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# Montmorency tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) concentrate lowers uric acid, independent of plasma cyanidin-3-O-glucosiderutinoside

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... Total studies 16. ↓ in 11 studies [37][38][39][40][41]44,46,[48][49][50][51][52]. ↑ in 1 study [53]. ...
... Out of a total of 29 published human studies, 10 monitored the effects of cherries and cherry products on markers of oxidative stress (Tables 1 and 2). Oxidative stress was decreased (or antioxidant capacity increased) in 8 studies [37][38][39][40][41][42][43]48], and it did not change in 2 studies [46,47]. Markers of antioxidant capacity that were altered by cherry consumption included increased plasma ORAC [40], FRAP [42], serum TAS [37,39,41], decreased plasma F2-isoprostane [43] and LOOH [44], and increased urinary antioxidant capacity [38]. ...
... Sixteen human studies investigated the effects of consuming cherries or cherry products on markers of inflammation which were shown to be decreased in 11 studies [23,37,[39][40][41]44,46,[48][49][50][51][52] did not change in 4 studies [47,[54][55][56], and increased in 1 study [53] (Table 1). Markers of inflammation that were decreased included ESR [52] plasma concentrations CRP [23,39,44,48,50,55], TNF α [41,46,51,68], IL-6 [39,41,44,46,49], IL-8 [39,41,44,46,49], RANTES [23], NO [23], MCP-1 [52], and upper respiratory tract symptoms [50]. ...
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Increased oxidative stress contributes to development and progression of several human chronic inflammatory diseases. Cherries are a rich source of polyphenols and vitamin C which have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Our aim is to summarize results from human studies regarding health benefits of both sweet and tart cherries, including products made from them (juice, powder, concentrate, capsules); all referred to as cherries here. We found 29 (tart 20, sweet 7, unspecified 2) published human studies which examined health benefits of consuming cherries. Most of these studies were less than 2 weeks of duration (range 5 h to 3 months) and served the equivalent of 45 to 270 cherries/day (anthocyanins 55–720 mg/day) in single or split doses. Two-thirds of these studies were randomized and placebo controlled. Consumption of cherries decreased markers for oxidative stress in 8/10 studies; inflammation in 11/16; exercise-induced muscle soreness and loss of strength in 8/9; blood pressure in 5/7; arthritis in 5/5, and improved sleep in 4/4. Cherries also decreased hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein (TG/HDL) in diabetic women, and VLDL and TG/HDL in obese participants. These results suggest that consumption of sweet or tart cherries can promote health by preventing or decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation.
... Although anthocyanins inhibit COX activity, the absence of TNF-α alterations indicate that this inflammation pathway might not be influenced by CH consumption. Using a similar research design, Bell et al. 47 investigated the effects of two dosages (30 and 60 ml) of Montmorency cherries on serum and urinary urate levels and antioxidant status. It was found that the 60 ml dosage was associated with significantly higher main anthocyanin (cyaniding-3-O-glucosiderutinoside) bioavailability 1 hour after consumption. ...
... Interestingly, serum urate levels decreased and urinary urate levels increased, showing a urate eliminating effect induced by CH consumption. Bell et al. 47 found greater and faster changes in urate concentrations in both serum and urine due to Montmorency cherry consumption than Jacob et al. 46 . Even taking differences in consumption protocols and assessments into account, these finds seems to indicate that Montmorency cherries have a more potent antioxidant effect than Bing cherries. ...
... Additionally, inhibitions in COX activity and RANTES can be considered as markers of a blunted inflammatory response. Therefore, it is reasonable to consider that cherry consumption might also provide an anti-inflammatory effect, even though findings regarding IL-6 and TNF-α responses to CH consumption are inconsistent 17,47,48 . ...
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Background: exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is a multifactorial phenomenon that induces muscle function loss because of mechanical and immune stressor stimuli. This immunological stress is mostly caused by inflammation and increased oxidative status. Cherries are fruits that contain a phenolic compound known as anthocyanin, which serves as a pigment in natura. However, research suggests this pigment might provide a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory strategy when consumed by humans. Objectives: the aim of this study was to critically review the literature on cherry consumption focusing on identifying protective strategies against EIMD conferred by it. Methods: a research was performed in PubMed database. This review presents the results about cherry consumption and EIMD. Results: the articles identified in this review support the notion that tart cherry consumption attenuates EIMD symptoms after intense exercise bouts. This attenuation seems to be related to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds present in tart cherries. Conclusion: daily consumption of tart cherries may attenuate inflammatory and oxidative responses to EIMD, leading to faster recovery after exercise bouts.
... Any disagreement was resolved through discussion with third author Ching-Wen Chien. Figure 2 presents a summary assessment of bias risk. Bell et al. [13] did not clearly describe how research populations are selected [13]. Jacob et al. [9] did not clearly illustrate whether the participants were blinded [9]. ...
... Any disagreement was resolved through discussion with third author Ching-Wen Chien. Figure 2 presents a summary assessment of bias risk. Bell et al. [13] did not clearly describe how research populations are selected [13]. Jacob et al. [9] did not clearly illustrate whether the participants were blinded [9]. ...
... e consumption of kiwifruit actually led to an increase in plasma urate levels. In research on 12 healthy participants, Bell et al. [13] observed a significant reduction in serum urate at 2 hours after cherry ingestion [13]. ...
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Background: Previous studies have reported the use of complementary therapies to reduce the risk of gout attacks. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of cherries in reducing uric acid levels associated with gout. Methods: We searched for relevant studies on PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library without restrictions on language from inception until August 15, 2019. The risk of bias was evaluated using the PRISMA statement and checklist, and the methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Results: The six studies included in this systematic review reported decreases in the incidence and severity of gout following the ingestion of cherries. Gout patients regularly ingesting cherry extract/juice reported fewer gout flare ups than those patients who did not supplement their diets with cherry products. Overall, we observed a positive correlation between the consumption of tart cherry juice and a decrease in serum uric acid concentration. Conclusions: Current evidence supports an association between cherry intake and a reduced risk of gout attacks. Note however that we were unable to conduct effective meta-analysis due to a lack of relevant studies and a high degree of variation in the methodologies and metrics used in previous studies. Further comprehensive trials or long-term follow-up studies will be required to evaluate the efficacy of cherry intake in treating patients with gout or hyperuricemia.
... These patients experienced greater joint movement and symptom relief accompanied by decreases in blood uric acid [43]. More recent human studies have confirmed a potential role for tart cherry in the prevention and treatment of gout (17,44). Schlesinger and Schlesinger (2012) recently published the results of three small pilot studies on the use of a cherry juice concentrate as a prophylactic treatment for gout flares that typically follow urate-lowering therapy (ULT). ...
... Participants were instructed to follow a low-polyphenolic diet throughout the supplementation period for 48-hours prior to participating in each arm of the trial. There was no benefit found in doubling the treatment dose for the second arm of the study, though plasma uptake of the major anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-O-glucosiderutinoside, was increased at 1 hour post-supplementation with the 60 mL dose compared to the 30 mL dose [44]. Zhang et al. (2012) conducted a large prospective study in 633 middle-aged adults to identify triggers associated with chronic gout. ...
... Most of the in vivo studies reviewed were too small in sample size and of limited duration to draw meaningful conclusions. Several authors did not appear to exclude the use of pain medication or anti-inflammatories, while some at least required a stable medication dosage [13,19,22,41,44]. Some of these studies were conducted on patients who were receiving standard routine care for a chronic disease condition, which may have included NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors, or other agents that affect inflammation [17,19,40,41]. ...
Article
BACKGROUND: Tart cherry, rich in bioactive polyphenols, has received attention in the past decade for reported health benefits due to its high polyphenolic content. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a potential role for tart cherry or its isolated components in amelioration of pain relief in chronic diseases that may affect the elderly. METHODS: In vitro and in vivo human and animal studies that utilized tart cherry or extracts of tart cherry compounds to determine an effect on oxidative stress, inflammation, muscle damage, and pain were reviewed and summarized (Table 1). RESULTS: Tart cherry and its isolated compounds have demonstrated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro and in vivo which may improve self-reported pain. In humans, these include modest improvements in gout flare incidents, and self-reported pain in fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis (OA), and conditions of induced oxidative stress and muscle damage. Beneficial biochemical changes were also reported for inflammatory and oxidative biomarkers such as serum urate, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, most studies reported to date have insufficient sample size, treatment duration, and statistical power to draw any firm conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of tart cherries and their bioactive constituents may be a potential novel therapy for reducing the pain associated with chronic diseases particularly common to an aged population. Larger, more rigorous trials are needed to reach any firm conclusions.
... Due to the debate surrounding the use of NSAIDs in sport and exercise applications, performance nutrition research has more recently shifted focus toward phytochemicalcontaining fruits and other functional foods that seem to provide a beneficial anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect [20,21]. A wide variety of antioxidant and polyphenolcontaining functional foods such as purple sweet potatoes [22][23][24], beet root juice [25][26][27], cranberries [28,29], and blueberries [30,31] have verified health, performanceenhancing, and exercise recovery benefits. ...
... Montmorency cherries) and sweet (e.g. Bing cherries) [21,[32][33][34] have proven beneficial in health [35][36][37][38], inflammatory-related disease states (e.g. cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, gout) [35,36,[38][39][40], and sleep quality [41,42]. ...
... cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, gout) [35,36,[38][39][40], and sleep quality [41,42]. Clinical supplementation success with cherries, particularly tart cherry whole fruit, concentrates and cultivar juice blends, spurred an increase in exercise-based research to prove beneficial effects in mitigating muscle damage, oxidative stress, inflammation, and muscle pain with an impetus to increase performance [21,43,44]. ...
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Background: The purpose of this study was to examine whether short-term ingestion of a powdered tart cherry supplement prior to and following intense resistance-exercise attenuates muscle soreness and recovery strength loss, while reducing markers of muscle damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Methods: Twenty-three healthy, resistance-trained men (20.9 ± 2.6 yr, 14.2 ± 5.4 % body fat, 63.9 ± 8.6 kg FFM) were matched based on relative maximal back squat strength, age, body weight, and fat free mass. Subjects were randomly assigned to ingest, in a double blind manner, capsules containing a placebo (P, n = 12) or powdered tart cherries [CherryPURE(®)] (TC, n = 11). Participants supplemented one time daily (480 mg/d) for 10-d including day of exercise up to 48-h post-exercise. Subjects performed ten sets of ten repetitions at 70 % of a 1-RM back squat exercise. Fasting blood samples, isokinetic MVCs, and quadriceps muscle soreness ratings were taken pre-lift, 60-min, 24-h, and 48-h post-lift and analyzed by MANOVA with repeated measures. Results: Muscle soreness perception in the vastus medialis (¼) (p = 0.10) and the vastus lateralis (¼) (p = 0.024) was lower in TC over time compared to P. Compared to pre-lift, TC vastus medialis (¼) soreness was significantly attenuated up to 48-h post-lift with vastus lateralis (¼) soreness significantly lower at 24-h post-lift compared to P. TC changes in serum creatinine (p = 0.03, delta p = 0.024) and total protein (p = 0.018, delta p = 0.006) were lower over time and smaller from pre-lift levels over time compared to P Significant TC group reductions from pre-lift levels were found for AST and creatinine 48-h post-lift, bilirubin and ALT 60-min and 48-h post-lift. No significant supplementation effects were observed for serum inflammatory or anti-inflammatory markers. None of the free radical production, lipid peroxidation, or antioxidant capacity markers (NT, TBARS, TAS, SOD) demonstrated significant changes with supplementation. Changes in TC whole blood lymphocyte counts (p = 0.013) from pre-lift were greater compared to P, but TC lymphocyte counts returned to pre-lift values quicker than P. Conclusion: Short-term supplementation of Montmorency powdered tart cherries surrounding a single bout of resistance exercise, appears to be an effective dietary supplement to attenuate muscle soreness, strength decrement during recovery, and markers of muscle catabolism in resistance trained individuals.
... Montmorency tart cherries (MCs) (Prunus cerasus L.) and their derivatives are high in numerous phytochemicals (16)(17)(18)(19)(20), including the flavonoids isorhamnetin, kaempferol, quercetin, catechin, epicatechin, procyanidins, and anthocyanins (21,22). It has previously been shown that MCs attenuate inflammation (16) and oxidative stress (23,24) and accelerate exercise recovery (23)(24)(25). ...
... Participants consumed either 60 mL MC concentrate (which according to the manufacturer is estimated to be equivalent to w180 whole cherries) or fruit-flavored cordial in a blinded crossover manner. The decision to use 60 mL was based on previous studies that showed a greater uptake of anthocyanin and phenolic acids in vivo after consumption (19,20). The concentrate was diluted with 100 mL water before consumption. ...
... The HPLC diode-array detector was used to identify plasma concentrations of phenolics for the acute phase of the study (presupplementation to 8 h postsupplementation). A method previously described by Bell et al. (19) was adapted for extracting phenolic compounds from the plasma. Plasma (1 mL) and 0.5 mL propyl gallate (internal standard, 50 mg; 100 mL/mL) was mixed with 4 mL oxalic acid (10 nM) and 0.1 mL HCl (12.6 M) in 15-mL falcon tubes and centrifuged at 3000 3 g for 15 min at 48C. ...
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Background: Tart cherries contain numerous polyphenolic compounds that could potentially improve endothelial function and reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Objective: We sought to examine the acute effects of Montmorency tart cherry (MC) juice on vascular function in subjects with early hypertension. Design: A placebo-controlled, blinded, crossover, randomized Latin square design study with a washout period of ≥14 d was conducted. Fifteen men with early hypertension [systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥130 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥80 mm Hg, or both] received either a 60-mL dose of MC concentrate or placebo. Microvascular reactivity (laser Doppler imaging with iontophoresis), arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity and analysis), blood pressure, and phenolic acid absorption were assessed at baseline and at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 h postconsumption. Results: MC consumption significantly lowered SBP (P < 0.05) over a period of 3 h, with peak reductions of mean ± SEM 7 ± 3 mm Hg 2 h after MC consumption relative to the placebo. Improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors were closely linked to increases in circulating protocatechuic and vanillic acid at 1-2 h. Conclusions: MC intake acutely reduces SBP in men with early hypertension. These benefits may be mechanistically linked to the actions of circulating phenolic acids. This study provides information on a new application of MCs in health maintenance, particularly in positively modulating SBP. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02234648.
... It has been previously shown that tart cherries attenuate circulating inflammatory markers [4,8,9], improve recovery following exercise [9] and improve sleep quality [10,11]. Despite previous studies in cell culture and animal models, where cherry extracts have been shown to exert a range of cardioprotective effects [4,5], there has been only two published studies illustrating the pharmacokinetics of tart cherry phytochemicals and concurrent evidence of a biological effect [12,13]. ...
... On arrival to the laboratory, participants provided a baseline venous blood sample. As previously described [12], subsequent blood samples were taken at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 h post-MC consumption. No additional 1 3 food or fluid was provided during the study period except for low-nitrate mineral water. ...
... The levels of individual phenolics (CHL, PCA and VA) were determined by HPLC and diode array detection (DAD), using the methods described by Bell and colleagues [12]. These phenolic acids were preferentially selected as they are the most abundant degradation products of cyanidin and peonidin, the two major anthocyanins detected in the Montmorency whole cherry [6] and concentrate [12]. ...
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To investigate the phytochemical uptake following human consumption of Montmorency tart cherry (L. Prunus cerasus) and influence of selected phenolic acids on vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. In a randomised, double-blinded, crossover design, 12 healthy males consumed either 30 or 60 mL of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate. Following analysis of the juice composition, venous blood samples were taken before and 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 h post-consumption of the beverage. In addition to examining some aspects of the concentrate contents, plasma concentrations of protocatechuic acid (PCA), vanillic acid (VA) and chlorogenic (CHL) acid were analysed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array for quantitation and mass spectrometry detection (LCMS) for qualitative purposes. Vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation were also assessed in vitro. Both the 30 and 60 mL doses of Montmorency cherry concentrate contained high amounts of total phenolics (71.37 ± 0.11; 142.73 ± 0.22 mg/L) and total anthocyanins (62.47 ± 0.31; 31.24 ± 0.16 mg/L), as well as large quantities of CHL (0.205 ± 0.24; 0.410 ± 0.48 mg/L) and VA (0.253 ± 0.84; 0.506 ± 1.68 mg/L). HPLC/LCMS identified two dihydroxybenzoic acids (PCA and VA) in plasma following MC concentrate consumption. Both compounds were most abundant 1-2 h post-initial ingestion with traces detectable at 8 h post-ingestion. Cell migration was significantly influenced by the combination of PCA and VA, but not in isolation. There was no effect of the compounds on cell proliferation. These data show new information that phenolic compounds thought to exert vasoactive properties are bioavailable in vivo following MC consumption and subsequently can influence cell behaviour. These data may be useful for the design and interpretation of intervention studies investigating the health effects of Montmorency cherries.
... Many of the investigations focusing on exercise have utilized loading protocols of 7-14 days; however, the use of these foods in the clinical world have utilized ingestion periods of up to 6 months. While it may be reasoned that the longer the substance is ingested, the more anthocyanins would accumulate systemically, this has not been demonstrated [11]. On the contrary, anthocyanin absorption appears to be saturated with larger doses [12]. ...
... In a review of bioavailability studies, Manach et al. [13] found that absorption of anthocyanin from berries, berry extracts and concentrate occurs rapidly and inefficiently with peak plasma concentration between 0.75-4 h (mean 1.5 h) and maximal urinary concentration occurring 2.5-3 h after ingestion. Similarly, Keane et al. [14] found concentration of anthocyanin metabolites peaked in plasma 1 h after ingestion, returning to near baseline within 8 h, agreeing with previous work [11]. Interestingly, the vast majority of studies utilize a twice-daily ingestion protocol and unfortunately data on whether this is necessary or beneficial is limited and equivocal. ...
... Interestingly, the vast majority of studies utilize a twice-daily ingestion protocol and unfortunately data on whether this is necessary or beneficial is limited and equivocal. For example, Bell et al. [11] found significantly greater plasma anthocyanin content 1 h post ingestion in 60 vs. 30 mL of tart cherry concentrate, whereas Keane et al. [14] found no differences in peak or max concentration, nor area under the curve for 8 h between a 30 or 60 mL dose. ...
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Tart cherries are particularly high in anthocyanins and are believed to have many health benefits, including reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. However, comparison between dosages and formulations are lacking. Forty-eight participants were randomly allocated to one of six experimental treatment groups where they ingested tart cherry or placebo in either juice (240 ml per bottle) or powdered capsule form (480 mg per capsule) once or twice daily for 48 h and markers of inflammation (uric acid (UA), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)) and oxidative capacity (plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)) were measured. There was a group x time interaction for UA (p = 0.02), which declined up to 24 h post ingestion for a single capsule dose, up to 8 h for a two capsule dose, and up to 2 h for a single juice dose. There was an increase in UA from 8 h until 48 h post ingestion in a single juice dose. Overall, there was an average 8% decrease in UA. There was no significant change over time in hsCRP (p = 0.64) or ORAC (p = 0.42) or between groups in hsCRP (p = 0.47) or ORAC (p = 0.21). Our data indicates tart cherry ingestion can transiently decrease UA and not maintained with continued supplementation. Additionally, there were differences in formulations and doses indicating a single powdered capsule is most effective for lowering UA suggesting capsules may be used by those who do not enjoy the taste of tart cherry juice. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04497077, 7/29/2020, retrospectively registered.
... Tart cherries (Fruit of Prunus cerasus L., Rosaceae) and their byproducts contain numerous phytochemicals including the flavonoids kaempferol, isorhamnetin, quercetin, epicatechin, catechin, anthocyanin, and procyanidins [31][32][33][34][35][36][37]. Tart cherries have shown antioxidative [38,39], anti-inflammatory [30], anti-hypertensive [40], memory impairment lowering [41], and cardio-protection improving properties [30,31]. ...
... Different doses of TCcp such as 500, 250, and 125 mg/kg were orally supplied (in a volume of 10 mL/kg) once daily using a Zonde needle attached to 1 mL syringe for 24 days starting from two weeks before DEXA treatment. Oxymetholone (50 mg/kg) dissolved in distilled water was orally administered as reported previously [33][34][35]43]. The dosages of TCcp (500, 250, and 125 mg/kg) were decided based on previously reported in vivo bioavailability and efficacy studies using tart cherries [43]; and were classed as high, middle, and low dose groups during this study. ...
... The left hind calf thickness was recoded one day before treatment, on the day of treatment, and 1, 7, 14, 19, 23, and 24 days after test material administration using a digital caliper (Mitutoyo, Tokyo, Japan) [35]. In order to reduce the differences from the surrounding tissues, the left hind limb gastrocnemius muscle thickness was calculated after muscular exposure at sacrifice. ...
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Background and Objectives: The present study investigated the beneficial effects of tart cherry (fruit of Prunus cerasus) concentrated powder (TCcp) on glucocorticoid (GLU)-induced catabolic muscular atrophy in the skeletal muscle of mice. Furthermore, its potential mechanism was also studied. Materials and Methods: Changes in calf thickness, calf muscle weight, calf muscle strength, body weight, gastrocnemius muscle histology, immunohistochemistry, serum creatinine, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and antioxidant defense systems were measured. Malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species, glutathione content, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities in the gastrocnemius muscle, and muscle-specific mRNA expressions were evaluated. Results: After 24 days, GLU control mice showed muscular atrophy at all criteria of indexes. The muscular atrophy symptoms were significantly inhibited by oral treatment with 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of TCcp through antioxidative and anti-inflammatory modulated expression of genes involved in muscle protein degradation (myostatin, atrogin-1, SIRT1, and MuRF1) and synthesis (A1R, Akt1, TRPV4, and PI3K). Conclusions: This study shows that the TCcp (500 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg) could improve muscular atrophies caused by various etiologies.
... Furthermore, the addition of the skins in freeze-dried cherry powder supplements would increase fiber content and provide polysaccharides as an energy source to Bacteroides (17). While studies of tart cherry have been equivocal on changes in markers of inflammation with variable findings for changes in uric acid (18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23), and C-reactive protein (19-22, 24, 25), investigating the role the gut microbiome may have in modulating the inflammatory response is warranted. In terms of glucose regulation, MTC extract treatment has been shown to inhibit key enzymes in carbohydrate digestion activity, while increasing translocation of glucose transporters, thus improving insulin sensitivity in an in-vitro model (26). ...
... For microbiota changes, 12 participants per group were needed for an effect size of 1.32 (10,11). For UA, CRP, and ESR 12 participants per group were needed for an effect size of 0.72 (22), and 0.72 (18,23), and 0.63 (23), respectively. For glucose a sample size of 12 was needed for an effect size of 0.75 and for insulin a sample size of 16 was needed for an effect size of 0.58 (28). ...
... Uric acid is produced in the body from the breakdown of purines, and if not metabolized itself, can accumulate resulting in pain and inflammation. There is significant interest in the use of tart cherries to reduce UA and the incidence of gout because much of the research indicates MTC concentrate (18), MTC juice (22,23) and freeze-dried MTC decrease UA (22). The majority of studies investigating UA and tart cherry are acute in nature, with short supplementation periods (up to 48 h) with decreases of up to 36% during the initial 8 h after consumption (18,22). ...
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Tart cherries possess properties that may reduce inflammation and improve glycemic control, however human data on supplementation and the gut microbiota is equivocal. Processing (i.e., juice concentrate, dried, frozen) may affect the properties of tart cherries, and therefore alter their efficacious health benefits. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 30 days of supplementation with Montmorency tart cherry (MTC) in concentrate or freeze-dried form on the gut microbiome and markers of inflammation and glycemic control. Healthy participants with no known disease ( n = 58, age: 28 ± 10 y, height: 169.76 ± 8.55 cm, body mass: 72.2 ± 12.9 kg) were randomly allocated to four groups and consumed either concentrate or freeze-dried capsules or their corresponding placebos for 30 days. Venous blood samples were drawn at baseline, day 7, 14, and 30 and analyzed for inflammatory markers TNF-alpha, uric acid, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate and glycemic control markers glycated albumin, glucose and insulin. A fecal sample was provided at baseline, day 14 and 30 for microbiome analysis. TNF-alpha was significantly lower at 30 vs. 14 days ( p = 0.01), however there was no other significant change in the inflammatory markers. Insulin was not changed over time ( p = 0.16) or between groups ( p = 0.24), nor was glycated albumin different over time ( p = 0.08) or between groups ( p = 0.56), however glucose levels increased ( p < 0.001) from baseline (4.79 ± 1.00 mmol·L ⁻¹ ) to 14 days (5.21 ± 1.02 mmol·L ⁻¹ ) and 30 days (5.61 ± 1.22 mmol·L ⁻¹ ) but this was no different between groups ( p = 0.33). There was no significant change in composition of bacterial phyla, families, or subfamilies for the duration of this study nor was there a change in species richness. These data suggest that 30 days of MTC supplementation does not modulate the gut microbiome, inflammation, or improve glycemic control in a healthy, diverse group of adults. Clinical Trail Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04467372 , identifier: NCT04467372.
... Montmorency tart cherries (L. Prunus cerasus; MC) and their derivatives are functional foods that are high in numerous phytochemicals (1)(2)(3)(4)(5) including flavonoids such as isorhamnetin, kaempferol, quercetin, catechin, epicatechin, procyanidins and anthocyanins (6,7) . It has been previously shown that MC attenuate inflammation (1) and oxidative stress (8,9) as well as improve aspects of vascular function (3) . ...
... This estimate was based on the Brix value of sucrose in 100 g of solution. The decision to use 60 ml was based on previous studies that showed a greater uptake of anthocyanin and phenolic acids in vivo after consumption when compared with a 30-ml dose (2,3) . In addition, this study identified that of the three MC analogues studied (frozen, dried and concentrated), the MC concentrate had the greatest antioxidant activity as well as total anthocyanin and phenolic content (3) . ...
Article
Cerebral blood volume and metabolism of oxygen decline as part of human ageing, and this has been previously shown to be related to cognitive decline. There is some evidence to suggest that polyphenol-rich foods can play an important role in delaying the onset or halting the progression of age-related health disorders such as CVD and Alzheimer’s disease and to improve cognitive function. In the present study, an acute, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, cross-over, randomised Latin-square design study with a washout period of at least 14 d was conducted on twenty-seven, middle-aged (defined as 45–60 years) volunteers. Participants received either a 60 ml dose of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC), which contained 68·0 (sd 0·26) mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/l, 160·75 (sd 0·55) mean gallic acid equivalent/l and 0·59 (sd 0·02) mean Trolox equivalent/l, respectively, or a placebo. Cerebrovascular responses, cognitive performance and blood pressure were assessed at baseline and 1, 2, 3 and 5 h following consumption. There were significant differences in concentrations of total Hb and oxygenated Hb during the task period 1 h after MC consumption (P≤0·05). Furthermore, MC consumption significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (P≤0·05) over a period of 3 h, with peak reductions of 6±2 mmHg at 1 h after MC consumption relative to the placebo. Cognitive function and mood were not affected. These results show that a single dose of MC concentrate can modulate certain variables of vascular function; however, this does not translate to improvements in cognition or mood.
... 13 Supplementation with MC might have the potential to improve aspects of the dynamic V O 2 response during exercise by enhancing endothelial function and, hence, have a positive effect on performance. In addition, cyanidin-3-glucoside, an anthocyanin found in abundance in MC concentrate, 3 has been shown to increase eNOS expression and decrease inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression. 14 Such changes in the balance between eNOS and iNOS expression/activity would favor the bioavailability of the vasoactive NO. ...
... The choice to use 60 mL was based on previous work that showed a greater uptake of anthocyanin and phenolic acids in vivo post-consumption when compared to a 30 mL dose. 3,9,11 The concentrate was diluted with 100 mL of water prior to consumption. The PLA supplement consisted of a commercially available, low fruit (<1%) cordial (Kia Ora, Coca-Cola Enterprises, Uxbridge, UK) mixed with water, whey protein isolate (Arla Foods Ltd., Leeds, UK), and maltodextrin (Myprotein Ltd., Northwich, UK), to match the MC concentrate for volume and macronutrient content (energy = 204 kcal, volume = 60 mL, carbohydrates = 49 g, protein = 2.2 g, and fat = 0 g). ...
... 17 More recently, cherries and cherry products have been shown to acutely lower serum urate after consumption in healthy people, while a daily supplement of cherry juice was associated with lower serum urate in Open access a placebo-controlled cross-over study of men and women who are overweight or have obesity. [18][19][20] It is unclear which bioactive component in cherries may be responsible for the effect; Bell et al proposed that anthocyanins and/or other phenolic compounds present in cherry may be important. 18 There are very few studies in gout patients. ...
... [18][19][20] It is unclear which bioactive component in cherries may be responsible for the effect; Bell et al proposed that anthocyanins and/or other phenolic compounds present in cherry may be important. 18 There are very few studies in gout patients. In a case cross-over study of 633 gout sufferers, cherry consumption was associated with a 35% lower risk of gout flares. ...
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Introduction Gout is a painful form of inflammatory arthritis associated with several comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease. Cherries, which are rich in anti-inflammatory and antioxidative bioactive compounds, are proposed to be efficacious in preventing and treating gout, but recommendations to patients are conflicting. Cherry consumption has been demonstrated to lower serum urate levels and inflammation in several small studies. One observational case cross-over study reported that cherry consumption was associated with reduced risk of recurrent gout attacks. This preliminary evidence requires substantiation. The proposed randomised clinical trial aims to test the effect of consumption of tart cherry juice on risk of gout attacks. Methods and analysis This 12-month, parallel, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial will recruit 120 individuals (aged 18–80 years) with a clinical diagnosis of gout who have self-reported a gout flare in the previous year. Participants will be randomly assigned to an intervention group, which will receive Montmorency tart cherry juice daily for a 12-month period, or a corresponding placebo group, which will receive a cherry-flavoured placebo drink. The primary study outcome is change in frequency of self-reported gout attacks. Secondary outcome measures include attack intensity, serum urate concentration, fractional excretion of uric acid, biomarkers of inflammation, blood lipids and other markers of cardiovascular risk. Other secondary outcome measures will be changes in physical activity and functional status. Statistical analysis will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis. Ethics and dissemination This study has been granted ethical approval by the National Research Ethics Service, Yorkshire and The Humber—Leeds West Research Ethics Committee (ref: 18/SW/0262). Results of the trial will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number NCT03621215 .
... Human studies have established that MTC has anti-inflammatory (Bell, McHugh, et al., 2014), anti-oxidative (Bell, McHugh, et al., 2014), anti-hypertensive (Keane, George, et al., 2016) and anti-hyperuricaemic (Bell, Gaze, et al., 2014) properties. Correspondingly, rats fed MTC displayed significantly improved lipid profiles and reduced fat mass, hyperinsulinaemia and hyperglycaemia compared to control animals (Seymour et al., 2008. ...
... To further compound the issue, the recommended daily dose as prescribed by Cherry Active is mixing 30 ml MTC with 240 ml water (equivalent to 111 µl/ml). Moreover, despite pharmacokinetic studies with MTC examining anthocyanin and phenolic concentrations in systemic circulation (Bell, Gaze, et al., 2014;Keane, Bell, et al., 2016;Seymour et al., 2014), there is no evidence of how much MTC is being absorbed into tissues in humans, although this has been investigated in healthy rats (Kirakosyan et al., 2015). ...
Article
Montmorency Tart Cherries, MTC, (Prunus cerasus L.) possess a high anthocyanin content as well as one of the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacities of fruits at common habitual portion sizes. MTC have been shown to contribute to reducing plasma lipids, plasma glucose and fat mass in rats and strikingly, similar effects are observed in humans. However, there is a paucity of research examining the molecular mechanisms by which such MTC effects are induced. Here, we show that when exposed to MTC, Caenorhabditis elegans display an extension of lifespan, with a corresponding increase in fat content and increase in neuromuscular function. Using RNA interference, we have confirmed that MTC is likely to function via the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) signalling pathway. Further, consumption of MTC alters the pharyngeal pumping rate of worms which provides encouraging evidence that MTC may be operating as a calorie restriction mimetic via metabolic pathways.
... 13 Supplementation with MC might have the potential to improve aspects of the dynamic V O 2 response during exercise by enhancing endothelial function and, hence, have a positive effect on performance. In addition, cyanidin-3-glucoside, an anthocyanin found in abundance in MC concentrate, 3 has been shown to increase eNOS expression and decrease inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression. 14 Such changes in the balance between eNOS and iNOS expression/activity would favor the bioavailability of the vasoactive NO. ...
... The choice to use 60 mL was based on previous work that showed a greater uptake of anthocyanin and phenolic acids in vivo post-consumption when compared to a 30 mL dose. 3,9,11 The concentrate was diluted with 100 mL of water prior to consumption. The PLA supplement consisted of a commercially available, low fruit (<1%) cordial (Kia Ora, Coca-Cola Enterprises, Uxbridge, UK) mixed with water, whey protein isolate (Arla Foods Ltd., Leeds, UK), and maltodextrin (Myprotein Ltd., Northwich, UK), to match the MC concentrate for volume and macronutrient content (energy = 204 kcal, volume = 60 mL, carbohydrates = 49 g, protein = 2.2 g, and fat = 0 g). ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Montmorency tart cherry juice (MC) on nitric oxide (NO) biomarkers, vascular function and exercise performance. In a randomized, double blind, placebo (PLA) – controlled, crossover study, 10 trained cyclists (mean ± SD; V̇O2peak 59.0 ± 7.0 ml/kg/min) acutely ingested 30 mL of either MC or PLA following dietary restrictions of polyphenol‐rich compounds, and completed 6 min moderate‐ and severe‐intensity cycling bouts 1.5 h post ingestion on two occasions for each experimental condition. The severe‐intensity cycling test was continued to exhaustion on one occasion and immediately followed by a 60 s all‐out sprint on the other occasion. Blood pressure, pulse wave measures, tissue oxygenation index and plasma nitrite concentration were assessed pre and 1.5 h post ingestion. Time to exhaustion was not different between conditions (P > 0.05), but peak power over the first 20 s (363 ± 42 vs. 330 ± 26 W) and total work completed during the 60 s all‐out sprint (21 ± 3 vs. 19 ± 3 kJ) were 10% higher in the MC trial compared to the PLA trial (P < 0.05). Systolic blood pressure was 5 ± 2 mmHg lower 1.5 h post MC supplementation compared to PLA supplementation (P < 0.05). There were no differences in pulse wave measures, plasma nitrite concentration or tissue oxygenation between the MC and PLA trials (P > 0.05). These results suggest that acute supplementation with MC can lower blood pressure and improve some aspects of exercise performance, specifically end‐sprint performance, in trained cyclists. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... 24 One tablespoon (0.5 oz/~15 ml) of cherry juice concentrate made from fresh cherries is equivalent to 45-60 cherries, 25 with a 30 ml (1 oz) dose of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate equivalent to 90 whole Montmorency cherries. 26 Most tart cherry extracts and powders are available as oral capsules, for which one of the available commercial products contains 480 mg of tart Montmorency cherry powder, roughly equivalent to 16 ounces of tart cherry juice. 27 Anthocyanins, phenolic compounds belonging to the family of flavonoids, are water-soluble pigments found in cherries that possess both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, 28-31 characteristics attracting increasing interest over their potential health benefits. ...
... The plasma urate concentration decreased by 14% 5 h after consuming two servings of sweet Bing cherries (~45 cherries), with a 73% increase in urinary urate at 3 h. 78 This compares with 30 ml (1 oz) of tart cherry concentrate (equivalent to 90 cherries), which was associated with ~36% decrease in SU, and ~250% increase in urinary urate excretion, 26 with similar results seen with 60 ml tart cherry concentrate. In contrast, two small studies using cherry juice concentrate for gout flare prophylaxis in patients with crystal-proven gout, also at a dose equivalent to ~90 cherries, showed a decrease in gout flare rate despite no significant change in SU from baseline. ...
Article
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Despite the availability of effective urate-lowering therapy (ULT) and anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of gout, there is considerable interest in novel treatment approaches. Patients with gout often have a multitude of comorbidities, leading to concern over drug–drug interactions and medication adverse events. The cherry is a small nutrient-rich fruit that has garnered a great deal of attention in recent years as a nonpharmacologic option for the treatment of a multitude of disease manifestations. Perhaps a quarter of patients with gout try cherries or cherry products to treat their gout, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, COX-I and -II) properties, hypouricemic effects, and the ability to downregulate NFkB-mediated osteoclastogenesis. Based on these properties, cherries may reduce both the acute and chronic inflammation associated with recurrent gout flares and its chronic destructive arthropathy. In this review, we explore the potential benefits of cherries and cherry products as a nonpharmacologic option for the treatment of gout.
... 32 One study compared the effects of different doses of the same cherry juice. 33 There were no differences in the responses to a dosing regimen of 30 ml (approximately 90 cherries) versus 60 ml (approximately 180 cherries) of cherry juice concentrate per day for 2 days. Both doses acutely reduced systemic inflammation after the first serving, but values had returned to baseline the next day. ...
... It takes several days of consuming cherry juice to induce measurable changes in markers of antioxidant status 8,31 or systemic inflammation. 10,33 While the absence of such changes after a dosing regimen, prior to an exercise insult, does not preclude a subsequent post-exercise benefit, it does point to the potential for a greater benefit with a precovery versus recovery regimen. This conclusion is supported by the fact that the only study failing to show a benefit of cherry juice for a measure of muscle function on the days after an exercise insult did not provide juice on the days prior to the exercise. ...
Article
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Cherry juice has become a standard component of athlete recovery strategies. This review covers the history of cherry juice as a recovery drink to give context to its current use. Fifteen studies were identified that included a measure of muscle function, soreness, or inflammation on the days following exercise, and had an exercise insult sufficient to assess the effectiveness of the tart cherry intervention. Eight studies used a concentrated juice, three used a juice from fresh‐frozen cherries, two used a tart cherry concentrate gel and two used a tart cherry powder. The effective juice dose was specific to the type of drink (fresh‐frozen versus concentrate) but dose‐response studies are lacking, and thus the optimal dose for any specific type of cherry juice is not known. Timing of the dosing regimen is a critical factor. Studies have uniformly shown that muscle function will recover faster on the days after exercise if juice is provided for several days prior to exercise. Effects on soreness or systemic inflammation are more equivocal. The available evidence does not support a regimen that begins on the day of exercise or post exercise. Tart cherry powder did not enhance any metric of recovery on the days after exercise. In conclusion, the term recovery implies an intervention that is introduced after an exercise insult. The term “precovery” may be preferable to describe interventions that should be introduced on the days prior to exercise to facilitate recovery on the days after exercise. The evidence supports cherry juice as a precovery intervention across a range of athletic activities.
... Anthocyanin pharmacokinetics after consuming whole Montmorency tart cherries indicated parent anthocyanin concentrations in plasma peaked 2-4 h post-ingestion, and excretion rates in urine peaked 6-8 h post-ingestion (Seymour et al., 2014). Similarly, Bell, Gaze et al. (2014) reported increased uptake of cyandin-3-O-glucoside in plasma, compared to baseline at 3-and 5-h post-consumption of 30 mL MTC concentrate in healthy humans. Correspondingly, Keane, Bell et al. (2016) reported the secondary metabolites of cyandin-3-Oglucoside, protocatechuic and vanillic acids were also elevated at 1-h and 2-h post-consumption of 30 mL MTC concentrate, respectively, in healthy humans. ...
... Each 30 mL serving of MTC concentrate provided a total anthocyanin content of 270 mg (9 mg·mL −1 ) (Howatson et al., 2010). In MTC concentrate, the most abundant anthocyanins include, cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside and peonidin-3rutinoside (Bell, Gaze et al., 2014). In order to match the anthocyanin content of MTCJ, participants consumed 10 Montmorency tart cherry capsules (Cherry Active Capsules, Active Edge, Ltd, Hanworth, UK) with 130 mL water. ...
Article
This study compared acute supplementation of Montmorency tart cherries in capsule (MTCC) and juice (MTCJ) forms in MetS humans, as potential prophylactic interventions against cardio-metabolic diseases. In an acute, single-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, crossover trial, eleven participants with MetS (49 ± 12 years; 6M/5F), consumed one bolus of MTCC, MTCJ or placebo (PLA) on different occasions. Blood-based and functional cardio-metabolic biomarkers were measured pre-bolus and up to 5 h post-bolus. MTCJ significantly reduced systolic blood pressure compared to PLA at 2-h post-bolus (P = 0.018). Insulin was significantly lower with MTCC (P = 0.016) and MTCJ (P = 0.028) than PLA at 1-h and 3-h post-bolus, respectively. No significant differences between MTCC and MTCJ were seen. This study demonstrated for the first time that MTCC could reduce insulin concentrations in humans. Importantly, MTCJ induced a clinically relevant reduction in systolic blood pressure and also lowered insulin compared to PLA, in MetS humans.
... Many herbal plant species were explored to be antigout and reduce uric acid in blood such as Lagerstroemia speciosa [4], [56,83], Origanum majorana [84], Prunus cerasus [85], Phyllanthus niruri [86], Glycine max and Arabidopsis thaliana [87], Vinca sp. [10,88] and Colchicum sp. ...
Article
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Uric acid increased accumulation and/or reduced excretion in human bodies is closely related to pathogenesis of gout and hyperuricemia. It is highly affected by the high intake of food rich in purine. Uric acid is present in both higher plants and microorganisms with species dependent concentration. Urate-degrading enzymes are found both in plants and microorganisms but the mechanisms by which plant degrade uric acid was found to be different among them. Higher plants produce various metabolites which could inhibit xanthine oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase, so prohibit the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine then to uric acid in the purine metabolism. However, microorganisms produce group of degrading enzymes uricase, allantoinase, allantoicase and urease, which catalyze the degradation of uric acid to the ammonia. In humans, researchers found that several mutations caused a pseudogenization (silencing) of the uricase gene in ancestral apes which exist as an insoluble crystalloid in peroxisomes. This is in contrast to microorganisms in which uricases are soluble and exist either in cytoplasm or peroxisomes. Moreover, many recombinant uricases with higher activity than the wild type uricases could be induced successfully in many microorganisms. The present review deals with the occurrence of uric acid in plants and other organisms specially microorganisms in addition to the mechanisms by which plant extracts, metabolites and enzymes could reduce uric acid in blood. The genetic and genes encoding for uric acid in plants and microorganisms are also presented.
... A limitation of this study is that we did not compare the efficacy of tart cherry whey to regular tart cherry juice. However, as many investigations have found tart cherry supplements to decrease inflammation (Bell et al., 2014;Jacob et al., 2003;Kelley, Rasooly, Jacob, Kader, & Mackey, 2006), oxidative stress (Traustadottir et al., 2009) and subjective pain (Tall et al., 2004), a comparison between the two, in terms of muscle damage markers may not be necessary. However, the additional antioxidant potential of the whey protein in the tart cherry supplement cannot be differentiated from the effects of tart cherry alone and thus may need further investigation. ...
Article
Exercise induced muscle damage can increase perceived pain which may decrease adherence to an exercise program. Purpose: To determine the effects of tart cherry juice with whey protein (TCW) on recovery from plyometric exercise. Methods: Sixteen participants (10 male, 6 female, Age: 23 ± 5 years, Height: 171 ± 13 cm, Weight: 79 ± 16 kg) ingested two 240 mL bottles of TCW or placebo beverage (PLA) twice daily for 10 days. Participants completed 5 Â 20 drop jumps on day 6. Results: Both groups experienced muscle soreness (TCW: 21 mm vs. PLA: 33 mm), elevated CK (305 ± 176 UL) and LDH (196 ± 19 UL) 24 h post exercise. ORAC was significantly higher in TWC post supplementation (126 ± 48 lM vs. PLA: 58 ± 46 lM) and 48 h post exercise (641 ± 114 lM vs. PLA: 314 ± 113 lM). Conclusion: TCW can increase ORAC and may attenuate perceived soreness.
... The exact mechanism remains unclear, but the authors speculate that the SUA lowering action is likely due to anti-inflammatory effects of polyphenols present in cherries [175 mg/ 100 g in sweet cherries (Neveu et al. 2010)], rather than the vitamin C content which is only 11 mg per 100 g (PHE 2015). A similar study performed in healthy individuals (n = 20) reported a larger decrease in SUA concentrations after consumption of tart cherry concentrate (30% at 5 hours post-consumption) (Bell et al. 2014). Furthermore, a small RCT compared daily consumption of two tablespoons of either cherry (n = 9) or pomegranate concentrate (n = 5) (equivalent to 90-120 cherries or two pomegranates) for 4 months in gout sufferers. ...
Article
Anecdotally, consumption of 'rich' foods and drinks, such as cheese and port, has been associated with the development of gout, a painful condition linked to high serum uric acid which normally affects joints in the extremities, such as toes. Risk factors for gout include obesity, genetics and use of certain medications, and men appear to be more at risk. In addition, sufferers report that certain foods trigger gout flares, although there is a paucity of evidence from randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of specific foods on circulating uric acid. Observational studies have consistently identified a positive relationship between gout and some, but not all, foods higher in compounds known as purines, which have been demonstrated to increase serum uric acid in their purified form under controlled conditions. This evidence indicates that foods which should be avoided or consumed infrequently by gout sufferers are offal, seafood and alcohol, especially beer, whereas dairy foods seem to be protective. Current dietary guidelines for the prevention and management of gout share common features and largely reflect international healthy eating guidelines, but differences exist in terms of reference to particular foods or nutrients such as fructose, vitamin C and cherries. More randomised controlled trials are needed to fully ascertain the effects of dietary components on gout risk and to generate more consistent guidelines.
... A limitation of this study is that we did not compare the efficacy of tart cherry whey to regular tart cherry juice. However, as many investigations have found tart cherry supplements to decrease inflammation (Bell et al., 2014;Jacob et al., 2003;Kelley, Rasooly, Jacob, Kader, & Mackey, 2006), oxidative stress (Traustadottir et al., 2009) and subjective pain (Tall et al., 2004), a comparison between the two, in terms of muscle damage markers may not be necessary. However, the additional antioxidant potential of the whey protein in the tart cherry supplement cannot be differentiated from the effects of tart cherry alone and thus may need further investigation. ...
... Montmorency tart cherries have been shown on numerous occasions to be of benefit in exercise recovery [12][13][14][15][16], which have been proposed to be as a result of the high concentrations of phytochemicals, and in particular, the flavanoids anthocyanins [14,[17][18][19]. These compounds can reduce oxidative stress and been shown to be a cyclooxygenase inhibitor (COX), to a similar extent as NSAIDs [20,21]. ...
Article
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This study investigated Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC) supplementation on markers of recovery following prolonged, intermittent sprint activity. Sixteen semi-professional, male soccer players, who had dietary restrictions imposed for the duration of the study, were divided into two equal groups and consumed either MC or placebo (PLA) supplementation for eight consecutive days (30 mL twice per day). On day 5, participants completed an adapted version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST ADAPT). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), 20 m Sprint, counter movement jump (CMJ), agility and muscle soreness (DOMS) were assessed at baseline, and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Measures of inflammation (IL-1-β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, hsCRP), muscle damage (CK) and oxidative stress (LOOH) were analysed at baseline and 1, 3, 5, 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Performance indices (MVIC, CMJ and agility) recovered faster and muscle soreness (DOMS) ratings were lower in the MC group (p < 0.05). Additionally, the acute inflammatory response (IL-6) was attenuated in the MC group. There were no effects for LOOH and CK. These findings suggest MC is efficacious in accelerating recovery following prolonged, repeat sprint activity, such as soccer and rugby, and lends further evidence that polyphenol-rich foods like MC are effective in accelerating recovery following various types of strenuous exercise.
... Montmorency tart cherries have been shown on numerous occasions to be of benefit in exercise recovery [12][13][14][15][16], which have been proposed to be as a result of the high concentrations of phytochemicals, and in particular, the flavanoids anthocyanins [14,[17][18][19]. These compounds can reduce oxidative stress and been shown to be a cyclooxygenase inhibitor (COX), to a similar extent as NSAIDs [20,21]. ...
... Most studies focused on the cultivars 'Montmorency' and 'Balaton' (this name is a synonym of 'Újfehértói fürtös', a cultivar with Hungarian origin), due to their high in vitro antioxidant activity [16,17]. However, some Hungarian sour cherry cultivars were confirmed to possess higher in vitro antioxidant capacity compared to 'Montmorency' and 'Balaton' [10]. ...
Article
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The aims of the present study were to clarify in vivo effects of three sour cherry cultivars characterized by different polyphenolic composition in hyperlipidemic animals in a short term experiment. The three different sour cherry cultivars were chosen based on their total in vitro antioxidant capacity, total polyphenolic, monomeric anthocyanin and flavonoid content. Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into eight groups: rats kept on normal diet (control) and normal diet supplied with sour cherry powder of one of the three cultivars; others were kept on fat-rich diet and fat-rich diet supplied with sour cherry powder prepared from one of the three cultivars. The treatment lasted 10 days. Lyophilized sour cherry administered in the diet decreased both total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels, and increased the HDL cholesterol concentration in sera of hyperlipidemic animals. Significant differences were found in the efficacy of different sour cherry cultivars in case of hyperlipidemia. Sour cherries characterized by higher polyphenol content seem to have a more pronounced effect on serum cholesterol levels. Our results suggest that besides anthocyanins, colourless polyphenols also have lipid lowering effect.
... Therefore, xanthine oxidase inhibitors may represent potential therapeutic agents to treat hyperuricaemia, as they could be used to block uric acid biosynthesis [13]. Although several medicinal plants are used to prevent and treat hyperuricaemia and gout, based on traditional medicine systems [14,15], use of miracle fruit to treat hyperuricaemic is minimal, due to a lack of formal scientific evidence to support its effectiveness. Miracle fruit contains epicatechin, rutin, quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, ferulic acid, syringic acid, three anthocyanins (delphinidin glucoside, cyanidin galactoside, and malvidin galactoside), three tocopherols, and lutein [2,16]. ...
Article
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Miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) belongs to the Sapotaceae family. It can change flavors on taste buds, transforming acidic tastes to sweet. We evaluated various miracle fruit extracts, including water, butanol, ethyl acetate (EA), and hexane fractions, to determine its antioxidant effects. These extracts isolated from miracle fruit exerted potential for reduction of uric acid and inhibited xanthine oxidase activity in vitro and in monosodiumurate (MSU)-treated RAW264.7 macrophages. Moreover, we also found that the butanol extracts of miracle fruit attenuated oxonic acid potassium salt-induced hyperuricaemia in ICR mice by lowering serum uric acid levels and activating hepatic xanthine oxidase. These effects were equal to those of allopurinol, suggesting that the butanol extract of miracle fruit could be developed as a novel anti-hyperuricaemia agent or health food.
... Tart Montmorency cherries are purported to be high in numerous phytochemicals, such as anthocyanins, and other polyphenolic compounds such as quercetin that possess anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties [23,24]. Growing interest in these functional foods has gained momentum in recent years and there is a mounting body of evidence to suggest Montmorency cherries can facilitate exercise recovery [24][25][26][27][28]; this is likely attributable to the increased bioavailability of these anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative phytochemicals following ingestion [29,30]. In a recent addition to the literature, Bell et al. [24] showed that in trained cyclists, consumption of a Montmorency cherry concentrate (in comparison to a calorific matched placebo) resulted in a reduction in lipid hyperoxides and a concomitant reduction in inflammation (IL-6 and C-reactive protein) following repeated days strenuous cycling. ...
Article
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Background Prolonged exercise, such as marathon running, has been associated with an increase in respiratory mucosal inflammation. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the effects of Montmorency cherry juice on markers of stress, immunity and inflammation following a Marathon. Methods Twenty recreational Marathon runners consumed either cherry juice (CJ) or placebo (PL) before and after a Marathon race. Markers of mucosal immunity secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), immunoglobulin G (IgG), salivary cortisol, inflammation (CRP) and self-reported incidence and severity of upper respiratory tract symptoms (URTS) were measured before and following the race. Results All variables except secretory IgA and IgG concentrations in saliva showed a significant time effect (P <0.01). Serum CRP showed a significant interaction and treatment effect (P < 0.01). The CRP increase at 24 and 48 h post-Marathon was lower (P < 0.01) in the CJ group compared to PL group. Mucosal immunity and salivary cortisol showed no interaction effect or treatment effect. The incidence and severity of URTS was significantly greater than baseline at 24 h and 48 h following the race in the PL group and was also greater than the CJ group (P < 0.05). No URTS were reported in the CJ group whereas 50 % of runners in the PL group reported URTS at 24 h and 48 h post-Marathon. Conclusions This is the first study that provides encouraging evidence of the potential role of Montmorency cherries in reducing the development of URTS post-Marathon possibly caused by exercise-induced hyperventilation trauma, and/or other infectious and non-infectious factors.
... The fruit-derived anthocyanins used in these studies were cherry [8,12,17,28,29,40], blackcurrant [23][24][25]30,[41][42][43][44], pomegranate [38,39], açai [15], juçara fruit [11,18] and the supplementation protocol/duration ranged from acute consumption [11,18,28,39] to 20 days [12]. The anthocyanins most prevalent in fruits of the studies included in this review were: cyanidin3-O-glucosiderutinoside, prevalent in cherry [45], delphinidin-3-rutinoside, prevalent in blackcurrant [46], cyanidin and delphinidin glucosides, prevalent in pomegranate [47,48], and cyanidin 3-glycoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside, prevalent in açai and juçara fruits [49][50][51][52]. ...
Article
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Previous evidence has shown that the consumption of fruit-derived anthocyanins may have exercise benefits. This review aimed to summarize the effects of fruit-derived anthocyanins on cycling-induced responses and cycling performance. Medline, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, and SPORTDiscus online databases were searched. Nineteen articles met the inclusion criteria. The fruit-derived anthocyanins used in these studies were from cherry (n = 6), blackcurrant (n = 8), pomegranate (n = 2), açai (n = 1), and juçara fruit (n = 2), and were offered in juice, pulp, powder, freeze-dried powder, and extract form. The supplementation time ranged from acute consumption to 20 days, and the amount of anthocyanins administered in the studies ranged from 18 to 552 mg/day. The studies addressed effects on oxidative stress (n = 5), inflammation (n = 4), muscle damage (n = 3), fatigue (n = 2), nitric oxide biomarkers (n = 2), vascular function (n = 2), muscle oxygenation (n = 2), performance (n = 14), substrate oxidation (n = 6), and cardiometabolic markers (n = 3). The potential ergogenic effect of anthocyanin supplementation on cycling-induced responses seems to be related to lower oxidative stress, inflammation, muscle damage, and fatigue, and increased production of nitric oxide, with subsequent improvements in vascular function and muscle oxygenation leading to improved performance. In addition, the observed increase in fat oxidation can direct nutritional strategies to change the use of substrate and improve performance.
... But there are significant differences in phytochemical content and antioxidant activity among the different black rice varieties . Bell et al. (2014) reported that the major compositions of anthocyanidin glucoside in cherry was cyanidin-3-o-glucosiderutinoside which is similar as red rice. Cyanidin acts as antioxidant and anti-carcinogenesis properties and an important role in osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoporosis (Cheng et al., 2017), which implies the potential medical function about the red rice. ...
Article
Using HPLC, it was demonstrated that the major free phenolic compound in the pericarp and seed coat of red rice was cyanidin, which belong to anthocyanidin glucoside, exist only in the episperm of red rice as content of 1.64±0.10 mg/g. Anthocyanidin glucoside play a significant role in eliminating free radicals and reacting oxygen species (ROS) to prevent cellular oxidative stress. However, the chemical stability of anthocyanidin glucoside has been one of the major drawbacks for health applications. For longer storage, our results showed that red rice anthocyanidin glucoside could be stored with 0.3 % Vitamin C or 0.5 % NaHSO 3 , and be protected from light, high temperature, high pH and metal ions in environment. Antioxidant activity verified that anthocyanidin glucoside performed better than Vitamin C in ferrous ions chelating activity, scavenging activities for hydroxyl and DPPH radicals. Overall, the red rice might be used as a natural antioxidant supplement applying medical treatments in future days.
... Entretanto, a utilização de um placebo com adição de carboidratos pode ser considerada uma limitação do estudode Howatson et al (2010).Febbraio et al. (2003) demonstraram que o consumo de carboidratos pode atenuar a resposta de IL-6. Porém,Bell et al. (2014a) demonstraram que o consumo de um composto rico em ANN levou à atenuação significante da resposta de IL-6 após o exercício, quando comparado com o consumo de um placebo isocalórico. Ademais, os resultadosde Howatson et al. (2010) diferiram dosde Kelley et al. (2006), no que diz respeito à atenuação do processo inflamatório. ...
... Potassium-citrate is one such type of alkali salt, whose citrate portion is known to promote uric acid excretion and may have also contributed to the decline in uric acid observed in this study [13]. Moreover, in acute feeding studies, both Jacob et al. and Bell et al. reported that the consumption of cherry products significantly decreased serum urate by 31 μmol/L (p<0.05) and 178 μmol/L (p<0.001) at 5 and 8 h post-dose respectively [31,32]. Jacob et al. intervened with a 280 g bowel of cherries, while Bell et al. administered a 60 ml shot of cherry juice concentrate, reportedly equivalent to 180 whole cherries, which may explain the differences in effect sizes. ...
Article
Background To evaluate the safety, efficacy and tolerability of a combination micronutrient and polyherbal preparation ( GoutFighterTM ) for gout management. Methods A single arm, open-label pilot study was conducted at the National Hospital for Traditional Medicine in Vietnam. Participants (n=35 recruited) diagnosed with chronic gout received four tablets of GoutFighterTM daily over a 45-day period. Efficacy was assessed by changes in pain, swelling and blood uric acid levels, with concurrent safety and tolerability assessments. Results A total of 27 (85.2% male) participants (mean ± SD age, 54.2 ± 12.5 years; BMI, 24.2 ± 3.6 kg/m ² ) with gout (median [IQR], years since diagnosis 4.0 [3.0–8.0]) completed intervention. In relation to safety, there were no significant changes in vital signs, blood biochemistry or cell counts. In regard to efficacy, the degree of perceived pain and frequency of joint swelling significantly declined after 15 and 30 days of treatment, respectively, and remained so until the end of trial. Mean blood uric acid levels also declined by 25.8 μmol/L (95% CI, 3.7 to 48.0, p=0.024). Overall, the predominance of participants (96.3%) responded favorably to treatment (p<0.0001) and GoutFighterTM was well tolerated, with no serious adverse events. Conclusion Clinically relevant doses of GoutFighterTM were found to be generally safe, well-tolerated and effective for the short-term, symptomatic relief of chronic gout. GoutFighterTM appears to be suitable as an adjunctive treatment in lifestyle programs for gout management, and further investigation in placebo-controlled trials is therefore warranted.
... These bioactive properties provide important potential applications for TC supplementation in the management and treatment of various clinical pathologies which are linked to chronic elevation of oxidative stress and inflammation, such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases (30)(31)(32)(33). Indeed, there is evidence to suggest that TC supplementation is able to reduce pain and other clinical symptoms associated with knee osteoarthritis (34), to improve vascular function and cardio-metabolic markers (35)(36)(37) and to reduce uric acid markers, which has important implications for gout management (38,39). Although, not all studies have found such favorable effects [for a review, see (40)]. ...
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Tart cherries (TC) are a rich source of polyphenols that elicit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. As a consequence, the effects of TC derived supplements on markers of human health, exercise performance and sleep have been investigated. Supplementation protocols have been highly variable across studies and the dose of bioactive compounds used has often been poorly characterized. Specific and non-specific analytical methods were employed for measuring the total polyphenol and anthocyanin content in TC supplements. This review critically analyses the supplementation protocols and the analytical methods used for the characterization of TC supplements, culminating in recommendations for good practice in the analysis and reporting of the polyphenol content and profile of TC products. A literature search was conducted using PubMed/Medline and Web of Science up to May 4th, 2020, including studies published in all years prior. Only articles written in English that provided a TC dietary supplement as opposed to fresh whole TC were included in this review. Forty-three studies were identified as eligible and included for analysis in this review. The studies investigated the effects of TC supplementation on various aspects of human health, exercise recovery and performance and sleep. Twenty studies conducted an analysis of TC supplement and reported total polyphenol/anthocyanin content. Six studies did not report the polyphenol content of the TC supplement used. Seventeen studies reported the TC supplement polyphenol content but this was derived from previously published studies and presumably different supplement batches. The duration of the supplementation protocol ranged from acute supplementation to 84 days, meanwhile the total polyphenol and anthocyanin dose ranged from 143 to 2,140 mg/day and 15 to 547 mg/day, respectively. Due to the variety of specific and non-specific analytical methods used, the relative efficacy of different doses and polyphenol blends cannot reliably be extrapolated from critical analysis of the literature. Future studies should conduct an analysis of the study supplement batch. In addition to analysis and reporting of total polyphenol content, specific analytical methods such as HPLC UV/MS should be used to quantify total and individual anthocyanin contents.
... Such properties are directly linked with a high antiradical potential resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds, including a high percentage of anthocyanins. The latter ones, especially, are known to have significant medicinal properties, among others: cardiovascular disease prevention, anti-inflammatory, DNA damage protection, and enzymatic and lipid peroxidation inhibition (Damar & Ekşi 2012;Bell et al. 2014;Wojdyło et al. 2014a;Braga et al. 2017). In the world of constant rush and stress, chronic diseases are increasingly diagnosed in ever younger people. ...
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The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of hybrid drying methods (convective-microwave and convective-microwave-ultrasound) for sour cherry fruit preservation compared to convective drying. As the raw material, three sour cherry cultivars varying in quality characteristics (‘Łutówka’, ‘Debreceni Bötermo’, ‘Nefris’) were used. Before drying, fruits were subjected to osmotic treatment. Three different drying methods were examined: 1) convective (C), 2) hybrid with microwaves (C-MV) and 3) hybrid with microwaves and ultrasound (C-MV-US). As the quality indicators of the investigated processes, the changes in chemical composition, including alterations in the main groups of bioactive components, as well as in the antioxidant potential were monitored at each production stage. It was found that, when compared to convective drying, the use of the hybrid techniques allowed the drying time to be reduced from 9 to just 3 hours. Furthermore, employing hybrid drying eliminated the problems associated with the dehydration barrier observed during convective drying of the cultivar ‘Debreceni Bötermo’. Regrettably, although the ultrasound used as the additional source of energy in the hybrid method slightly improved water evaporation, in general no significant effect on the retention of phenolic compounds was found. Irrespectively of the drying method, the effect of the cultivar proved to be crucial to the quality of the final product. Under the same processing conditions, ‘Nefris’ turned out to be the most promising cultivar for producing ready-to-eat fruit snacks of high nutritional value.
... Fresh blueberries are not only characterized by a noble aroma and taste, they are also an excellent source of nutritional compounds, like vitamin C, minerals, and dietary fiber, but first and foremost, they are rich in polyphenols, offering an abundance of anthocyanins with widely proven health promoting benefits (Bell et al., 2014;Castañeda-Ovando, Pacheco-Hernández, Páez-Hernández, Rodríguez & Galán-Vidal, 2009;Khoo, Clausen, Pedersen, & Larsen, 2011;Tarhan, Ergunes, & Taser, 2006). Unfortunately, these food colorants are extremely sensitive to mechanical, physical or chemical treatment (Michalska & Łysiak, 2015). ...
... The cherry fruit is a nutrient dense food containing a significant amount also of potentially bioactive food components, including chlorogenic acid isomers and anthocyanins [77]. As expected from the phytochemical composition of cherry, cyanidin glycosides were consistently found in plasma after cherry consumption in three intervention studies [78][79][80]. However, cyanidin glycosides are unlikely to serve as biomarkers of cherry intake for various reasons, including their chemical instability at neutral pH and their non-specificity to cherry (Table 3). ...
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Abstract Fruit is a key component of a healthy diet. However, it is still not clear whether some classes of fruit may be more beneficial than others and whether all individuals whatever their age, gender, health status, genotype, or gut microbiota composition respond in the same way to fruit consumption. Such questions require further observational and intervention studies in which the intake of a specific fruit can be precisely assessed at the population and individual levels. Within the Food Biomarker Alliance Project (FoodBAll Project) under the Joint Programming Initiative “A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life”, an ambitious action was undertaken aiming at reviewing existent literature in a systematic way to identify validated and promising biomarkers of intake for all major food groups, including fruits. This paper belongs to a series of reviews following the same BFIRev protocol and is focusing on biomarkers of pome and stone fruit intake. Selected candidate biomarkers extracted from the literature search went through a validation process specifically developed for food intake biomarkers.
... For example, in 1 study, men and women (n = 18) with BMI 20-30 consumed pitted sweet cherries (280 g for 4 wk), which significantly decreased numerous proinflammatory and associated biomarkers, including hsCRP, by 20.1% (19). Others have also shown significant reductions in serum hsCRP after TCJ consumption in 16 trained cyclists postexercise and in 12 healthy men and women 3 h postconsumption (38,39). Collectively, there are numerous studies supporting marked reductions in hsCRP after consumption of cherries (tart and sweet) but the data are inconsistent, with some results displaying statistical significance whereas other results do not, even when the magnitudes of change are similar. ...
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Background Gout is a frequently occurring, complex rheumatologic form of inflammatory arthritis caused by the accumulation of serum uric acid (sUA) and deposition of uric acid crystals in the joints and tissues of the body. Hyperuricemia is also a significant independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and is associated with hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and osteoarthritis. However, patient adherence to prescribed urate-lowering therapies ranges from 20% to 70%, suggesting that other additional strategies, such as dietary intervention with specific, efficacious foods or beverages, may be necessary to mitigate the risk of arthritis, as well as other comorbidities. Tart cherry juice (TCJ) has been used for decades by some for gout based largely on anecdotal evidence of its efficacy and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Objectives We designed this study to test the effect of TCJ on uricemia, lipidemia, glycemia, and inflammation in at-risk overweight and obese humans with a specific hypothesis that TCJ consumption would reduce sUA concentrations. Methods In this randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study, we recruited overweight and obese participants with body mass index (BMI) >25.0 kg/m² (n = 26, 18 women/8 men, 41 ±11 y; BMI 31.3 ± 6.0; 12 obese, 14 overweight) to consume 240 mL/d (8 oz/d) of either TCJ or placebo beverage, for 4 wk each with a 4-wk intervening washout period followed by 4 wk of the alternate beverage. Results TCJ significantly reduced sUA concentration by 19.2% (P < 0.05) and reduced by 19.4% (P = 0.09) and 6.3% (P = 0.08) proinflammatory high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, respectively. The participants in this study displayed risk ratios indicating increased cardiovascular disease risk and insulin resistance but no differences in the pre- and postintervention groups of either placebo or TCJ groups. Conclusion Collectively, the data suggest that 100% TCJ reduces sUA concentrations, mitigating hyperuricemia associated with gouty arthritis. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03636529.
... There are some potential factors that may have masked the er- Finally, there are some inconsistencies regarding the total phenolic content of the supplements: the same supplement analysed by three different laboratories showed great differences in the total phenolic content. Subtle differences in the analysis methods might contribute to differences in the total phenolic content but great variations are probably due to inter-batch differences [52], which make it essential to analyse the supplements before the interventions and not to use the results reported from previous analysis. Based on the results of the studies assessed, positive effects are more likely: 1) when supplementation starts some days before muscle damage is induced and finishes some days after, for a total period of at least 8/10 days, and 2) with pronounced muscle damage of the muscles involved. ...
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Phenolic compounds have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and may prevent inflammation and oxidative stress as well as help the athletes to recover from exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Tart cherry (TC) and pomegranate (PG) are two fruits with high content of polyphenols. Their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties have recently attracted substantial interest for their potential to reduce strength loss and promote recovery from EIMD. The aims of this review are (1) to summarise the effects of tart cherry and pomegranate supplementation on oxidative stress, inflammation and recovery, and (2) to outline the differences found in supplementation with tart cherries or pomegranates. SPORTDiscus, PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus were searched according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis and 25 studies were included. The existing evidence suggests that both types of supplementation are good strategies to accelerate recovery of functional performance variables, perceptual variables and inflammation but PG supplementation shows better recovery of oxidative stress. However, positive effects are more likely: 1) when supplementation starts some days before muscle damage is induced and finishes some days after, for a total period of at least 8/10 days, 2) with pronounced muscle damage of the muscles involved, and 3) when total phenolic content is at least 1000 mg/day. This review may help to optimise TC or PG supplementation practice to improve post-exercise recovery.
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Hyperglycemia and hyperuricemia are both metabolic disorders related to excessive amount of metabolites in blood, which are considered as high risk factors for the development of many chronic diseases. Enzymes, cells, tissues and organs, which are relevant to metabolism and excretion of glucose and UA, are usually regarded to be the targets in treatment of hyperglycemia and hyperuricemia. Several drugs have been commonly applied to combat hyperglycemia and hyperuricemia through various targets but with unignorable side effects. Anthocyanins have become promising alternatives against hyperglycemia and hyperuricemia because of their bio-activities with little side effects. Structurally different anthocyanins from berry fruits, cherries and purple sweet potato lead to the diverse functional activity and property. This review is aimed to illustrate the specific targets that are available for anthocyanins from berry fruits, cherries and purple sweet potato in hyperglycemia and hyperuricemia management, as well as discuss the structure-activity relationship, and the underlying mechanisms associated with intracellular signaling pathway, anti-oxidative stress and anti-inflammation. In addition, the relationship of hyperglycemia and hyperuricemia, and the possibly regulative role of anthocyanins against them, along with the effects of anthocyanins in clinical trial are mentioned.
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Objective. The article is aimed to define the content and the components of e-learning system in Olympic education based on the generalization of international experience of applying modern information and communication technologies at the Centers for Olympic studies and education. Methods: Theoretical analysis and analytical review of literature, materials of the Internet, web-sites of the Olympic study centers, system analysis, questionnaires, SWOT-analysis, methods of mathematical statistics. Results: The content, organizational structure and the impact of external and internal factors of the informational-educational environment of the distance learning in the Olympic studies center were determined to reveal the effectiveness of the implementation of distance learning technologies into the Olympic education system. Conclusions. Results of the research showed that proposed module of distance education ‘Olympic Legacy’ in the International centre for Olympic studies and education at the Olympic Educational and Scientific Institute of National University of Ukraine on Physical Education and Sports should be considered as an instrument for raising the level of professional education in the field of physical culture and sports. Keywords: distance learning, Olympic education, center for Olympic research and education.
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Fruits come in a wide variety of colors, shapes, and flavors. This chapter will cover selected fruits that are known to be healthy and highly nutritious. These fruits were chosen due to their common usage and availability. Since it is not possible to cover all health benefits or essential nutrients and important phytochemicals of the fruit composition, this chapter will focus on the key valuable constituents and their potential health effects.
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Tart cherries are increasingly popular due to purported health benefits. This Prunus cesarus species is cultivated worldwide, and its market has increased significantly in the last two decades due to improvements in agricultural practices and food processing technology. Tart cherries are rich in polyphenols, with a very specific profile combining anthocyanins and flavonols (berries-like) and chlorogenic acid (coffee-like). Tart cherries have been suggested to exert several potentially beneficial health effects including: lowering blood pressure, modulating blood glucose, enhancing cognitive function, protecting against oxidative stress and reducing inflammation. Studies focusing on tart cherry consumption have demonstrated particular benefits in recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage and diabetes associated parameters. However, the bioconversion of tart cherry polyphenols by resident colonic microbiota has never been considered, considerably reducing the impact of in vitro studies that have relied on fruit polyphenol extracts. In vitro and in vivo gut microbiota and metabolome studies are necessary to reinforce health claims linked to tart cherries consumption.
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Recently, cherries and cherry products have received growing attention within the literature with regards to their application in both exercise and clinical paradigms. Reported to be high in anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative capacity, cherries and their constituents are proposed to provide a similar, but natural alternative akin to over-the-counter non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID’s) or analgesics. Within exercise paradigms, concern has been raised with regards to the use of products which inhibit such inflammatory or oxidative actions, due to the possibility of the blunting of physiological training adaptations. Despite this, numerous scenarios exist both within exercise and clinical populations where a goal of optimal recovery time is more important than physiological adaptation. This review critically evaluates and discusses the use of cherries as a supplementation strategy to enhance recovery of muscle function, inhibit exercise-induced inflammation, oxidative stress and pain primarily; furthermore the potential application of cherries to clinical populations is discussed
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tart cherry juice on serum uric acid levels, hepatic xanthine oxidoreductase activity and two non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress (total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde concentration), in normal and hyperuricemic rats. Tart cherry juice (5 ml/kg) was given by oral gavage to rats for 2 weeks. Allopurinol (5 mg/kg) was used as a positive control and was also given by oral gavage. Data showed that tart cherry juice treatment did not cause any significant reduction in the serum uric acid levels in normal rats, but significantly reduced (P<0.05) the serum uric acid levels of hyperuricemic rats in a time-dependent manner. Tart cherry juice treatment also inhibited hepatic xanthine oxidase/dehydrogenase activity. Moreover, a significant increase (P<0.05) in serum total antioxidant capacity was observed in tart cherry juice treated-rats in both normal and hyperuricemic groups. The oral administration of tart cherry juice also led to a significant reduction (P<0.05) in MDA concentration in the hyperuricemic rats. Although the hypouricemic effect of allopurinol, as a putative inhibitor of xanthine oxidoreductase, was much higher than that of tart cherry, it could not significantly change anti-oxidative parameters. These features of tart cherry make it an attractive candidate for the prophylactic treatment of hyperuricaemia, particularly if it is to be taken on a long-term basis. Further investigations to define its clinical efficacy would be highly desirable.
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Many biological functions follow circadian rhythms driven by internal and external cues that synchronize and coordinate organ physiology to diurnal changes in the environment and behavior. Urinary acid-base parameters follow diurnal patterns and it is thought these changes are due to periodic surges in gastric acid secretion. Abnormal urine pH is a risk factor for specific types of nephrolithiasis and uric acid stones result from excessively low urine pH. Here we placed 9 healthy volunteers and 10 uric acid stone formers on fixed metabolic diets to study the diurnal pattern of urinary acidification. All showed clear diurnal trends in urinary acidification, but none of the patterns were affected by inhibitors of the gastric proton pump. Uric acid stone formers had similar patterns of change throughout the day but their urine pH was always lower compared to healthy volunteers. Uric acid stone formers excreted more acid (normalized to acid ingestion), with the excess excreted primarily as titratable acid rather than ammonium. Urine base excretion was also lower in uric acid stone formers (normalized to base ingestion), along with lower plasma bicarbonate concentrations during part of the day. Thus, increased net acid presentation to the kidney and the preferential use of buffers, other than ammonium, result in much higher concentrations of undissociated uric acid throughout the day and consequently an increased risk of uric acid stones.
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Anthocyanins are a group of abundant and widely consumed flavonoid constituents that occur ubiquitously in the plant kingdom, providing the bright red-orange to blue-violet colors present in many fruit- and vegetable-based food products. Their intake has been estimated to be up to 9-fold higher than that of other dietary flavonoids. Anthocyanins have become increasingly important to the food industry as their use as natural alternatives to artificial colors has become widespread and knowledge of their health-promoting properties has become more evident. Epidemiological studies suggest that increased consumption of anthocyanins lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the most common cause of mortality among men and women. Anthocyanins frequently interact with other phytochemicals, exhibiting synergistic biological effects but making contributions from individual components difficult to decipher. Over the past 2 decades, many peer-reviewed publications have demonstrated that in addition to their noted in vitro antioxidant activity, anthocyanins may regulate different signaling pathways involved in the development of CVD. This review summarizes the latest developments on the bioavailability/bioactivity and CVD preventative activities of anthocyanins, including results from in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal model systems as related to their multiple proposed mechanisms of action. Limited yet promising data from epidemiological studies and human clinical trials are also presented. Future studies aimed at enhancing the absorption of anthocyanins and characterizing their metabolic and/or breakdown products are necessary to ultimately evaluate their use for protection/prevention against the development of CVD.
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Background: Tart Montmorency cherries have been reported to contain high levels of phytochemicals including melatonin, a molecule critical in regulating the sleep-wake cycle in humans. Purpose: The aim of our investigation was to ascertain whether ingestion of a tart cherry juice concentrate would increase the urinary melatonin levels in healthy adults and improve sleep quality. Methods: In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 20 volunteers consumed either a placebo or tart cherry juice concentrate for 7 days. Measures of sleep quality recorded by actigraphy and subjective sleep questionnaires were completed. Sequential urine samples over 48 h were collected and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (major metabolite of melatonin) determined; cosinor analysis was used to determine melatonin circadian rhythm (mesor, acrophase and amplitude). In addition, total urinary melatonin content was determined over the sampled period. Trial differences were determined using a repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Total melatonin content was significantly elevated (P < 0.05) in the cherry juice group, whilst no differences were shown between baseline and placebo trials. There were significant increases in time in bed, total sleep time and sleep efficiency total (P < 0.05) with cherry juice supplementation. Although there was no difference in timing of the melatonin circardian rhythm, there was a trend to a higher mesor and amplitude. Conclusions: These data suggest that consumption of a tart cherry juice concentrate provides an increase in exogenous melatonin that is beneficial in improving sleep duration and quality in healthy men and women and might be of benefit in managing disturbed sleep.
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Berries contain vitamin C and are also a rich source of phytochemicals, especially anthocyanins which occur along with other classes of phenolic compounds, including ellagitannins, flavan-3-ols, procyanidins, flavonols and hydroxybenzoate derivatives. This review examines studies with both human subjects and animals on the absorption of these compounds, and their glucuronide, sulphate and methylated metabolites, into the circulatory system from the gastrointestinal tract and the evidence for their localisation within the body in organs such as the brain and eyes. The involvement of the colonic microflora in catabolising dietary flavonoids that pass from the small to the large intestine is discussed along with the potential fate and role of the resultant phenolic acids that can be produced in substantial quantities. The in vitro and in vivo bioactivities of these polyphenol metabolites and catabolites are assessed, and the current evidence for their involvement in the protective effects of dietary polyphenols, within the gastrointestinal tract and other parts of the body to which they are transported by the circulatory system, is reviewed.
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Anthocyanins are naturally occurring compounds widespread in plant-derived foodstuffs and therefore abundant in human diet. There are evidences regarding the positive association of their intake with healthy biological effects displayed in vivo. This review aims to highlight some aspects regarding anthocyanins bioavailability; these include a short introductory part of anthocyanin chemistry, stability, occurrence and intake. This first part is followed by a more detailed one concerning the main topic of the review that includes the bioavailability and metabolism of anthocyanins. Special attention is given to the contribution of the gastric mucosa to anthocyanin absorption as the result of the high content of intact anthocyanins (20–25%) detected is plasma few minutes after intake. The contribution of intestinal tissue and the microbiota impact in anthocyanin absorption and bioactivity is also highlighted. Despite the biological activities that have been associated with these compounds, anthocyanins appear to be rapidly absorbed and eliminated, reaching only low maximal concentrations in plasma and urine. Some possible critical factors that may contribute to this paradox were also explored including the ability of a compound to cross membranes, the effect of pH, digestive enzymes, biliary acids and microbiota, the lack of sensitivity of the analytical method, the possible ingestion of pigments (anthocyanin derivatives, especially in the case of red wine) and the influence of the food matrix. Generally, the bioavailability of anthocyanins is presumed but whether the effect is due to the native compounds or other forms, which mechanism are involved or which factors have crucial impact on bioavailability still remain underexplored.
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Diet has gained scientific community attention due to the crucial role in health maintenance, but also in disease treatment, and essential in disease prevention. Several food and food components, particularly phenolic rich foods, have been investigated as they present themselves as putative functional foods. In the past decades, obesity has reached epidemic proportions and consequently, metabolic syndrome (a set of disorders as impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure, which increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes) incidence is increasing worldwide at an alarming rate and this phenolic rich foods, specially berries have been investigated to their potential beneficial effect in this disorders. In the present work the chemistry of blueberries (BB) (fruits of some Vaccinium species) was summarised as well as the knowledge about bioavailability and biokinetic of anthocyanins from blueberries with particular emphasis on its implications in metabolic disorders.
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Epidemiological observations and laboratory studies have suggested that polyphenols possess anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-carcinogenic, and antioxidant properties. However, studies assessing the effects of polyphenols on uric acid metabolism in vivo are scarce. Herein, we investigated whether a phenolic substance, Oligonol®, has effects on uric acid metabolism. In six healthy male volunteers, Oligonol® significantly decreased 1-h uric acid excretion and fractional uric acid clearance, which was accompanied by a decreased serum concentration of uric acid. In addition, an in vitro experiment showed that Oligonol® inhibited buttermilk xanthine oxidase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these results suggest that Oligonol® lowers serum uric acid through inhibition of xanthine oxidase, and may be effective for prevention and treatment of hyperuricemia and/or gout.