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A Review of the Efficacy and Safety of Litramine IQP-G-002AS, an Opuntia ficus-indica Derived Fiber for Weight Management

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Sedentary lifestyle and caloric overconsumption are the key determinants of the escalating obesity prevalence. Reducing dietary fat absorption may help to induce a negative energy balance and thus help in managing weight problem. Apart from approved drug therapies, weight problems may also be aided with alternative and natural treatments. This paper compiled and reviewed the efficacy and safety of Litramine IQP-G-002AS, an Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) derived fiber, in reducing dietary fat absorption and promoting weight loss. Evidence reviewed shows that Litramine IQP-G-002AS displays efficacy in promoting fat excretion and weight loss in four randomized, placebo-controlled clinical studies (including an unpublished pilot study). With a daily dosage of 3 g over a seven-day period, Litramine IQP-G-002AS showed an increased faecal fat excretion compared with placebo (15.8% (SD 5.8%) versus 4.6% (SD 3.1%); P < 0.001). In a 12-week study, significant greater weight loss (3.8 kg (SD 1.8 kg) versus 1.4 kg (SD 2.6 kg); P < 0.001) was observed in overweight and obese subjects treated with Litramine IQP-G-002AS as compared to placebo. No relevant gastrointestinal side effects have been reported for Litramine IQP-G-002AS at the dosages studied.
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Review Article
A Review of the Efficacy and Safety of
Litramine IQP-G-002AS, an Opuntia ficus-indica
Derived Fiber for Weight Management
Pee-Win Chong,1Kai-Zhia Lau,1Joerg Gruenwald,2and Ralf Uebelhack3
1InQphar m Europe Ltd., Invision House, Wilbury Way, Hitchin, Her tfordshire SG4 0T Y, UK
2Analyze & Realize GmbH, Waldseeweg 6, 13467 Berlin, Germany
3Universit ¨
atsmedizin Charit´
e, Campus Charit´
eMitte,Schumannstraße20/21,10117Berlin,Germany
Correspondence should be addressed to Kai-Zhia Lau; klau@inqpharm.com
Received  February ; Revised  July ; Accepted  July ; Published  August 
Academic Editor: Srinivas Nammi
Copyright ©  Pee-Win Chong et al. is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Sedentary lifestyle and caloric overconsumption are the key determinants of the escalating obesity prevalence. Reducing dietary
fat absorption may help to induce a negative energy balance and thus help in managing weight problem. Apart from approved
drug therapies, weight problems may also be aided with alternative and natural treatments. is paper compiled and reviewed the
ecacy and safety of Litramine IQP-G-AS, an Opuntia cus-indica (OFI) derived ber, in reducing dietary fat absorption and
promoting weight loss. Evidence reviewed shows that Litramine IQP-G-AS displays ecacy in promoting fat excretion and
weight loss in four randomized, placebo-controlled clinical studies (including an unpublished pilot study). With a daily dosage of
 g over a seven-day period, Litramine IQP-G-AS showed an increased faecal fat excretion compared with placebo (.% (SD
.%) versus .% (SD .%); P<.). In a -week study, signicant greater weight loss (. kg (SD . kg) versus . kg (SD
. kg); P<.) was observed in overweight and obese subjects treated with Litramine IQP-G-AS as compared to placebo.
No relevant gastrointestinal side eects have been reported for Litramine IQP-G-AS at the dosages studied.
1. Introduction
e prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased
expeditiously according to the  obesity update by the
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
(OECD) where at least one in two people is overweight or
obese in more than % of the  OECD countries, while
ChinaandtheUnitedStateshavethelargestabsoluteincrease
in the number of overweight and obese people between 
andfollowedbyMexico[].
Obesity is associated with many noncommunicable
chronic conditions, such as diabetes and cardiovascular
diseases, with more than double the odds of multimorbidity
comparedtothenonobese[]; a publication in  reported
that obesity in the United States constituted a notable 
billion US dollar to the annual healthcare expenses []
exceeding smoking as number one public health enemy.
erefore, eective health-care measures are necessary to
reversetheobesityepidemicandtoreducesoaringhealthcare
expenses.
e main cause of obesity is an energy imbalance where
calories consumed exceeded calories expended []. In South-
ern Europe, the dietary fat intake is % and % of the
total daily energy requirement, for male and female, respec-
tively [], which is approximately –% higher than the
recommended dietary fat intake by the European Food Safety
Authority (EFSA). Such high fat dieting behavior facilitates
caloric overconsumption []. In addition, the obesogenic
environments where fast food is overabundant and hectic,
sedentary lifestyles oen hinder the desire of the overweight
and obese individuals to maintain a healthy diet low in fat
[]. erefore, therapeutic agents, which reduce the dietary
fat absorption may be useful to help these subjects in their
weight loss eorts.
Currently, there are several approaches for the reduction
of dietary fat absorption; these include () inhibition of
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2014, Article ID 943713, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/943713
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
the digestion process of dietary fats through inhibition of
pancreatic lipase, the main fat digestion enzyme, () binding
to bile acids that slow down the digestion of fats [], or ()
reduction of the fat absorption by restricting the physical
contact between nutrients and intestinal villi []. Meanwhile,
pharmaceutical lipase inhibitor, Orlistat, which prevents –
% of dietary fat from being absorbed, is the only authorized
drug treatment in this category. However, approximately –
% of patients experience gastrointestinal side eects such as
fatty or oily stool, oily spotting during the treatment, and fecal
incontinence []. Safety concerns have been raised about a
possible link between Orlistat and the risk of acute liver injury
[].
Alternative treatments for reducing dietary fat uptake
have also been evaluated. One of the concepts is the use of
dietary bers []. Baer et al. [] indicated that an increased
consumption of dietary ber resulted in a decrease of metab-
olized energy that may be attributed to the reduction of
fat digestion, while a prospective cohort study in  []
further corroborated the ecacy of dietary ber in reducing
body weight and body fat. However, there seem to be major
dierences in fat binding properties between dierent bers
[].
In this paper we compile and review evidence of eective
and safe use of dietary ber derived from Opuntia cus-
indica, Litramine IQP-G-AS in weight management.
2. Background
Opuntia cus-indica (L.) Mill. (OFI) (also known as prickly
pear, cactus pear, or nopal) is a species of cacti native to
arid and semiarid regions, originates from Mexico, and was
propagated to other regions like the Mediterranean region
and North Africa [].
e fruit and the cladode of OFI have been part of the
human diet for centuries in these regions. Particularly, the
cladode (or the pad of cactus) is known for its rich ber con-
tent. e OFI cladode generally contains approximately –
% dry weight of dietary bers, which consists of soluble and
insoluble ber. e soluble ber mainly consists of mucilage,
gum, pectin, and hemicellulose while the insoluble ber
consists of cellulose and a larger fraction of hemicellulose [
]. e ber composition of OFI cladode is believed to be
the main contributor to its reported health benets, including
improved blood glucose levels and blood lipid proles [
]. However, the ndings have been inconsistent [,],
which may be attributed to the dierences in composition
of the OFI cladode products. It was reported that the ber
composition of the OFI cladode changes according to age
of maturity. e insoluble ber content increases, while the
soluble ber decreases with age []. Apart from age of
maturation, the compositionand the health properties of OFI
are also aected by the plant variety, cultivation condition,
and post harvesting processing method []. erefore, in
reviewing the clinical evidence of Opuntia cus-indica,itis
important to identify the active composition and functional
properties of the study materials applied, as they are linked to
the therapeutic eects.
Recent research using a laboratory test method has shown
that an OFI cladode powder (NeOpuntia, Nexira Health),
standardized in its ber content, is able to bind to dietary
fat. A similar method has been used for quantifying the
fat binding capacity of other ber compounds []. It is
postulated that, by binding to dietary fat, the ber prevents
fats from intestinal digestion process and reduces the fat
absorption. e capacity of this standardized OFI powder in
reducing fat absorption has also been shown in a dynamic
gastrointestinal model []. Additionally, a pilot clinical study
with  healthy subjects showed that subjects receiving .g
a day of the standardized OFI powder experienced % more
fat excretion, compared to placebo [].
Based on the same fat binding mechanism, Litramine
IQP-G-AS was developed and marketed as fat binder in
recent years. Litramine IQP-G-AS is a natural ber com-
plex derived from OFI cladode powder, fortied with soluble
ber from Acacia spp. and coprocessed with cyclodextrin
using a patent pending technology, thus optimizing the fat
bindingperformance.efatbindingcapacityofLitramine
IQP-G-AS is measured and standardized based on a
modied in vitro method that simulates the gastrointestinal
conditions [].
3. Efficacy Review
Published and unpublished studies on Litramine IQP-G-
AS regarding its use in reducing fat absorption and weight
management were identied for this systematic review. Pub-
lished sources consisted of data from various databases such
as PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar, while unpublished
data was obtained from the key authors of the studies.
Randomized controlled studies in both animal and human
were considered for the review of ecacy.
One () preclinical study and four () clinical studies have
been identied, all of which were conducted with Litramine
IQP-G-AS, between  and , to investigate its
ecacy and safety in faecal fat excretion, weight loss, and
weight loss maintenance.
3.1. Animal Study on Weight Gain Prevention and Fecal Fat
Excretion. In an unpublished study with Sprague-Dawley
rats, Litramine IQP-G-AS in  doses ( mg/kg/day and
 mg/kg/day, eq. to human daily dose of . g and  g, resp.)
signicantly increased fecal fat excretion compared to the
control group (Figure ).Inthesamestudy,LitramineIQP-G-
ASalsohasshownsignicantecacyinpreventingbody
weight gain in rats fed with high fat diet, in comparison with
the control group (Figure ). is study provided the proof of
concept of Litramine IQP-G-AS’s fat binding mechanism
and provided useful information for the estimation of an
eective intervention dose in weight management.
3.2. Pilot Faecal Fat Excretion Study in Human. Apilotstudy
(unpublished) was conducted in  to elucidate the dietary
fat binding capacity of Litramine IQP-G-AS. Forty-six
healthy Caucasian subjects (BMI between  and  kg/m2)
completed the two-armed, randomized, double blind, and
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Control IQP-G-002AS IQP-G-002AS
(210 mg/kg/day)(140 mg/kg/day)∗∗
g fat/100 g faeces
F : -hour faecal fat excretion (animal study). Faecal fat
excretion increased signicantly in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with
LitramineIQP-G-ASintwodoses,comparedtocontrol(𝑃<
0.01)(𝑛=6for control and each of the Litramine IQP-G-AS
group). Asterisk () denotes statistically signicant, compared
to control and Litramine IQP-G-AS (mg/kg/day); double-
asterisk (∗∗) denotes statistically signicant, compared to control.
Error bars denote standard deviation.
180.00
200.00
220.00
240.00
260.00
280.00
300.00
D1
D3
D5
D7
D9
D11
D13
D15
D17
D19
D21
D23
D25
D27
D29
D31
D33
D35
Mean body weight (g)
Treatment day
Control
IQP-G-002AS (210mg/kg/day)
IQP-G-002AS (140mg/kg/day)
F : Change in body weight (animal study). Litramine IQP-G-
AS (at two doses) has shown signicant ecacy in preventing
body weight gain in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with high fat diet,
compared to control group (𝑃 < 0.05)(𝑛=6for control and
each of the Litramine IQP-G-AS group). Asterisk () denotes
statistically signicant.
placebo-controlled study. During the intervention phase,
subjects received either .g (two tablets) of Litramine IQP-
G-AS or identical placebo for three days and were advised
to adhere to a diet plan containing a daily energy intake of
 kcal with a fat content of % ( g). Stool samples were
collectedonthethirddayandonthesixthday,forfaecal
fat content analysis. Compared to placebo, Litramine IQP-
G-AS has been shown to signicantly increase faecal fat
excretion (Figure ). However, the study design had certain
limitations as the fat content of the subject’s stool was
0.58
1.04
3.24
0.6
0.5
0
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
Baseline
Aer intervention
IQP-G-002ASPlacebo
g fat/100 g faeces
F : Faecal fat content before and aer intake of Litramine
IQP-G-AS ( pilot faecal fat excretion study). Faecal fat
excretion was greater in Litramine IQP-G-AS, compared to
placebo aer treatment (𝑃 < 0.001)(𝑛=46). Asterisk () denotes
statistically signicant, compared to placebo. Error bar denotes
standard deviation.
measured in aliquots only, whereas the total daily stool weight
of each subject had not been measured; hence, the absolute
amount of fat excreted could only be established through a
theoretical calculation based on daily stool weights reported
in literature.
3.3. Faecal Fat Excretion Clinical Study. Asecondfaecalfat
excretion trial was conducted in  [], with additional
experimental conditions that addressed the corresponding
study limitations, which were observed in the pilot trial.
Twenty healthy Caucasian subjects (BMI between  and
 kg/m2) completed the -day, double blind, randomized,
and crossover fat excretion study (Figure ). During the
intervention phases, subjects received either two tablets of
Litramine IQP-G-AS ( mg per tablet) or matching
placebo tablets, thrice daily before main meals. In addition,
subjects were put on a standardized diet with preprepared
meals. Subjects were assigned to one of three dierent daily
energy levels, providing % of the total daily energy intake
byfat:kcal(withgfat),kcal(withgfat),
and  kcal (with  g of fat). All bowel movements within
 hours were collected either on days  and  or on days
 and  of the intervention phase. e results show that
consumption of Litramine IQP-G-AS over a period of -
 days increased the amount of fat excreted in the faeces.
e percentage of fat excreted relative to daily fat intake
(equivalent to %) was calculated. ere was a signicant
(𝑃 < 0.001) dierence between the mean percentage of
dietary fat excreted in subjects on Litramine IQP-G-AS
(.% (SD .%)) and subjects on placebo (.% (SD .%)).
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Placebo IP 1 Placebo IP 2
Screening Baseline 1 Intervention 1 out Baseline 2 Intervention 2 Final
visit
V1 V2 V4 V5 V6
7 days 012345 6 7 0 12345677 days 012345670 12345 6 7 3 days
Blood
sampling Blood
sampling
Stool collection (on days 5 and 6 or days 6 and 7)
V3
Randomization
Wash-
F : Study design summary of  faecal fat excretion clinical trial.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Successfully maintained body weight loss
Unsuccessfully maintained body weight loss
(%)
IQP-G002ASPlacebo
F : Percentage of individuals who successfully and unsuc-
cessfully maintained body weight loss (intent-to-treat population,
𝑛=49), at week . Asterisk () denotes statistically signicant
(𝑃 < 0.001 for IQP-GAS group; 𝑃 = 0.012 for placebo).
3.4. Weight Loss Clinical Study. A randomized, double blind,
placebo-controlled trial with  males and  females over-
weight and obese subjects (BMI between  and  kg/m2)
was conducted to investigate the ecacy of Litramine IQP-G-
AS in reducing body weight []. e subjects consumed
either  g/day of Litramine IQP-G-AS or placebo tablets
forweeks.Attheendofthestudy,therewasastatistically
signicant . kg greater weight loss in the Litramine IQP-
G-AS group compared to the placebo group (. kg (SD
. kg) versus . kg (SD . kg); 𝑃 < 0.001). Furthermore,
subjects treated with Litramine IQP-G-AS also showed
signicantly greater reduction in body fat composition (0.7%
(SD 1.7%) versus +0.1%(SD2.5%); dierence 0.8%; 𝑃<
0.031) and waist circumference (.cm (SD . cm) versus
. cm (SD . cm); dierence . cm; 𝑃 < 0.001)in
comparison to the placebo group.
T : Waist circumference and body fat mass (measured by
bioimpedance analyser) changes between baseline and week .
Parameter IQP-G-AS Placebo 𝑃value
Mean (standard deviation)
Waist circumference (cm) . (.) +. (.) <.
Body fat mass (kg) . (.) +. (.) .
𝑃value derives from the nonparametric Mann-Whitney 𝑈test.; positive
values represent increment, while negative values represent reduction.
3.5. Follow-Up Weight Maintenance Study. Forty-nine over-
weight and obese adults (BMI – kg/m2), with docu-
mented weight loss achieved over the last three to six
months prior to the study, completed the randomized, double
blind, placebo-controlled weight maintenance study [].
No dietary restriction and behavioral modication were
applied; however, subjects were encouraged to maintain a
nutritionally balanced diet and to continue their physical
activity such as walking and cycling. In addition, subjects
received either  g/day ( g aer each of the three meals) of
Litramine IQP-G-AS or a matching placebo. Two primary
endpoints were evaluated throughout the -month study: ()
the dierence between body weight at baseline and at nal
visit and () the maintenance of the initially lost body weight
in the Litramine IQP-G-AS group, where maintenance is
dened as % weight gain.
Under the free-living condition, subjects in the Litramine
IQP-G-AS group lost signicantly more weight than in
the placebo group (. (SD .) kg for IQP-G-AS
versus +. (SD .) kg for placebo, dierence of . kg
(𝑃 < 0.001)) at the end of week . In addition, signi-
cant more Litramine IQP-G-AS subjects maintained or
further reduced their body weight aer initial weight loss.
Conversely, more subjects in the placebo group gained weight
aer  treatment weeks (Figure ). Moreover, improvements
on waist circumference and body fat composition were
observed in the Litramine IQP-G-AS group (Table ).
3.6. Fat Excretion and Weight Loss. Many products claim to
bind and eliminate dietary fat manifold of their own weight
in in vitro experiments; however the clinical ecacy remains
questionable [,]. e results from the above clinical
studies showed that increased faecal excretion of dietary
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
fat due to consumption of Litramine IQP-G-AS induces
weight loss, which concurs with the proposed fat binding
mechanism. e weight loss eect of Litramine IQP-G-AS
may also be attributed to other functional properties of the
ber such as () delayed absorption of nutrients [],
() satiety promoting eects of the ber due to the high
viscosity of the ber, which may also slow down nutrients
absorption and subsequently minimize postprandial glucose
spikes leading to a reduced insulin secretion [], or ()
swelling properties of the ber resulting in satiety signals due
to stomach distension [,].
4. Safety Review
Safety review was performedbased on published and unpub-
lished studies referring to Litramine IQP-G-AS. Pub-
lished sources consist of data from various databases such
as PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar, while unpublished
data was obtained from the manufacturers.
ere were no gastrointestinal side eects reported from
the clinical studies reviewed above, with the consumption of
aboutgofLitramineIQP-G-ASadayforuptoweeks.
ere were also no clinical changes observed from blood
parameters such as full blood count and clinical chemistry.
Furthermore,theintakeofLitramineIQP-G-ASfor
weeks had not resulted in any clinical relevant changes on
the serum fat soluble vitamins (A, D, and E) []andserum
mineral level (sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium)
[,]. Nevertheless, studies of more than  weeks are
needed to examine the long-term safety of Litramine IQP-G-
AS.
5. Conclusion
e current review examined the ecacy and safety of Lit-
ramine IQP-GAS, a dehydrated cladode of OFI enriched
with additional soluble ber from acacia gum and copro-
cessed with cyclodextrin. Published and unpublished data
from randomized, placebo-controlled trials indicate positive
results for faecal fat excretion, for the promotion of weight
loss and for the maintenance of body weight. e safety
assessment also revealed minimal concern as the studies
evaluated showed that the consumption of Litramine IQP-
GAS is well tolerated. Nevertheless, further research is
warranted to investigate the ecacy and safety of Litramine
IQP-GAS in reducing the risks of obesity related-
comorbidities as a possible measure for health care providers
and public in general to help alleviate the negative impact of
the obesity epidemic.
Disclosure
Pee-Win Chong and Kai-Zhia Lau are the employees of
InQpharm Europe Ltd.
Conflict of Interests
e authors declare that there is no conict of interests
regarding the publication of this paper.
Authors’ Contribution
Pee-Win Chong and Kai-Zhia Lau contributed in paper dra-
ing. Joerg Gruenwald, Ph.D, and Professor Ralf Uebelhack
contributed in reviewing and approving the paper.
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... could explain many of the effects versus obesity and overweight [103]. In this sense, it is safe to assume that various members of the Opuntia genus may be useful for treating obesity and preventing weight gain [104] or ameliorating the biomarker levels of important comorbidities associated with MetS, such as hepatic steatosis [92,105,106]. ...
... Through a bibliographical research from different databases (2009 and 2013), another study was conducted on the efficacy and safety of Litramine IQP G-002AS regarding the use of natural fiber complex in fecal fat excretion, weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Four clinical studies (randomized, placebo-controlled), including an unpublished pilot study, showed the efficacy of the product which increased fat excretion and weight loss without reports on gastrointestinal side effects [104]. ...
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Background Nopal (Opuntia spp.) is by excellence the most utilized cactus in human and animal nutrition. It is also a very noble plant; its main physicochemical, nutritional and nutraceutical characteristics allow the use of nopal in diverse food applications. Special focus has been given over the past decades in the use of Opuntia for the treatment of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is predominantly related to Diabetes Mellitus. In this sense, the prevalence of MetS is increasing at a worldwide level. This in turn has led to a notorious demand for natural and nutraceutical food sources. Methods The objective of this work was to summarize the main contributions in the field of Opuntia spp. research highlighting the potential use of nopal fruits or cladodes in MetS treatment, providing the reader with historical and novel information in this field. Nevertheless, the present work is not a meta-analysis. We included mainly information from recognized scientific databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar. No homeopathic based studies were included since they lack scientific validation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review that fairly categorizes the majority of the information in this field into subsections, which can be of interest for the reader, such as the effect of nopal against cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and obesity among others. Conclusion Nopal constitutes one of the most studied members of the Cactaceae family; its potential effects on human health have been described since ancient times, mostly through traditional medicine. The present work highlights the importance of this plant in the treatment of MetS related maladies and points out the importance of elucidating new compounds and their validation for the interactions of nutraceutical compounds which could be related with MetS.
... In studies related to AO, the absorption of fat in the diet decreased through natural treatments, such as Litramine IQP-G-002AS (fiber derived from OFI). The results of four randomized clinical studies suggest that it is effective in promoting fat excretion and weight loss when taken at a daily dose of 3 g for seven days [58]. ...
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Opuntia spp. is a diverse and widely distributed genus in Africa, Asia, Australia, and America. Mexico has the largest number of wild species; mainly O. streptacantha, O. hyptiacantha, O. albicarpa, O. megacantha and O. ficus-indica. The latter being the most cultivated and domesticated species. Throughout history, plants and their phytochemicals have played an important role in health care and Opuntia spp. has shown a high nutritional, medicinal, pharmaceutical, and economic impacts. Its main bioactive compounds include pigments (carotenoids, betalains and betacyanins), vitamins, flavonoids (isorhamnetin, kaempferol, quercetin) and phenolic compounds. Together, they favor the different plant parts and are considered phytochemically important and associated with control, progression and prevention of some chronic and infectious diseases. This first review (Part 1), compiles information from published research (in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies) on its preventive effects against atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and obesity, hepatoprotection, effects on human infertility and chemopreventive and/or antigenotoxic capacity. The aim is to provide scientific evidences of its beneficial properties and to encourage health professionals and researchers to expand studies on the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Opuntia spp.
... Various suggestions on the possible effects of Opuntia extract in terms of energy metabolism, gene regulation, and regulation of insulin and glucose pathways indicated that cactus pears could be successful in controlling obesity, provided in different ways in the diet. Uebelhack et al. (2014) and Chong et al. (2014a) showed that Opuntial fibres bind to dietary fats and reduce their absorption, consequently increasing their excretion, leading to lower energy consumption and loss of weight. Moreover, animal research findings have indicated that the consumption of Opuntia can cause bodyweight reductions through diuresis (Bisson et al., 2010), enhance lipid profile by intracellular radicals quenching (Halmi et al., 2013;Medellín et al., 1998;Oh & Lim, 2006) and reduce blood glucose via increasing basal insulin level (Butterweck et al., 2011;Ennouri et al., 2006). ...
Chapter
There is a growing trend for the use of nutritional and medicinal natural compounds to manage chronic diseases. In particular, flavonoids have gained much interest because of their regulation effects on oxidative stress and inflammatory events linked to chronic disorders initiation and progression, including metabolic, neurodegenerative, and neoplastic diseases. For centuries, Opuntia species have served as food and traditional folk medicine for their nutritional features and their benefits in chronic conditions like obesity, cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. The plant is globally distributed and has high economic potential. The different parts of the plant, including pear, cladodes, roots, and seeds, have favorable biological activities. The plant parts are rich in phenolic acids, biopeptides, ascorbate, flavonoids, betalains, carotenoids, and soluble fibers, which possess favorable pharmacological activities promising agent in the development of drugs for chronic disease intervention. In this chapter, the role of the most commonly studied Opuntia spp. and its bioactives in the management of chronic diseases has been described. Also, a special focusing has been paid on the safety aspects and potential toxicities, which should be considered to achieve the maximum benefit of the Opuntia spp. in chronic disease therapies.
... The role of natural sourced dietary fibre in the prevention against diseases like diabetes, obesity, and digestive discomforts has been well demonstrated (Wolfram & Ismail-Beigi, 2011;Chong et al., 2014). Cladode flours can be obtained from their matured forms (2-3 years), and in cladodes or stem the fibre content increases with aging (FAO, 2013). ...
Chapter
Opuntia spp. has widespread species which are well-adapted to arid lands and climates over the world. This cactus plant was originated in America and then spread to other regions such as Europe, Africa, and Mediterranean countries. It is mainly cultivated for its seed, edible fruit (prickly pear), and cladodes. The nutritional and health benefits of the Opuntia genus are provided by various compounds such as phenolic compounds, pigments, polysaccharides, mucilage, dietary fibre, vitamins (B1, B2, A, and C), and minerals including magnesium, iron, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus. Owing to several health benefits, including prevention of diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and inhibition of inflammation, the number of studies focusing on developing novel foods and bioactive compounds by using different parts of this plant has increased recently. Several attempts have been made to integrate this plant into other foods, including bread, cake, pasta, gluten-free products, extrudates, cereal bars, juices, and meat products to improve their nutritional quality. In particular, Opuntia has gained importance as an excellent food source as desertification areas have increased and water resources have decreased globally. This chapter will discuss the recent studies dealing with the use of Opuntia spp. for edible purposes and the development of appropriate processing techniques to incorporate various parts of this valuable plant into other food matrices.
... Rodiles-López et al: Desarrollo de una tortilla adicionada con harinas / XXI (2): 71-77 (2019) 75 peso por el consumo de la tortilla funcional. Pee et al. (2014), mencionan la eficacia de la fibra dietética en la reducción del peso corporal, y que puede atribuirse a una menor absorción de las grasas y por lo tanto menor aporte de calorías al organismo. Las dietas DC y DR contenían la misma cantidad de fibra que DT, sin embargo, ésta última fue exclusivamente celulosa, es decir, una fibra insoluble, mientras que DT fue una fibra dietética, mezcla de fibra soluble e insoluble. ...
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El sobrepeso, obesidad, afecciones cardiovasculares, dislipidemias, hipertensión, diabetes y cáncer son un problema mundial de salud. Se sugiere para su prevención una alimentación sana y estilo de vida saludable. En este estudio se elaboró una tortilla de maíz a partir de 90 g de masa con 2.5g de harina de nopal y 2.5g de aguacate liofilizado, y se evaluó su efecto reductor de colesterol, triglicéridos y glucosa en ratas Wistar. Se formularon tres dietas: Referencia (DR), que incluyó todos los ingredientes que los roedores requieren para su mantenimiento, Control (DC), en donde se indujo hipertrigliceridemia e hipercolesterolemia, y una dieta con la tortilla (DT) donde también se les indujo hipertrigliceridemia e hipercolesterolemia. Los animales que fueron alimentados con DT disminuyeron sus valores de colesterol total (25.8%), triglicéridos (30.8%), y el colesterol-LDL (72.9%) con respecto a DC. También hubo disminución de glucosa en los animales alimentados con DT en comparación con los alimentados con DC (31.85%) y DR (32.84%). Los animales que fueron alimentados con DT en comparación con DC presentaron mayor concentración de lípidos en heces y mayor humedad, 56.2% y 311%, respectivamente, y un 10.4% menos concentración de lípidos en hígado. La adición de harinas de aguacate y nopal fueron efectivas en reducir las concentraciones de colesterol, triglicéridos y glucosa en ratas.
... It is noteworthy that OCP treatment did not cause any detectable adverse toxic effects on the liver. Uebelhack et al. [9] and Chong et al. [41] illustrated that the effects of Opuntia-derived fibers act in reducing dietary fat absorption in human volunteers, by binding to dietary fat and increasing its excretion in faeces, probably by decreasing fat intestinal absorption. To further understand the mechanisms explaining the lower weight gain induced by Opuntia supplementation in a HFD, we evaluated the faecal excretion of fats in our rat model, which was markedly increased in rats fed a HFD, and was much more pronounced when rats were supplemented with OFI. ...
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Background: Obesity is a major public health concern worldwide. A sedentary life and a nutritional transition to processed foods and high-calorie diets are contributing factors to obesity. The demand for nutraceutical foods, such as herbal weight-loss products, which offer the potential to counteract obesity, has consequently increased. We hypothesised that Opuntia cladodes consumption could assist weight management in an obesity prevention context. Methods: This study was designed to explore the anti-adipogenic effects of lyophilised Opuntia cladode powders (OCP) in an in vitro cellular model for adipocyte differentiation and an in vivo high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity rat model. Two OCP were tested, one from wild species O. streptacantha and the second from the most known species O. ficus-indica. Results: Pre-adipocytes 3 T3-F442A were treated by OCP during the differentiation process by insulin. OCP treatment impaired the differentiation in adipocytes, as supported by the decreased triglyceride content and a low glucose uptake, which remained comparable to that observed in undifferentiated controls, suggesting that an anti-adipogenic effect was exerted by OCP. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a normal or HFD, supplemented or not with OCP for 8 weeks. OCP treatment slightly reduced body weight gain, liver and abdominal fat weights, improved some obesity-related metabolic parameters and increased triglyceride excretion in the faeces. Taken together, these results showed that OCP might contribute to reduce adipogenesis and fat storage in a HFD context, notably by promoting the faecal excretion of fats. Conclusions: Opuntia cladodes may be used as a dietary supplement or potential therapeutic agent in diet-based therapies for weight management to prevent obesity.
Chapter
Opuntia , a genus of the Cactaceae family, has been used for centuries as a medicinal plant, with different parts of the plant, including whole fruit, pulp, flowers, seeds, peels, and cladodes. Opuntia spp., cultivated or wild, can be found in various agro‐climatic conditions, although often associated with warm climate. A dozen species are cultivated for fruit production ( O. ficus‐indica, O. amyclae, O. xoconostle, O. megacantha , and O. streptacantha ), although O. ficus‐indica is the most known, as prickly pear fruit, and is available across the five continents from early summer until late autumn. The peculiar general Opuntia anatomy and physiology, and O. ficus‐indica specifically, make it a multipurpose dryland crop destined to become more important in view of an ever increasing world population and water and land scarcity. Opuntia fruits contain polyphenols and betalains, promising protective agents against inflammation, oxidative stress, and metabolic‐related diseases. Cladodes are not only rich in polyphenols but also contain polysaccharides and soluble fibers that are able to counteract hyperglycemia and related physiological disorders. This chapter reports the latest finding on the health properties of fruit, cladode, flower, and seed from Opuntia plants, related to the bioactive compounds, and the mechanisms of action so far identified or hypothesized. Moreover, the potential uses of Opuntia fruit and cladode are reported, not only for health and disease but also for food applications.
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In a video surveillance system, tracking multiple moving objects using a single camera feed is having numerous challenges. A multi-camera system increases the output image quality in both overlapping and non-overlapping environment. Traffic behavior analysis is an intensified demand in a recent topic of research. Due to increasing traffic in intercity roads, interstate, and national highways. Automated traffic visual surveillance applications with the multi-camera are a topic of research in computer vision. This paper, present a multi-camera system study for the overlapping area of the road for traffic analysis in three sections. The second section represents the thorough literature survey on the multi-camera system. Here, the third section is our proposed system using a dual-camera experimental setup with their coordination. A deep neural network is used in the experiments for traffic behavior analysis. The emphasis of this paper is on the physical arrangement of the multi-camera system, calibration, and advantages- disadvantages. On a conclusion note, future development and advancement in traffic analysis using a multi-camera system is discussed.
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Opuntia is a plant that grows in wild, arid, and semi-arid regions, and it is a renowned food source that is presently undervalued. The chemical composition and properties of the Opuntia genus have attracted research and commercial interest as its species are rich in phytochemicals, nutrients, and bioactive compounds. Several of these constituents have revealed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-cancer, anti-atherosclerotic, antidiabetic, neurological, and gut protective characteristics. This review provides an extensive and up-to-date evidence synthesis of the nutrients in the Opuntia genus, its phytochemical composition, health benefits, the influence of the processing technologies on its bioactive components, and the potential for functional food product development. Due to its high nutritional value, Opuntia genus has the potential to contribute to improving food security and contribute to the food industry as food additive or preservative. Accordingly, Opuntia products can be utilized as food substitutes as part of a well-balanced diet and may potentially have pharmacological properties. The Opuntia genus is also used as animal feed, a source of nutraceuticals, an addition to edible packaging materials, wastewater treatment, and land rehabilitation in arid regions. Opuntia is a rich source of minerals, essential amino acids, and vitamins, and is high in antioxidants, making it a promising candidate for the management of non-communicable diseases. The potential health-promoting effects of Opuntia consumption remain relatively unexplored, and further research human trials are required to unravel its mechanisms of action.
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Background The stems of Opuntia ficus‐indica, known as cladodes, are a rich source of soluble fibers, which make them an important candidate for the production of functional foods. Tagliatelle of durum wheat fortified with Opuntia cladode extract (OCE) at different levels of addition (10‐30%, v:w) were prepared on a laboratory scale and quality characteristics and sensory acceptability assessed. Results Main quality parameters (OCT, swelling index, cooking loss, dry matter) and sensory analysis at 9‐points hedonic scale were comparable with those of control pasta sample (no added OCE) when durum wheat was supplemented with OCE up to 20% (v/w). Performing an in vitro human simulated gastro‐intestinal digestion in the presence of cholesterol or its main dietary oxidized derivative, 7‐ketocholesterol, it was ascertained that OCE‐fortified pasta strongly reduced the bioaccessibility of both the sterols, the higher the incorporated OCE level, the higher the effect. Moreover the extent of starch digestion decreased with increasing levels of OCE. Conclusion Our study indicates that OCE‐fortified pasta could own healthy properties such as blood cholesterol‐ and glucose‐lowering capability. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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KL Catherine Jen,1,2 George Grunberger,3 Joseph D Artiss2,4 1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; 2ArtJen Complexus Inc, Windsor, ON, Canada; 3The Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA; 4Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: α-Cyclodextrin (α-CD), a soluble dietary fiber, has been shown to bind and eliminate nine times of its own weight in dietary fat. Studies with different animal models have reported that α-CD preferentially binds saturated fatty acids, reducing saturated and trans fatty acid levels in blood. A clinical trial demonstrated that α-CD prevented weight gain in obese diabetic patients. The present study was designed to examine whether α-CD also shows a preference in binding saturated fatty acids in humans and to confirm the 1:9 binding ratio in humans. Sixty-six obese diabetic patients were recruited at the beginning of this 3-month, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomly assigned to the Active or Placebo group. Blood samples and 3-day dietary records were collected at baseline and at the end of months 1, 2, and 3. A bottle of 180 tablets of active or placebo tablets was dispensed to each participant at the beginning of each month. Dietary records were analyzed using The Food Processor software. It was observed that α-CD has a higher affinity towards saturated fats than to unsaturated fats. Participants with higher intakes of total and saturated fat lost more weight than those with lower intakes (P < 0.05 and < 0.01, respectively). These data support the earlier observation in both in vitro and animal studies that α-CD binds with dietary fat in a 1:9 ratio and further demonstrate the efficacy of α-CD in binding to and eliminating dietary fat, especially saturated fats. α-CD may play a significant role in reducing blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as stopping chronic weight gain. Keywords: FBCx®, fat binding capacity, 1:9 binding ratio, reducing blood cholesterol levels, saturated, dietary analysis
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Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes, cardiovascular di - seases, and cancers. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has almost doubled between 1980 and 2008. In some regions, such as Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas, more than 50% of women are overweight. Tonga, Nauru and the Cook Islands show the highest prevalence of obesity worldwide, above 60% in men and in women. China and the United States are the countries that experienced the largest absolute increase in the number of overweight and obese people between 1980 and 2008, followed by Brazil and Mexico. The regions with the largest increase in the prevalence of female obesity were Central Latin America, Oceania and Sou - thern Latin America. Updated data provide evidence that the progression of the epidemic has effectively slowed for the past ten years in several countries. In low-income countries obesity is generally more prevalent among the better-off, while disadvantaged groups are increasingly affected as countries grow. Many studies have shown an overall socio-economic gradient in obesity in modern industrialized societies. Rates tend to decrease progressively with increasing socio-economic status. Children obesity rates in Spain are amongst the highest in the OECD. One in 3 children aged 13 to 14 are overweight. Overweight in infants and young children is observed in the upper middle-income countries. However, the fastest growth occurs in the group of lower middle-income countries. There is a growing body of evidence for an inverse association between SES and child obesity in developed countries. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high in all age groups in many countries, but especially worrying in children and adolescents in developed countries and economies in transition.
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Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has almost doubled between 1980 and 2008. In some regions, such as Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas, more than 50% of women are overweight. Tonga, Nauru and the Cook Islands show the highest prevalence of obesity worldwide, above 60% in men and in women. China and the United States are the countries that experienced the largest absolute increase in the number of overweight and obese people between 1980 and 2008, followed by Brazil and Mexico. The regions with the largest increase in the prevalence of female obesity were Central Latin America, Oceania and Southern Latin America. Updated data provide evidence that the progression of the epidemic has effectively slowed for the past ten years in several countries. In low-income countries obesity is generally more prevalent among the better-off, while disadvantaged groups are increasingly affected as countries grow. Many studies have shown an overall socio-economic gradient in obesity in modern industrialized societies. Rates tend to decrease progressively with increasing socio-economic status. Children obesity rates in Spain are amongst the highest in the OECD. One in 3 children aged 13 to 14 are overweight. Overweight in infants and young children is observed in the upper middle-income countries. However, the fastest growth occurs in the group of lower middle-income countries. There is a growing body of evidence for an inverse association between SES and child obesity in developed countries. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high in all age groups in many countries, but especially worrying in children and adolescents in developed countries and economies in transition.
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