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Antibacterial potential of Manuka honey against three oral bacteria in vitro

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Abstract

Honey is an ancient natural remedy for the treatment of infected wounds. It has regained attention in the medical profession, as it has recently been reported to have a broad-spectrum inhibitory effect against bacteria. Data concerning Manuka honey of New Zealand origin, which is claimed to provide additional non-peroxide antimicrobial activity (so-called standard NPA) against oral pathogens, is still scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to screen for the antibacterial efficacy of different Manuka honey products against S. mutans (OMZ 918), P. gingivalis (OMZ 925) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (OMZ 299). Chlorhexidine and saline served as positive and negative controls, respectively, whereas a Swiss multifloral honey served as control honey without intrinsic non-peroxide activity. Chlorhexidine showed the highest inhibiting potential against all specimens tested. Manuka honey below an NPA value of 15 showed the least bacterial growth-inhibiting potential, even less – although not significantly so – than multifloral Swiss honey. Manuka honey above an NPA value of 15 showed a significantly higher antibacterial effect compared to the other honeys tested. All Manuka honey preparations were more effective in inhibiting the growth of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans, rather than S. mutans. In conclusion, the study showed an NPA dose-dependent antibacterial efficacy of Manuka honey. Further investigations of this natural product are now open for scrutiny.

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... The geographical locations for the included papers are Switzerland, 60,61,69 India, 21,58 Egypt, 28,57 USA, 70 Australia, 64 New Zealand, 62 Turkey, 65 South Africa, 67 United Arab Emirates, 59 Saudi Arabia, 63 Iran 68 and Nigeria 66 (Tables 3 and 4). ...
... Concerning the included in vitro studies, interventions included the following eligible microorganisms according to the adopted inclusion criteria: A. actinomycetemcomitans as a reference strain; 58,69 P. gingivalis as clinical isolates and a reference strain; 57,58,60,69 S. gordonii as a reference strain; 61 Campylobacter spp. as clinical isolates; 62 C. rectus as a reference strain; 58 E. nodatum as a reference strain; 58 C. albicans as clinical isolates and a reference strain; [63][64][65]67,70 and HSV type 1 (HSV-1) as a reference strain. 68 The incubation duration varied between 42 h and 3 days for A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, 57,58,60,69 was 24-72 h for C. albicans [63][64][65]67,70 and was 48 h for HSV-1. ...
... 68 The growth conditions were heterogeneous among the included studies. The control solutions were also variable and varied between chlorhexidine 0.2%, 58,69 sterile physiological saline, 58,69 multifloral honey, 69 artificial honey, 64 ethanol, 61 sodium chloride, 60 fluconazole 65 and hypertonic sugar solution. 67 All tested microorganisms showed susceptibility to the tested honey samples with different MICs. ...
Article
Background: Honey has shown positive antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory actions in several dermatological studies; however, it is unclear if it could be effective in the treatment of periodontal disease. Objectives: To answer the question: Does honey have antimicrobial activity against periodontopathogens? Methods: Six electronic databases were screened from initiation to 31 January 2019 for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and controlled in vitro studies exploring the antimicrobial effect of honey against periodontopathogens. Honey's botanical origin, periopathogens that showed microbial susceptibility to honey, MICs, microbial growth conditions, control product and clinical follow-up were the main investigated outcomes. The risk of bias (RoB) of included RCTs was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration RoB tool. The RoB of in vitro studies was evaluated based on the Sarkis-Onofre judgement model adapted to the context of honey. Results: A total of 1448 publications were found as search results in the screened databases. Sixteen eligible papers were included based on predetermined inclusion criteria. Retained studies included 5 RCTs and 11 in vitro controlled trials. Manuka and multifloral honeys were the most studied varieties. The tested honeys showed a significant antimicrobial action, with different MICs, against eight periopathogens. Four of the five RCTs showed a high RoB, while 4 of the 11 retained in vitro studies showed a medium RoB. Conclusions: Honey showed a significant antimicrobial activity against all targeted periopathogens. Additional experiments are required to explore the entire antimicrobial spectrum of honey towards all pathogens involved in periodontal disease.
... Additionally, the antimicrobial effects of incorporated drugs in membranes can both accelerate the wound healing process, as well as, ultimately improve the regenerative outcome [53,55]. Bacteria present in the oral cavity and usually the root cause of infections from a GTR procedure include Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Streptacoccus mutans [60]. ...
... Because of the microenvironment honey provides, it assists in the regulation and recruitment of cells responsible for early wound repair, such as neutrophils and monocytes [62]. Additionally, particularly unique to Manuka honey, is the presence of high amounts of methylglyoxal (MGO) which produce a non-peroxide antibacterial effect, ultimately preventing adjacent tissue damage and promoting tissue regeneration [60,61,64]. This MGO content is described as the Unique Manuka Factor (UMF) and has become a standard measurement (rating scale) of the non-peroxide antibiotic activity of the honey, increasing with increased antibiotic activity [60,61]. ...
... Additionally, particularly unique to Manuka honey, is the presence of high amounts of methylglyoxal (MGO) which produce a non-peroxide antibacterial effect, ultimately preventing adjacent tissue damage and promoting tissue regeneration [60,61,64]. This MGO content is described as the Unique Manuka Factor (UMF) and has become a standard measurement (rating scale) of the non-peroxide antibiotic activity of the honey, increasing with increased antibiotic activity [60,61]. ...
... The lowest dilution required to kill these bacteria was >1:2 for all three bacterial strains. The results showed that Manuka honey had an NPA value-and dose-dependent antibacterial efficacy [51]. Table 2. ...
... (B) The graph shows mean MIC values ± SEM for honey, royal jelly, and bee venom expressed in µg/mL for the bacterial strains causing oral cavity infections. Only experiments in which the MIC value was determined in µg/mL were included in the analysis [45,47,51,53,57,[63][64][65]67]. Figure 3A) showed that honey had the lowest MIC values and exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against Campylobacter spp., P. gingivalis, and A. naeslundii. Interestingly, S. sobrinus (average MIC: 34%) was the most resistant to different types of honey. ...
Article
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Oral diseases affect a very large number of people, and the applied pharmacological methods of treatment and/or prevention have serious side effects. Therefore, it is necessary to search for new, safer methods of treatment. Natural bee products, such as honey, royal jelly, and bee venom, can be a promising alternative in the treatment of oral cavity bacterial infections. Thus, we performed an extensive literature search to find and summarize all articles about the antibacterial activity of honey, royal jelly, and bee venom. Our analysis showed that these bee products have strong activity against the bacterial strains causing caries, periodontitis, gingivitis, pharyngitis, recurrent aphthous ulcers, supragingival, and subgingival plaque. An analysis of average MIC values showed that honey and royal jelly have the highest antimicrobial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. In turn, bee venom has an antibacterial effect against Streptococcus mu-tans. Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptoccus pyogenes were the most resistant species to different types of honey, and royal jelly, respectively. Moreover, these products are safer in comparison to the chemical compounds used in the treatment of oral cavity bacterial infections. Since the antimicrobial activity of bee products depends on their chemical composition, more research is needed to standardize the composition of these compounds before they could be used in the treatment of oral cavity bacterial infections.
... Manuka honey has antimicrobial activity in vitro towards a variety of bacteria including dental plaque-associated bacteria, both as planktonic and biofilm organisms [18][19][20]. Porphyromonas gingivalis, which is associated with various periodontal diseases [21], and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, associated with aggressive periodontitis [22], are 2 International Journal of Dentistry sensitive to manuka honey when grown as planktonic bacteria [23,24] but P. gingivalis is considerably more resistant when cultivated as a biofilm [25]. English et al. [26] reported reduced plaque accumulation and gingival bleeding among human participants with gingivitis after chewing manuka honey strips for ten minutes daily for 21 days, suggesting beneficial application of manuka honey as an oral health aid. ...
... Both manuka and clover honeys were active against a variety of organisms including plaque-associated bacteria; manuka honey was more active in this respect. In agreement with other studies [24,28,32], P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, and F. nucleatum, gram-negative bacteria associated with gingivitis and periodontal diseases, were more sensitive than the gram-positive species associated with gingival health (streptococci). Subgingival application of manuka honey could therefore conceivably promote health-associated species at the expense of those associated with periodontal diseases. ...
Article
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Background . Topical application of manuka honey is effective in the treatment of burns and soft-tissue infections. The aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial activity of manuka honey against plaque-associated bacteria in vitro in order to evaluate the potential application as an adjunct to periodontal treatment. Materials and Methods . The minimum bacteriostatic and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) of manuka honey were compared to those of white clover honey against a variety of plaque-associated bacteria, at the natural and neutral pH. Dissolved calcium was measured following incubation of honeys with hydroxyapatite (HA) beads to assess their potential to demineralise oral hard tissues. Results . Both honeys inhibited most tested oral bacteria at similar MIC/MBC, but Streptococcus mutans was comparatively resistant. The honeys at pH neutral had little effect on antimicrobial activity. Incubation of HA beads in honey solutions resulted in pH-dependent calcium dissolution, and inoculation with S. mutans promoted further demineralisation by both types of honey. Conclusion . Manuka honey is antimicrobial towards representative oral bacteria. However, the relative resistance of S. mutans in association with the high concentrations of fermentable carbohydrates in honey and the direct demineralising effect at natural pH mitigate against the application of honey as an adjunct in the treatment of periodontal disease.
... Most of the studies shown in Table 3 used the broth microdilution method for determining the antimicrobial activity of honey samples [70,[72][73][74][75][76][77][78], and only a few studies used the agar diffusion method [55,71]. These findings are consistent with what was discussed in Section 4 of this review. ...
Article
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Honey has been shown to have antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms, but its effects on oral biofilms are largely unknown. In this review, we analyzed the currently available literature on the antimicrobial activity of honey against oral biofilms in order to determine its potential as a functional food in the treatment and/or prevention of oral diseases. Here, we compare studies reporting on the antimicrobial activity of honey against systemic and oral bacteria, discuss methodological strategies, and point out current gaps in the literature. To date, there are no consistent studies supporting the use of honey as a therapy for oral diseases of bacterial origin, but current evidence in the field is promising. The lack of studies examining the antibiofilm activity of honey against oral microorganisms reveals a need for additional research to better define aspects such as chemical composition, the mechanism(s) of action, and antimicrobial action.
... In vitro studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of MH as an antibacterial agent, especially against SM. [2][3][4] Very few clinical studies have accessed the effect of MH on plaque, gingival status, and SM. [1,5,6] Hence, the present study was carried out with an objective to assess the effectiveness of MH and 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) mouthwash on reducing gingivitis and SM count (SM) among children. ...
Article
Background: Chlorhexidine is considered a gold standard among the chemical plaque control measures. Recently, a search for a natural alternative having similar effectiveness of that of chlorhexidine is gaining importance due to various side effects reported. Honey is a natural product with antibacterial properties that can be used to improve oral health. Manuka honey (MH) is considered superior due to its antibacterial properties. However, studies pertaining to effectiveness of MH and chlorhexidine on oral health are limited. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of MH and 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) mouthwash on reducing gingivitis and Streptococcus mutans count (SM). Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial blinded study was conducted among 12–15 years old children with (Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth) scores of 1–4, plaque and gingival scores of 1–2 were selected, and an equal number of children (30 each) were randomly allocated to MH and CHX groups. Participants were instructed to rinse 5 ml of MH and 10 ml of CHX twice daily for 14 days. Unstimulated saliva was collected from the children, and plaque and gingival indices were assessed at baseline, 7th day, and 14th day. Unstimulated saliva was subjected to microbiological analysis for SM. Student's t-test and repeated-measures analysis of variance test were applied for inter- and intragroup comparison, respectively. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in plaque and gingival scores and SM count between the groups at baseline, 7th day, and 14th day. Statistically significant reductions (P < 0.01) in plaque, gingival scores, and SM count were observed in both the groups at 7th and 14th day from baseline. No adverse events were reported during the trial. Conclusion: Effectiveness of MH was comparable with CHX mouthwash in reducing gingivitis and SM count. MH seems to be a promising antimicrobial agent effective in improving gingival health and reducing caries risk.
... Intake of Tualang honey (1000 and 2000 mg/kg) demonstrated chemo-preventive activity against 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO)-induced oral squamous cell carcinoma in experimental rats (Al-koshab et al., 2020). Manuka honey demonstrated dose-dependent antibacterial efficacy in vitro against S. mutans, P. gingivalis, and A. actinomycetemcomitans (Schmidlin et al., 2014). A mixture of honey and mustard oil effectively inhibited oral microbes in an in vitro study (Sobhi and Manzoor, 2004). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Honey is one of the most popular functional foods, speculated to be in use since the advent of human civilization. Its health-protective activity is endorsed by many religions and traditional medicines. In Unani medicine, honey is prescribed for many health conditions as wound-healing, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, etc. In the present era, honey is gaining popularity over sugar for its myriad health benefits and low glycemic index. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive account of the biological activities and potential therapeutic uses of honey, with scientific evidence. Methodology In this paper, we have provided a comprehensive overview of historical uses, types, physical characteristics, bioactive constituents and pharmacological activities of honey. The information was gathered from Classical Unani textbooks and leading scientific databases. There is a plethora of information regarding various therapeutic activities of honey, and it is daunting to draw practical conclusions. Hence, in this paper, we have tried to summarize those aspects which are most relevant to clinical application. Observations and conclusions Many important bioactive constituents are identified in different honey types, e.g. phenolics, proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids, etc., which exert important biological activities like anti-microbial, wound healing, immunomodulatory, anti-toxin, antioxidant, and many others. Honey has the potential to alleviate many lifestyle disorders, mitigate the adverse effects of drugs and toxins, and also provide healthy nutrition. Although conclusive clinical evidence is not available, yet honey may potentially be a safer alternative to sucrose for diabetic patients.
... Sustancias derivadas de los animales, tales como la miel de abeja o la apitoxina, han sido reportados para el tratamiento de enfermedades causadas por bacterias [2,8,13,19]. La Tintura de Propóleo (TP) es una sustancia resinosa producida por las abejas (Apis mellifera), para tapizar el interior de la colmena y protegerla de agentes infecciosos, por poseer efectos farmacológicos antimicrobianos, atribuidos a un compuesto activo conocidos como flavonoides [17]. ...
Article
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RESUMEN En el presente estudio se analizó el efecto de la tintura de propóleo (TP) vs clorhexidina (C) en el tratamiento de la enfermedad periodontal en la especie canina (EPC). Para ello se llevó a cabo la aplicación terapéutica en 30 pacientes con diferentes grados de enfermedad periodontal (leve, media y grave). Se tomaron muestras de la cavidad bucal para el cultivo posterior e identificación de los microorganismos patógenos implicados en el proceso patológico. Se identificaron 4 géneros de patógenos: Staphylococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp. y Enterobacterias. El porcentaje de casos que respondieron al tratamiento fue 80 y 3,4 % para TP y C, respectivamente. C no demostró tener ninguna acción eficiente en el tratamiento de EPC. Sin embargo, TP mostró ser el tratamiento de elección, independientemente del patógeno, asociación de éstos o el grado de progresión de la EPC. ABSTRACT In the present study the effect of propolis tincture (PT) vs chlorhexidine (C) as a treatment of canine periodontal disease (CPD) was analysed. A therapeutic application in 30 patients with different degrees of CPD was carried out (low, moderate and severe). Samples from the oral cavity were collected for culture and further identification of pathogenic microorganisms involved in the pathological process. Four pathogens of different genera were identified; Staphylococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp. and Enterobacterias. The cases that responded to treatment were 80 and 3.4 % for PT and C, respectively. C did not demonstrate any efficient action in the treatment of CPD. However, PT demonstrated to be the treatment of choice regardless the pathogen, pathogen associations or the degree of progression of CPD.
... It is preventive among cystic fibrosis patients. It is good for maintaining oral health, it reduces oral bacteria like P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans which form plaques in the teeth, causing gingivitis and tooth decay (Schmidlin et al. 2014;Eick et al. 2014). It is used to treat acne and other skin diseases. ...
Chapter
Honey is a sweet viscous liquid produced by several species of honey bees (Genus Apis). These insects mainly feed on the floral nectar and by enzymatic activity and evaporation of water produce honey from this nectar by regurgitation. Honey has several varieties and is regarded as the superfood with several pharmaceutical properties. This chapter gives a detailed outline about composition, classification, and pharmaceutical and other applications of honey.
... Its mechanism may be related to the low pH level (3.2 to 4.5) of honey and its high sugar content which can hinder the growth of certain microbes [13]. Manuka honey, a natural antiseptic alternative to synthetic chemicals, also has shown antimicrobial effect against periodontal pathogenic bacteria such as P. gingivalis, Camplyobacter spp, and A. actinomycetemcomitan [14,15]. Methylglyoxal is the key antibacterial constituent in Manuka honey, which can target P. gingivalis [16,17]. ...
... The NPA activity is expressed by a factor, representing the concentration of a phenol solution yielding a similar zone of bacterial growth inhibition as Manuka honey. NPA rating of 10 is considered the minimum for therapeutic efficacy [20], and so this study used Manuka honey with NPA activity 25 ? (Fig. 1). ...
Article
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Background and Purpose Sufficient evidence exists recommending the use of honey in the management of wounds. Studies revealed that the healing effect of honey could be classified by its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties of its components. Since surgical extraction of impacted molars is one of the most common operations in the oral cavity and the postoperative pain disturbing the patient may reduce the quality of health service, this study aimed to assess the analgesic potential of Manuka honey application into the extraction socket of impacted mandibular third molars. Methods This randomized split-mouth controlled study included 33 patients undergoing impacted bilateral lower third molars surgery under local anesthesia (n = 66). Randomization was carried out by coin flipping. One of the two impacted third molars was assigned to treatment group (Manuka honey applied just before suturing), other side to control group (nothing applied). Postsurgical pain was evaluated using visual analogue scale (VAS) of faces 7 days after extraction. The total analgesic dose used was also evaluated. Results In treatment group, postoperative VAS scores were significantly lower compared to that in control group regarding first and second days postoperatively (P < 0.05). Total analgesic intake in the control group was significantly higher (P = 0.0001). Conclusion This study demonstrated that intrasocket application of Manuka honey after surgical extraction of impacted lower third molar is an effective method for reducing acute postsurgical pain.
Article
Objective: : To assess the effects of Manuka honey, Ocimum sanctum, Curcuma longa, and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus levels. Material and methods: A randomized controlled trial will be conducted on dental students of Teerthanker Mahaveer Dental College and Research Centre, Moradabad. The study participants will be divided into four groups. Each group will have a total of 20 individuals. By using a lottery system, Group A (Manuka honey mouthrinse), Group B (Ocimum sanctum mouthrinse), Group C (Curcuma longa mouthrinse), and Group D (0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse) will be chosen. To match the circadian cycle, saliva will be collected at baseline and again after 2 weeks between 10 and 10.30 a.m. The sterile container will subsequently be delivered to the microbiological laboratory and processed as soon as possible to measure Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus count. For 2 weeks, participants were told to use 10 mL of mouthrinse twice daily. Results: : The mean oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) score of all the four groups showed reduction in their scores from baseline to after the study period. For both S. mutans and L. acidophilus, there was a substantial Percentage Reduction (PR) between the prerinse and postrinse samples in all four groups. Discussion: : Because quantitative actions play a crucial part in the caries disease process, the changes in microbial activity before and after administration of experimental mouthwashes were examined. Conclusion: : Essential oil aqueous extracts were as efficient antibacterial mouthwashes as chlorhexidine and iodine mouthwashes.
Background In the treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC), ionizing radiation is an important modality in achieving curative objectives. However, the effective use of radiation is compromised by the side effects resulting from the damage to the adjacent normal tissue. Preclinical studies carried out in the recent past have shown that the age old dietary agent honey, which also possess myriad medicinal use is beneficial in mitigating diverse radiation-induced side effects like mucositis, xerostomia, fatigue, weight loss and to promote healing of refractory wounds. Objective The objective of this memoir is to review the beneficial effects of honey in mitigating radiation-induced side effects in HNC and to emphasize on the underlying mechanism of action for the beneficial effects. Methods Two authors searched Google Scholar, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for publications up to December 2019 to assess the ability of honey in reducing the severity of radiation-induced ill effects in the treatment of HNC. Subsequently, the adjunct pharmacological effects and mechanism/s responsible were also searched for and appropriately used to substantiate the underlying mechanism/s of action for the beneficial effects. Results The existing data is suggestive that honey is beneficial in mitigating the radiation-induced mucositis, xerostomia, healing of recalcitrant wounds in radiation exposed regions and multiple pathways mediate the beneficial effects especially, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, wound healing, anticancer, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anabolic, anti-fatigue and anti-anaemic effects that add additional value to the use of honey as an adjunct in cancer therapy. Conclusion For the first time this review addresses the underlying pharmacological effects related to the beneficial effects of honey in radiation-induced damage, and attempts at emphasizes the lacunae that need further studies for optimizing the use of honey as an adjunct in radiotherapy of HNC. The authors suggest that future studies should be directed at understanding the detail molecular mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects using validated cell culture and animal models of study. Large multi centric clinical trials with standardised honey is also needed to understand the clinical use of honey.
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Both honey and sugar are used with good effect as dressings for wounds and ulcers. The good control of infection is attributed to the high osmolarity, but honey can have additional antibacterial activity because of its content of hydrogen peroxide and unidentified substances from certain floral sources. Manuka honey is known to have a high level of the latter. Seven major wound-infecting species of bacteria were studied to compare their sensitivity to the non-peroxide antibacterial activity of manuka honey and to a honey in which the antibacterial activity was primarily due to hydrogen peroxide. Honeys with activity in the middle of the normal range were used. A comparison of the median response of the various species of bacteria showed no significant difference between the two types of activity overall, but marked differences between the two types of activity in the rank order of sensitivity of the seven bacterial species. The non-peroxide antibacterial activity of manuka honey at a honey concentration of 1.8% (v/v) completely inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus during incubation for 8 h. The growth of all seven species was completely inhibited by both types of honey at concentrations below 11% (v/v).
Article
To assess the variation in antibacterial activity of honey a survey was carried out on 345 samples of unpasteurized honey obtained from commercial apiarists throughout New Zealand. Most of the honeys were considered to be monofloral, from 26 different floral sources. The honeys were tested against Staphylococcus aureus in an agar well diffusion assay, with reference to phenol as a standard. Antibacterial activity was found to range from the equivalent of less than 2% (w/v) phenol to 58% (w/v) phenol, with a median of 13.6 and a standard deviation of 12.5. Neither the age of the honey samples nor whether they had been processed by the apiarist was associated with lower activity. However, the difference between floral sources in the antibacterial activity was very highly significant. Kanuka (Kunzea ericoides (A. Rich.) J. Thompson. Family: Myrtaceae), manuka (Leptospermum scoparium J. R. et G. Forst. Family: Myrtaceae), ling heather (Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull. Family: Ericaceae) and kamahi (Weinmannia racemosa Linn. f. Family: Cunoniaceae) were shown to be sources likely to give honey with high antibacterial activity. When antibacterial activity was assayed with catalase added to remove hydrogen peroxide, most of the honeys showed no detectable antibacterial activity. Only manuka and vipers bugloss (Echium vulgare L. Family: Boraginaceae) honeys showed this type of activity in a significant proportion of the samples. The high antibacterial activity of manuka honey was in many cases due entirely to this non-peroxide component.
Article
A method for reproducibly determining minimal inhibitory concentrations and minimal bactericidal concentrations of plant extracts towards fastidiously and facultatively anaerobic oral bacteria, predicated upon measurements of optical densities in microtitre plate wells, was devised. The antimicrobial properties of some botanical oils were surveyed; of these, Australian tea tree oil, peppermint oil, and sage oil proved to be the most potent essential oils, whereas thymol and eugenol were potent essential oil components.
Article
Honey allergy is a very rare condition which shows a clinical picture ranging from cough to anaphylaxis after ingestion of honey. Here we report 5 cases of honey allergy.
Article
Honey has been used as a medicine throughout the ages and in more recent times has been "rediscovered" by the medical profession for treatment of burns, infected wounds, and skin ulcers. The large volume of literature reporting its effectiveness indicates that honey has potential for the treatment of periodontal disease, mouth ulcers, and other problems of oral health.
Article
The recognition over the past 3 decades of microbial specificity in periodontitis has afforded dental practitioners the ability to prevent and treat the disease with a variety of antimicrobial drugs. These include systemic antibiotics, topical antibiotics and topical antiseptics. Systemic antibiotic therapy can be essential in eliminating pathogenic bacteria that invade gingival tissue and in helping control periodontal pathogens residing in various domains of the mouth from where they may translocate to periodontal sites. Frequently used periodontal combination antibiotic therapies are metronidazole-amoxicillin (250-375 mg of each 3 x daily for 8 days) and metronidazole-ciprofloxacin (500 mg of each 2 x daily for 8 days). Microbiological analysis helps determine the optimal antibiotic therapy and effectiveness of treatment. Topical antibiotics that are commercially available as controlled release devices suffer from several potential problems, including insufficient spectrum of antimicrobial activity in some periodontal polymicrobial infections, risks of producing an antibiotic resistant microbiota, and high acquisition costs. Topical antiseptics of relevance in periodontal treatment include 10% povidone-iodine placed subgingivally by a syringe for 5 min, and 0.1% sodium hypochlorite solution applied subgingivally by patients using an irrigation device. The present paper recommends periodontal treatment that includes a battery of professionally and patient-administered antimicrobial agents (properly prescribed systemic antibiotics, povidone-iodine and sodium hypochlorite subgingival irrigants, and chlorhexidine mouthrinse). Available chemotherapeutics can provide effective, safe, practical and affordable means of controlling subgingival colonization of periodontal pathogens and various types of periodontal disease.
Article
Although honey has been used as a traditional remedy for burns and wounds, the potential for its inclusion in mainstream medical care is not well recognized. Many studies have demonstrated that honey has antibacterial activity in vitro, and a small number of clinical case studies have shown that application of honey to severely infected cutaneous wounds is capable of clearing infection from the wound and improving tissue healing. The physicochemical properties (eg, osmotic effects and pH) of honey also aid in its antibacterial actions. Research has also indicated that honey may possess antiinflammatory activity and stimulate immune responses within a wound. The overall effect is to reduce infection and to enhance wound healing in burns, ulcers, and other cutaneous wounds. It is also known that honeys derived from particular floral sources in Australia and New Zealand (Leptospermum spp) have enhanced antibacterial activity, and these honeys have been approved for marketing as therapeutic honeys (Medihoney and Active Manuka honey). This review outlines what is known about the medical properties of honey and indicates the potential for honey to be incorporated into the management of a large number of wound types.
Article
Data obtained from studies on the antimicrobial properties of bonding agents are the subject of controversy, probably because of methodological differences. This study compared two commonly used in vitro methods, the disc agar diffusion test and the well agar diffusion test. Agar plates were seeded with Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus gasseri, or Actinomyces naeslundii. For the well diffusion test, wells cut out of the agar were filled with the test material, and for the disc method, discs impregnated with the test material were applied to the agar; the discs and wells were both 9 mm in diameter. After incubation, measurements of the zones of inhibition showed little agreement between the two methods when bonding agents were tested; the mean differences (+/- sdiff) in the zones of inhibition between the methods were 0.7 +/- 3.4 mm (P = 0.40, one sample t-test against zero), 4.9 +/- 4.4 mm (P = 0.97), and 0.8 +/- 4.3 mm (P = 0.47) for S. sobrinus, L. gasseri, and A. naeslundii, respectively. Mean differences were less contrasting when chlorhexidine and pure components were tested (P < 0.05 for S. sobrinus and L. gasseri). These results indicate the need for a gold standard method to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of bonding agents.
Article
Glucose oxidase, producing gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide from glucose, is demonstrated in honey. Its activity increases markedly on dilution of the honey. Inhibine, the antibacterial material previously reported in honey, is shown to be hydrogen peroxide produced in the inhibine assay by the natural glucose oxidase in honey. A direct relationship is shown between inhibine number and hydrogen peroxide production.
Article
Cariogenic bacteria and periodontopathic bacteria are present in dental plaque as biofilms. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial effects of essential oils on the following oral bacteria: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus sobrinus. We tested manuka oil, tea tree oil, eucalyptus oil, lavandula oil, and romarinus oil and determined their minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. The essential oils inhibited the growth of the bacteria tested, manuka oil being the most effective. Minimum bactericidal concentration values showed that lavandula oil acts bacteriostatically, and the remaining oils, bactericidally. Periodontopathic bacterial strains tested were killed completely by exposure for 30 s to 0.2% manuka oil, tea tree oil or eucalyptus oil. Tea tree oil and manuka oil showed significant adhesion-inhibiting activity against P. gingivalis. All the essential oils tested inhibited the adhesion of S. mutans. This study showed that, among the essential oils tested, manuka oil and tea tree oil in particular had strong antibacterial activity against periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria. From the viewpoint of safety, we also examined the effects of these essential oils on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells and found that, at a concentration of 0.2%, they had little effect on cultured cells.
Article
Both length of extra-alveolar time and type of storage media are significant factors that can affect the long-term prognosis of replanted teeth. Numerous studies have examined various media in an attempt to determine the ideal material for storage of the avulsed tooth. The purpose of this study was to use a Collagenase-Dispase assay to investigate the potential of a new storage media, Propolis, in maintaining viable periodontal ligament (PDL) cells on simulated avulsed teeth. Seventy freshly extracted human teeth were divided into five experimental groups and two control groups. The positive and negative controls corresponded to 0-min and an 8-h dry time, respectively. The experimental teeth were stored dry for 30 min and then immersed in one of the five media (Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), milk, saline, Propolis 50%, and Propolis 100% for 45 min). The teeth were then treated with dispase grade II and collagenase for 30 min. The number of viable PDL cells were counted with a hemocytometer and analyzed. Statistical analysis demonstrated that both Propolis groups kept significantly more PDL cells viable compared to either milk, saline, or HBSS. Within the parameters of this study, it appears that Propolis may be a better alternative to HBSS, milk, or saline in terms of maintaining PDL cell viability after avulsion and storage.
Article
Research has shown that manuka honey has superior antimicrobial properties that can be used with success in the treatment of wound healing, peptic ulcers and bacterial gastro-enteritis. Studies have already shown that manuka honey with a high antibacterial activity is likely to be non-cariogenic. The current pilot study investigated whether or not manuka honey with an antibacterial activity rated UMF 15 could be used to reduce dental plaque and clinical levels of gingivitis. A chewable "honey leather" was produced for this trial. Thirty volunteers were randomly allocated to chew or suck either the manuka honey product, or sugarless chewing gum, for 10 minutes, three times a day, after each meal. Plaque and gingival bleeding scores were recorded before and after the 21-day trial period. Analysis of the results indicated that there were statistically highly significant reductions in the mean plaque scores (0.99 reduced to 0.65; p=0.001), and the percentage of bleeding sites (48% reduced to 17%; p=0.001), in the manuka honey group, with no significant changes in the control group. Conclusion: These results suggest that there may be a potential therapeutic role for manuka honey confectionery in the treatment of gingivitis and periodontal disease.
Article
This position paper addresses the role of supra- and subgingival irrigation in the treatment of periodontal diseases. It was prepared by the Committee on Research, Science and Therapy of the American Academy of Periodontology. The document is divided into two portions, consisting of supragingival irrigation and subgingival irrigation. In their respective segments, these treatment techniques are assessed as monotherapies and as adjuncts to conventional treatment. The conclusions drawn in this paper represent the position of the American Academy of Periodontology regarding irrigation therapy in the treatment of periodontal diseases.
Article
Propolis is a multifunctional material used by bees in the construction and maintenance of their hives. Propolis possesses several biologic activities such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral, and tissue regenerative, among others. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of propolis to serve as a temporary storage medium for the maintenance of periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability of avulsed teeth. PDL cells were obtained from healthy third molars and cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM). Cultures were subjected to 10% propolis solution, 20% propolis solution, long-shelf life light milk with lower fat content (milk), Hank's Balanced Salt Solution, tap water as the negative control, and DMEM as the positive control. Tissue culture plates were incubated with experimental media at 37 degrees C for 1, 3, 6, 12, or 24 hours. PDL cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Statistical analysis of the data was accomplished by using one-way analysis of variance complemented by the Tukey test. The level of significance was 5% (p<0.05). The results showed that 10% propolis was a more effective storage medium than other groups. In conclusion, propolis can be recommended as a suitable transport medium for avulsed teeth.
Article
Using HPLC a fraction of New Zealand manuka honey has been isolated, which gives rise to the non-peroxide antibacterial activity. This fraction proved to be methylglyoxal, a highly reactive precursor in the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). Methylglyoxal concentrations in 49 manuka and 34 non-manuka honey samples were determined using a direct detection method and compared with values obtained using standard o-phenylenediamine derivatisation. Concentrations obtained using both the methods were similar and varied from 38 to 828 mg/kg.
Article
The 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds 3-deoxyglucosulose (3-DG), glyoxal (GO), and methylglyoxal (MGO) were measured as the corresponding quinoxalines after derivatization with orthophenylendiamine using RP-HPLC and UV-detection in commercially available honey samples. Whereas for most of the samples values for 3-DG, MGO, and GO were comparable to previously published data, for six samples of New Zealand Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) honey very high amounts of MGO were found, ranging from 38 to 761 mg/kg, which is up to 100-fold higher compared to conventional honeys. MGO was unambigously identified as the corresponding quinoxaline via photodiodearry detection as well as by means of mass spectroscopy. Antibacterial activity of honey and solutions of 1,2-dicarbonyl towards Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were analyzed using an agar well diffusion assay. Minimum concentrations needed for inhibition of bacterial growth (minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC) of MGO were 1.1 mM for both types of bacteria. MIC for GO was 6.9 mM (E. coli) or 4.3 mM (S. aureus), respectively. 3-DG showed no inhibition in concentrations up to 60 mM. Whereas most of the honey samples investigated showed no inhibition in dilutions of 80% (v/v with water) or below, the samples of Manuka honey exhibited antibacterial activity when diluted to 15-30%, which corresponded to MGO concentrations of 1.1-1.8 mM. This clearly demonstrates that the pronounced antibacterial activity of New Zealand Manuka honey directly originates from MGO.
The effects of manuka honey on plaque and gingivitis: a pilot study The antibacterial activity of honey against coagulase-negative staphylococci
  • H K English
  • A R Pack
  • P Molan
  • V M French
  • R A Cooper
  • P Molan
English H K, Pack A R, Molan P C: The effects of manuka honey on plaque and gingivitis: a pilot study. J Int Acad Periodontol 6: 63–67 (2004) French V M, Cooper R A, Molan P C: The antibacterial activity of honey against coagulase-negative staphylococci. J Antimicrob Chemother 56: 228–231 (2005)
Speeding up the healing of burns with honey. An experimental study with histological assessment of wound biopsies The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and essential oil components towards oral bacteria
  • T J Postmes
  • Mmc Bosch
  • R Dutrieux
  • Van Baare
  • J Shapiro
  • S Meier
  • A Guggenheim
Postmes T J, Bosch MMC, Dutrieux R, Van Baare J: Speeding up the healing of burns with honey. An experimental study with histological assessment of wound biopsies. In: Mizrahi A, Lensky Y, editors. Bee Products: Properties, Applications and Apitherapy. Plenum Press, New York, pp 27–37 (1997) Shapiro S, Meier A, Guggenheim B: The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and essential oil components towards oral bacteria. Oral microbiol Immunol 9: 202 (1994)
The antibacterial activity of honey against coagulase-negative staphylococci
  • V M French
  • R A Cooper
  • P Molan
French V M, Cooper R A, Molan P C: The antibacterial activity of honey against coagulase-negative staphylococci. J Antimicrob Chemother 56: 228–231 (2005)
Speeding up the healing of burns with honey. An experimental study with histological assessment of wound biopsies
  • T J Postmes
  • Mmc Bosch
  • R Dutrieux
  • J Van Baare
Postmes T J, Bosch MMC, Dutrieux R, Van Baare J: Speeding up the healing of burns with honey. An experimental study with histological assessment of wound biopsies. In: Mizrahi A, Lensky Y, editors. Bee Products: Properties, Applications and Apitherapy. Plenum Press, New York, pp 27-37 (1997)
Anti-inflammatory properties of honey. University of Waikato PhD thesis
  • A Bean
Bean A: Anti-inflammatory properties of honey. University of Waikato PhD thesis, 2012.