform count Log10cfu/g respectively, and total vibro specie count, Shigella and Salmonella counts and total pseudomonas counts has 0.00 Log10cfu/g for each respectively. This agreed with the findings of Ogbonna and Inana (2014). ...
... They are strong degrading agent that can perform efficiently even in anaerobic condition such as this study. This was in line with the findings of Ogbonna and Inana (2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Biogas as major sources of energy for most human activities, it plays energetic role in all most operations with energy application. Biogas production field tests were conducted to investigate the microbial activities using cow dung. The experimental field bio-digester volume for the study was 1000 liters of plastic tank. The materials used for the biogas production were cow dung, GEEPEE tank, ball gate valves, filters, pressure meter, male and female adopter, hose, PVC pipe, gas holder, plastic funnel, metal clip and two slots. The parameters such as Total heterotrophic bacteria count (THBC), total heterotrophic fungi count (THF), total coliform counts and Total Vibrio counts, Total Salmonella-Shigella Counts and Total Staphylococci species count and Total Pseudomonas species count were determined with their recommended operation procedure. Also, the volume of biogas produced was determined by the aid of the gas holder. The total amount of biogas produced was 0.2012m 3 for the period of 54 day of the experiment. Results reviewed that high level of total heterotrophic bacteria count (THBC) followed by total Staphylococci count and total heterotrophic fungi count (THFC) and final total coliform count. There are variations in percentage of the microorganisms present in the cow dung. Furthermore, the results revealed that the amount of cow dung required generating a specific amount of biogas depends on size of the bio-digester used, gas holder and the microorganisms present. As a result, the amount of cow dung, microbes present and gas holder determine the quantity and quality of biogas produced. Hence, recommends that microbial activities are vital factor during the production of biogas.
... Majority of these microbes can be carried through urban runoffs, erosion or flooding during heavy rainfalls into rivers. However, contaminated water can cause a range of diseases in the form of gastrointestinal disturbances to life -threatening infections [3,4]. ...
... TFC values for sampled soils ranged from 7.5×10 3 cfu/g in Okrika Grammar School to 5.1×10 4 cfu/g at Ogan-Ama. The findings showed that the soils sampled from all locations were contaminated with fecal bacteria. ...
Article
Full-text available
Water is the most important resource on earth and safe drinking water is essential to sustain life. Most rural communities do not treat their water before consumption. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of water, sediment and soil characteristic in Okrika LGA, Nigeria. Samples were collected using sterile bottles from boreholes, hand-dug wells, surface water, sediments and soils using standard methods and analysed accordingly. Results show that Total Heterotrophic Bacterial Count (THBC) ranged from in Kalio-Ama to at Okari-Ama. Total Fecal count (TFC) ranged from 0 to at Isaka Town. Total Coliform Count (TCC) ranged from 0 to at Ogan-Ama. Total Salmonella Shigella Count (TSSC) ranged from 0 to in Ogan-Ama. Total Vibio Count (TVC) ranged from 0 to at Kalio-Ama. The most prominent bacterial isolates from all the stations are of the genera such as Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Escherichia Coli, Micrococcus, Kiebsiella, Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Serratia and Alcaligenes which were isolated across the samples with Bacillus as more frequent with 50%. In the dry season, bacterial isolates were 100% susceptible to Gentamycin and Ofloxacin and 100% resistance to Augumentin, Cefuroxime and Cefixime. In the wet season, isolates had 100% susceptibility to Ciprooflozacin and 100% resistance to Cloxacin, Augmentin and Gentamicine. The result of this study poses a public health risk to consumers who use these sources of water for domestic purposes, recreation and treatments. Diseases like typhoid, cholera, polio, skin and lung infections are eminent.
... Though the link between drug resistance in bacteria contaminating food items and increased clinical cases of resistant infections not fully defined; so the presence of bacteria in food items and their environment might play a role in the spread of antimicrobial resistance amongst food-borne pathogens and other microorganisms [9,10]. [11,12] in a literature report suggested that abattoir were important environmental reservoirs for Vibrio species. And given the proposition that environmental reservoir of toxigenic Vibrio species and/or non-enterotoxigenic environmental Vibrio strains may serve as progenitors for future enterotoxin producing epidemic strains, it becomes imperative to monitor abattoir for potential Vibrio pathogens. ...
... Sediment recorded high microbial counts because it is generally a reservoir for organic matter, solid and liquid wastes and could serve as a source of food for the microbes [23]. The discharge of wastes into the Elechi creek and the surface run-off into the sites and nearby rivers during the rains are also contributory factors [24]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Disposal of wastewater and other effluents into water bodies from activities around water bodies have for long been of major concern and challenge to the environment leading to several infectious diseases. The amount of industrial untreated solid wastes from companies, wastewater from car washing activities, open drainages and agricultural runoffs located close to Elechi creek constitutes the wastewater effluents received by the creek thus resulting in the imbalance of the ecosystem. The study was therefore aimed at determining the microbiology of water quality at different stations of the Elechi creek. Surface water, wastewater and sediment samples were collected during a seven month period and analysed using standard microbiological procedures. Results obtained revealed that the average microbial counts ranged as follows: Total Heterotrophic bacteria 1.12±0.13x108 to 1.28±0.09x108 cfu/ml, Total coliform count; 6.4±0.21 to 7.8±0.13 cfu/ml, Total Staphylococcus Count; 6.9±0.06 to 7.9±0.08 cfu/ml, Total Shigella count; 7.9±0.11 to 8.5±0.14 cfu/ml, Total Salmonella Count; 5.4±0.13 to 7.9±0.08 cfu/ml, Total Vibrio Count; 5.9±0.13 to 7.4±0.09 cfu/ml, and Total Pseudomonad Count; 2.5±0.08 to 4.8 ±0.10 cfu/ml, in surface water, Total Heterotrophic bacteria 1.02±0.08 x108 cfu/ml to 2.68±0.08 x108 cfu/ml, Total coliform count; 4.4±0.10a to 4.9±0.11a cfu/ml, Total Staphylococcus Count;4.7±0.10 to 5.9±0.12 cfu/ml, Total Shigella count; 4.0±0.08 to 4.8±0.11 cfu/ml, Total Salmonella Count; 3.2±0.16 to 4.6±0.08 cfu/ml, Total Vibrio Count; 2.0±0.15 to 4.8±0.11 cfu/ml, and Total Pseudomonad Count2.7±0.13 to 3.9±0.09cfu/ml, in wastewater and Total Heterotrophic bacteria 2.16±0.07 x109 cfu/g to 2.24±0.09 x109 cfu/g, Total coliform count; 1.01±0.13 to 1.36±0.06b cfu/g, Total Staphylococcus Count; 6.8±0.11 to 9.1±0.08 cfu/g, Total Shigella count; 4.0±0.09 to 6.5±0.06 cfu/ml, Total Salmonella Count; 4.1±0.11 to 9.7±0.12 cfu/g, Total Vibrio Count; 6.8±0.10 to 9.5±0.09 cfu/g, and Total Pseudomonad Count; 4.0±0.16 to 5.9±0.07 cfu/g, in sediment samples. Bacterial isolates belonging to the genera Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Klebsiella, Providencia, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio and Enterobacter were isolated and identified. The occurrences of these bacterial isolates as potential pathogens could cause poor water quality through fouling and render the water for various uses and may pose a public health threat to our water resources. Adherence to good hygienic practices and proper treatment of wastewater before discharge into the environment should be encouraged to minimize the spread of infectious diseases and fouling of water bodies. This may also affect the aquatic life in such ecosystems.
... Bacteria from abattoir waste discharged into water columns can subsequently be absorbed to sediments, and when the bottom stream is disturbed, the sediment releases the bacteria back into the water columns presenting long-term health hazards 9 . In Nigeria, numerous abattoirs dispose of their effluents directly into the streams and waterways without any type of treatment and the butchered meat is washed by the same water 10 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Shiga toxigenic strains of E. coli (STEC) known to be etiological agents for diarrhea were screened for their incidence/occurrence in selected abattoirs sources in Osogbo metropolis of Osun State, Nigeria using a randomized block design. Samples were plated directly on selective and differential media and E. coli isolates. Multiplex PCR analysis was used to screen for the presence of specific virulence factors. These were confirmed serologically as non-O157 STEC using latex agglutination serotyping kit. Sequence analysis of PCR products was performed on a representative isolate showing the highest combination of virulence genes using the 16S gene for identification purposes only. Results showed that the average cfu/cm² was significantly lower in the samples collected at Sekona-2 slaughter slab compared with those collected at Al-maleek batch abattoir and Sekona-1 slaughter slab in ascending order at P = 0.03. Moreover, the average cfu/cm²E. coli in samples collected from butchering knife was significantly lower when compared with that of the workers’ hand (P = 0.047) and slaughtering floor (P = 0.047) but not with the slaughter table (P = 0.98) and effluent water from the abattoir house (P = 0.39). These data suggest that the abattoir type may not be as important in the prevalence and spread of STEC as the hygiene practices of the workers. Sequence analysis of a representative isolate showed 100% coverage and 96.46% percentage identity with Escherichia coli O113:H21 (GenBank Accession number: CP031892.1) strain from Canada. This sequence was subsequently submitted to GenBank with accession number MW463885. From evolutionary analyses, the strain from Nigeria, sequenced in this study, is evolutionarily distant when compared with the publicly available sequences from Nigeria. Although no case of E. coli O157 was found within the study area, percent occurrence of non-O157 STEC as high as 46.3% at some of the sampled sites is worrisome and requires regulatory interventions in ensuring hygienic practices at the abattoirs within the study area.
... Bacteria from abattoir waste discharged into water columns can subsequently be absorbed to sediments, and when the bottom stream is disturbed, the sediment releases the bacteria back into the water columns presenting long-term health hazards 9 . In Nigeria, numerous abattoirs dispose of their e uents directly into the streams and waterways without any type of treatment and the butchered meat is washed by the same water 10 . ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Shiga toxigenic strains of E. coli (STEC) known to be etiological agents for diarrhea were screened for their incidence/ occurrence in selected abattoirs and retail meat sources in Osogbo metropolis of Osun State, Nigeria using a randomized block design. Samples were plated directly on selective and differential media and confirmed serologically using latex agglutination serotyping kit, then, multiplex PCR analysis was used to screen for the presence of specific virulence factors. The results showed a percent occurrence of STEC at the sampled sites ranging from 25.8–46.3%. None of the strains showed any visible agglutination with the O157 latex reagent. Sequence analysis of PCR products was performed on a representative isolate showing the highest combination of virulence genes. This sequence was subsequently submitted to GenBank with accession number MW463885. The sequence showed 100% coverage and 96.46% percentage identity with Escherichia coli O113:H21 (GenBank Accession number: CP031892.1) strain from Canada. From evolutionary analyses, the strain from Nigeria, sequenced in this study, is evolutionarily distant when compared with the publicly available sequences from Nigeria. Although no case of E. coli O157 was found within the study area, percent occurrence of non-O157 STEC as high as 46.3% at some of the sampled sites is worrisome and requires regulatory interventions in ensuring hygienic practices at the abattoirs within the study area.
Article
Full-text available
An abattoir, also known as a slaughterhouse, is a place where animals are butchered. The main aim of the study is to isolate and identify Vibrio species on abattoir soils. Soil samples (20 g) were collected from the abattoir in the contaminated areas of Ekpoma and Auchi. The soil samples were collected into a sterile, dark polythene bag using a sterile spatula at a depth of 10 cm. The soil samples were collected from five different sites on the abattoir in both locations selected (Auchi and Ekpoma). A 1 g soil sample was crushed and air dried before being diluted in 9 ml of sterile distilled water, followed by serial dilution (one ml of the soil suspension was then serially (ten-fold) diluted). In Ekpoma, no Vibrio species was isolated, but Vibrio was isolated from Auchi but has a very low count. Other organisms isolated from the soil samples include those in Auchi (Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Pseudomonas spp.) and Ekpoma (Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia. On assessment of the total viable count of Vibrio spp. isolated from the soil samples studied, the results were presented based on dilution factors (103 and 104). In the Auchi soil samples studied, the total viable count of Vibrio spp. was 1.2 x 102 CFU/g (103 dilutions) and 0.4 x 102 CFU/g (104 dilutions), while in Ekpoma the total viable count of Vibrio spp. was 0.5 x 102 CFU/g (103 dilutions) and 0.3 x 102 CFU/g (104 dilutions). The mean total viable count of organisms isolated from the study was 4.62 1.7 x 104 CFU/g, while the Ekpoma sample had a total viable count of 4.24 1.6 x 104 CFU/g. Since Vibrio species are present in abattoir soil samples, though in low numbers, it is likely that they could also be present in the meat gotten from the abattoir itself, with the implicit consumer health risk, particularly with the increase in meat consumption. They can also become a major vector for cross-contamination when not properly handled. There were presence of high bacterial presence in Auchi and Ekpoma abattoir soils. The study further confirmed the dangers associated with discharging untreated wastes to the soil, thus the need for adequate treatment to ensure decontamination.
Article
The aim of this research is to determine the tolerance of Pseudomonas species and Bacillus species to Chloropyrifos and Cyahalothrin pesticides. The study area was the Rivers State University school farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Rivers State, Nigeria. The University farm is a large area of land that specializes in fish farming, livestock farming, poultry farming and all types of agricultural product farming. The university farm has also been used by students for research purposes. Standard microbiological procedures were used; Nutrient agar was prepared by weighing 28g of nutrient agar into 1000ml of distilled water in Erlenmeyer flask. The medium was sterilized at 121ºC for 15 minutes using the autoclave at 15psi. centrimide agar was prepared by weighing 45.3g of the agar and measuring 10ml of glycerol in 990ml of distilled water. The medium was heated with frequent agitation and boiled to completely dissolve the medium before autoclaving at 121ºC for 15 minutes. Toxicity testing procedures were carried out by preparing a stock culture of the pesticide based on directions (8ml into 1000ml of distilled water) from which the concentrations used for this research was obtained 0%, 3.125%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 25% and 50% and tested on the soil sample for a period of 28 days. Samples were serially diluted and cultures were incubated at 350C for 18 to 24 hours. LC50 was determined using SPSS version 2.0. Acute toxicity analysis was carried on pesticides (Chlorpyrifos and Cyahalothrin) in soil using Bacillus and Pseudomonas species as bio indicators. The toxicity results obtained in this study revealed that the pesticides (Chloropyrifos and Cyahalothrin) were toxic to the microorganisms. The results of median lethal concentration (LC50) of the pesticides to the bio indicators (Pseudomonas and Bacillus species) which were determined by subtracting the value of the highest concentration used (50%) from the sum of concentration difference, multiplied by mean percentage mortality and divided by the control (100). Results showed that Cyahalothrin exposed to Pseudomonas species for 28 days had 30.99%, Chlorpyrifos exposed to Pseudomonas species had 12.83 %, Cyahalothrin exposed to Bacillus species had 12.77%, Chloropyrifos exposed to Bacillus species had 10.77 % (Tables 4.2b to 4.5b and Figure 4.5.). This indicated that Chlorpyrifos exposed to Bacillus species had the lowest median lethal concentration (10.77%) and the highest toxic effect while Cyahalothrin exposed to Pseudomonas species had the highest median lethal concentration (LC50) and the lowest toxic effect according to the report of Williams and Dilosi (2018); Kpormon and Douglas (2018). The results obtained in this research work revealed that pesticides (Chlorpyrifos and Cyahalothrin) have the ability to inhibit biological processes that are mediated by key environmental microorganisms such as Bacillus and Pseudomonas species etc in soil. Due to the effect observed on the survival rate of these organisms in this study, it indicates that these pesticides are capable of causing serious environmental pollution which will not only affect the microorganisms and their functions but also the abiotic components of the environment.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this research is to determine the tolerance of Pseudomonas species and Bacillus species to Chloropyrifos and Cyahalothrin pesticides. The study area was the Rivers State University school farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Rivers State, Nigeria. The University farm is a large area of land that specializes in fish farming, livestock farming, poultry farming and all types of agricultural product farming. The university farm has also been used by students for research purposes. Standard microbiological procedures were used; Nutrient agar was prepared by weighing 28g of nutrient agar into 1000ml of distilled water in Erlenmeyer flask. The medium was sterilized at 121ºC for 15 minutes using the autoclave at 15psi. centrimide agar was prepared by weighing 45.3g of the agar and measuring 10ml of glycerol in 990ml of distilled water. The medium was heated with frequent agitation and boiled to completely dissolve the medium before autoclaving at 121ºC for 15 minutes. Toxicity testing procedures were carried out by preparing a stock culture of the pesticide based on directions (8ml into 1000ml of distilled water) from which the concentrations used for this research was obtained 0%, 3.125%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 25% and 50% and tested on the soil sample for a period of 28 days. Samples were serially diluted and cultures were incubated at 350C for 18 to 24 hours. LC50 was determined using SPSS version 2.0. Acute toxicity analysis was carried on pesticides (Chlorpyrifos and Cyahalothrin) in soil using Bacillus and Pseudomonas species as bio indicators. The toxicity results obtained in this study revealed that the pesticides (Chloropyrifos and Cyahalothrin) were toxic to the microorganisms. The results of median lethal concentration (LC50) of the pesticides to the bio indicators (Pseudomonas and Bacillus species) which were determined by subtracting the value of the highest concentration used (50%) from the sum of concentration difference, multiplied by mean percentage mortality and divided by the control (100). Results showed that Cyahalothrin exposed to Pseudomonas species for 28 days had 30.99%, Chlorpyrifos exposed to Pseudomonas species had 12.83 %, Cyahalothrin exposed to Bacillus species had 12.77%, Chloropyrifos exposed to Bacillus species had 10.77 % (Tables 4.2b to 4.5b and Figure 4.5.). This indicated that Chlorpyrifos exposed to Bacillus species had the lowest median lethal concentration (10.77%) and the highest toxic effect while Cyahalothrin exposed to Pseudomonas species had the highest median lethal concentration (LC50) and the lowest toxic effect according to the report of Williams and Dilosi (2018); Kpormon and Douglas (2018). The results obtained in this research work revealed that pesticides (Chlorpyrifos and Cyahalothrin) have the ability to inhibit biological processes that are mediated by key environmental microorganisms such as Bacillus and Pseudomonas species etc in soil. Due to the effect observed on the survival rate of these organisms in this study, it indicates that these pesticides are capable of causing serious environmental pollution which will not only affect the microorganisms and their functions but also the abiotic components of the environment. K e y w o r d s Chlorpyrifos (organophosphate) pesticide, Cyahalothrin (pyrethriod) pesticide, Toxicity, Pseudomonas species and Bacillus species
Chapter
Full-text available
Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is inextricably linked to increasing urbanization, development, and climate change. The municipal authority’s ability to improve solid waste management also provides large opportunities to mitigate climate change and generate co-benefits, such as improved public health and local environmental conservation. Driven by urban population growth, rising rates of waste generation will severely strain existing MSW infrastructure in lowand middle-income countries. In most of these countries, the challenge is focused on effective waste collection and improving waste treatment systems to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In contrast, high-income countries can improve waste recovery through reuse and recycling and promote upstream interventions to prevent waste at the source. Because stakeholder involvement, economic interventions, and institutional capacity are all important for enhancing the solid waste management, integrated approaches involving multiple technical, environmental, social, and economic efforts will be necessary. • Even though waste generation increases with affluence and urbanization, GHG emissions from municipal waste systems are lower in more affluent cities. In European and North American cities, GHG emissions from the waste sector account for 2–4% of the total urban emissions. These shares are smaller than in African and South American cities, where emissions from the waste sector are 4–9% of the total urban emissions. This is because more affluent cities tend to have the necessary infrastructure to reduce methane emissions from MSW. • In low- and middle-income countries, solid waste management represents 3–15% of city budgets, with 80–90% of the funds spent on waste collection. Even so, collection coverage ranges from only 25% to 75%. The primary means of waste disposal is open dumping, which severely compromises public health. • Landfill gas-to-energy is an economical technique for reducing GHG emissions from the solid sector. This approach provides high potential to reduce emissions at a cost of less than US$10 per tCO2-eq. However, gas-to-energy technology can be employed only at properly maintained landfills and managed dumpsites, and social aspects of deployment need to be considered.
Article
Full-text available
Microbial content of wastewater in two abattoirs and the impact on microbial population of receiving soil was studied in Agege and Ojo Local Government Areas in Lagos State, Nigeria. Wastewater samples were collected from each of the abattoirs over three months period and examined for microbial content. Soil samples contaminated with the wastewaters were also collected and analyzed for microbial content as compared to soil without wastewater contamination in the neighborhood (control). Some physico-chemical parameters of the samples such as total dissolved solid, chemical oxygen demand, etc., were examined. The wastewater samples from both abattoirs were highly contaminated; Agege abattoir showed mean bacterial count of 3.32 × 107 cfu/ml and Odo abattoir showed mean count of 2.7 × 107 cfu/ml. The mean fungal populations were 1.6 × 105 and 1.2 × 105 cfu/ml for Agege and Odo abattoirs respectively. In the contaminated soil sample, mean bacterial count was 3.36 × 107 cfu/ml compared to the 1.74 × 106 cfu/ml of the control sample. High microbial load in abattoir wastewater with negative effects on microbial population in soil, in this study, further confirmed the need to treat wastewater rather than discharging it to the environment.
Article
Full-text available
The ability of three bacterial isolates (Bacillus spp, Micrococcus spp and Proteus spp.) and some fungal species (Penicillin spp., Aspergillus spp. and Rhizopus spp.) isolated from two rivers and refinery effluent to degrade two Nigerian Crude oils was studied. The results showed changes in pH, optical density and total viable count for the bacterial isolates after a 17-day period. There was an increase in biomass for the fungal isolates after a 35-day period. It was observed that these organisms were able to utilize and degrade the crude oil constituents, with bacterial isolates showing increase in cell number and optical density as pH decreases. Single cultures were observed to be better crude oil degraders than the mixed cultures (bacteria or fungi). It was also observed that oil degraders could be isolated from a non-oil polluted environment, although those from oil-polluted environments have higher degradation potentials.
Article
Full-text available
Microbial content of wastewater in two abattoirs and the impact on microbial population of receiving soil was studied in Agege and Ojo Local Government Areas in Lagos State, Nigeria. Wastewater samples were collected from each of the abattoirs over three months period and examined for microbial content. Soil samples contaminated with the wastewaters were also collected and analysed for microbial content as compared to soil without wastewater contamination in the neighbourhood (control). Some physico-chemical parameters of the samples such as total dissolved solid, chemical oxygen demand etc were examined. The wastewater samples from both abattoirs were highly contaminated; Agege abattoir showed mean bacterial count of 3.32x10 7 cfu/ml and Odo abattoir showed mean count of 2.7x10 7 cfu/ml. The mean fungal populations were 1.6x 10 5 and 1.2x0 5 cfu/ml for Agege and Odo abattoirs respectively. In the contaminated soil sample, mean bacterial count was 3.36x10 7 cfu/ml compared to the 1.74x10 6 cfu/ml of the control sample. High microbial load in abattoir wastewater with negative effects on microbial population in soil, in this study, further confirmed the need to treat wastewater rather than discharging it to the environment.
Article
Full-text available
Aim: The study was carried out to evaluate the biophysical properties of samples contaminated by abattoir wastes. The study aims to determine the physico-chemical properties of samples contaminated by abattoir wastes in order to create public awareness about the state and health implications of abattoir activities on the environment. Study Design: Abattoirs close to Rivers and creeks that discharge wastes into water bodies were selected in comparison with those not close to such water bodies. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in abattoirs Located at Ogbe in Ahiazu-Mbaise Local Government Area, Egbu in Owerri North Local Government Area both in Imo State, Nigeria; Trans-Amadi in Port Harcourt City Council and Ahoada in Ahoada East Local Government Area both in Rivers State, Nigeria. The study covered two seasons, rainy and dry seasons between 2010 and 2011. Methodology: A total of thirty six sampling points were considered for the study. Soil and waste water samples were collected from four abattoirs located at Egbu and Ogbe in Imo state, Trans-Amadi and Ahoada in Rivers State. Sediment samples from Otamiri Riverand Oginigba Creek around Egbu and Trans-Amadi abattoirs respectively were collected using standard methods recommended by the American Public Health Association (APHA) and other international methods were adopted for the determination of physiochemical characteristics of the samples. Results: The range of results obtained were 6.71 – 9.37 for pH, 20.0 – 30.4oC for temperature, 165 – 6,080 mg/l for total suspended solids (TSS), 155 – 1,560 mg/l for total dissolved solids (TDS), 75 – 12,000 mg/l(water) and mg/kg(soil) for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 100 – 22,500 mg/l(water) and mg/kg(soil) for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 150.2 – 9,265 mg/l(water) and mg/kg(soil) for SO4 2-, 0.45 – 90.75 mg/l(water) and mg/kg(soil) for PO4 3-, 0.35 - 308.89 mg/l(water) and mg/kg(soil) for NO3 -, 4.12 – 45.7 mg/l(water) and mg/kg(soil) for Na, 0.26 – 106 mg/l(water) and mg/kg(soil) for K and 0.00 – 2.551 mg/l(water) and mg/kg(soil) for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH). The results generally showed significant differences, at 0.05 confidence limits, between test and control samples of soil and waste water, while the reverse was the case between rainy and dry seasons. Conclusion: The study indicated negative impact of abattoir activities on the soil that receive wastes from abattoirs which is probably because effective waste disposal system is not practiced by abattoir operators. The study showed that abattoir wastes have high pollution strength and thus should be treated before being discharged into the environment.
Article
The longitudinal profile of the bacteriological quality of Aba River at six sampling stations (UP, UW, AB, CW, RL and DS) along the river course was studied. There was an upstream downstream bacterial variations (P < 0.05) with UP showing initial lower counts (log10 3.08 cfu m1-1), while the maximum was observed at DS (log10 5.60 cfu m1-1). Three stations: UW, AB and DS showed increase in heterotrophic bacterial counts throughout the six months study period (Feb July). Stations CW and RL showed decrease in bacterial counts after the third-month (April) of the investigation. Ten bacterial genera were isolated and the most prevalent in all the stations included Staphylococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Escherichia coli and Micrococcus sp. Klebsiella sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Bacillus sp. and Clostridium perfringens were not detected in UP station. Of all the sampling stations, AB and DS showed the greatest variation of isolates followed by CW and RL. Station AB showed the highest coliform counts (1.26 x 103 MPN 100m1-1) while the lowest was observed at UP (24 to 70 MPN 100m1-1). The high bacterial and or coliform counts obtained along the course of the river depicts the public health risk associated with the domestic use of the river water and the need to plan an adequate pollution control strategy for Aba River. Keywords: Longitudinal profile, Aba River, bacterial variation, bacteriological quality, pollution control strategy. (Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences: 2002 8(4): 471-476)