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New Plant Records and Rediscoveries within the Hawaiian Islands

Authors:
  • The National Tropical Botanical Garden

Abstract and Figures

As the result of several relatively recent botanical field surveys conducted within the Hawaiian archipelago, sixteen new vascular plant island records and two rediscoveries are presented in this paper. New island records include twelve non-native naturalized plant taxa; three Hawaiian endemics, including Dubautia laxa (Asteraceae), Gunnera petaloïdea (Gunneraceae), and Phyllostegia ambigua (Lamiaceae); and one indigenous species, Portulaca lutea (Portulacaceae). Two additional records represent significant endemic rediscoveries in the Hawaiian Islands, including Diellia erecta f. alexandri (Aspleniaceae) which was thought to be extinct on Kaua‘i after not being observed since 1886; and Phyllostegia helleri (Lamiaceae), unrecorded since 1916.
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RECORDS OF THE
HAWAII BIOLOGICAL SURVEY
FOR 2004–2005
Part 2:Notes
This is the second of 2 parts to the Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for
2004–2005 and contains the notes on Hawaiian species of plants and animals includ-
ing new state and island records, range extensions, and other information. Larger,
more comprehensive treatments are found in the first Articles” part of this Records
[Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 87].
New naturalized plant records for Kauai and Hawaii
DAVID H. LORENCE &TIM FLYNN1(National Tropical Botanical Garden, 3530 Papalina Road,
Kaläheo, Hawai‘i 96741, USA; email: lorence@ntbg.org)
The following contribution presents new records for the Hawaiian flora resulting from
ongoing field surveys and collections, primarily from Kaua‘i. The following notes include
new island and new state records for naturalized plants, and a revised key to Spermacoce
(Rubiaceae) in Hawai‘i. Voucher specimens are housed in the herbarium of the National
Tropical Botanical Garden (PTBG), with duplicates to be distributed as noted.
Pteridophytes
Dicksoniaceae
Dicksonia fibrosa Col. New naturalized record
Anumber of recently naturalized alien pteridophytes have been reported from Hawai‘i
(Palmer 2002; Wilson 2003). This is, however, the first record of the genus Dicksonia
being naturalized in the Hawaiian Islands, although D. antarctica Labillard. and D. squar-
rosa (G. Forst.) Sw. are cultivated on the Big Island (data from specimens at BISH). The
golden tree fern or wheki-ponga is a slowgrowing fern that may eventually reach 6 m tall.
The stipe bases fall with the fronds and the stout caudex enlarges as it becomes covered
with a dense mass of fibrous, brownish red aerial roots. The fronds are 1.5–4.0 m long
with stipe and rachis light to yellowish brown and smooth or only faintly roughened by
the scale bases. Native to New Zealand, it is occasionally cultivated in Hawai‘i and has
escaped from cultivation in one locality on the Big Island. Like our native Cibotium
species (also Dicksoniaceae), Dicksonia fibrosa has a bivalvate indusium but differs in
having the outer indusium valvenot sharply differentiated from the lamina as in Cibotium.
In the field D. fibrosa can be distinguished from other native (Cibotium spp.) and natural-
ized (Cyathea cooperi, syn. Sphaeropteris cooperi)tree ferns in Hawai‘i by its massive
trunk 30–60 cm dia., covered by a dense mass of fibrous roots, brown stipe hairs, and
more numerous fronds (20–30 or more).
Material examined. HAWAII:South Hilo Distr, Keolahou, remnant koa-‘öhi‘a forest with
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005. Bishop
Museum Occasional Papers 88: 79 p. (2006)
1. Research Associate, Hawaii Biological Survey, Bishop Museum, 1525 Bernice Street, Honolulu, Hawai‘i 96817-
2704, USA.
alien plantings, 1750 m. Terrestrial fern, caudex erect, 30 x 30 cm, fronds densely clustered, to 2 m
long, pinnae 25–30 pairs, stipe hairs brown. Naturalized locally from several cultivated plants, about
12 seen. 19 Mar 2005, D. Lorence et al. 9445 (BISH, PTBG, US).
The following key separates the native and naturalized tree fern genera in Hawai‘i:
1. Stipe when young covered by scales of two types (larger and smaller) with red-brown mar-
ginal spines; indusium lacking ... Cyathea (Sphaeropteris) cooperi
1. Stipe when young covered with hairs; indusium present, bivalvate ... 2
2. Leaf blades scarcely or not tapered basally, the basal pinnae little or not reduced; outer valve
of indusium distinctly differentiated from the lamina to which it is attached ... Cibotium
2. Leaf blades gradually narrowed and tapered basally, the pinnae gradually reduced; outer
valve of indusium not sharply differentiated from the lamina to which it attached ... Dicksonia
Monocots
Araceae
Dieffenbachia maculata (Loddiges) G. Don New naturalized record
This species is commonly cultivated in Hawai‘i as a house or garden plant for its attrac-
tive spotted leaves. The common name “dumb cane” alludes to the fact that if the plant
tissue is chewed, the sap makes the mouth and tongue swell, rendering speech impossible.
It is sparingly naturalized along this region of the Lawa‘i Stream, reproducing vegetative-
ly and possibly also from seed.
Material examined. KAUAI:Köloa Distr, Lawa‘i Stream valley below old pineapple cannery
on Lauoho Rd, at south end of Lehelehe Rd, upper NTBG property; secondary forest, 336–350 ft
[110–115 m], 21º54'50"N, 159º30'27"W, Lorence 9076 (BISH, PTBG), Lorence 9456 (BISH, PTBG,
US).
Dicots
Aizoaceae
Trianthema portulacastrum L. New island record
Previously recorded from O‘ahu (Honolulu International Airport to Honolulu) and West
Maui (Launiupoko), this is the first record of this prostrate herbaceous species from
Kaua‘i.
Material examined. KAUAI:Köloa Distr,Coffee field below(S of) Niho Road. Abundantly
naturalized from crushed cinder road fill, 22 Sep 2003, 120 m, 21º54'00"N, 159º31'00"W, Lorence
9168 (BISH, BR, MO, NY, PTBG, US).
Asteraceae
Dyssodia tenuiloba New island record
Previously recorded from O‘ahu and West Maui, this annual herb with yellow flowers
occurs as a roadside weed at this locality on eastern Kaua‘i.
Material examined. KAUAI: Kawaihau Distr, Kapa‘a bypass road, roadside weed, 1 Apr 2005,
E. Pickup s.n. (BISH, NY, PTBG, US).
Fabaceae (Mimosoidae)
Inga sertulifera DC. subsp. leptopus New naturalized record
(Benth.) T. D. Penn.
This is the first record of the genus Inga Miller being naturalized in the Hawaiian Islands.
It differs from other native and naturalized mimosoid legumes in Hawai‘i by the follow-
ing characters: once-pinnate leaves with 2(–3) pairs of elliptic leaflets to 11.5 x 6.5 cm,
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2
the base with unequal sides; foliar nectaries on upper surface of narrowly winged rachis
between the petiolules; thin-walled soft, fleshy pods 10–18 x 3 cm with expanded, longi-
tudinally ribbed margins; soft, cottony white pulp surrounding the seeds; and ellipsoid
seeds 25 x 15 mm with green cotyledons, often germinating in the fallen pods. This
species was found to be abundantly naturalized locally in a valley covering about one acre,
apparently spreading from a large parent tree. Efforts are currently underway to eradicate
the population. Inga sertulifera subsp. leptopus is native to from Costa Rica and Panama
to Peru (Pennington 1997).
Material examined. KAUAI:Köloa Distr, Lawa‘i Stream valley below old pineapple cannery
on Lauoho Rd, at south end of Lehelehe Rd, upper NTBG property; secondary forest along stream,
336–350 ft [110–115 m], 21º54'50"N, 159º30'27"W.Seedlings regenerating under tree 15 m tall, 1.8
mdbh, bark flaking, leaves glossy above, 5 May 2005, Lorence et al. 9455 (PTBG); Lorence 9072
(PTBG).
Macroptilium atropurpureum (DC) Urb. New island record
Previously reported as naturalized on O‘ahu, Maui, Hawai‘i, and Moloka‘i (Wagner et al.
1990; Oppenheimer 2003), M. atropurpureum is now reported from Kaua‘i. Despite no prior
collections it is quite common in secondary, roadside vegetation across the island.
Material examined: KAUAI:Kawaihau Distr, along Hwy 56 near mile marker 18. Secondary
vegetation, 280 ft [92 m], 14 Apr 2005, T. Flynn 7238 (PTBG)
Malvaceae
Heritiera littoralis Dryand. New naturalized record
Widely cultivated as a street tree in the Hawaiian Islands (Staples & Herbst 2005), the
Looking-glass tree is found naturally throughout many parts of the tropics, growing in
lowland coastal or mangroveforests. Usually small trees of no more than 20 ft [6 m], they
are easily identified by the alternate leaves that are dark glossy green above and silvery-
gold belowwith brownish peltate scales and by the distinctive woody fruit. The indehis-
cent, ovate-elliptic fruit are about 7 cm long, somewhat flattened dorsoventrally and bi-
sected by a narrowwing (more prominent on the upper side) encircling the fruit.
Material examined: KAUAI:Hanalei Distr, Haena State Park. Along Hwy 51 just past
Limahuli Stream. Secondary forest of Cinnamomum, Syzygium cumini, Syzygium jambos, pothos, and
Alpinia spp., ca 40 ft [13 m], 19 Jun 2004, T. Flynn 7122 (BISH, NY,PTBG, US).
Sidastrum micranthum (A. St.-Hil.) Fryxell New island record
Previously reported as naturalized on the island of Hawai‘i (Wagner et al. 1990), S.
micranthum is now also known from the Mähä‘ulepü area of southern Kaua‘i.
Material examined: KAUAI:Köloa Distr, Mähä‘ulepü, in pasture lands behind Haula
Aweoweonui. “Wetland” depression, ca 80 ft [26 m], 8 Oct 2002, T.Flynn 7108 (BISH, PTBG, US).
Malpighiaceae
Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz New naturalized record
Although known to be naturalized on Kaua‘i since at least 1995, when it was found
in the Hoary Head range between Omoe and Lä‘aukahi, no naturalized record has ever
been published for this species. At present, H. benghalensis is estimated by the Kaua‘i
InvasiveSpecies Committee (KISC) to cover some 500 acres [202 ha] of land along the
Hulë‘ia, Puhi, and Hoinakaunalehua streams in SE Kaua‘i. It is also on the adjoining N
flank of the Hoary Head range below Hökülei and Hokonui peaks. Hiptage was formerly
cultivated at the National Tropical Botanical Garden and Olu Pua Botanic Garden, both in
Kaläheo. Plants at the NTBG havelong been removed, but Hiptagemay still exist in and
around Olu Pua, which is now a private estate.
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 3
Material examined:KAUAI:Lihue Distr, Puhi, along Hwy 50 across from Kaua‘i Nursery and
Landscaping. Secondary vegetation, 280 ft [85 m], 2 Apr 2004, T. Flynn 7117 (AD, BISH, MO, NY,
PTBG, US).
Rosaceae
Prunus campanulata Maxim. New naturalized record
Prunus campanulata differs from other native and naturalized Rosaceae in Hawai‘i in
being a glabrous tree to 10 m tall with smooth purple-brown bark, leaves with elliptic
blade to 11 x 8 cm with double serrate margins, petioles to 18 mm long with pair of glands
distally, long lacinately divided stipules (especially on vegetative shoots), flowers cam-
panulate, in 5–6-flowered umbels, pedicels to 3 cm long, calyx tube campanulate, rose or
red, the lobes triangular-ovate, the petals purple-pink or scarlet, 8 x 7 mm, emarginated,
and fruits ovoid, 15 mm long, red when ripe. Known as the Taiwan Cherry or Formosan
Cherry, this species is becoming naturalized especially along roadsides in mesic Acacia
koa forest areas of Kaua‘i at ca 1000–1100 m, apparently spreading from cultivated trees.
Material examined. KAUAI:Waimea Distr, Koke‘e State Park, Faya Rd, numerous seedlings
along roadside, 28 Apr 1997, Flynn & Lorence 6149 (BISH, PTBG); Pu‘u ka Pele lookout, tree with
green fruits, naturalized, 11 Apr 2005, J.H.R. Plews s.n. A (PTBG); Halemanu Rd, second house
along rd, Wayne Jacinto’s yard, tree 15 ft [5 m] tall with shiny fissured bark, flowers bright purple
pink, fruit dark red, 11 Apr 2005, J.H.R. Plews s.n. B (PTBG).
Rubiaceae
Spermacoce
Spermacoce L. is a taxonomically complex genus of herbs whose differentiating features
are often found in minute but reliable characters of calyx lobes and mature seeds.
However,adissecting scope with micrometer is usually required to measure and differ-
entiate these characters. As noted by Oppenheimer (2003: 23) misidentifications are com-
mon. For example, Lorence et al.(1995: 51–52) misidentified S. prostrata Aubl. as S.
ovalifolia (M. Martens & Galeotti) Hemsl., a species that does not occur in Hawai‘i. A
specimen from Honaunau, Hawai‘i (Kami “a”, US) identified as Spermacoce capitata
Ruiz & Pavon on the Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website is actually S. exilis (http:
//ravenel.si.edu/botany/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm).
Furthermore, a number of Spermacoce species are troublesome crop and garden
weeds in the state. For these reasons a revised key to the species naturalized in Hawai‘i is
provided below to replace the key in Lorence et al.(1995).
Arevised key to Spermacoce species naturalized in the Hawaiian Islands:
1. Mature seed surface with deep transverse grooves, the surface between grooves foveolate
... S.assurgens
1. Mature seeds with surface variously sculptured but not transversely grooved ... 2
2(1). Calyx lobes consistently 2 ... S. exilis
2. Calyx lobes 4 (occasionally 2–3 in some flowers of S. prostrata)... 3
3(2). Leaves, at least the lower ones, distinctly petiolate with petioles 5–10 mm long; corolla
tube c. 4–5 mm long; capsule (excluding calyx) 2.5–3.0 mm long; seeds 2.0–2.6 mm
long ... S.latifolia
3. Leaves sessile or the lower ones with petioles 1–3 (5) mm long; corolla tube 0.5 mm long;
capsule (excluding calyx) 1–2 mm long; seeds 0.7–1.8 mm long ... 4
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4(3). Calyx lobes 4 (occasionally 2–3 in some flowers), 0.5–0.7 mm long, deltate to narrowly
deltate with green midrib and broad pale margins; capsule 1.0–1.1 mm long; seeds
0.7–0.9 mm long, deep purplish-brown, dorsal surface with fewer than 8 vertical rows
of deep, circular-rimmed pits ... S.prostrata
4. Calyx lobes 4, 0.4–1.1 mm long, narrowly deltate to linear-subulate with green midrib and
narrow pale margins; capsule 1.2–2.0 mm long; seeds 1–1.8 mm long, chestnut to purplish-
brown, dorsal surface with more than 10 vertical rows of minute, shallow pits ... S.ovali-
folia
Theaceae
Camellia sinensis L. New naturalized record
The tea plant is the first record of a member of the Theaceae family being naturalized in
Hawai‘i. At the Koke‘e site it is abundantly naturalized locally, apparently spread from
plants cultivated in cabin lot yards. It differs from the only native (endemic) member of
the family, Eurya sandwicensis A. Gray, in having much larger bisexual flowers opening
to 20–25 mm dia., white petals and petaloid stamens, and brown capsular fruit 15–25 mm
in dia. splitting to reveal 2–3 large seeds 10 mm long. Flowers in Eurya sandwicensis are
unisexual, small, opening to 5–7 mm in dia. with white or yellow petals, and fruit a dark
bluish black berry 7–10 mm dia. with numerous small seeds.
Material examined. KAUAI:Waimea Distr, Koke‘e State Park, along Pu‘u Ka ‘Öhelo trail,
near Camp 10/Möhihi/Kumuwela Rd, near cabin house site 40 (TMK 1-4-04-5), 22º8'N, 159º39'W,
degraded Acacia koa mesic forest. Shrubs to 2 m tall, abundantly naturalized locally, J. Plews s.n. A
(PTBG), J.Plews s.n. B (PTBG), J.Plews s.n. C (PTBG).
Acknowledgments
Wethank George Staples (Bishop Museum) for identifying the Sidastrum and Keren
Gunderson of the Kaua‘i Invasive Species Committee (KISC) for supplying the acreage
of the Hiptage population. Identification of Inga was kindly provided by RoyGereau of
the Missouri Botanical Garden and Carolina Romero of the Universidad Nacional de
Colombia—Bogota.
Literature Cited
Lorence,D.H., Flynn,T.W., & Wagner,W.L.1995. Contributions to the flora of Ha-
wai‘i. III. New additions, range extensions, and rediscoveries of flowering plants.
Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 41: 19–58.
Oppenheimer,H.L.2003. New plant records from Maui and Hawai‘i Counties. Bishop
Museum Occasional Papers 73: 3–30.
Palmer,D.D. 2002. Hawai‘i’s ferns and fern allies.University of Hawai‘i Press,
Honolulu.
Pennington,T.D. 1997. The genus Inga. The Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew.
Wagner,W.L., Herbst,D.R.& Sohmer,S.H. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of
Hawai‘i. 2vols. University of Hawai‘i Press & Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.
1853 p.
Wilson,K.A.2003. New records of alien pteridophytes for Hawai‘i. Bishop Museum
Occasional Papers 74: 5–7.
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 5
New Hawaiian Plant Records for 20041
GEORGE W. S TAPLES, DERRAL R. HERBST2& CLYDE T. IMADA (Hawaii Biological Survey, Bishop
Museum, 1525 Bernice St, Honolulu, Hawai‘i 96817–2704, USA; email: gstaples@bishopmuse-
um.org)
These previously unpublished Hawaiian plant records report 3 new state records, 3 new
island records, and 2 new naturalized records that affect the flora of Hawai‘i. All identifi-
cations were made by the authors, except where noted in the acknowledgments, and all
supporting voucher specimens are on deposit at BISH except as otherwise noted.
Asclepiadaceae
Cryptostegia madagascariensis Decaisne New naturalized record
Field surveys by Moloka‘i Invasive Species Committee personnel discovered a natural-
ized population of this Madagascan native along the south shore of Moloka‘i, near
Kamalö. Widely cultivated throughout the Hawaiian Islands for over a century, this is the
first documented report of the Madagascar rubber vine being naturalized here. The popu-
lation is reported to cover three acres of disturbed secondary vegetation near sea level,
with thousands of plants in all size classes from seedlings to mature specimens.
According to the most recent revision of Cryptostegia (Marohasy & Forster 1991),
there are only 2 species, both endemic to Madagascar and widely cultivated elsewhere.
Both species are usually identified as C. grandiflora R. Br., but nearly all Hawaiian culti-
vated plants proved on careful inspection to be C. madagascariensis.The latter species
can be distinguished by: stems with few, prominent, light-colored lenticels; leaf blades
with 14–16 pairs of secondary veins; flowers with corolla 3.0–3.5 cm long; corona fila-
ments entire (not bifid); and fruits that are spindle-shaped, 5.5–9.5 cm long.
Material examined. MOLOKA‘I:South shore, Kamalö, at bridge, just past KSBE Quarry on
ocean side of Kamehameha VHwy, ca 21°04'N, 156°53'W, 5 Feb 2004, L. Buchanan s.n. (BISH
705004).
Commelinaceae
Tradescantia fluminensis Vellozo New naturalized record
Variegated cultivars of T.fluminensis havebeen grown as ornamentals in the Hawaiian
Islands for many years, but recently a form with dark green, non-variegated leaves has
been found naturalized in sites on two islands. Plants have been found in shaded, moist
situations along stream banks, and in shaded forest edges where they carpet the ground,
forming a dense mat. The plants appear to be spreading vegetatively. This species was not
listed as potentially invasive in the Hawaiian Islands (Staples et al.2000) but 3 other taxa
of Commelinaceae were included, all on the basis of their vegetative spread. It seems
unlikely that T. fluminensis would be seriously invasive or capable of causing harm, but
the naturalized plants should be eradicated before theyspread.
Native to SE Brazil and N Argentina and widespread in cultivation, T. fluminensis is
asprawling herb with stems 1–2 m long that root at the nodes, the tips upturned, bearing
alternate, dark green (or variegated white, pinkish, or golden yellow in cultivars) leaves
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1. Contribution 2006-020 to the Hawaii Biological Survey.
2. Research Associate, Hawaii Biological Survey, Bishop Museum, 1525 Bernice Street, Honolulu, Hawai‘i
96817-2704, USA.
with a sheathing base, fringed-hairy along the margin of the sheath, and paired inflores-
cences in the axils of the uppermost leaves. The inflorescences have 2 boat-shaped bracts
from which a cluster of white, 3-parted flowers emerges; the 6 anthers have long-hairy fil-
aments and the stigma is knob-shaped. The non-variegated form is more vigorous than the
variegated ones, growing more rampantly and flowering more frequently. Like most
Commelinaceae, the flowers of T. fluminensis are ephemeral, lasting but a few hours and
liquefying as they fade.
Material examined. MAUI:Makawao Distr, Pu‘u Mahoe, 20°37'N, 156°23'W, 800 m, 6 Apr
2002, H. Oppenheimer et al. H-40202.HAWAI‘I: Kamuela, along banks of Waikoloa Stream near
Waimea-Kawaihae Rd bridge, 20°01'N, 155°40'W, ca 650 m, 23 May 2000, D. Herbst 9877; North
Kohala Distr, Bond Historical Distr E of Kapa‘au, adjoining Pali Akamoa Gulch, 20°13'N, 155°47'W,
200 m, 1 Sep 1999, Imada & Arakaki 99-48.
Fabaceae
Vigna hosei (Craib) Backer New state record
This is the first report for this legume in the state. It is believed that V. hosei was intro-
duced to the Islands from Australia more than twenty years ago for testing as cover crops
(G. Sakamoto, pers. comm.). Plants were observed in 1999 in a pineapple field off
Kaukonahua Road, where the vines trailed along the ground and spread over the pineap-
ple crop in the field. In January 2005 there were still thriving populations in the same loca-
tion as well as in old pineapple fields past Schofield Barracks on Wilikina Rd, and possi-
bly another location nearer Waialua in fields opposite Hukilau Loop. The species appears
to be established and is now expanding its range, perhaps aided by farming machinery.
Vigna hosei is similar to V.luteola and V. marina;it can be distinguished by the fol-
lowing features: prostrate or twining perennial vine, all parts pubescent with spreading
hairs; leaflets mostly rounded and obtuse (rarely acute); flowers 0.5–1.0 cm, yellow-
orange; peduncles filiform; legumes short, 1- or 2-seeded; seeds ca 5 mm long (Howard
1988: 533–534). Although first described from plants cultivated in Indonesia, Verdcourt
(1971: 621) theorized that V. hosei was actually of African origin. The species is cultivat-
ed in various tropical countries as a cover crop (Marechal et al.1978) and that may be why
it was introduced to the Hawaiian Islands.
Material examined. OAHU:Waialua Distr, SE of Poamoho Experiment Farm, off Kaukona-
hua Rd in pineapple field, 23 Jun 1999, G. Taniguchi s.n. (BISH 657223).
Zornia J. Gmelin
Two species of the genus Zornia have recently appeared in the Hawaiian Islands, the one
reported here from O‘ahu and a second, as yet not conclusively identified, collected on
Maui in 2000. There are no previous reports of the genus in cultivation (Neal 1965, St.
John 1973) or as a naturalized element of the Hawaiian flora (Wagner et al. 1999).
The genus Zornia is taxonomically difficult and the keys for identification in the lat-
est revision of the genus do not work particularly well (Mohlenbrock 1961). There is no
one currently engaged in taxonomic study of the genus (G. Lewis, pers. comm. 2005).
Collectors are urged to look out for taxa of Zornia,which may well be more widespread
in the Hawaiian Islands than realized.
Zornia gemella (Willd.) Vog. New state record
Zornia gemella has been collected twice from O‘ahu. Both specimens were collected from
open grasslands on rocky substrate. Plants are sprawling herbs with a deep taproot, occa-
sional in mixed alien-dominated grasslands with Panicum maximum. Afull description of
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 7
the species, with diagnostic features of the legume illustrated, can be found in
Mohlenbrock (1961). It is native to tropical America from southern Texas to Paraguay
(Mohlenbrock 1961). How it came to be present in a field in Makakilo is unknown.
Material examined. OAHU:‘Ewa Distr, upper Makakilo, adjacent to Palehua Heights subdi-
vision, at end of Pueonani St, 21º22.024'N, 158º04.588'W, 670 ft [185 m], 9 Mar 2004, C. Imada &
L. Crago 2004–29; ibid., on slope above Kalo‘i Gulch, 21º22.38'N, 158º05.013'W, 1007 ft [307 m],
30 Mar 2004, C. Imada & L. Crago 2004–32.
Piperaceae
Piper auritum Kunth New state record
False sakau is now a widespread weed in the Pacific and there is concern that it could
become so in the Hawaiian Islands as well. Piper auritum is known to be cultivated in
botanical gardens on Kaua‘i and O‘ahu and has also been documented in cultivation from
Maui and Hawai‘i islands. The following specimens document its spread out of cultiva-
tion and its naturalization on two islands; it is to be expected that it will become natural-
ized everywhere it has been planted. Vigorous control measures are in order to prevent this
aggressiveweed from spreading beyond the fewplaces where it is now established. Both
O‘ahu populations are reported to be spreading rapidly from cultivated sources.
Native to tropical America, P. auritum is a vigorous herb that reaches 2 m or more in
height from a suckering root system that spreads laterally through the soil. Leaves are
large (to 50 cm long), horizontal and in 2 rows along the stem, the blades cordate with a
deeply lobed, unequal-sided base and finely ciliate margins, on winged petioles to 6 cm
long. Inflorescences are whitish or greenish spikes to 25 cm long, erect or drooping, borne
singly opposite the leaves. Fruits are tiny, 3-angled, and densely packed on the fruiting
axis. All parts of the plant have a sarsaparilla odor (smells like root beer) when bruised.
Material examined. KAUAI:Köloa Distr, Kahili Mountain Park, behind Cabin #11, 220 m, 4
Apr 2001, D.H. Lorence & B. Stevens 8521. OAHU:Honolulu Distr,Kalihi Valley, lot at 3043
Numana Rd, 21 Jul 2004, T. Takemoto s.n. (BISH 712562); Ko‘olau PokoDistr,Kahalu‘u, residen-
tial backyard near highway, 15 Dec 2004, N. Matayoshi s.n. (BISH 713184, 713196).
Solanaceae
Physalis angulata L. New island record
First documented in the Hawaiian Islands in 1976 from Kaua‘i (Wagner et al.1999), this
weedy alien species has quickly spread to other islands and become locally common in
some places where it occurs. The following voucher documents its presence on Moloka‘i.
Material examined. MOLOKA‘I:locality not stated, in open pasture, ca 50 m, Feb 1997, V.
Caraway 150.
Theaceae
Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze New island record
Tea has been cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands for over a century, experimentally as a
commercial crop and as a home garden ornamental. Lorence & Flynn (this issue) record-
ed the first record of it being naturalized in the state (on Kaua‘i). The record below marks
the first naturalized record of C. sinensis on the island of Hawai‘i. In Hauani Gulch C.
sinensis is a dominant middle-story tree, with abundant plants present in all size classes.
Material examined. HAWAI‘I:Kamuela, E of commercial center in Hauani Gulch above Pu‘u
Kakanihia, 20°2.08'N, 155°38.7'W, 900 m, 26 Sep 2004, C. Imada et al. 2004-54.
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Zingiberaceae
Hedychium gardnerianum Ker-Gawler New island record
Although known to be established on the islands of Kaua‘i, Läna‘i, Maui, and Hawai‘i
(Wagner et al.1999), kahili ginger has never been documented from O‘ahu as a natural-
ized plant. The following two specimens record its presence in Mänoa Valley in wet,
mixed alien disturbed forest.
Material examined. OAHU:Honolulu Distr, Mänoa Valley, along Mänoa Cliff Trail, 13 Jan
1996, B. Kennedy et al. 42; ibid., 21°20.059'N, 157°48.61'W, 530 m, 15 Dec 2004, C. Imada et al.
2004–58.
Acknowledgments
We thank G.P. Lewis (K) for determination of the first Zornia specimen collected in the
Hawaiian Islands. Hank Oppenheimer graciously allowed us to include his Tradescantia
collection in this paper,making it possible to assemble all relevant voucher specimens for
the taxon. Tina Lau, The Nature Conservancy, Moloka‘i Office, made the specimen of
Cryptostegia and field observations available to us. Glen Taniguchi (University of Hawai‘i
at Mänoa, Honolulu) collected the Vigna hosei voucher and Becky Azama (Hawaii
Department of Agriculture, Plant Pest Control Branch) researched the history of its intro-
duction and verified that it survives on the North Shore of O‘ahu.
Literature Cited
Howard,R.A. 1988. Flora of the Lesser Antilles.Vol. 4. Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica
Plain, Massachusetts. [Vigna p. 532–536].
Marechal,R., Mascherpa,J.-M.& Stainier,F.1978. Etude taxonomique d’un groupe
complexe d’espèces des genres Phaseolus et Vigna (Papilionaceae) sur la base de
données morphologiques et polliniques, traitées par l’analyse informatique. Boissiera
28: 1–273.
Marohasy,J.& Forster,P.I. 1991. Ataxonomic revision of Cryptostegia R. Br. (Asclep-
iadaceae: Periplocoideae). Australian Systematic Botany 4(3): 571–577.
Mohlenbrock,R.H. 1961. Amonograph of the leguminous genus Zornia.Webbia 16(1):
1–141.
Neal,M.C.1965.In gardens of Hawaii. Second edition. Bishop Museum Special Publi-
cation 50, 924 p.
St.John,H.1973.List and summary of the flowering plants in the Hawaiian Islands.
Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden Memoir 1: 1–519.
Staples,G.W., Herbst,D.R.& Imada,C.T.2000. Survey of invasive or potentially inva-
sive cultivated plants of Hawai‘i. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 65: 1–35.
Verdcourt,B.1971. Leguminosae (part 4), subfamily Papilionoideae (part 2). Floraof
Tropical East Africa 124(4): 503–1108.
Wagner,W.L., Herbst,D.R.& Sohmer,S.H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of
Hawai‘i. Revised edition. 2 vols. University of Hawai‘i Press & Bishop Museum
Press, Honolulu. 1918 p.
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 9
New Hawai‘i Plant Records for 2004
HANK L. OPPENHEIMER (34 Pi‘ina Place, Lahaina, Hawai‘i 96761, USA; email: hmo3500@earthlink.net)
Ongoing surveys, collections, and research continue to reveal new records for the Hawaiian
flora. In this paper, 4 new naturalized records, 15 new island records, and 1 range extension
are documented. A total of 20 taxa in 16 plant families are discussed. Collections were made
on the islands of Moloka‘i, Maui, and Kaho‘olawe. Voucher specimens are deposited at the
Bishop Museum Herbarium Pacificum (BISH), with duplicates at the National Tropical
Botanical Garden (PTBG), Lawa‘i, Kaua‘i. In a few cases a specimen may be at only one
facility; in only these cases will the herbarium acronym be cited.
Apocynaceae
Ochrosia compta K. Schum. New island record
Found years ago by Bob Hobdy, this single tree has never been observed in a fertile state.
Recently, following his directions, it was relocated and flowering material collected. The
tree does not appear to be setting fruit, as all flowers fall from the inflorescence; an exten-
sive search of leaf litter for fruit or seeds also failed. The flowers were not at all fragrant (in
late afternoon), which may possibly explain the lack of pollination and seed production. This
species was previously recorded from O‘ahu and Moloka‘i (Wagner et al.1999: 218).
Material examined.MAUI:West Maui, Wailuku Distr, Kahakuloa, N tributary of Waihali
Gulch, 463 m, single 5-m tree, 6 Oct 2004, Oppenheimer H100403.
Araceae
Syngonium podophyllum Schott New naturalized record
One of the most common of the climbing aroids in Hawai‘i is often observed to be per-
sisting around old home sites in areas where formerly cultivated. After years of such neg-
lect, it is capable of smothering adjacent vegetation and sprawling across large areas,
forming a dense patch. It is also found where discarded yard waste roots, as it is easily
propagated, intentionally or not, from small pieces of stem. Neal (1965: 163) states that
this tropical American species rarely or never flowers. Recently a population was found
that not only flowered, but was producing copious fruit. Eighteen seeds were collected
from just one of these fleshy fruits; 16 seedlings germinated in approximately 30 days.
The young leaves are simple and variegated as opposed to mature plants with palmately
divided, concolorous leaves, but these juvenile characteristics may possibly be attributed
to a certain cultivar. The bright red fruit would be attractive to frugivorous birds, espe-
cially when up in the canopy. Staples et al.(2000: 16) listed this species as being dispersed
vegetatively, and questionably also via birds. Syngonium is a genus of about 33 climbing
tropical American species (Whistler 2000: 437).
Material examined.Maui:West Maui, Lahaina Distr, Honokohau Valley, 18m, climbing alien
vegetation and sprawling on ground, 14 Aug 2003, Oppenheimer
,R. Bartlett, & G. Hansen H80307.
Asteraceae
Calyptocarpus vialis Less. New island record
Probably on all of the main islands but documented only from Midway Atoll (Bruegmann
1999: 1), Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, Moloka‘i, Läna‘i, and Maui (Wagner et al.1999: 284), this com-
mon perennial herb is now known from Kaho‘olawe.
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Material examined.KAHO‘OLAWE:Honokanaia, 3 m, at base camp, 20 Jan 2004, Oppen-
heimer, G. Hansen, & J. Bruch H10402.
Bromeliaceae
Tillandsia caput-medusae C. J. Morren New naturalized record
No Bromeliaceae (Liliopsida) have been previously reported as naturalized in the Ha-
waiian Islands. However, Staples et al.(2000: 19) listed Tillandsia species (there are 400
species plus hybrids) as potentially invasive, dispersing via wind and reproducing vegeta-
tively as well. T. caput-medusae is native to Mexico and Central America. In 1995, a cul-
tivated specimen of this species set fruit, and seeds were dispersed by wind (Fern Duvall,
pers. comm.). Efforts have been made several times since then to remove all of the young
plants, growing epiphytically on nearby cultivated Acacia,Dodonaea, and Metrosideros.
Many species of Tillandsia are currently being sold in local stores, sometimes advertised
as “Hawaiian air plants”. One major supplier is a nursery in Hämäkua on the Big Island,
and escapes should be searched for in the area. Two other species have been reported to
escape cultivation on O‘ahu (G. Staples, pers. comm; F. Duvall, pers. comm.) There are
relatively few obligate epiphytes in the naturalized Hawaiian flora, but this seems to be
changing (see also Vanda below).
Material examined:MAUI:East Maui, Makawao Distr, Olinda, 1082 m, 24 Mar 2001,
Oppenheimer & F. Duvall H30139.
Convolvulaceae
Ipomoea triloba L. New island record
Naturalized at lowelevations on Midway Atoll, Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, Maui (Wagner et al. 1999:
559–560), and Hawai‘i (Oppenheimer & Bartlett 2002: 6), little bell has recently been col-
lected on Moloka‘i .
Material examined.MOLOKA‘I:Kaunakakai, in waste area west of town, 50 m; plants
sprawling, flowers purple, closed in afternoon, 2 Apr 2004, Oppenheimer H40405.
Merremia tuberosa (L.) Rendle New island record
Commonly cultivated and sparingly naturalized on Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, Maui, and Hawai‘i
(Wagner et al. 1999: 564), wood rose also occurs on Moloka‘i. It was observed to be
spreading into cleared areas between forestry plantings.
Material examined.MOLOKA‘I:Kaunakakai, 650 m, locally abundant in cleared area
between Eucalyptus plantings at Forestry Barracks; plants climbing & sprawling, forming dense
patches, 31 Mar 2004, Oppenheimer H30417.
Crassulaceae
Bryophyllum fedtshenkoi New island record
(Raym.-Hamet & H. Perrier) Lauz.-March.
Previously reported from Kaua‘i (Lorence et al.1995: 34) this commonly cultivated suc-
culent has also been found growing wild on Maui. The population vouchered seems to
have started from discarded garden waste, along with B. tubiflorum.Although seeds have
not yet been observed, it spreads vegetatively via plantlets on the leaf margin, and is able
to propagate itself from even a single detached leaf or small piece of stem. The change in
taxonomy from Kalanchoë was reported by Staples et al.(2002: 9).
Material examined.MAUI:West Maui, Wailuku Distr Wailuku, 61 m, sprawling, succulent
plants on consolidated sand dunes, 4 Apr 2003, Oppenheimer H40301 (BISH).
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 11
Cyperaceae
Cyperus compressus L. New island record
This pantropical species is naturalized in disturbed, moist sites on Hawai‘i Island (Wagner
et al.1999: 1395) and Maui (Wagner & Herbst 1995: 18). Now it is known from Moloka‘i
as well.
Material examined.MOLOKA‘I:Kaunakakai, locally common in disturbed area near reser-
voir along Forestry Rd, 550 m, 2 Apr 2004, Oppenheimer H40402.
Cyperus meyenianus Kunth New island record
[syn. Mariscus meyenianus (Kunth) Nees]
Naturalized on the islands of Kaua‘i, O‘ahu (Wagner et al.1999: 1420–1421), Moloka‘i
(Hughes 1995: 4), and Hawai‘i (Oppenheimer 2003: 10), the change in taxonomy was
reported by Wagner et al.(1999: 1900). This sedge was recently found on Maui growing in
the shade of remnant trees in an area formerly grazed and trampled by feral cattle & pigs.
Material examined.MAUI:West Maui, Wailuku Distr, near rim of gulch E of Pohakea, 1036m,
14 May 2004, Oppenheimer & G. Hansen H50406.
Moraceae
Ficus macrophylla Desf.ex Pers. New island record
First documented as naturalized on Maui (Oppenheimer & Bartlett 2000: 6) and subse-
quently found on the Big Island (Starr et al.2002: 21) the Moreton Bay fig was noted to
be growing epiphytically and terrestrially among forestry plantings on Moloka‘i.
Material examined.MOLOKA‘I:Kaunakakai, epiphytic on Eucalyptus robusta and germinat-
ing on mossy logs, 880m, 31 Mar 2004, Oppenheimer H30415.
Orchidaceae
Habenaria rodeiensis Barb. Rodr. Range extension
Originally known from a single collection made in a pasture in Kula, East Maui (Wagner
et al.1999: 1468); it was later identified as this species (Herbst & Wagner 1999: 24).
Recent collections on West Maui confirm its naturalized status on the island and represent
asignificant range extension.
Material examined.MAUI:West Maui, Wailuku Distr, Kahakuloa, 594 m, uncommon & scat-
tered in formerly bulldozed area now Andropogon grassland, 9 Sep 2003, Oppenheimer, B. Stevens,
J. Jokiel, & G. Hansen H90303;Lahaina Distr, Honokohau/Manienie divide, 317 m, scattered plants,
7Oct 2003, Oppenheimer H100302 (BISH); Honokahua, S of Valley on open ridgetop in Andro-
pogon grassland, 384 m, 10 Jun 2004, Oppenheimer & G. Hansen H60402 (BISH).
Vanda tricolor Lindley New naturalized record
This species is native to Java (Bailey & Bailey 1930: 752), and used extensively by the
orchid industry in Hawai‘i to make hybrids. Vanda is a genus of about 70 epiphytic Old
World species. Recently this species was found nearly smothering an Antidesma platy-
phyllum tree, with masses of aerial roots. It is also sparingly naturalized in the Ha‘iku area
of East Maui, where it grows on Eucalyptus (J. Parker,pers. comm.). The inflorescence is
axillary,with fragrant flowers about 6 cm across, spotted white and purple.
Material examined.MAUI:West Maui, Lahaina Distr, E flank of Honolua peak, in
Metrosideros Lowland Wet Forest, 616m, 30 Nov 2004, Oppenheimer & G. Hansen H110413
(BISH).
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12
Poaceae
Eragrostis pectinacea (Michx.) Nees New island record
Carolina lovegrass has been documented from O‘ahu, Moloka‘i, Maui, and Hawai‘i
(Wagner et al.1999: 1538; Lorence et al.1995: 45; Herbst & Clayton 1998: 27). Recently
it has been collected from Kaho‘olawe.
Material examined.KAHO‘OLAWE:Honokanaia, 6 m, at base camp, 20 Jan 2004, Oppen-
heimer, G. Hansen, & J. Bruch H10404.
Setaria palmifolia (J. König)Stapf New island record
Palmgrass was known from the islands of O‘ahu, Maui, and Hawai‘i (Wagner et al. 1999:
1592–1593). On Moloka‘i, it may be restricted to a small area; if so, it should be eradi-
cated before it spreads.
Material examined.MOLOKA‘I:Kaunakakai, 900 m, at intersection of Forestry Rd and rd to
Pu‘u Kauwa, couple of small patches in Eucalyptus plantings, 31 Mar 2004, Oppenheimer H30414.
Polygalaceae
Polygala paniculata L. New island record
Previously known to be naturalized on O‘ahu, East Maui, and Hawai‘i (Wagner et al. 1999:
1058), and subsequently reported from Kaua‘i (Lorence et al.1995: 48) and West Maui
(Oppenheimer et al.1998: 10), P. paniculata has recently been collected on Moloka‘i.
Material examined.MOLOKA‘I:Kaunakakai, locally common along Forestry Rd, 600 m, 2
Apr 2004, Oppenheimer H40401.
Polypodiaceae
Phymatosorus scolopendria (Burm.f.)Pic. Serm. New naturalized record
Palmer (2003: 205), in his discussion regarding Phymatosorus grossus (Langsd. &
Fisch.)Brownlie, noted that P. scolopendria had not been collected in the wild in Hawai‘i,
implying that it is cultivated here. Recently, specimens from wild plants were collected,
growing epiphytically on common guavain a gulch in disturbed Lowland Wet Forest.
There was no terrestrial P. grossus anywhere nearby. Another population was later found
growing in identical conditions.
Material examined.MAUI:West Maui, Lahaina Distr, Pohakupule Gulch, 366 m, epiphytic,
leaves fragrant when crushed, uncommon in Lowland Wet Forest, 15 Aug 2003, Oppenheimer & G.
Hansen H80308 (BISH).
Portulacaceae
Portulaca oleracea L. New island record
In Hawai‘i, naturalized on Midway Atoll, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Laysan, French Frigate
Shoals, Nihoa, and all the main islands except Kaho‘olawe (Wagner et al. 1999: 1072),
where it has recently been collected.
Material examined.KAHO‘OLAWE:Honokanaia, 3 m, at base camp, 20 Jan 2004, Oppen-
heimer, G. Hansen, & J. Bruch H10403.
Rubiaceae
Richardia brasiliensis Gomes New island record
Naturalized in the Hawaiian Islands on Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, Läna‘i, East Maui, and Hawai‘i
(Wagner et al.1999: 1171), Richardia brasiliensis has been collected recently on Moloka‘i.
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 13
Material examined.MOLOKA‘I:Kaunakakai, 500 m, uncommon along Forestry Rd, 500 m,
2Apr 2004, Oppenheimer H40404.
Scrophulariaceae
Veronica serpyllifolia L. New island record
Naturalized on the islands of Kaua‘i, Läna‘i, Maui, and Hawai‘i (Wagner et al. 1999:
1250–1251; Nagata 1995: 13; Starr et al.2003: 32), thyme leaved speedwell has recently
been collected on Moloka‘i. It was noted to be scattered from the Forestry barracks to
Pëpë‘öpae trailhead and especially abundant near the Waikolu Valley overlook and picnic
area.
Material examined.MOLOKA‘I:common herb in lawn at Waikolu overlook, 1100 m, 31 Mar
2004, Oppenheimer H30413.
Urticaceae
Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm. New island record
Known to be naturalized in Hawai‘i on Midway Atoll, Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, Läna‘i, Maui, and
Hawai‘i (Wagner et al.1999: 1306; Wagner & Herbst 1995: 26; Shannon & Wagner 1996:
14; Oppenheimer & Bartlett 2002: 12), artillery plant was recently collected on Moloka‘i.
Material examined.MOLOKA‘I:west of Kaunakakai, nursery weed, 50 m, 2 Apr 2004,
Oppenheimer H40407.
Acknowledgements
This paper was made possible by the support and effort of many people, but especially
Randy Bartlett and Greg Hansen (Maui Pineapple Co.); Fern Duvall (DOFAW); the staff
and volunteers at BISH, particularly Derral Herbst, Christopher Puttock, and George
Staples; Tim Flynn and David Lorence (PTBG); and Dan Palmer. Their expertise and con-
tinuing assistance is greatly appreciated.
Literature Cited
Bailey,L.H.& Bailey,E.Z. 1930. Hortus Second.Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. New
York. 778 p.
Bruegmann,M.M.1999. New records of flowering plants on Midway Atoll. Bishop
Museum Occasional Papers59: 1–3.
Herbst,D.R., & Wagner,W.L.1999. Contributions to the flora of Hawai‘i. VII. Bishop
Museum Occasional Papers 58: 12–36.
———. &Clayton, W.D.1998. Notes on the grasses of Hawai‘i: new records, correc-
tions, and name changes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 55: 17–38.
Hughes,G.D.1995. NewHawaiian plant records. II. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers
42: 1–10.
Lorence D., Flynn,T.W.&Wagner,W.L.1995. Contributions to the flora of Hawai‘i.
III. Newadditions, range extensions, and rediscoveries of flowering plants. Bishop
Museum Occasional Papers 41: 19–58.
Neal,M.C. 1965. In gardens of Hawaii. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 924 p.
Nagata,K.M.1995. NewHawaiian plant records. IV.Bishop Museum Occasional Papers
42: 10–13.
Oppenheimer,H.L.2002. New plant records from the main Hawaiian Islands. Bishop
Museum Occasional Papers 69: 1–14.
———. 2003. Newplant records from Maui and Hawai‘i counties. Bishop Museum
Occasional Papers73: 3–30.
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14
———. & Bartlett,R.T.2000. New plant records from the Maui, O‘ahu, and Hawai‘i
Islands. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 64: 1–10.
———., Meidell,J.S.& Bartlett,R.T.1999. New plant records for Maui and Moloka‘i.
Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 59: 7–11.
Palmer,D.D. 2003. Hawai‘i’s ferns and fern allies. University of Hawai‘i Press, Hono-
lulu. 324 p.
Shannon,R.K.& Wagner,W.L.1996. New records of Hawaiian flowering plants pri-
marily from the United Sates National Herbarium. Bishop Museum Occasional
Papers 46: 13–15.
Skolmen,R.G.ca 1980. Plantings on the forest reserves of Hawaii 1910–1960.Institute
of Pacific Islands Forestry, U.S. Forest service, Honolulu. 441 p.
Staples,G.W., Herbst,D.R.& Imada.C.T.2000. Survey of invasive or potentially inva-
sive cultivated plants in Hawai‘i. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 65, 35 p.
Starr,F., Martz, K.& Loope, L.L.2002. New plant records for the Hawaiian Archi-
pelago. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 69: 16–27.
———. 2003. New plant records from the Hawaiian Archipelago. Bishop Museum
Occasional Papers 74: 23–34.
Wagner,W.L.& Herbst,D.R.1995. Contributions to the flora of Hawai‘i. IV. New
records and name changes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 42: 13–27.
———., Herbst,D.R.& Sohmer,S.H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai‘i.
Revised edition. 2 vols. University of Hawai‘i Press & Bishop Museum Press,
Honolulu. 1919 p.
Whistler,W.A. 2000. Tropical ornamentals. Timber Press, Portland. 542 p.
New Plant Records and Rediscoveries within the Hawaiian Islands
K.R. WOOD1(National Tropical Botanical Garden, 3530 Papalina Rd, Kalaheo, Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i
96741, USA; email: kenwood@pelea.org)
As the result of several relatively recent botanical field surveys conducted within the
Hawaiian archipelago, 16 new vascular plant island records and 2 rediscoveries are present-
ed in this paper.Newisland records include 12 nonnativenaturalized plant taxa; 3 Hawaiian
endemics, including Dubautia laxa (Asteraceae), Gunnera petaloïdea (Gunneraceae), and
Phyllostegia ambigua (Lamiaceae); and 1 indigenous species, Portulaca lutea (Portula-
caceae). Twoadditional records represent significant endemic rediscoveries in the Hawaiian
Islands, including Diellia erecta f. alexandri (Aspleniaceae) which was thought to be extinct
on Kaua‘i after not being observed since 1886; and Phyllostegia helleri (Lamiaceae),
unrecorded since 1916.
Asclepiadaceae
Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton New island record
Previously recorded on the Big Island, and recently documented on Lehua, Ni‘ihau (Wood
&LeGrande 2006) this is the first record of the small crown-flower naturalized on Kaua‘i.
This species is apparently able to spread easily in harsh dry conditions.
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 15
1. Research Associate, Hawaii Biological Survey, Bishop Museum, 1525 Bernice Street, Honolulu, Hawai‘i
96817-2704, USA.
Material examined. KAUAI:Polihale, lower Saki Mana Rd to Polihale beach, 3.7 km [2.2 mi]
in from paved rd, mauka side of rd in ditch, invasive grassland and shrubland, 3 m, 9 Nov 2005, K.R.
Wood 11614 (PTBG).
Aspleniaceae
Diellia erecta Brack. f. alexandri (Hillebr.) Notable rediscovery
W.H. Wagner
Diellia Brack. is composed of 6 species which are restricted to the high islands of Hawai‘i.
Although naturalist V. Knudsen made numerous collections of Diellia erecta f. alexandri
on Kaua‘i from 1871–1886, this taxon has not been observed again on the island for well
over 100 years. Palmer (2003), considered this taxon to be “probably extinct on Kaua‘i”,
and at the time of his publication was aware of only a few small populations restricted to
Maui and Moloka‘i. Currently we are aware of ca 49 mature fertile individuals, and ca 10
young sporophytes (R. Aguraiuja, pers. comm.) located within the interior forests of west-
ern Kaua‘i along the north facing slopes of Kawai‘iki Stream. A single mature individual
is being grown at the National Tropical Botanical Garden (NTBG), and sowings from 10
separate individuals are being cultivated at the NTBG nursery laboratory. The following
collections document the rediscovery of this endemic Hawaiian fern on Kaua‘i.
Material examined. KAUAI: Kawai‘iki, offKaluahaulu ridge, upper forest and drainage to the
south of Koai‘e and north of Waialae canyons, Metrosideros polymorpha mixed mesic forest, ca 1100
m, 28 Jun 2001, K.R. Wood & S. Perlman 9010 (BISH, PTBG); Kawai‘iki, separate population just
below rim, 1150 m, 14 Aug 2001, K.R. Wood & S. Perlman 9060 (PTBG); Kawai‘iki, 100 m west of
main population,1076 m, 27 June 2001, K.R. Wood & S. Perlman 9001 (PTBG).
Asteraceae
Dubautia laxa Hook. & Arnott. subsp. laxa New island record
Amember of the Asteraceae, Dubautia Gaud. is restricted to the Hawaiian Islands with
35 taxa, including 23 at the species level. Dubautia laxa subsp. laxa,called na‘ena‘e pua
melemele by the Hawaiians, was previously documented on the islands of O‘ahu,
Moloka‘i, and Maui. Unpublished research on the southeastern summit of Ha‘upu (Wood
2005) has documented the first collection of this species on Kaua‘i.
Material examined. KAUAI:Ha‘upu summit region, open shrubland/herbland; shrub, 671 m,
4Aug 2005, K.R. Wood et al. 11425 (BISH, PTBG, US).
Brassicaceae
Lepidium africanum (Burm.f.) DC. New island record
Amember of the mustard family and previously known from Maui and Hawai‘i, Lepidium
africanum is recorded here as being naturalized on Kaua‘i.
Material examined. KAUAI:Waimea Distr, Hanapepe, Salt Pond Beach Park area, ancient salt
pans and littoral vegetation, shrubland/grassland/herbland, 3 m, 14 Feb 2005, K.R. Wood 11135 (BISH,
PTBG, US).
Buddlejaceae
Buddleia asiatica Lour. New island record
Buddleia asiatica is a nonnative shrub that can quickly become highly invasive within the
riparian ecosystems of Hawai‘i. Previously recorded on the islands of O‘ahu, Moloka‘i,
Maui, and Hawai‘i, the following collection represents a new island record for Kaua‘i.
Material examined. KAUAI:Hanalei Distr, Wainiha Valley, very back below Hinalele Falls, Metro-
sideros mixed lowland wet forest, 640 m, 8 Sep 2004, K.R. Wood & T. Menard 10922 (BISH, PTBG).
BISHOP MUSEUM OCCASIONAL PAPERS: No. 88, 2006
16
Cyperaceae
Cyperus compressus L. New island records
Cyperus compressus is a nonnative sedge that occurs on Maui and the Big Island of
Hawai‘i. Representing new island records, collections of this species were made from
moist coastal sites along the Nä Pali coast of Kaua‘i and the northern coast of Moloka‘i.
Material examined. KAUAI:Miloli‘i, from mouth of river and northeast to Makuaiki Pt, sea-
cliffs, 21 m, 12 Jan 2000, K.R. Wood et al. 8136 (PTBG); Hanakapi‘ai, around waterfall at end of val-
ley trail, 275 m, 7 Aug 1996, K.R. Wood et al. 5453, (BISH, PTBG, US); MOLOKAI:Kuka‘iwa‘a,
peninsula just to the east of Kalaupapa, coastal herb/shrubland, 21 m, 6 Jun 2002, K.R. Wood & M.
Legrande 9832 (BISH, PTBG, US).
Cyperus esculentus L. New island record
This collection represents a new island record of chufa for Kaua‘i. It is currently only
recorded as naturalized on the Big Island of Hawai‘i.
Material examined. KAUAI:Hanalei Distr, Nä Pali coast, Kalalau trail, Ho‘olulu valley, at
mouth of drainage above sea, 45 m, 10 Apr 1996, K.R. Wood & S. Perlman 5103, (AD, BISH, F, K,
MO, NY, PTBG, US).
Cyperus haspan L. New island record
Cyperus haspan has been previously documented as naturalized on Kaua‘i, Moloka‘i, and
Maui. This collection verifies that it is also naturalized in the Wai‘anae Mountains of O‘ahu.
Material examined. OAHU:Pu‘u Kaua Region, Lualualei, steep ridge just to south of Kaua,
853 m, 30 Mar 2004, K.R. Wood & J. Lau 10637 (PTBG).
Gunneraceae
Gunnera petaloïdea Gaud. New island record
Gunnera is the sole genus in Gunneraceae. In Hawai‘i it is known as ‘ape‘ape and is rep-
resented by two species, Gunnera kauaiensis, which only occurs on Kaua‘i, and G.
petaloïdea, which has been previously recorded on O‘ahu, Moloka‘i, Maui, and the Big
Island. Both species can grow up to 4 m long and have fantastically large leaves with long
procumbent stems. They thrive around montane wet forests and windward wet cliffs and
represent very unusual herbaceous angiosperms that have a symbiosis with blue-green
algae. The following collection documents an island record for G. petaloïdea on Kaua‘i.
Material examined. KAUAI:Border of Lihue and Kawaihau Distr, Blue hole, below
Wai‘ale‘ale and Kawaikini, headwaters of N Wailua River, Metrosideros lowland wet forest, 610–670
m[2000–2200 ft], 7 May 1991, K. R. Wood et al. 0761 (PTBG).
Lamiaceae
Phyllostegia ambigua (A.Gray) Hillebr. New island record
Phyllostegia Benth. is a scentless member of the mint family with 32 endemic Hawaiian
species. The only other members of this genus occur as single island endemics on Tahiti
and Tonga (Wagner 1999). Twenty-one of the Hawaiian Phyllostegia are single island
endemics. Phyllostegia ambigua, one of the 11 multi-island species, was previously
recorded from the islands of Hawai‘i and Maui, and is now documented from south cen-
tral Moloka‘i where it occurs in mesic to wet montane wet forest.
Material examined. MOLOKAI:Kapulei, transitional Metrosideros-Dicranopteris montane
mesic to wet forest with riparian headwater drainages rich in pteridophytes along saturated basalt
walls, small waterfalls and steep forested slopes above 1005 m [3300 ft], 1066 m [3500 ft], 25 Feb
1998, K.R. Wood et al. 7202 (PTBG, US); same location, 1097–1127 m [3600–3700 ft], 25 Feb 1998,
K.R. Wood 7210 (BISH, NY,PTBG, US).
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 17
Phyllostegia helleri Sherff Rediscovery
Phyllostegia helleri was known from around the Koke‘e Plateau of Kaua‘i. It has not been
documented since 1916 and has long been considered extinct (Wagner et al. 1990; Wagner
1999). A small population of approximately 10 plants was recently rediscovered on Kaua‘i
around the plunge pool of Hinalele Falls, Wainiha. This location lies around 17 kilometers
inland from the sea, well below the Wainiha Pali and the Alaka‘i plateau. Phyllostegia hel-
leri exists within an extremely saturated talus zone of intense water-spray and wind.
Material examined. KAUAI:Hanalei Distr, Wainiha Valley, very back below Hinalele falls,
Metrosideros mixed lowland wet forest, 671 m, 9 Jan 1993; K.R. Wood et al. 2250 (PTBG); same loc.,
6Feb 1998, K.R. Wood et al. 7131 (PTBG); same loc., 1 Feb 2001, S. Perlman & D. Liittschwager
16,486 (BISH, PTBG, US); same loc., 9 Sep 2004, K.R. Wood & T. Menard 10938 (PTBG).
Marattiaceae
Angiopteris evecta (G. Forst.) Hoffm. New island record
Angiopteris evecta with its huge fronds that often exceed 4 m has been previously record-
ed on the islands of O‘ahu, Lana‘i, Maui, and Hawai‘i. The following collection from
around the headwaters of Wainiha Valley represents a new island record for the mule’s-
foot fern on Kaua‘i.
Material examined. KAUAI:Hanalei Distr, Wainiha Valley, very back below Hinalele Falls,
Metrosideros mixed lowland wet forest, 732 m, 9 Sep 2004, K. R. Wood & T. Menard 10933 (PTBG).
Melastomataceae
Pterolepis glomerata (Rottb.) Miq. New island record
Pterolepis glomerata has been previously recorded on the islands of Kaua‘i, O‘ahu,
Moloka‘i, and Hawai‘i. The following collection documents this herb as being naturalized
on Läna‘i along the Läna‘i Hale summit ridge.
Material examined. LÄNAI: Palea region, between Palea and Kamiki, Metrosideros mixed
mesic forest fringe, 930 m, 8 Oct 1998, K.R. Wood 7531 (BISH, PTBG, F, K, MO, NY, US).
Plantaginaceae
Plantago australis Lam. subsp. hirtella (Kunth) Rahn New island record
Previously recorded from Maui and the Big Island of Hawai‘i, the herbaceous dwarf plan-
tain is nowdocumented from Moloka‘i where it occurs within a coastal herb/shrubland.
Material examined. MOLOKAI:Kuka‘iwa‘a, peninsula just to the east of Kalaupapa, coastal
herb/shrubland, 21 m, 6 Jun 2002, K.R. Wood & M. Legrande 9831 (PTBG).
Poaceae
Aira caryophyllea L. New island record
This is the first record of silver hairgrass occurring on O‘ahu.It has previously been
recorded as naturalized on the islands of Kaua‘i, Moloka‘i, and Maui.
Material examined. OAHU:Pu‘u Kaua Region, Lualualei, steep ridge just to south of Kaua,
732 m, 30 Mar 2004, K.R. Wood & J. Lau 10636 (BISH, PTBG, US).
Sporobolus pyramidatus Hitch. New island record
This species was previously recorded as being naturalized on Kure Atoll, Laysan, French
Frigate Shoals, and O‘ahu. On Kaua‘i this small grass with low spreading leaves and erect
culm has been recently documented along the coastal strand of Salt Pond Beach Park.
Material examined. KAUAI:Waimea Distr, Hanapepe, Salt Pond Beach Park area, ancient salt
pans and littoral vegetation, shrubland/grassland/herbland, 3 m, 10 May 2004, K.R. Wood 10709
(BISH, PTBG, NY, US); 18 Aug 2004 K.R. Wood 10914 (PTBG).
BISHOP MUSEUM OCCASIONAL PAPERS: No. 88, 2006
18
Polygonaceae
Persicaria punctata (Elliott) Small New island record
Persicaria punctata has previously been documented on the Big Island of Hawai‘i. It
prefers drainages with standing or running water and disturbed wet forest. This terrestrial
herb has been recently documented on Moloka‘i where it grows decumbent along the
stream banks of Waihanau.
Material examined. MOLOKAI:Waihanau, hike up lower valley drainage from Kalaupapa,
UTM: 234153–711300, large waterfall of 100 m, 335 m, 25 Jan 2005, K. R. Wood & J. Espaniola
11110 (PTBG).
Portulacaceae
Portulaca lutea Sol. Ex G. Forst. New island record
This indigenous species of ‘ihi has been previously recorded on Midway, Lisianski,
Laysan, Gardner Pinnacles, French Frigate Shoals, Necker, Nihoa, O‘ahu, Moloka‘i,
Läna‘i, Maui, and the Big Island of Hawai‘i. Recent research by the Offshore Islet Restor-
ation Committee (OIRC) has documented this species on the islet of Moku‘ae‘ae which
lies just offshore of Kïlauea Point, eastern Kaua‘i. Visual sittings of P. lutea have also been
made by the author around several coastal stretches along Princeville and Hanalei.
Material examined. KAUAI:Hanalei Distr, Moku‘ae‘ae islet, Kïlauea National Wildlife
Refuge, 3 Jun 2002, K.R. Wood & D. Boynton 9808 (BISH, PTBG).
Acknowledgments
Iexpress gratitude to all those who have helped conduct these biological inventories; and
to those who have helped to disseminate the findings; a special mahalo to the National
Tropical Botanical Garden; the Bishop Museum; and the National Museum of Natural
History, Smithsonian Institution.
Literature Cited
Palmer,D. 2003. Hawai‘i’s ferns and fern allies.University of Hawai‘i Press, Honolulu.
Wagner,W.L.1999. Hawaiian Phyllostegia. Novon 9(2): 265–283.
———., Herbst,D.R.& Sohmer,S.H. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii.
2 vols. University of Hawai‘i Press & Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.
Wood,K.R.1998. Personal observations & checklist of the vascular plants of Upper
Kapulei, Moloka‘i (3200–3700 feet elevation). Unpublished report. 17 p.
———. 2005. Summary report of botanical research, Ha‘upu Summit, Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i,
(550–700 m elevation). Unpublished report. 23 p.
———. & LeGrande,M. 2006. An annotated checklist and new island records of flow-
ering plants from Lehua Islet, Ni‘ihau, Hawai‘i. Bishop Museum Occasional
Papers 86: 19–29.
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 19
The moss Bryoerythrophyllum ferruginascens (Stirt.) Giacom.(Musci,
Pottiaceae) new for the Hawaiian Islands
PHILIP SOLLMAN (Notarisappel 2, 9076 LB, St. Anna Parochie, The Netherlands)
While working with identified and partially named Pottiales material in herbarium Leiden
(L), I came across two collections of Bryoerythrophyllum ferruginascens. The general
tinge of the plants is red-brown. The leafbase is sheathing. The leaves are recurved only
to about half way up. There are no dentations at the leaf apex. The characteristic rhizoidal
tubers are, in my experience always, present. They are nicely illustrated by Arts (1989)
and Risse (1987). The points above lead me to the conclusion that the plants belong to B.
ferruginascens.
Bryoerythrophyllum ferruginascens (Stirt.) New state record
Giacom.
Native to North America, where it is widely distributed (Anderson et al.1990), and also
found in Belgium (Arts 1989), this marks the first record of this moss from Hawai‘i.
Material examined: MAUI:Haleakalä National Park, Ko‘olau Gap, on ground between rocks
near Holua cabin, ca 2100 m, no fruits, with rhizoidal tubers, 11 May 1982, Kortselius 781 (L); East
Maui, east of Ukelele, with hepatic, no fruits, with rhizoidal tubers, Jul 1919, C.N. Forbes 1472-M
(L).
Literature Cited
Anderson,L.E., Crum,H.A.& Buck,W.R.1990. List of the mosses of North America
north of Mexico. The Bryologist 93(4): 448–499.
Arts,T. 1989. Bryoerythrophyllum ferruginascens (Stirt.) Giac. (Pottiaceae, Bryales) nieuw
voor de Belgische en Zwitserse mosflora. Bulletin de la Société Royale de Botanique
de Belgique 122:151– 56.
Risse,S.1987. Beobachtungen zur Ontogenese und Morphologie der Rhizoidgemmen I.
Rhizoid gemmen von Bryoerythrophyllum ferruginascens (Stirt.) Giac. Crypto-
gamie, Bryologie et Lichénologie 8(4): 353–357.
Fossil Leaf Galls Preserved in Honolulu Volcanic Series Rocks
D.W. WOODCOCK (Marsh Institute of Clark University, 950 Main Street, Worcester Massachusetts
01749; email: dwoodcock@clarku.edu) & S. MAEKAWA (Department of Geography, University of
Hawai‘i at Mänoa, Honolulu, Hawai‘i 96822)
Leaf galls are common on the leaves of Metrosideros polymorpha (‘öhi‘a) and often aid
in field identification of this polymorphic species. We report here the occurrence of galls
on a fossil Metrosideros leaf preserved in volcanic rocks near Salt Lake Crater on the
island of O‘ahu.
The Salt Lake (Äliapa‘akai) tephras were created by rejuvenated volcanism that
occurred well after the main period of shield formation and is responsible for numerous
volcanic features in southeastern O‘ahu and within the city of Honolulu. Recent K-Ar
dates have clarified the age relations of the Honolulu volcanics (Ozawa et al.2005) and
BISHOP MUSEUM OCCASIONAL PAPERS: No. 88, 2006
20
show that the eruptions directly east of Pearl Harbor, which include the Salt Lake Crater
eruptions, are part of the Pleistocene geologic history of the island, with dates of
250,000–474,000 B.P. (Middle Pleistocene).
The material described here is part of a fossil assemblage preserved in a lahar, or vol-
canic mudflow, overlying pyroclastic ashfall and surge deposits. The lahar, which
undoubtedly occurred shortly after the volcanic eruptions when rain destabilized the near-
by uplands, traveled some distance downslope, bringing along an assemblage of plant
material, including mesophytic elements. Fossils in the underlying ash, in contrast, are
preserved in situ and represent a xerophytic lowland association occurring not far from the
coast; Woodcock et al.(1998) reported on fossil cotton (Gossypium sp.) from this deposit.
The specimen described here is no. M723 in the collection of the Bishop Museum.
Figure 1 shows the fossil leaf, together with an outline showing the main features of
the venation with the galls also outlined. The leaf is a compression fossil showing the
abaxial (bottom, epidermal) surface of the leaf. It is identifiable as Metrosideros on the
basis of the morphology and venation (pinnate venation, presence of marginal vein, punc-
tate glands). The three leaf galls visible can be described as pit or spot galls. The galls are
very similar in appearance to those that can be found on Metrosideros currently and are
quite likely caused by the same insect, Troiza sp., a gall-forming psyllid.
Although there are many examples of plant galls in the fossil record (Larew 1992;
Scott et al.1994), establishing the exact taxonomic affinities of the represented taxa often
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 21
Figure 1.A.Metrosideros fossil leaf. Scale bar = 1 cm. B. Outline showing venation pattern and
galls.
AB
proves difficult. In this case, however, the identifications are fairly clear cut. The fossil
material thus attests to the long-standing character of this insect-plant association and also
suggests the stability over time of island food chains with sucking/piercing insects as
important herbivores.
Literature Cited
Larew,H.G.1992. Fossil galls. In:Shorthouse, J.D. (ed.), Biology of insect-induced
galls.Oxford University.
Ozawa,A., Tagami,T.& Garcia,M.O.2005. Unspiked K-Ar dating of the Honolulu re-
juvenated and Ko‘olau shield volcanisms on O‘ahu, Hawai‘i. Earth and Planetary
Science Letters 232: 1–11.
Scott,A.C., Stephenson,J.& Collinson,M.E.1994. The fossil record of leaves with galls.
In:Williams, M.J. (ed.), Plant galls: organisms, interactions, populations.Clarendon
Press, Oxford.
Woodcock,D., Manchester,C.&Webb,D.1998. Fossil cotton from the Salt Lake
Crater area, O‘ahu, Hawai‘i. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 56: 17–19.
Additions and notes to the Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Hawaiian Islands1
P.J. JOHNSON2(Insect Research Collection, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota
57007, USA) & G.ALLAN SAMUELSON (Hawaii Biological Survey Bishop Museum, 1525 Bernice
Street, Honolulu, Hawai‘i 96817, USA)
Coleoptera: Elateridae
Adelocera oblongus (Fleutiaux)Revised identity
Brachylacon beardsleyi Ôhira & Becker, 1978: 323. New synonym
Adelocera beardsleyi was described in the genus Brachylacon from specimens collected
in ‘Ewaand nearby areas of O‘ahu. The authors correctly surmised that this species was
not native to Hawai‘i, but they were unsure of its origin. Johnson et al.(2000) reported the
species from the island of Hawai‘i.
During a recent visit to Bishop Museum by PJJ, we compared the holotype and addi-
tional specimens of A. beardsleyi with specimens, images, and notes of other Adelocera
species and concluded that A. beardsleyi is a junior synonym of A. oblongus (Fleutiaux).
This latter species was described from the Philippines, thus our determination provides the
probable provenance for the Hawaiian population and gives support for recognizing the
beetle as exotic to Hawai‘i.
The Manila specimen in BPBM listed below may well be an unrecognized paralecto-
type from the original syntype series: 1) it possesses a data label style and content suggest-
ing that it was collected by C.F. Baker; 2) it was taken 2 years prior to the female type
reported in Fleutiaux’s(1934) description; 3) Fleutiaux received considerable Philippine
elaterid material from Baker,some of which was sent to Van Zwaluwenburg who main-
tained an extensive correspondence and specimen exchange with Fleutiaux (Van
Zwaluwenburg 1936); and 4) Fleutiaux typically did not mention the study of multiple spec-
BISHOP MUSEUM OCCASIONAL PAPERS: No. 88, 2006
22
1. Contribution No. 2006-021 to the Hawai Biological Survey.
2. Research Associate, Hawaii Biological Survey, Bishop Museum, 1525 Bernice Street, Honolulu, Hawai‘i
96817, USA.
imens in his early work and dispersed specimens to various collections. The BPBM speci-
men was not included by Hayek (1973), who designated the lectotype for A. oblongus.
Larvae of Adelocera species are poorly known but records for the tribe (Agrypinini)
generally note larvae as opportunistic predators on and in loose soil, or in dead trees or
logs. The O‘ahu records were from light traps in xeric and highly disturbed lowland areas
where the predominant and naturalized tree is Prosopis pallida, or kiawe.The Hawai‘i
specimen was collected on a sticky trap in a montane secondary forest within a wildlife
refuge, a decidedly wetter and more botanically diverse environment than the collection
sites from O‘ahu.
Material examined.O‘AHU:[type material as reported by Ôhira and Becker]. HAWAI‘I:
Hakalau National Wildlife Refuge, Kona Forest Unit, along southern boundary at 579 m, yellow
sticky trap, 11 Apr–17 May 2000, W. Haines, HVNP003049 (1 ex, HAVO). PHILIPPINES:Manila,
17 May, Brachylacon oblongus Fleut., det. by RHVZ (1 ex, BPBM).
Melanotus punctosus (Walker) New state record
Athous punctosus Walker, 1858: 20.
During an arthropod survey of Kahului Airport, Maui (Howarth & Preston 2001), 3 spec-
imens of Melanotus punctosus were collected. This species is native to India and Sri
Lanka, and represents the first record for this genus in Hawai‘i. No other records for this
species outside of its natural range are known to us.
The identity of this species was confirmed by PJJ through a comparison of these
specimens with the holotype and other material in The Natural History Museum, London.
This species is somewhat variable with regard to the relativecoarseness of pronotal sculp-
ture but as with most species of Melanotus, the aedeagus is diagnostic for species deter-
mination.
Melanotus is a widespread genus and some species within their natural ranges in
Europe and North America are minor crop pests. Besides M. punctosus,reported here,
there are 2 additional adventive species reported for the United States.
Material examined.MAUI:Kahului Airport, 20°54'22"N 156°25'56"W, Malaise trap #1,
Leucaena shrubland, 16 Nov 1999, F.G. Howarth, D.J. Preston, J. Dockall (1 ex, BPBM); Kahului
Airport, Kanaha Pond drainage canal area, 20°53'25"N 156°26'53"W, 4 Jun 2000, blacklight,
Pluchea, Chenopodium/kiawe shrubland, Howarth, Preston, Dockall, & G.A. Samuelson (1 ex,
BPBM); Kahului Airport, Malaise trap #2, 26 Apr 2000, Howarth, Preston, Dockall , K. Martz & F.
Starr (1 ex, BPBM).
Rismethus
One species of Rismethus Fleutiaux is reported here for the Hawaiian Islands and anoth-
er is noted as a quarantine record. Each is based on only a single specimen. Members of
Rismethus tend to be associated with riparian and mesic ruderal habitats and are attracted
to lights. Future use of light traps in favored habitats may confirm the naturalized status
of these species.
Presently, there are 15 species of Rismethus described from Asia and the Pacific, with
2species in the Neotropical Region (Hayek 1973).
Rismethus pistrinarius (Candèze) Quarantine note
Meristhus pistrinarius Candèze, 1857: 164.
Rismethus pistrinarius normally ranges from India and Myanmar across Indochina to the
Philippines and is distinguished from other Pacific and SE Asian species by its relatively
short and broad bristle-like integumental setae. The Hawaii Clipper was one of 3 Martin
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 23
C-130s operated by Pan American Airways over the Pacific. This particular clipper flew a
standard route from San Francisco to Manila via Honolulu and the islands of Midway,
Wake, and Guam. Rismethus pistrinarius did not appear in collections from an intensive
Bishop Museum survey of Midway; also, we did not see this species in smaller collections
from Wake or Guam in BPBM.
Material examined.O‘AHU:Honolulu, T.H., 8-6-37 [6 Aug 1937], ex Hawaii Clipper from
Orient, Meristhus scobinula Cand. det. by RHVZ [!] (BPBM).
Rismethus scobinula (Candèze) New state record
Meristhus scobinula Candèze, 1857: 164, pl.2, fig. 26.
This species appears to be widespread, being distributed in both the Neotropical and
Oriental regions. The Maui specimen most closely resembles examples from Costa Rica
and Surinam by having a slightly more depressed aspect to the dorsal elytral surfaces, and
slightly shorter and stouter bristle-likesetae. The single specimen cited by Van
Zwaluwenburg (1957) from Saipan appears to be a different species.
Material examined.MAUI: WMaui, Honakohau, 900 m, 19 Mar 1972, Malaise trap, J.L.
Gressitt (BPBM).
Literature Cited
Candèze,M.E. 1857. Monographie des elatérides [part]. Mémoires de la Société Royal
des Sciences de Liège 12,viii + 400 p.
Fleutiaux,E.1934. Eucnemididae et Elateridae nouveaux. Bulletin et Annales de la
Société Entomologiqué de Belgique 74: 364–370.
Hayek,C.M.F. 1973. Areclassification for the subfamily Agrypninae (Coleoptera: Ela-
teridae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Entomology,Supplement
20, 309 p.
Howarth,F.G.& Preston,D.J.2001. Kahului Airport arthropod baseline survey. Report
prepared for Edward K. Noda and Associates, Inc.
Johnson,P.J., Haines,W.& Foote,D. 2002. Anew generic combination and Hawaiian
Island record for Adelocera beardsleyi (Ôhira & Becker) (Coleoptera: Elateridae).
Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 69: 29–31.
Ôhira,H.& Becker,E.C. 1978. Anew species of Brachylacon from Hawaii (Coleoptera:
Elateridae). Coleopterists Bulletin 32(4): 323–325.
Van Zwaluwenburg,R.H. 1936. The elaterid beetles of the Philippine Islands. Philippine
Journal of Science 59(3): 393–432.
———. 1957. Elateridae. Insects of Micronesia 16(1): 10–11, fig. 4.
Walker,F.1858. Characters of some apparently undescribed Ceylon insects. Annals &
Magazine of Natural History (3) 2: 280–286.
BISHOP MUSEUM OCCASIONAL PAPERS: No. 88, 2006
24
The Eucalyptus snout beetle,Gonipterus scutellatus (Coleoptera: Curculion-
idae) recently established in the Hawaiian Islands1
WILLIAM P. HAINES (Department of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences, 3050 Maile Way,
Gilmore 310, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawai‘i 96822, USA) and G. A. SAMUELSON (Hawaii
Biological Survey, Bishop Museum, 1525 Bernice Street Honolulu, Hawai‘i 96817, USA)
The Eucalyptus snout beetle, Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal, is here reported for Maui.
This record appears to be the first report of Gonipterus in the state.
Coleoptera: Curculionidae
Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal New state record
Adults and larvae were collected on the leaf-surface of Eucalyptus robusta Sm. in May
2004. Larvae had been noticed in this area in March 2004 but were not collected at that
time. Larvae were present primarily on growing shoots and newly expanded or unex-
panded leaves. In most cases, when larvae were found, several occurred on the same shoot
or leaf. Larvae are very distinctive, being legless, slug-like and producing long, skinny fil-
aments of frass. Adults were usually found on the edges of fully expanded leaves or peti-
oles, gripping the stems or leaf margins very tightly.
Nearby stands of Eucalyptus in the Kokomo, Makawao, and Olinda area were
searched for larvae and adults, but at this time no other populations have been confirmed.
However,we consider it likely that the weevil is present at other locations on Maui, since
it was abundant at the site of collection, and since adults of this species are strong fliers
living 2–3 months (Hanks et al. 2000).
Schenkling & Marshall (1931) listed 24 species in Goniopterus,essentially an
Australian genus, except for a single New Caledonian species. The range of G. scutellatus
in Australia extends North into Queensland, South into Tasmania, and West into Victoria
(CSIRO 2004). It has been spread by human activity to various other parts of the world
where Eucalyptus is cultivated, including New Zealand, Africa, the Mediterranean, and
South America. It was first recorded in the United States in 1994 in southern California
(Seeno & Davidson 1994), a possible source of the Hawaiian introduction. This weevil is
an important defoliator of various species of Eucalyptus, and therefore considered a major
pest and the target of biological control programs. In Hawai‘i, it may impact trees that were
purposely planted, including rangeland shelterbelts, as well as naturalized populations of
Eucalyptus.It remains to be seen whether G. scutellatus might limit reproduction of Euca-
lyptus in natural areas of Hawai‘i where manyspecies are considered weeds.
Gonipterus scutellatus is considered to be a specialist on the genus Eucalyptus,but
prefers some species of Eucalyptus over others (Cordero Rivera & Santolamazza Carbone
2000). In other areas where it has been introduced, G. scutellatus has attacked several species
that are widespread in Hawai‘i, including E. camaldulensis Dehnh.,E. globulus Labill.,E.
robusta Sm.,and E. tereticornis Sm. (Cordero Rivera & Santolamazza Carbone 2000).
An internet search shows that G. scutellatus is treated in many recent articles deal-
ing with its biology, parasites, and serious impact as a pest. One such reference (Forestry
Tasmania 2004), shows images of feeding patterns, general damage to host, and in situ
views of egg, larva, and adult.
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 25
1. Contribution No. 2006-022 to the Hawaii Biological Survey..
Material examined:MAUI:Haiku Distr, Kokomo, Kaili‘ili Rd, 1575 ft [487 m], 21 May 2004,
on Eucalyptus,W.P. Haines (5 adults, 3 larvae; BPBM, HDOA).
Literature Cited
Cordero Rivera,A.& Santolamazza Carbone,S. 2000. The effect of three species of
Eucalyptus on growth and fecundity of the Eucalyptus snout beetle. Forestry 73(1):
21–29.
CSIRO. 2004. Australian Government, Dept. of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry.
ANIC. Gonipterus scutellatus (Gyllenhal) 3. Systematic Names, Order Coleoptera.
[http: //www.ento.csiro.au/aicn/system/c_768.htm]. [Updated: 7 Jan 2004, Accessed:
20 Dec 2004].
Forestry Tasmania. 2004. Identifying pests in Tasmania’s forests. Information sheet 8: Euca-
lyptus weevil.2p. [www.forestrytas.com.au/forestrytas/pdf_files/ forest_health_leaflets/
insect_pests/pestsinfosheet8eucweevil.pdf]. [Posted: 17 Nov 2004, Accessed: 20 Dec
2004].
Hanks,L.M., Millar,J.G., Paine,T.D.& Campbell,C.D.2000. Classical biological
control of the Australian weevil Gonipterus scutellatus Gyll. (Coleoptera: Curculion-
idae) in California. Environmental Entomology 29: 369–375.
Schenkling S.& Marshall,G.A.K. 1931, Curculionidae (part), Gonipterinae. Coleop-
terorum Catalogus 28(116): 5.
Seeno,T.N.& Davidson,J. 1994 Agum-tree weevil in California. California Plant Pest
and Disease Report 13: 4–7.
New records of invasive aphids in Hawaii
RUSSELL MESSING (University of Hawaii, Kaua‘i Agricultural Research Center, 7370 Kuamo‘o Road,
Kapa‘a, Hawai‘i 97646, USA), ROBERT FOOTTIT (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Eastern Cereal
and Oilseed Research Centre, 960 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6, Canada) & KEITH PIKE
(Washington State University, Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center, 24106 N. Bunn
Road, Prosser, Washington 99350, USA)
The last published reviewof the Hawaiian aphid fauna was conducted 27 years ago
(Beardsley1979), at which time 68 species of aphids were recorded in the islands, every
one of which was an exotic invasive. Since then there have been several reports of addi-
tional aphid species invading the islands and establishing (i.e., Kumashiro et al. 2001),
and the Bishop Museum Hawaii Biological Survey, online Hawaiian Terrestrial Arthropod
Checklist (Nishida 2002) currently lists 81 species. With increasing tourism and air trans-
port of agricultural and ornamental plants, aphids continue to invade and become estab-
lished throughout the islands, where they often become economically and environmental-
ly damaging pests. In a recent survey of plants on Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, Maui, Moloka‘i, and
Hawai‘i we have so far found evidence of 9 new aphid species that have become estab-
lished in the state of Hawai‘i, over a 10% increase in the known fauna. Identifications
were made in the laboratories of Dr. R. Foottit and K. Pike. Biological data below are pri-
marily from Blackman & Eastop (1984, 1994). Specimens are maintained in the insect
collection of the Kauai Agricultural Research Center (KARC), Kapa‘a. Nomenclature fol-
lows Remaudiere & Remaudiere (1997).
BISHOP MUSEUM OCCASIONAL PAPERS: No. 88, 2006
26
Homoptera: Aphididae:
Ericaphis fimbriata (Richards) New state record
Blueberry aphids are light colored and broadly spindle-shaped; alates haveadark abdom-
inal patch. Known from Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, and the eastern U.S.
[a possible synonym of E. scammelli (Mason)] on strawberries and blueberries; it is an
important vector of blueberry scorch virus.
Material examined: MAUI: Haleakalä National Park, 28 Jun 2003, on Vaccinium reticulatum,
P.Krushelnycky(UH).
Hyadaphis coriandri (Das) New state record
Coriander aphids are yellowish green, often covered with greyish wax, with short legs and
short, dusky, slightly swollen, siphunculi that are about twice as long as wide. Probably
of Asian origin, coriander aphids were first found in North America in 1998 in Florida on
fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), and soon thereafter on coriander (Coriandrum sativum
L.) and dill (Anethum graveolens L.). Current distribution includes Central Asia, the
Mediterranean region, the Middle East, India and Pakistan, Africa, California, Florida,
and possibly Peru. Aphids live mainly within the umbels of the host plant, and are capa-
ble of colonizing many species of Umbelliferae. They are considered key pests of corian-
der in India.
Material examined:O‘AHU: 962 Second St, Pearl City Urban Garden Center, 22 May 2003,
colonyfound on garden plants of coriander (Coriandrum sativum), M. Rhainds (KARC).
Hyperomyzus carduellinus (Theobald) New state record
The Asian sow thistle aphid is a relatively large aphid with very short antennal and dorsal
body setae. It is found from Afghanistan to Korea and Taiwan, and has also been collected
in Argentina, Bolivia, Australia, Africa, and in the year 2000 was first reported in Florida.
Halbert et al.(2000) state that it is specific to Sonchus and related plants and is not
likely to become a pest, but it is a known vector of lettuce necrotic yellows virus.
Material examined:MAUI: Kealia Pond Beach, Kïhei, 19 Mar 2004. HAWAI‘I: Whittington
Beach Park, Ka‘u, 22 Mar 2004, on Sonchus oleraceus, R. Miller, R. Foottit, K. Pike.
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 27
Figure 1.Ericaphis fimbriata (Richards), apterous adult. Figure 2. Hyadaphis coriandri (Das),
apterous adult.
12
Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) New state record
The rose-grain aphid is a large yellowish green species that often has a darker green lon-
gitudinal mid-dorsal stripe. The antennal joints are dark, and the antennae usually reach
beyond the base of the siphunculi. Its origin is the western Palearctic, but it is now wide-
ly distributed in temperate regions, less so in the tropics. Its primary hosts are wild and
cultivated Rosa spp.; secondary hosts include numerous grasses. Rose-grain aphid is a
vector of barley yellow dwarf virus.
Material examined: MAUI:Kahului, 310 Ka‘ahumanu Avenue, University of Hawai‘i Garden
Center, 14 Jul 2003, on roses, M. Rhainds (KARC). KAUA‘I:Puhi, 3–1550 Kaumuali‘i Hwy,Kauai
Nursery, on roses 16 Apr 2003, R. Messing (KARC); Kapa‘a, 6660b Kawaihau Rd, Growing Greens
Nursery, on roses, 5 May 2003, M. Rhainds.
Myzus hemerocallis Takahashi New state record
The day lily aphid is a close relative of the green peach aphid (M. persicae), but is distin-
guishable by the length of the terminal antennal process and shape of the siphunculi. It
originated in East Asia but is now widely distributed throughout the world. It feeds pri-
marily on Hemerocallis species, but also occasionally on Agapanthhus umbellatus (blue
Nile lily). It forms dense colonies on the stems and flower heads of day lily.
Material examined: KAUA‘I: Kïlauea, 4101 Wailapa Rd, Na Aina Kai Botanical Garden, on
Hemerocallis sp., 13 Mar 2003, R. Messing (KARC).
Sitobion fragariae (Walker) New state record
Blackberry-cereal aphids are large, spindle shaped, dirty yellowish green with brown
inter-segmental markings on the upper surface of the abdomen; siphunculi are long and
usually entirely black. It is distributed throughout Europe, the Mediterranean, Pakistan,
Nepal, and is invasive in South Africa, western North America, and Chile. Primary hosts
are Rubus spp, secondary hosts include numerous grass species (more commonly wild
grasses than crops). It is a vector of barley yellow dwarf virus.
Material examined: MAUI: Haleakalä National Park, 9 Jul 2003, on Anthoxanthum odoratum
L., Deschampsia nubigena Hillebr.,Holcus lanatus L., and Trisetum glomeratum (Kunth), (Poaceae)
,and Luzula hawaiiensis Buch (Juncaceae), Koen van Elsen (UH).
BISHOP MUSEUM OCCASIONAL PAPERS: No. 88, 2006
28
Figure 3.Hyperomyzus carduellinus (Theobald), apterous adult. Figure 4. Metopolophium dirhodum
(Walker), apterous adult.
34
Sitobion phyllanthi (Takahashi) New state record
Dirty olive green aphids with dark brown head and dorsal markings, appearing on pre-
served specimens as narrow cross-bands between dark marginal sclerites. Widely distrib-
uted in Africa on Euphorbiaceae. It has been barely studied, and its life cycle is unknown.
Material examined: O‘AHU: Honolulu, Nu‘uanu Avenue, Foster Botanical Garden, 28 May
2003, on Chamaesyce hypericifolia (L.) Millsp. (Euphorbiaceae), M. Rhainds (KARC); HAWAI‘I:
Hilo, 421 Makalika St 17 Jun 2003, on Euphorbia prostrata Aiton, M. Rhainds (KARC).
Toxoptera odinae (van der Goot) New state record
Small, grayish to reddish brown aphids with very short siphunculi (shorter than the
cauda). They form dense colonies on young shoots and on the undersides of leaves along
the veins. Nativeto India, Nepal, SE Asia, and Japan, and nowwidespread in Africa south
of the Sahara. Polyphagous on tropical shrubs, especially in Anacardiaceae, Araliaceae,
Caprifoliaceae, Ericaceae, Rubiaceae, and Rutaceae. Known to vector peanut green mosa-
ic potyvirus and peanut stripe potyvirus.
Material examined: HAWAI‘I: Na‘alehu, S Point Rd, Ka‘u Gold Orange Co., in citrus orchard,
R. Messing (KARC). Only late instar nymphs were examined, siphunculi were much shorter than
those of fourth instar T. aurantii and T.citricidus,so we assume it is T. odinae, but this must be con-
firmed with adult specimens.
Aphis coreopsidis (Thomas) New state record
Apterae are 1.5–1.8 mm in length, yellow to green with darker antennae, legs and siphun-
culi. In North America it host-alternates between Nyssa and secondary hosts in the
Compositae (Bidens, Clibadium, Eupatorium, Sonchus)and Malvaceae (Hibiscus, Sida).
Apparently anholocyclic populations on Compositae (especially Bidens pilosa)occur in
Central and South America.
Material examined: KAUA‘I: Pu‘u Hina Lookout, Waimea Cyn, 13 Mar 2004, on Bidens pilosa
(Spanish needle), R. Miller, R. Foottit, & K. Pike.
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 29
Figure 5. Myzus hemerocallis Takahashi, apterous adult. Figure 6. Sitobion fragariae (Walker), apter-
ous adult.
56
Acknowledgements
We thank Terri Moats for aphid slide mounting, M. Rhainds, R. Miller, K. van Elsen, D.
Rubinoff, R. Frissant & P.Krushelnyckyfor field collections, and Eric Mawfor identifi-
cations. This work was supported by USDA-CSREES-TSTAR grant no. 2002-34135-
12762 to RHM.
Literature Cited
Beardsley,J.W. 1979. The current status of the names of Hawaiian aphids. Proceedings
of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 13: 45–50.
Blackman,R.L.& Eastop,V.F. 1984. Aphids on the world’s crops: an identification and
information guide.Wiley & Sons, New York.
———. & Eastop,V.F. 1994. Aphids on the world’s trees: an identification and infor-
mation guide. CABI, Wallingford, UK.
Halbert,S.E., Remaudiere,G.& Webb,S.2000. Newly established and rarely collect-
ed aphids in Florida and the southeastern United States. Florida Entomologist 83:
79–91.
Kumashiro,B.,Heu,R., Nishida,G.M.& Beardsley,J.W.2001. New state records of
immigrant insects in the Hawaiian Islands for the year 1999. Proceedings of the
Hawaiian Entomological Society 35: 170–184.
Nishida,G.M., editor. 2002. Hawaiian arthropod checklist. Fourth edition. Bishop
Museum Technical Report 22, iv + 313 p.
The Coleoptera of Lehua Islet,Hawaii1
ALISTAIR S. RAMSDALE2&G. ALLAN SAMUELSON (Hawaii Biological Survey, Bishop Museum, 1525
Bernice Street, Honolulu, Hawai‘i, 96817-2704, USA)
Off-shore islets can be particularly interesting because the composition of their flora and
fauna often differs substantially from that of the adjacent larger islands. The presence of
BISHOP MUSEUM OCCASIONAL PAPERS: No. 88, 2006
30
Figure 7.Sitobion phyllanthi (Takahashi), apterous adult. Figure 8. Toxoptera odinae (van der
Goot), fourth instar nymph. Figure 9. Aphis coreopsidis (Thomas), apterous adult.
1. Contribution No. 2006-023 to the Hawaii Biological Survey.
2. Present address: Montana Entomological Collection, Montana State University, P.O. Box 173020, Bozeman,
Montana 59717-3020, USA.
789
large seabird colonies on several off-shore islets, and their absence in large numbers from
the main Hawaiian Islands, serves as one conspicuous example of this phenomenon
among vertebrates. Species of terrestrial invertebrates may well exhibit similar patterns of
disparity as well, but, as off-shore islets are among the most poorly collected sites in the
Hawaiian Islands, such patterns remain largely undocumented. Off-shore islets are also
known to harbor endemic insect species, such as Rhyncogonus kapapa Samuelson, known
only from Kapapa Islet off O‘ahu (Samuelson 2003). Additionally, the phenomenon of
floral and faunal disparity is often most pronounced among alien species, which often
seem to establish and thrive more readily and exist at greater levels of population density
on off-shore islets than they do on adjacent larger islands. These factors combined should
make off-shore islets a priority for intensified scientific collection and conservation
efforts.
Lehua Islet is a volcanic tuff cone remnant with an area of approximately 1.1 km2, a
highest elevation of 213 m, and is located about 1.2 km off the northern tip of Ni‘ihau
(Palmer 1936). For biologists, the principle interest in Lehua has traditionally been its avi-
fauna, as it serves as an important nesting site for large numbers of a variety of species of
seabirds (Caum 1936). Tragically, the native plant community on Lehua has been devas-
tated due to the introduction of mammals, most significantly the rabbit Oryctolagus
cuniculus (Linnaeus), and invasion by alien plant species (Wood et al. 2004). The extant
vegetation of Lehua is dominated by alien grasses, herbs, and shrubs (Wood et al. 2004).
Alongside the fairly well documented extirpation of the nativeflora on Lehua has
been the consequent, simultaneous, and undocumented extirpation of its more diverse
native insect fauna. The flourishing population of the highly invasive alien ant species
Pheidole megacephala (Fabricius) (Wood et al. 2004) has undoubtedly been another
important factor in the decline of the islet’s native insect fauna.
This paper is the first to document the Coleoptera of Lehua Islet. Of the 12 species
of beetles reported here, Rhantus pseudopacificus Balke is the only native species docu-
mented and the unidentified species of Phalacrus Paykull is the only species previously
not reported from the Hawaiian Islands. Aephinidius opaculus (Zimmerman) and Systena
blanda Melsheimer, both previously known only from O‘ahu, are here reported for the
first time from a second island. The remaining species listed are all multi-island adven-
tives. Vouchers of all the specimens reported below have been deposited at the Bishop
Museum (BPBM).
The list below in no way reflects the entirety of the current beetle fauna of Lehua.
Only 4 insect collection methods are known to havebeen used on Lehua: hand collecting,
unbaited pitfall trapping, sweeping vegetation, and UV lighting. Additional collecting,
especially with flight intercept traps set out for extended periods, the use or carrion, dung
and fruit-baited pitfall traps, and the extraction of specimens from plant litter and bird
nesting materials via sifting and/or processing with Berlese funnels, would undoubtedly
produce additional species.
We hope that this report, preliminary as it is, will help to stimulate additional inves-
tigation of the insect fauna of off-shore islets.
ADEPHAGA
Dytiscidae
Rhantus pseudopacificus Balke New island record
Status: native (Balke 1993).
Species of Rhantus are predators that inhabit shallow freshwater pools as adults and lar-
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 31
vae (Zimmerman & Smith 1975) but leave the water to disperse by flight. The occurrence
of this species on Lehua would seem to indicate that fresh water is available on the islet,
at least on a semi-permanent basis. Rhantus pseudopacificus is also known to occur on
Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, Moloka‘i, and Läna‘i (Balke 1993).
One male specimen was relaxed in near boiling distilled water to permit the removal
and extraction of the aedeagus. The specimen was then card mounted, and aedeagus was
attached to the bottom right corner of the upper surface of the same card, using water-sol-
uble glue, for permanent storage.
Material examined: NIIHAU:Lehua Islet: 10 m, 30–31 May 2003, S.L. Montgomery, UV
light (3 BPBM).
Carabidae
Aephnidius opaculus (Zimmerman) New island record
Status: adventive (Zimmerman 1972).
This predator is native to southern and southeast Asia and has been previously reported in
the Hawaiian Islands only from O‘ahu (Zimmerman 1972).
Material examined: NIIHAU:Lehua Islet: SW coast, 20–21 Dec 2001, pitfall trap, Chris
Swenson (3 BPBM).
Gnathaphanus picipes (Macleay) New island record
Status: adventive (Samuelson et al. 1997).
This species is nativeto Australia and Papua New Guinea and was first collected in the
Hawaiian Islands in 1989 (Samuelson et al. 1997). It has since spread rapidly and has been
reported from all the main islands except Ni‘ihau (Samuelson et al. 1997, Nishida 2002),
where its presence is now all but certain. Moore et al. (1987) categorized this species as
a volant, terrestrial granivore and omnivore.
Material examined: NIIHAU:Lehua Islet: 200 m, 30–31 May 2003, S.L. Montgomery (2
BPBM), 10 m, 30–31 May 2003, S.L. Montgomerey, UV light (1 BPBM).
POLYPHAGA
Scarabaeidae
Adoretus sinicus Burmeister New island record
Status: adventive(Nishida 2002).
This species is nativeto China (Cartwright & Gordon 1971) and has been reported from
all the main Hawaiian Islands except Ni‘ihau and Kaho‘olawe (Nishida 2002). Adults feed
on the leaves of a variety of plants, including numerous agricultural species (Fullaway &
Krauss 1945).
Material examined: NIIHAU:Lehua Islet: 200 m, 30–31 May 2003, S.L. Montgomery (2
BPBM).
Aphodius lividus (Olivier) New island record
Status: adventive (Nishida 2002).
This is a cosmopolitan anthropogenic species of dung beetle often associated with domes-
ticated animals. Its presence has been documented on all the main Hawaiian Islands except
Kaho‘olawe (Nishida 2002). The dung resource it uses on Lehua is likely that of the intro-
duced rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus) (q.v.Stebnicka 2001).
Material examined: NIIHAU:Lehua Islet: 200 m, 30–31 May 2003, S.L. Montgomery (1
BPBM).
BISHOP MUSEUM OCCASIONAL PAPERS: No. 88, 2006
32
Protaetia fusca (Herbst) New island record
Status: adventive (Nishida 2002).
This widespread species occurs across Asia and the Pacific from India to Polynesia.
Adults of this species visit flowers and are also attracted to lights at night (Cartwright &
Gordon 1971). Protaetia fusca has been reported from Midway Island and all the main
Hawaiian Islands except Ni‘ihau and Kaho‘olawe (Nishida 2002).
Material examined:NIIHAU:Lehua Islet: 19–21 Feb 2002, south side, K.R. Wood, #9309 (2
BPBM). 200 m, 30–31 May 2003, S.L. Montgomery, swept (1 BPBM). 6–8 Jun 2003, K.R. Wood (3
BPBM).
Dermestidae
Dermestes frischii Kugelann New island record
Status: adventive (Nishida 2002).
This species is a cosmopolitan, anthropogenic saprophage (Hinton 1945). On Lehua, it is
most likely associated with the carcasses and nest detritus of seabirds. Dermestes frischii
has previously been reported only from Nihoa, O‘ahu, and Maui (Nishida 2002).
Material examined:NIIHAU:Lehua Islet: 19–21 Feb 2002, K.R. Wood, #9310 (6 BPBM).
Phalacridae
Phalacrus sp.New state record
Status: adventive.
This represents the first record of the genus Phalacrus Paykull in Hawai‘i and only the sec-
ond documented species of Phalacridae for the entire archipelago (Nishida 2002). The con-
fident establishment of the specific identity of this species of this species was not possible
at this time, as the genus is so poorly known taxonomically (G. Lyubarsky, pers. comm.). In
the keyto the species of Phalacrus of the Oriental region (a likely source area for many
introductions to the Hawaiian Islands) in Lyubarsky (1994), our specimens came out as
Phalacrus luteicornis Champion, which is known from India, China, and Japan. While our
specimens are no doubt related to this species, they differed from it by way of several sig-
nificant characters, including coloration, pubescence, and sculpturing (q.v. Champion 1924).
In our attempts to identify our specimens, the reviews of the Phalacrus species of the
Australian and Papuan (Lea 1932), Nearctic (Casey 1916) and west Palaearctic (Vogt 1967)
regions were also consulted. Our specimens were also compared with identified material of
the widespread species Phalacrus corrscus (Panzer), with which it was found not to be con-
specific. Despite our inability to identify our specimens, we are quite confident that it is not
anativespecies to the Hawaiian Islands and speculate that it is most likely a recent immi-
grant, and is probably an undescribed species of eastern Asian origin.
Species of Phalacrus are associated with rust (Uredinales) and smut (Ustilaginales)
fungi, the spores of which they feed on as both larvae and adults (Steiner 1984).
Material examined: NIIHAU:Lehua Islet: 200 m, 30–31 May 2003, S.L. Montgomery, swept
(3 BPBM).
Coccinellidae
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant New island record
Status: introduced (Funasaki et al. 1988).
This species is native to Australia and has been widely introduced as a biological control
agent of various species of scale insects (Coccoidea) and other Sternorrhyncha (Funasaki
et al. 1988). Cryptolaemus montrouzieri has been documented from all the main Hawaiian
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 33
Islands except Kaho‘olawe (Nishida 2002). While purposefully introduced to the main
Hawaiian Islands, C. montrouzieri undoubtedly dispersed to Lehua by natural means.
Material examined: NIIHAU:Lehua Islet: 200 m, 30–31 May 2003, S.L. Montgomery, swept
(1 BPBM).
Tenebrionidae
Gonocephalum adpressiforme Kazab New island record
Status: adventive (Nishida 2002).
Native to the Philippines, this species has spread to many islands in the Pacific, including
Midway in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and to all the main Hawaiian Islands
except Kaho‘olawe (Nishida 2002). Commonly found beneath stones or other ground
debris, G. adpressiforme is thought to feed on decaying organic matter (Illingworth 1927).
Material examined: NIIHAU:Lehua Islet: 10 m, 30–31 May 2003, S.L. Montgomery (3
BPBM). SW coast, 20–21 Dec 2001, C. Swenson, pitfall trap (4 BPBM).
Chrysomelidae
Systena blanda Melsheimer New island record
Status: adventive (Samuelson 1988).
This species is native to North America and is known to feed on a wide range of plants,
including several agricultural species (Samuelson 1988). Previously,this species has been
reported only from O‘ahu (Nishida 2002).
Material examined: NIIHAU:Lehua Islet: 10 m, 30–31 May 2003, S.L. Montgomery, swept
(4 BPBM).
Curculionidae
Hypurus betrandi (Perris) New island record
Status: adventive (Zimmerman 1957).
Native to Mediterranean coastal areas of Europe and Africa, adults and larvae of H.
betrandi feed on plants in the genus Portulaca, twospecies of which are known to occur
on Lehua (Wood et al. 2004). The presence of this specialized alien herbivore may pose a
significant threat to Portulaca villosa Champion, a Hawaiian endemic considered to be of
“vulnerable” status (Wagner et al. 1990). Hypurus betrandi is also known to occur on
Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, Moloka‘i, Maui, and Hawai‘i (Nishida 2002).
Material examined: NIIHAU:Lehua Islet: SW coast, 20–21 Dec 2001, C. Swenson, pitfall
trap (1 BPBM).
Acknowledgments
Wethank the following individuals: David Preston for getting us involved in this project,
Steve Montgomery and Ken Wood for making the beetles they collected on Lehua avail-
able for our study and for choosing to deposit them at the Bishop Museum, Maya Le
Grande for the informative presentation on the Lehua, Georgy Lyubarsky for consultation
on the state of phalacrid taxonomy, and Neal Evenhuis and Dan Polhemus for reviewing
the manuscript.
Literature Cited
Balke,M.1993. Taxonomische Revision der pazifischen, australischen und indonesichen
Arten der Gattung Rhantus Dejean, 1833 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). Koleopterolog-
ische Rundshau 63: 39–84.
BISHOP MUSEUM OCCASIONAL PAPERS: No. 88, 2006
34
Cartwright,O.L.& Gordon,R.D.1971. Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae. Insects of Micro-
nesia 17: 253–296
Casey,T.L.1916. Some random studies among the Clavicornia. Memoirs on the Cole-
optera 7: 35–283.
Caum,E.L.1936. Notes on the flora and fauna of Lehua and Kaula Islands. Bernice P.
Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 11(21): 3–17.
Champion,G.C.1924. Some Indian Coleoptera (15). Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine
60: 236–247.
Fullaway,D.T.& Krauss,N.L.H. 1945. Common Insects of Hawaii. Tongg Publishing
Company, Honolulu. 228 p.
Funasaki,G.Y., Lai,P., Nakahara,L.M., Beardsley,J.W.& Ota,A.K. 1988. Areview
of biological control introductions in Hawaii: 1890–1985. Proceedings of the
Hawaiian Entomological Society 28: 105–160.
Hinton,H.E. 1945. Amonograph of the beetles associated with stored products. Volume
1. British Museum of Natural History, London. viii + 443 p.
Illingworth,J.F.1927. A report on the insects and other animal organisms collected in
the pineapple growing section at Mauna Loa, Molokai, June 1926. Proceedings of
the Hawaiian Entomological Society 6: 390–397.
Lea,A.M. 1932. The Phalacridae (Coleoptera) of Australia and New Guinea. Records of
the South Australian Museum 4: 433–481.
Lyubarsky,G.Y.1994. New and little-known Phalacridae (Coleoptera) from the Oriental
Region. Russian Entomological Journal 3: 49–59.
Moore,B.P., Weir,T.A.& Pyke,J.E.1987. Carabidae. Zoological Catalog of Australia
4: 23–322.
Nishida,G.M.2002. Hawaiian terrestrial arthropod checklist. Fourth edition. Bishop
Museum Technical Report 22,iv + 313 p.
Palmer,H.S.1936. Geology of Lehua and Kaula Islands. Bernice P. Bishop Museum
Occasional Papers 12(13): 3–63.
Samuelson,G.A.1988. [Notes and exhibitions]: Systena blanda Melsheimer. Proceed-
ings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 28: 3–4.
———. 2003. Review of Rhyncogonus of the Hawaiian Islands (Coleoptera: Curculion-
idae). Bishop Museum Bulletin in Entomology 11,viii + 107 p.
———. Liebherr,J.K.& Will,K.W.1997. Gnathaphanus picipes, an established adven-
tivein Hawai‘i (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Bishop Museum Occasional Papers49:
22–23.
Stebnicka,Z.T. 2001. Aphodiinae (Insecta: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Fauna of New
Zealand 42: 1–64.
Steiner,W.E.1984. A review of the biology of phalacrid beetles, p. 424–445. In:Wheel-
er, Q. & Blackwell, M. (eds.). Fungus-insect relationships.Columbia University
Press, NewYork. xiv + 514 p.
Vogt,H.1967. Familie: Phalacridae, p. 158–166. In: H. Freude, K.W.Harde, & G.A.
Lohse (eds.), Die Käfer Mitteuropas.Band 7. Clavicornia. Goecke & Evers, Krefeld,
Germany. 310 p.
Wagner,W.L., Herbst,D.R.&Sohmer,S.H.1990. Manual of the flowering plants of
Hawai‘i. Volume 2. Bishop Museum Special Publication 83: 989–1854.
Wood,K.R., VanderWerf,E.A., Swenson,C., LeGrande,M., Eijzenga,H.& Walker,
R.L.2004. Biological inventory and assessment of Lehua Islet, Kaua‘i County,
Hawai‘i. Final report prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Islands
Office, Honolulu.
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 35
Zimmerman,E.C.1957. The Portulaca leafmining weevil, Hypurus betrandi, in Hawaii
(Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Ceutorhynchinae). Annals of the Entomological Society
of America 50: 221–222.
———. 1972. On some foreign Carabidae established in Hawaii (Coleoptera). Proceed-
ings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 21: 291–294.
Zimmerman,J.R.& Smith,R.L. 1975. The genus Rhantus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) in
North America. Part I. General account of the species. Transactions of the American
Entomological Society 101: 33–123.
Passandridae (Coleoptera),a new beetle family established in the Hawaiian
Islands1
G. ALLAN SAMUELSON &ALISTAIR S. RAMSDALE2(Hawaii Biological Survey, Bishop Museum, 1525
Bernice Street, Honolulu, Hawai‘i 96817-2704, USA; email: alsam@bishopmuseum.org)
We report the first record of a species of the family Passandridae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea)
from the Hawaiian Islands. Three specimens of Passandra elongatula Grouvelle have
been collected on the island of O‘ahu on three separate occasions. Each of the O‘ahu spec-
imens were collected in different years (1977, 1999, 2000) and at different localities, all
in the Pearl Harbor-Barbers Point area. These data give us reason believe this species has
established a naturalized, breeding population on O‘ahu.
The material studied resides in three collections: BPBM (Bishop Museum, Hono-
lulu), HDOA (Hawaii Department of Agriculture, Honolulu), CTAM (Department of Plant
and Environmental Protection Services, University of Hawai‘i at Mänoa, Honolulu).
Those fewspecies of Passandridae for which we haveanylife history information at
all are known to be ectoparasites of the larvae of other wood-boring species of Coleoptera,
including those of the families Bostrichidae, Cerambycidae, and Curculionidae (including
Scolytinae and Platypodinae), and Hymenoptera (Burckhardt & Slipinski 2003). One con-
gener of our species, Passandratrigemina (Newman), has been associated with
Cryptorhynchinae (Curculionidae) (Burckhardt & Slipinski 2003). The feeding habits of
adults are unknown.
Passandrids have historically been treated as a subfamily of the family Cucujidae
(Hetschko 1930) but are now widely recognized as distinct family (Lawrence & Newton
1995, Slipinski 1986, Burckhardt & Slipinski 2003).
Passandra elongatula Grouvelle New state record
Passandra elongatula is an Indo-Malayan species, previously known from Bhutan, Laos,
peninsular Malaysia, Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, and Ambon Island), and the Philippines
(Luzon) (Slipinski 1986, Burckhardt & Slipinski 2003, BPBM). Grouvelle (1874) based
P. elongatula on Malayan material and later (Grouvelle 1876) added some further descrip-
tion and a line illustration of the habitus. The lectotype of P
.elongatula (designated by
Slipinski 1986) is from Malacca, Malaysia. The O‘ahu specimens were determined using
the revised key to the world species of Passandra presented by Burckhardt & Slipinski
(2003) and were directly compared with material of P. elongatula determined by S.A.
BISHOP MUSEUM OCCASIONAL PAPERS: No. 88, 2006
36
1. Contribution No. 2006-024 to the Hawaii Biological Survey.
2. Present address: Montana Entomological Collection, Montana State University, P.O. Box 173020,
Bozeman, Montana 59717-3020, USA.
Slipinski, deposited in the BPBM. Excellent figures of several of the diagnostic features
of P. elongatula were included in Slipinski (1986) and reprinted in Burckhardt & Slipinski
(2003). It is considered adventive in Hawai‘i.
Material examined: OAHU:Pearl City, 13 Feb 1977, P. Tenzing via J.W. Beardsley Collection
(1 female CTAM, University of Hawai‘i at Mänoa); Barbers Point, 40 ft [16.5 m], 12 Aug 1999, W.D.
Perreria (1 female BPBM); Kalaeloa, 40 ft [16.5 m], Oct 2000, Perreria (1 HDOA).
Acknowledgments
We thank Bernarr Kumashiro (HDOA) and Dick Tsuda (CTAM) for various help; and
Neal Evenhuis (BPBM) and S.A. Slipinski (CSIRO, Canberra, Australia) for reviewing
this paper.
Literature Cited
Burckhardt,D.& Slipinski,S.A.2003. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the world Pas-
sandridae (Coleoptera), p. 754–883. In: Cuccodoro, G. & Leschen, R.A.B. (eds.),
Systematics of Coleoptera: Papers Celebrating the Retirement of Ivan Löbl.Mem-
oirs on Entomology, International 17,vi + 955 p.
Grouvelle,A.1874. [Plusiers espèces nouvelles de Cucujipes Lac.] Bulletin de la Société
Entomologique de France 1874:xxvii–xxix.
———. 1876. Cucujides nouveaux ou peu connus. Annales de la Société Entomologique
de France (5) 6:487–504, pl. 8–9.
Hetschko,A.1930. Cucujidae, Thorictidae (Suppl., Cossyphodidae (Suppl.). Coleop-
terorum Catalogus 15(109): 3–122.
Lawrence,J.F.and A.F.Newton,Jr.1995. Families and subfamilies of Coleoptera
(with selected genera, notes, references and data on family-group names), p.
779–1006. In: Pakaluk, J. & Slipinski, S.A. (eds.), Biology, phylogeny, and classifi-
cation of Coleoptera: Papers celebrating the 80th birthday of R.A. Crowson. Volume
2. Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii, PAN, Warsaw. P. i–iv + 559–1092.
Slipinski,S.A. 1986. Areviewof the Passandridae of the World (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea).
I–Genus Passandra Dalman. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova
86: 553–603.
New species of plagithmysines from Maui and Hawaii plus a significant new
plant host record for a previously described species from Hawaii
(Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)1
G. ALLAN SAMUELSON (Hawaii Biological Survey, Bishop Museum, 1525 Bernice Street, Honolulu,
Hawai‘i 96717-2704, USA; email: alsam@bishopmuseum.org)
Three significant host-associated plagithmysines were collected during 2000–2001. Two
are members of Plagithmysus (Plagithmysus)from the island of Hawai‘i: the first is
kraussi Gressitt & Davis, previously not associated with any host but nowreared from
Sida and marking the first association of anyplagithmysine with Malvaceae; the second
is described as new and extends the range for the Pittosporum-associated plagithmysines
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 37
1. Contribution No. 2006-025 to the Hawaii Biological Survey.
to that island; both beetles were reared from their respective hosts. A new species from
Maui in the subgenus Neoclytarlus is described and fills a vacant niche for the
Chenopodium-associated plagithmysines for that island. Holotypes of new species and
vouchers are deposited in Bishop Museum, Honolulu (BPBM).
Plagithmysus (Plagithmysus) kraussi Gressitt & Davis
(Figs. 1–2)
Plagithmysus (Plagithmysus) kraussi Gressitt & Davis, 1969, Proc. Hawaii. Entomol. Soc. 20:
339–340, fig. 6 (Hawai‘i: Kawaihae; Bishop type no. 8031).—Gressitt, 1978, Pacific Insects 18: 161,
fig. 9 (diagram).
Variation.Derm of body surfaces ranging from reddish fuscous as in the holotype to dull
pitch black overall; the paler fuscous specimens tend to have the prothorax darker than the
elytra. In the darkest and least hirsute extreme (fig. 1), surfaces of the head lack any white
but the black derm of the pronotum and elytra is strongly contrasted with white pubes-
cence: pronotum with ± fine sublateral stripe on each side, elytron with a discal sutural
stripe broken into spots along apical 2/3, the stripe gradually diverging from suture from
preapex anteriad to mid disc, and elytral postbasal area with a few isolated white flecks.
In the most hirsute extreme (fig. 2), the head surfaces, pronotum, and ventral surfaces are
±copiously clothed with white, the elytron is less copiously clothed but still with more
white laterally and postbasally besides the sutural stripe. Body length 9.50–12.75 mm;
body breadth 2.85–3.85 mm.
Material examined.HAWAII:SKohala: Puakö, 45 m [800 ft], 24 Jun 2000, reared ex Sida
stems, S.L. Montgomery (1 /); Ouli, E Kawaihae Rd, 305 m [1000 ft], 22–26 Jun 2000, reared ex
Sida,Montgomery (1 /); same data except host collected on 12 Feb 2004, adult emerged 6 Mar 2004
(1 /); same data except adult emerged 12 May 2004 (1 /); Waiki‘i, 1435 m 4700 ft), 24 Jul 1950,
on apricot fruit, N.L.H. Krauss (1 /)[newcitation]. Holotype also examined: Kawaihae, 500 m,
ii.1950, Krauss (HT /). All in BPBM.
Remarks.This is the first plagithmysine to be reared from Sida and the Malvaceae.
Gressitt (1978: 161) placed this species near the base of the plagithmysines in a diagram-
matic tree, not knowing the host identity but guessing Santalum.The only plagithmysine
reared from Santalum is P. (P.) greenwelli Gressitt & Davis, also from the island of
Hawai‘i but it appears far different from kraussi in having the pronotal tubercles very
strongly elevated on the median ridge and the sublateral ridge fairly sharply elevated,
instead of having the median ridge lowand broad and the sublateral ridge weakly devel-
oped.
Plagithmysus (Plagithmysus) hoawae Samuelson, n.sp.
(Fig. 3)
Female (Holotype). Derm dull black throughout head, antenna, prothorax, and elytron mostly black-
ish but orangish fuscous on humeral area and side below humerus on basal 1/3, pterothorax reddish
and abdomen reddish black, and legs entirely to partly reddish black, the pedicel of the mid- and hind
femur yellow-testaceous on about the basal 2/5. Vestiture: frons subsparsely clothed with white on
sides; interantennal space and eye-emargination with white patch; gena and occiput sparsely clothed
with white; pronotum with faint sparse white sublateral stripe; scutellum glabrous; elytral base with
scattered white flecks; elytral disc with white-spotted sutural stripe on apical 3/5, the anterior end
turning obliquely outward; prosternum with fairly dense grouping of slender erect setae; pterothorax
and abdomen with slender setae sparser; apex of metepisternum and sides of abdominal sternites
BISHOP MUSEUM OCCASIONAL PAPERS: No. 88, 2006
38
marked with dense patches of white; mid- and hind femur with slender setae on ventral edge, these
usually not longer than breadth of pedicel; other surfaces with a few white flecks mixed in with dark;
hind tibia with black raised bristles; hind basitarsus with whitish buffslightly raised bristles.
Head broadest at eyes where breadth is 2.07 x as broad as interocular space and distinctly broad-
er than occiput; frons deeper than broad (27 : 23), median line extending from interantennal space to
basal 3/10, the surface microgranulate-punctulate; antennal bases fairly swollen and obliquely
declined to median line; eye 0.83 x as deep as interocular space and slightly deeper than gena to genal
angle (19 : 18); vertex weakly convex across middle, no median line, the surface dull microgranulate
with < 20 punctures on each side. Antenna extending a little past basal 2/5 of elytron; segments 3–5
slender but slightly thickened apically; 6–10 shorter and gradually but evenly thickened to apices; last
with apexbroadly acute on apical 1/3; relativelengths of segments: 24 : 8 : 25+ : 27 : 24+ : 19 : 16 :
12 : 12 : 11 : 12. Prothorax with length = to maximum breadth (27 : 27); side moderately convex and
broadest at middle, the breadth narrower than elytra across humeri; anterior margin produced across
middle; disc with moderately strong and broad median crest bearing tubercles and a lowbroad sub-
lateral swelling, this slightly sharpened and highest prebasally; median tubercles: the anterior one well-
produced but not exceeding anterior margin, the apex in frontal view rounded, posterior group with 2
transverse rather straight carinae, the intermediate area indistinctly roughened across middle; pronotal
surface dull overall finely and closely roughened and punctulate. Scutellum rounded apically, the sur-
face with rough microsculpture as on pronotum. Elytron 5.37 x as long as broad, broadest across
humeri where breadth distinctly exceeds prothorax (35 : 27); side gradually and evenly narrowed to
preapex; preapex obliquely continued from suture to acute apex. Ventral surfaces: thorax closely punc-
tulate with dull microgranulose sculpture, this roughest on prosternum; abdominal sterna shining,
almost smooth but with a fine isodiagrammatic microsculpture and small asperations associated with
setae. Legs: mid- and hind femur pedunculate between basal 1/3 and 2/5, club gradually broadened,
surface microgranulate with small aspirations associated with setae; hind femur just exceeding elytral
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 39
Figures 1–2.Plagithmysus kraussi Gressitt & Davis. 1.Least hirsute extreme. 2.Most hirsute
extreme.
12
apex; hind tibia flattened and arched apically,surface with sculpture similar to femoral club; hind
basitarsus about 2.2 x as long as 2 + 3. Body length 10.75 mm; body breadth 3.02 mm.
Male (Allotype). Body surfaces largely orange-fuscous becoming blackish fuscous on vertex,
pronotum, and narrowly along mid part of elytral suture: this elytral dark area beginning at basal 1/4
where it is broadest and then it gradually tapers into suture near apical 1/4; pedicels of femora paler
orange-fuscous than darker reddish distal parts; tibiae dark reddish. White pubescence: frons moder-
ately clothed on each side; pronotum with rather faintly clothed submedian stripe, this strongest at base
but again becoming a little stronger at apex; side of prothorax faintly marked basally; elytron with basal
flecks and again with heavier flecks across mid disc and along suture; ventral surfaces faintly marked
excepting dense spot at apex of metepisternum. Antenna with ventral fringe moderate to sparse on seg-
ments 1–5. Legs with femoral pubescence rather short; hind tibial pubescence longest and most erect;
hind basitarsus with pubescence slightly raised and partly whitish but not conspicuously so.
Resembles /, except that the anterior pronotal tubercle is stronger and ± vertical, the abdomen is
far shorter than elytral apexvs. of subequal lengths, and the hind femur is much heavier and conspicu-
ously longer, exceeding elytral apex vs. barely so. Body length 12.94 mm; body breadth 3.61 mm.
Variation (6 /, 3 ?). Dorsal coloration: pronotum rather uniformly dull black with
faint silvery submedian (1+1) stripes, 1 ?with central disc slightly paler, more reddish;
elytral derm predominantly orangish or blackish in either sex, the paler orange with usu-
ally fuscescent shading along suture, the darker blackish with sometimes orangish areas
basally near humerus; all specimens with the discal elytral line made up of white spots but
the anterior branch tends to be more diffused and not so distinct; additional white spots
present across the elytral base, and sometimes with a few in the postbasal area. The medi-
an line on the vertex tends to be completely obliterated by rough sculpture but the line is
±faintly visible in 1 specimen. The pronotal median tubercles of the anterior group and
bicarinate posterior group are well-developed in all specimens with sometimes a hint of
an additional transverse carina between the anterior and posterior groups.
BISHOP MUSEUM OCCASIONAL PAPERS: No. 88, 2006
40
Figure 3.Plagithmysus hoawae Samuelson, n. sp.
Measurements:Female: BL 10.08–14.78 mm, BB 2.86–4.20. Male: BL 9.41–13.94
mm; B 2.68 3.61–3.78 mm.
Types.Holotype /(BPBM 16,401): HAWAI‘I:Kona Forest Unit, Hakalau Forest NWR
[National Wildlife Reserve], 675 m [5500 ft], 25 Aug 2000, reared ex Pittosporum,W. Haines col-
lector; same data but 1 Aug 2000 (allotype ?,paratypes: 1 ?, 2 /); same data but 5 Sep 2000 (/
paratype); same data but 9 Nov 2000 (/paratype); same data but 19 Nov 2000, HVNP003854 (?
paratype, HAVO); same data but 1 Aug 2000, HVNP003843 (/paratype, HAVO) Note: 2 /
paratypes preserved in alcohol.
Remarks.This new species appears to fit closely with its Pittosporum-associated
congeners from Maui and Läna‘i, and more remotely to its counterpart from Kaua‘i.
Males tend to have the hind femur much heavier and longer than females, which have the
hind femur rather slender and pedunculate, resembling Neoclytarlus.
Etymology.This new species takes its name from the Hawaiian ho‘awa for Pittos-
porum,its host. This epithet may seem a bit unusual due to its Hawaiian pronunciation
which should approximate in English to: ho-ava-e.
Key to Pittosporum-associated Plagithmysus in Hawaii
1. Pronotum with anterior median tubercle not overhanging the anterior margin ....................... 2
–. Pronotum with anterior median tubercle distinctly overhanging the anterior margin ................
(Kaua‘i) ........................................................................................ sugawai Gressitt & Davis
2. Vertex with median line extending into at least basal part behind antennal tubercles ............ 3
–. Vertex with median line nearly to completely obliterated, the surface with a dull rough
microsculpture ... (Hawai‘i) .......................................................... hoawae Samuelson, n.sp.
3. Prothorax with side below the submedian ridge generally clothed with pale pubescence ...
(Läna‘i) .................................................................................................... pittospori Gressitt
–. Prothorax with the area laterad of the submedian ridge glabrous or scantily clothed ... (W Maui)
................................................................................................................... rebeccae Gressitt
Plagithmysus (Neoclytarlus) kahului Samuelson, n.sp.
(Figs. 4–5)
Male (Holotype). Body form with prothorax especially massive in this sex. Derm of body surfaces
buffy fuscous to testaceous: the light differences in derm color offset by a rather uniform close cloth-
ing of whitish buff; antenna buff-testaceous; legs: femora brownish testaceous, tibiae and tarsi buff-
testaceous. Vestiture: frons, gena, vertex, prothorax, ventral surfaces, and femora densely clothed
with whitish buff; elytron slightly more thinly clothed in places but with an additional denser discal
stripe which does not stand out so sharply due to the overall pubescence, the fairly stout stripe extends
along the posterior 3/4 of the suture and gradually broadens basally where it obliquely terminates at
the basal 1/4; femora supplemented by slender suberect setae along the ventral surface, the mid- and
hind femur with these trailing setae slightly longer than the narrowest part of the pedicel; hind tibia
submoderately clothed with slender raised pale setae, these rather short above and long below; mid-
and hind basitarsus above with fine slightly raised setae, these mixed of black and white hairs.
Head broadest at eyes but barely broader than occiput and distinctly narrower than the anterior
part of the prothorax; frons with depth = to breadth across interocular space (25 : 25), sides ± parallel,
surface ± flat above but anterior 3/10 bent obliquely upward; antennal bases weakly swollen, the sur-
face obliquely depressed to median line which ends slightly above middle of frons; eye rather small:
0.68 x as deep as breadth of interocular space and barely longer than gena to genal angle (17 : 16); ver-
texbarely convex and showing large, shallow punctures: approximately 15–20 punctures on each side
of median line. Antenna extending to basal 1/4 of elytron near beginning of stripe; scape clavate, the
apical area moderately thickened; segments 3–5 slender,gradually broadened to apices and fitted with
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 41
trailing hairs ventrally; remaining segments increasingly shorter (except last), these tending to be stout
with apices obliquely but weakly produced; 11 with apex rather briefly rounded; relative lengths of seg-
ments: 23 : 6+ : 19 : 20 : 19 : 13 : 2 : 9 : 8 : 7 : 10. Prothorax robust: about 0.95 x as long as broad and
slightly broader than elytra; anterior margin slightly convex; side moderately convex, more so at base;
base straight; disc broadly and subevenly convex, the median ridge low and gradually concave in later-
al profile between anterior tubercle and postmedian group; anterior tubercle low, narrow, subtruncate-
rounded, not interrupting anterior margin; postmedian group low, with 1st a broad crescent about 1/7 as
broad as prothorax, the 2nd a slightly narrower but a deeper crescent; submedian area swollen basally
and subtuberculate prebasally. Scutellum with apex convex. Elytron about 2.9 x as long as pronotum
and 6 x as long as broad, the breadth slightly decreasing to basal 2/5, then tapered a little more strong-
ly to preapex; preapex suddenly narrowed to subacute-rounded apex; disc in reflected light punctulate,
the punctures fine and central ones mostly 0.5 x as large as interspaces with intervals smooth-alutaceous
(punctures appearing closer with intervals rougher in direct light). Ventral surfaces with derm somewhat
obscured by close adpressed pubescence: prosternum in reflected light closely punctulate, the intervals
somewhat raised; metasternum ± smooth-alutaceous with low asperations associated with seta bases;
abdomen more finely punctulate; abdominal apex truncate. Legs fairly slender; mid femur clavate on
apical 2/3; hind femur moderately arched, clavate on apical 3/5, the sides of the club somewhat flat-
tened; hind tibia feebly arched and moderately flattened; hind basitarsus slender and distinctly longer
than segments 2 + 3 (14+ : 10). Body length 10.08 mm; breadth 2.77 mm.
Female (Allotype). Body mass more normal for a Neoclytarlus in being more slender than in
the male, thus with the prothorax not so massive and distinctly narrower than the elytra. Derm of
body surfaces mostly subshining matt black, tinged with fuscous around antennal sockets, inner eye-
margins, gena, mouthparts, and elytral bases (these areas black in other females); abdominal stern-
ites smoother,shining; antenna yellow-testaceous; legs with femora largely fuscous but becoming
yellowish on pedicels of the mid and hind; tibiae yellowish to fuscescent apically; tarsi yellowish to
fuscescent. Dorsum glabrous to scantily clothed excepting feeble submedian stripe of whitish hairs
on pronotal disc and densely clothed whitish discal stripe on elytral disc, similar to male; antenna
with trailing setae on segments 3–5 and fine close golden pubescence on 6–11; ventral surfaces lack-
ing the close adpressed pubescence of the male but with silvery raised setae moderate on thorax and
sparse on abdomen; femora with trailing hairs short, mostly shorter than pedicel breadth of the mid
and hind; tibiae also with short trailing hairs; mid- and hind basitarsus finely and rather thinly clothed
with slender black setae.
Frons about as deep as broad (25 : 26), finely and closely punctulate, the punctures becoming
larger at sides, surface ± dull, median line extending to about middle; eye about 0.73 x as deep as
breadth of interocular space and deeper than gena (19 : 16); gena and vertex finely, closely punctu-
late, and generally dull but with a small number of larger shallow punctures. Antenna short as in male,
with segment lengths also in a similar ratio. Prothorax 0.97 x as long as broad, broadest at middle,
distinctly narrower than elytra; sides quite convex; disc irregularly convex; the median ridge low with
tubercles not very strongly developed: the anterior- and posterior-most ones the largest with small
dentations in saddle between them; sublateral ridge with a broad low prominence prebasally; surface
finely and closely punctulate, the intervals finely raised and somewhat asperate in places, altogether
producing a dull-shine. Elytron finely and closely punctulate, intervals smooth-alutaceous to
microrugose, surface with a dull shine. Ventral surfaces rather smoother than dorsum; abdomen near-
ly as long as elytra. Legs: mid- and hind femur moderately arched with pedicels about 1/2 as long as
club; hind tibia flattened and slightly arched apically; hind basitarsus much longer than 2 + 3 (16 :
10). Body length 11.09 mm; breadth 2.86 mm.
Variation (6 ?, 4 /). Males generally pale buff and marked as in holotype; females
generally blackish and marked as in allotype but the pronotal submedian whitish stripe
sometimes more pronounced and complete than noted for the allotype. Males tend to be
shorter than females (6.55–9.41 mm vs. 9.24–11.09 mm), with the body length/breadth
ratio slenderer in males than females (3.9–4.0 vs. 2.4–3.0), the robust male prothorax
notwithstanding. The pronotal length/breadth ratio broadly overlaps in both sexes
0.95–0.98 (discounting 1 /at 0.86). Males tend to have the elytral length/pronotal length
BISHOP MUSEUM OCCASIONAL PAPERS: No. 88, 2006
42
shorter than females (2.91–3.26 vs. 3.19–3.62). Body length 6.55–11.09 mm; breadth
1.68–3.02 mm.
Types.Holotype ?(BPBM 16,402), allotype /,paratype ?:MAUI (isthmus): Kahului Airport:
Spreckelsville beach, on coastal sand dunes off E end of Kahului Airport runway, 20°53'56"N,
156°27'16"W, 2 m, 29 Mar 2000, on Chenopodium oahuense,F. Starr & G.A. Samuelson; same data,
except G.A. Samuelson & R. Takumi (2 /paratypes); same loc., 30 Mar 2000, D.J. Preston (1 /
paratype); same loc., wetland, 20°53'57"N, 156°26'53"W, 28 Apr 2000, on Chenopodium,Preston &
J.E. Dockall (4 ?paratypes).
Remarks.The newspecies is close to Plagithmysus chenopodii Perkins from O‘ahu,
and keys to that species in Gressitt & Davis (1969). Males tend to havethe pronotal medi-
an ridge clothed with depressed pubescence while in chenopodii the median ridge is usual-
ly glabrous; females tend to have the side of the prothorax (laterad of the submedian stripe)
glabrous while in chenopodii the lateral area is sometimes moderately clothed with ad-
pressed pubescence. Both species are sexually dimorphic in vestiture and color, the males
with a buff-colored derm plus a close pale pubescence and the females with a black derm,
the general pubescence tending heavier in chenopodii while lighter to non-existent in the
new species. In both species the short broad elytral stripe stands out dramatically against the
blackish surface in females but in males the stripe is less conspicuous due to the general buff
vestiture.
The discovery of this species was unexpected during the arthropod survey at Kahului
Airport (Howarth & Preston 2001). Much of the land there is dominated by naturalized
plants, but a strip of the native lowland plant community exists along the ocean end of the
runway to the adjacent sand dunes above the beach. There the Chenopodium with its asso-
ciated plagithmysine continue to this day, attesting to the reasonable health of the this
rather limited community.
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 43
Figures 4–5.Plagithmysus kahului Samuelson, n. sp. 4.Male. 5.Female.
45
Etymology.The name for this species takes Kahului as a noun in apposition, as a ded-
ication to its provenance.
Acknowledgments
Ithank Will Haines, formerly with the US Geological Survey and David Foote, Volcano,
Hawai‘i (HAVO); Steven L. Montgomery of Village Park, O‘ahu; Forrest Starr, Kim
Martz Starr, and Raina Takumi of Makawao, Maui; Francis G. Howarth, David J. Preston,
John E. Dockall, and Clyde Imada, Bishop Museum, Honolulu (BPBM) for providing the
new collections and for various assistance.
Literature Cited
Gressitt,J.L.1978. Evolution in the endemic Hawaiian cerambycid beetles. Pacific
Insects 18: 137–167.
———. & Davis,C.J.1969. Studies in the plagithmysines, endemic Hawaiian Ceram-
bycidae (Coleopt.). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 20: 331–
393.
Howarth,F.G.& Preston,D.J.2001. Kahului Airport arthropod baseline survey. Report
prepared for Edward K. Noda and Associates, Inc.
Callirhipidae,a new family to the Hawaiian beetle fauna1
G.A. SAMUELSON (Hawaii Biological Survey, Bishop Museum, 1525 Bernice Street, Honolulu,
Hawai‘i 96817-2704, USA; email: alsam@bishopmuseum.org) & P.J. JOHNSON2(Insect Research
Collection, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota 57007, USA)
Coleoptera: Callirhipidae
Callirhipis robusta Waterhouse New state record
This species represents the first established member of Callirhipidae in Hawai‘i. Calli-
rhipis robusta was described from a unique specimen from Thailand in the British Mu-
seum by Waterhouse (1877: 385).
Hawaiian specimens along with similar specimens from Laos were sent to R. Madge,
Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, London, who made the identification in March
1990. The natural range of C. robusta embraces SE Asia. This species was first seen on
O‘ahu over 15 years ago but is infrequently collected. The recent captures in Kahalu‘u
Valleymark about an 8 km range extension from Käne‘ohe and indicates the establish-
ment and spread of this beetle. Larvae are woodborers, usually in decaying wood. The
habitat of the Kahalu‘u location is lowland wet forest, with Acacia koa and Pandanus tec-
torius,and the possibly indigenous Hibiscus tiliaceus as the predominant native trees, plus
adense infusion of exotic species, including species of Brassaia, Cecropia, Eugenia,
Persea, and Psidium.
Material examined.O‘AHU:Käne‘ohe, 17 Nov 1989, attracted to house lights, C. Murdock (1
ex, CIE, London); Käne‘ohe, 21 Nov1994, Neil Reimer (1 ex, HDOA); Käne‘ohe, 18 Jun 1996, in
house, M. Braden (1 ex, BPBM); Käne‘ohe, Kahalu‘u Val., near end of Ahuimanu Road, 100 m, 21
BISHOP MUSEUM OCCASIONAL PAPERS: No. 88, 2006
44
1. Contribution No. 2006-026 to the Hawai Biological Survey.
2. Research Associate, Hawaii Biological Survey, Bishop Museum, 1525 Bernice Street, Honolulu, Hawai‘i
96817, USA.
Apr 2004, alive on water surface in barrel, G.A. & S.L. Samuelson (1 ex, BPBM); same location, 7
May 2004, S.L. Samuelson (1 ex, BPBM).
Literature Cited
Waterhouse,C.O.1877. Descriptions of new species of the coleopterous genus Calli-
rhipis (Rhipidioceridae) in the British Museum. Transactions of the Royal Entomo-
logical Society London 1877(4): 379–393.
Specularius impressithorax,an adventive bean weevil on Erythrina new to
the Hawaiian Islands (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae)1
G.A. SAMUELSON (Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawai‘i 97817-2704, USA; email: alsam@bishop-
museum.org) & A.C. MEDEIROS2(National Biological Service, Haleakalä National Park, Makawao,
Hawai‘i 96768, USA)
Specularius impressithorax (Pic), described from Africa, is nowestablished in the
Hawaiian Islands. Kingsolver & Decelle (1979) discussed the earlier distribution and host
range of this species, it being essentially the only bruchine (together with the form minor
Zacher) that has adapted to feeding on seeds of Erythrina.They reported it from a num-
ber of hosts, including 2 NewWorld species planted in Africa. Its range was reported for
parts of eastern and southern Africa, with apparent spread to India and Sumatra; and the
form minor was reported for the subequatorial western part of Africa.
Specularius impressithorax (Pic) New state record
(Figs. 1–2)
The arrival of Specularius impressithorax to Hawai‘i must have been fairly recent, though
we are uncertain of its point of introduction. The earliest record is an observation by Joel
Lau, who noted extensive feeding damage to seeds of wiliwili,Erythrina sandwicensis,at
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 45
Figure 1.Dorsal view of Callirhipis robusta.Body length of this specimen is 17.8 mm.
1. Contribution No. 2006-027 to the Hawai Biological Survey.
2. Research Associate, Hawaii Biological Survey, Bishop Museum, 1525 Bernice Street, Honolulu, Hawaii
96817, USA.
Mäkaha Valley, O‘ahu in September 2001. By the beginning of 2004, S. impressithroax had
been collected throughout the main Hawaiian islands, including Kaho‘olawe. Because of the
rather sudden appearence of this insect over the past two years, we may presume that its
spread had been very rapid following its initial period of establishment. Erythrina has been
frequently noted by field biologists and their sudden recent reports corroborate the rapid
spread of this insect. Likewise, seed collectors have also noticed the sudden high incidence
of destroyed seeds, thus this insect is impacting the local industry of seed lei making to some
extent, as the bright red wiliwili seeds are sometimes made up into special leis.
Specimens were referred to the first author for identification, and that series, collect-
ed by Hank Oppenheimer, was sent to J.M. Kingsolver for identification. Kingsolver sug-
gested looking at the article on the Erythrina-associated bruchid (Kingsolver & Decelle
1979), and consequently,we had a good idea of the identity of his adventive insect before
the actual specimens were seen by him. The identity of this insect was then made by
Kingsolver (FSCA: Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville). Other abbrevia-
tions used here are HDOA=the Hawaii State Department of Agriculture collection,
Honolulu (Bernarr Kumashiro); BPBM = Bishop Museum, Honolulu; and NTBG =
National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawa‘i, Kaua‘i.
Eggs are laid on the seed surface from which the larvae issue and commence boring
into the seed. Larvae continue to develop inside the seed where pupation occurs, followed
by adult emergence, with each emerging adult cutting a perfect circular lid out of the seed
integument. Seeds tend to be packed with individual larvae, so little remains of the origi-
nal material. Parasitic hymenopterans have been reared from seeds but these remain
unidentified. The family Bruchidae is listed in Nishida (2002) but it is now relegated as
the subfamily Bruchinae of Chrysomelidae.
Anumber of Erythrina hosts have been reported for Specularius from the Hawaiian
Islands but only one species, Erythrina sandwicensis,is endemic to these islands. Ha-
waiian host records include Erythrina: americana,crista-galli, eudiphylla, humeane,
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46
Figures 1–2.Specularius impressithorax,adult and host seeds. 1.adult, lateral view (body length 4
mm); 2.host seeds (length 14–16 mm) of Erythrina sandwicensis showing emergence holes of
Specularius;note “lid” of seed integument on left.
12
lysistemon, microcarpa, sandwicensis,sykesii (as hybrid: sykesii xvariegata), and varie-
gata.All were present and positive for Specularius at the NTBG in Lawa‘i.
Material examined. KAUAI:Various series were taken by A.C. Medeiros and associates from
NTBG, Lawa‘i, 7 Jan 2003, from seeds of various species of Erythrina (many ex.; hosts listed at end);
Kekaha Road, 7 Jan 2003, ex E. sandwicensis,Medeiros (3 ex); same loc., 300 ft [100 m], 7 Jun 2003,
E. sandwicensis,Arnold & Baynton (7 ex). All in BPBM. OAHU:Mäkaha Valley, S side at 240–360
ft [80–120 m], 1 Sep 2001, ex infested seeds in wiliwili groves [Erythrina sandwicensis]J. Lau, heavy
infestation noted; Nanakuli Valley, 70 m, 10 Nov 2001, host on valley floor, seeds showing many exit
holes, some occupied by beetles, Lau (2 ex); Waipahu, Village Park, 300 ft [100 m], collected late 2003
to 5 Jan 2004, ex seeds Erythrina sandwicensis,2003 crop, S.L. Montgomery (51 ex) (BPBM). MAUI:
Maui (E): Pu‘u O Kali, ~800 ft [280 m], 15 Jun 2002, ex Erythrina sandwicensis seeds, F. & K. Starr
collectors (series in HDOA); same loc., 9 Jul 2003, A.C. Medeiros et al.(8 ex, BPBM); Kanaio, 28 Jun
2003, ex seeds, E. sandwicensis,Medeiros et al.(21 ex, BPBM); Kahului Airport, 24 Aug 2003, ex
Erythrina seeds, F.G. Howarth, F. & K. Starr (2 ex, + 1 larva, BPBM); Maui (W): Kaonohua Gulch,
Alaloa subdivision, 9 Apr 2003, ex seeds on Erythrina sandwicensis,H. Oppenheimer (BPBM 5 ex,
FSCA 4 ex). KAHOOLAWE:Moaulaiki, 23 Sep 2003, degraded dry forest, ex seeds of Erythrina
sandwicensis (seeds were observed to have eggs on them; adult emergence from seeds: 28 Sep–4 Oct
2003), M. LeGrande (#1343), F.& K. Starr (>20 ex, BPBM). HAWAII: Kona, Kaloko Rd, Jul 2003,
E. sandwicensis,J. Wagner for Medeiros (8 ex, BPBM).
Literature Cited
Kingsolver,J.M.& Decelle,J.E.1979. Host associations of Specularius impressithorax
(Pic) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Bruchidae) with species of Erythrina (Fabales: Fabaceae).
Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 66: 528–532.
Nishida,G.M., editor. 2002. Hawaiian terrestrial arthropod checklist. Fourth edition.
Bishop Museum Technical Report 22, 313 p.
New Arthropod Records from Kahoolawe
FOREST STARR1,2,KIM STARR1,2, and LLOYD L. LOOPE2(U. S. Geological Survey, Pacific Island
Ecosystems Research Center, P.O. Box 369, Makawao, Maui, Hawai‘i 96768, USA; email:
fstarr@hawaii.edu).
The following contributions include 36 new island records of arthropods located on the
island of Kaho‘olawe. Of these new records, 4 are endemic and the rest are nonnative.
Voucher specimens were collected by the authors, and determined by either the authors or
by Mach Fukada. A couple specimens (Omiodes spp.) were confirmed by Will Haines. All
vouchers are housed in Bishop Museum, Honolulu.
Blattodea: Blaberidae
Diploptera punctata (Eschscholtz) New island record
Diplopterapunctata (cypress cockroach) was previously known from all the main Ha-
waiian islands except Kaho‘olawe (Nishida 2002). This collection represents a new island
record for Kaho‘olawe.
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Moa‘ulanui, under wood pile, 1300 ft [396 m], 16 Oct
2003, Starr, Starr, & Mar 031016-8 (2 specimens).
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 47
1. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit, Dept. of Botany, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawai‘i 96822, USA;
and Hawaii Cooperative Studies Unit, Pacific Aquaculture & Coastal Resources Center, University of Hawaii,
Hilo, Hawai‘i 96720, USA.
2. Research Associate, Hawaii Biological Survey, Bishop Museum, 1525 Bernice Street, Honolulu, Hawai‘i
96817-2704, USA.
Pycnoscelus indicus (Fabricius) New island record
Pycnoscelus indicus (Surinam roach) was previously known from all the Northwestern
Hawaiian islands except Lisianski, Gardner Pinnacles, and Necker and from all the main
islands except Kaho‘olawe (Nishida 2002).
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Moa‘ulanui, under wood pile, 1300 ft [396 m], 16 Oct
2003, Starr, Starr, & Mar 031016-9 (1 specimen).
Blattodea: Blattidae
Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) New island record
Periplaneta americana (American cockroach) was previously known from all the
Northwestern Hawaiian islands except Kure atoll and Gardner Pinnacles and from all the
main islands except Ni‘ihau and Kaho‘olawe (Nishida 2002).
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Moa‘ulanui, under wood pile, 1300 ft [396 m], 16 Oct
2003, Starr, Starr, & Mar 031016-10 (1 specimen).
Coleoptera: Anthribidae
Araecerus levipennis Jordan New island record
Araecerus levipennis (koa haole seed weevil) was previously known from Midway Atoll
and all the main islands except Ni‘ihau and Kaho‘olawe (Nishida 2002).
Material examined. KAHOOLAWE:LZ1, on Leucaena leucocephala,1300 ft [396 m], 23
Sep 2003, Starr, Starr, Abbott, LeGrande, & Busby 030923-14 (1 specimen);Lua Makika, vegetation
sweeps, 1400 ft [425 m], 29 Mar 2004, Starr,Starr, & Abbott 040329-1 (11 specimens).
Coleoptera: Bostrichidae
Xylopsocus castanoptera (Fairmaire) New island record
Xylopsocus castanoptera was previously known from Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, Moloka‘i, and
Hawai‘i (Nishida 2002).
Material examined. KAHOOLAWE:Keanakeiki, vegetation sweeps, 10 ft [3 m], 15 Oct 2003,
Starr, Starr, King, Tokishi, & Busby 031015-13 (1 specimen); Moa‘ulanui, vegetation sweeps, 1300
ft [396 m], 16 Oct 2003, Starr,Starr, & Mar 031016-12 (1 specimen).
Coleoptera: Bruchidae
Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) New island record
Acanthoscelides obtectus (bean weevil) was previously known from the islands of
Ni‘ihau, Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, and Maui.
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Hakio’awa gulch, on rock, 200 ft [60 m], 23 Sep 2003,
Starr, Starr, Abbott, LeGrande, & Busby 030923-15 (1 specimen);LZ1, beaten from Tamarix aphyl-
la,1300 ft [396 m], 23 Sep 2003, Starr,Starr, Abbott, LeGrande, & Busby 030923-16 (2 specimens);
LZ1, beaten from Chenopodium oahuense,1300 ft [396 m], 23 Sep 2003, Starr,Starr, Abbott,
LeGrande, & Busby 030923-17 (6 specimens); Moa‘ulanui, vegetation sweeps, 1300 ft [396 m], 16
Oct 2003, Starr & Starr 031016-11 (5 specimens); Lua Makika, vegetation sweeps, 1400 ft [427 m],
29 Mar 2004, Starr & Starr 040329-2 (1 specimen).
Mimosestes nubigens (Motschulsky) New island record
Mimosestes nubigens (bean weevil) was previously known from Midway Atoll, Kaua‘i,
O‘ahu, Moloka‘i, Maui, and Hawai‘i (Nishida 2002).
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Lua Kealialalo, near LZ quail, from Prosopis pallida
pods, 850 ft [259 m], 23 Sep 2003, Starr,Starr,Abbott, LeGrande, & Busby 030923-18 (1 specimen).
Stator limbatus (Horn) New island record
Stator limbatus (bean weevil) was previously known from Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, Moloka‘i,
Maui, and Hawai‘i (Nishida 2002).
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Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Moa‘ulanui, vegetation sweeps, 1300 ft [396 m], 16 Oct
2003, Starr, Starr, & Mar 031016-13 (1 specimen).
Stator pruininus (Horn) New island record
Stator pruininus (pruinose bean weevil) was previously known from Midway atoll,
Ni‘ihau, Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, Moloka‘i, Maui, and Hawai‘i (Nishida 2002).
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Moa‘ulanui, vegetation sweeps, 1300 ft [396 m], 16 Oct
2003, Starr, Starr, & Mar 031016-14 (2 specimens); Lua Makika, vegetation sweeps, 1400 ft [425
m], 29 Mar 2004, Starr, Starr, & Abbott 040329-3 (1 specimen).
Coleoptera: Carabidae
Notiobia purpurascens (Bates) New island record
Notiobia purpurascens was previously known from O‘ahu, Maui, and Hawai‘i (Nishida
2002).
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Hakio’awa gulch, on ground, 200 ft [60 m], 23 Sep
2003, Starr,Starr, Abbott, LeGrande, & Busby 030923-19 (1 specimen);Moa‘ulanui, under wood
pile, 1300 ft [396 m], 16 Oct 2003, Starr,Starr, & Mar 031016-15 (1 specimen);Kaukaukapapa, near
wetland, vegetation sweeps, 10 ft [3 m], 26 Feb 2004, Starr,Starr, & Higashino 040216-2 (1 speci-
men).
Coleoptera: Cleridae
Tillus notatus Klug New island record
Tillus notatus was previously known from Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, and Maui (Nishida 2002).
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Kaukaukapapa, vegetation sweeps, 10 ft [3 m], 15 Oct
2003, Starr, Starr, King, Tokishi, & Busby 031015-14 (1 specimen).
Coleoptera: Coccinellidae
Brumoides suturalis (Fabricius) New island record
Brumoides suturalis (three-striped lady beetle) was previously known from Ni‘ihau and
O‘ahu (Nishida 2002).
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Honokanaia, 10 ft [3 m], 14 Oct 2003, Starr, Starr, &
King 031014-7 (1 specimen); Kaukaukapapa, on Gossypium tomentosum,10 ft [3 m], 15 Oct 2003,
Starr, Starr, King, Tokishi, & Busby 031015-15 (1 specimen).
Coelophora inaequalis (Fabricius) New island record
Coelophora inaequalis (common Australian lady beetle) was previously known from
Kure and Midway Atolls, Nihoa, and all the main islands except Kaho‘olawe (Nishida
2002).
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Honokanaia, grass sweeps, 15 ft [5 m], 16 Feb 2004,
Starr, Starr, & Higashino 040216-3 (2 specimens); Kaukaukapapa, vegetation sweeps, 10 ft [3 m], 16
Feb 2004, Starr, Starr, & Higashino 040216-4 (1 specimen);Lua Makika, vegetation sweeps, 1400
ft [425 m], 29 Mar 2004, Starr, Starr, & Abbott 040329-4 (2 specimens).
Curinus coeruleus (Mulsant) New island record
Curinus coeruleus (dark blue lady beetle) was previously known from Midway Atoll and
all the main islands except Moloka‘i and Kaho‘olawe (Nishida 2002).
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Lua Makika, 1400 ft [425 m], 29 Mar 2004, Starr, Starr,
&Abbott 040329-5 (6 specimens).
Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) New island record
Rodolia cardinalis (vedalia beetle) was previously known from Midway Atoll and all the
main islands except Moloka‘i and Kaho‘olawe (Nishida 2002).
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 49
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Kaukaukapapa, vegetation sweeps, 10 ft [3 m], 15 Oct
2003, Starr, Starr, King, Tokishi, & Busby 031015-16 (1 specimen).
Scymnus loewii Mulsant New island record
Scymnus loewii (Scymnus lady beetle) was previously known from all the Northwestern
Hawaiian Islands except Midway atoll and Gardner Pinnacles and all the main islands
except Kaho‘olawe.
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Pu‘u Moa‘ulaiki, on ground, 1200 ft [365 m], 22 Sep
2003, Starr, Starr, Abbott, LeGrande, & Busby 030922-15 (1 specimen);Honokanaia, beaten from
Hibiscus tiliaceus,25 ft [8 m], 14 Oct 2003, Starr, Starr, & King 031014-8 (7 specimens); Kaukau-
kapapa, vegetation sweeps, 10 ft [3 m], 15 Oct 2003, Starr, Starr, King, Tokishi, & Busby 031015-17
(1 specimen); Lua Makika, vegetation sweeps, 1400 ft [425 m], 29 Mar 2004, Starr, Starr, & Abbott
040329-6 (4 specimens).
Coleoptera: Chrysomellidae
Diachus auratus (Fabricius) New island record
Diachus auratus (bronze leaf beetle) was previously known from Midway Atoll and all
the main islands except Läna‘i and Kaho‘olawe (Nishida 2002).
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Kaukaukapapa, vegetation sweeps, 10 ft [3 m], 15 Oct
2003, Starr,Starr, King, Tokishi, & Busby 031015-18 (1 specimen); Lua Makika, vegetation sweeps,
1400 ft [425 m], 29 Mar 2004, Starr, Starr, & Abbott 040329-7 (3 specimens).
Coleoptera: Nitidulidae
Urophorus humeralis (Fabricius) New island record
Urophorus humeralis (sap beetle) was previously known from Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, Läna‘i, and
Maui (Nishida 2002).
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Moa‘ulanui, vegetation sweeps, 1300 ft [396 m], 16 Oct
2003, Starr, Starr, & Mar 031016-16 (1 specimen).
Dermaptera: Carcinophoridae
Euborellia annulipes (Lucas) New island record
Euborellia annulipes (ring-legged earwig) was previously known from all the Northwestern
Hawaiian Islands except Lisianski and Gardner Pinnacles and all the main islands except
Ni‘ihau and Kaho‘olawe.
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Gunfire range, under wood pile, 600 ft [200 m], 30 Mar
2004, Starr, Starr, & Abbott 040330-2 (1 specimen).
Euborellia eteronoma (Borelli) New island record
Euborellia eteronoma (Hawaiian earwig) was previously known from all the Northwestern
Hawaiian Islands except Midway and Kure atolls, Necker, and Nihoa and all the main
islands except Ni‘ihau and Kaho‘olawe (Nishida 2002).
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Gunfire range, under wood pile, 600 ft [200 m], 30 Mar
2004, Starr,Starr, & Abbott 040330-3 (2 specimens).
Diptera: Syrphidae
Allograpta exotica (Wiedemann) New island record
Allograpta exotica (syrphid fly) was previously known from Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, Moloka‘i,
Maui, and Hawai‘i (Nishida 2002).
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Moa‘ulanui, vegetation sweeps, 1300 ft [396 m], 16 Oct
2003, Starr, Starr, & Mar 031016-17 (1 specimen).
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Simosyrphus grandicornis (Macquart) New island record
Simosyrphus grandicornis (hover fly) was previously known from all the Northwestern
Hawaiian islands except Lisianski, Laysan, Gardner Pinnacles, and Necker and from all
the main islands except Ni‘ihau, Läna‘i, and Kaho‘olawe (Nishida 2002).
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Kaukaukapapa, vegetation sweeps, 10 ft [3 m], 16 Feb
2004, Starr, Starr, & Higashino 040216-5 (8 specimens).
Embiidina: Ologotomidae
Oligotoma saundersii (Westwood) New island record
Oligotoma saundersii (Saunders embiid, webspinner) was previously known from all the
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands except Kure Atoll, Lisianski, French Frigate Shoals, and
Gardner Pinnacles, and all the main islands except Kaho‘olawe (Nishida 2002).
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Moa
ulanui, vegetation sweeps, 1300 ft [396 m], 16 Oct
2003, Starr, Starr, & Mar 031016-18 (1 specimen).
Heteroptera: Lygaeidae
Graptostethus manillensis (Stål) New island record
Graptostethus manillensis (woodrose bug) was previously known from all the main
islands except Moloka‘i and Kaho‘olawe (Nishida 2002).
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Honokanaia, beaten from Hibiscus tiliaceus,25 ft [8 m],
14 Oct 2003, Starr, Starr, & King 031014-9 (3 specimens).
Heteroptera: Pentatomidae
Nezara viridula (Linnaeus) New island record
Nezara viridula (southern green stink bug) was previously known from all the main
islands except Ni‘ihau and Kaho‘olawe (Nishida 2002).
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Lua Makika, vegetation sweeps, 1400 ft [425 m], 29
Mar 2004, Starr, Starr, & Abbott 040329-8 (1 specimen).
Oechalia pacifica (Stål) New island record
Oechalia pacifica (Hawaiian stink bug) was previously known from all the main islands
except Ni‘ihau and Kaho‘olawe (Nishida 2002).
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Moa‘ulanui, picked from Tamarix aphylla,1300 ft [396
m], 29 Mar 2004, Starr,Starr, & Abbott 040329-9 (6 specimens).
Homoptera: Cicadellidae
Planiocephalus flavicosta (Stål) New island record
Planiocephalus flavicosta (leafhopper) was previously known only from the island of
O‘ahu (Nishida 2002).
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Honokanaia, swept from Cenchrus ciliaris,10 ft [3 m],
14 Oct 2003, Starr,Starr, & King 031014-10 (2 specimens).
Hymenoptera: Evaniidae
Evania appendigaster (Linnaeus) New island record
Evania appendigaster (larger ensign wasp) was previously known from Midway Atoll,
Ni‘ihau, O‘ahu, Maui, and Hawai‘i (Nishida 2002; Howarth et al., 2002).
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Moa‘ulanui, on water tank, 1400 ft [425 m], 30 Mar
2004, Starr, Starr, & Abbott 040330-4 (1 specimen).
Hymenoptera: Vespidae
Pachodynerus nasidens (Latreille) New island record
Pachodynerus nasidens (wasp) was previously known from Midway Atoll and all the main
islands except Kaho‘olawe (Nishida 2002).
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 51
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Moa‘ulanui, vegetation sweeps, 1300 ft [396 m], 16 Oct
2003, Starr, Starr, & Mar 031016-19 (1 specimen).
Isoptera: Kalotermitidae
Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) New island record
Cryptotermes brevis (drywood termite) was previously known from Midway Atoll,
Lisianski, Laysan, and French Frigate Shoals and all the main islands except Kaho‘olawe
(Nishida 2002).
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Moa‘ulanui, vegetation sweeps, 1300 ft [396 m], 16 Oct
2003, Starr, Starr, & Mar 031016-20 (1 specimen).
Lepidoptera: Crambidae
Omiodes continuatalis (Wallengren) New island record
Omiodes continuatalis was previously known from all the main islands except Ni‘ihau
and Kaho‘olawe. This species is a generalist on grasses and is one of the more common
Omiodes species found in the main islands, even though it was previously thought to be
extinct (W. Haines, pers. comm.).
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Honokania, basecamp, came to light at night, associat-
ed grasses in vicinity include Sporobolus virginicus, Cenchrus ciliaris, and Chloris spp., 15 ft [5 m],
16 Feb 2004, Starr & Starr 040216-1 (1 specimen).
Omiodes demaratalis (Walker) New island record
Omiodes demaratalis (Hawaiian grass leaf roller moth) was previously known from all the
main islands except Läna‘i and Kaho‘olawe (Nishida 2002). It is now also known from
Kaho‘olawe where it was found at Hakio‘awa, near the coast, on Sporobolus virginicus
(‘aki‘aki)that had been planted a few years prior for restoration purposes. Numerous
(dozens) O. demaratalis flushed from the large patch of S. virginicus as we walked
through sweeping with the net. This species is known to use grasses such as Digitaria sp.
and Panicum sp., species which are abundant on Kaho‘olawe.
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Hakio‘awa, coastal strand, swept from Sporobolus vir-
ginicus,10 ft [3 m], 30 Mar 2004, Starr, Starr, & Tokishi 040330-1 (4 specimens).
Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae
Lampides boeticus (Linnaeus) New island record
Lampides boeticus (bean butterfly) was previously known from Necker, Nihoa, and all the
main islands except Kaho‘olawe (Nishida 2002).
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Road to Pu‘u Moa‘ulaiki, swept from Macroptilium sp.,
1200 ft [365 m], 30 Mar 2004, Starr, Starr, & Tokishi 040330-5 (2 specimens).
Lepidoptera: Noctuidae
Eublemma accedens (Felder & Rogenhofer) New island record
Eublemma accedens (‘uhaloa moth) was previously known from all the main islands
except Ni‘ihau, Läna‘i, and Kaho‘olawe (Nishida 2002; Howarth et al.2002). On Kaho‘o-
lawe it is common from sea level to the summit.
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Honokanaia, basecamp, KIRC hut, at light, 25 ft [8 m],
19 Jan 2004, Starr, Starr, & Higashino 040119-1 (1 specimen); Honokanaia, basecamp, KIRC hut, at
light, 25 ft [8 m], 16 Feb 2004, Starr, Starr, & Higashino 040216-6 (1 specimen).
Lepidoptera: Sphingidae
Agrius cingulata (Fabricius) New island record
Agrius cingulata (sweet potato hornworm) was previously known from Midway Atoll,
Laysan, and all the main islands except for Kaho‘olawe.
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Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Honokanaia, basecamp, KIRC hut, on floor, collected
by L. Abbott, 25 ft [8 m], 28 Dec 2004, Starr, Starr, & Abbott 041228-1 (1 specimen).
Orthoptera: Acrididae
Schistocerca nitens (Thunberg) New island record
Schistocerca nitens (vagrant grasshopper) was previously known from Necker, Nihoa, and
all the main islands except Ni‘ihau and Kaho‘olawe (Nishida 2002).
Material examined. KAHO‘OLAWE:Moa‘ulanui, vegetation sweeps, 1300 ft [396 m], 16 Oct
2003, Starr,Starr, & Mar 031016-21 (1 specimen).
Acknowledgements
We thank Mach Fukada for assistance with identification of most specimens and Will
Haines for assistance with identification of Omiodes spp. For collection assistance, we
thank Paul Higashino, Maya LeGrande, Lyman Abbott, Cheryl King, Dean Tokishi, Paiea
Busby, and Derek Mar. We also thank the Bishop Museum staff and volunteers for their
assistance. This research was made possible thanks to support from the U.S. Geological
Survey, Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service, Pacific Islands Office.
Literature Cited
Nishida,G.M., editor. 2002. Hawaiian terrestrial arthropod checklist. Fourth edition.
Bishop Museum Technical Report 22, 313 p.
Howarth,F.G.&D.J.Preston.2002. Baseline Survey of Arthropods (Insects and
Relatives) of Kahului Airport Environs, Maui, Hawai‘i. Final report prepared for
Edward K. Noda & Associates, Inc. and the State of Hawai‘i, Department of
Transportation, Airport Environs.
First record of coral crabs of the family Tetraliidae (Crustacea: Brachyura) from the
Hawaiian Islands1
Peter Castro2(Biological Sciences Department, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona,
California 91768, USA) & Scott Godwin (Hawaii Biological Survey, Bishop Museum, 1525 Bernice
St, Honolulu, Hawai‘i 96817-2704, USA)
Brachyuran crabs of the family Tetraliidae Castro et al.2004, which comprises the gen-
era Tetralia Dana and Tetraloides Galil are obligate symbionts of species of Acropora,
scleractinian corals of circumtropical distribution. Tetraliids were formerly grouped with
species of Trapezia Dana and other coral crabs in the family Trapeziidae Miers. All 8
described species of tetraliids are restricted to the Indo-West Pacific region (see Castro et
al.2004). Although 6 species of Trapezia are known from the Hawaiian Islands (Castro
1998), tetraliids have never been recorded from the archipelago until their recent discov-
ery among collections made at French Frigate Shoals under the auspices of the
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Rapid Assessment and Monitoring Program 2000 (NOW-
RAMP 2000). The family had been previously recorded anywhere Acropora occurs
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 53
1. Contribution No. 2006-028 to the Hawai Biological Survey.
2. Research Associate, Hawaii Biological Survey,Bishop Museum, 1525 Bernice Street, Honolulu, Hawai‘i
96817, USA.
throughout the Indo-West Pacific region, from the Red Sea and South Africa to French
Polynesia, and Johnston Atoll (Castro 2000). French Frigate Shoals has the highest abun-
dance and species diversity of Acropora (seven species) in the Hawaiian Archipelago
(Maragos et al. 2004).
Tetraliidae
Tetralia glaberrima (Herbst) New state record
[syn. Cancer glaberrimus Herbst, 1790: 262, pl. 20, fig. 115; Tetralia glaberrima fulva Serène, 1984:
282; Tetralia fulva Castro, 1997: 65; Tetralia glaberrima Castro et al., 2004: 24 (synonymy, type
material)].
This species is widely distributed throughout the Indo-West Pacific region wherever the
coral Acropora is found, including southern Japan, Australia, Marshall Is., French Poly-
nesia, and now the Hawaiian Islands.
Material examined:FRENCH FRIGATE SHOALS: west central lagoon, north side of La
Perouse Pinnacle, site FFS-R-31, 23°46.280'N, 166°15.737'W, 10–15m, coll. S. Godwin, 26 Sep
2000 (1 male) (BPBM-S 12267, Marine Invertebrate Collection).
Tetralia muta (Linnaeus) New state record
[syn. Cancer mutus Linnaeus, 1758: 625; Tetralia vanninii Galil & Clark, 1988: 146, figs. 1C, 2B,
3C, 4C, 4H, 6C; Tetralia muta Castro et al., 2004: 29 (synonymy, type material)]
This species, likeT.glaberrima,is widely distributed throughout the Indo-West Pacific
region wherever the coral Acropora is found. It has been recorded from Christmas I.,
Johnston Atoll (P.Castro, unpubl. data), and nowthe Hawaiian Islands.
Material examined:FRENCH FRIGATE SHOALS:North central lagoon, submerged pinna-
cle 2 km south of Tern Island, site FFS-R-27, 23°50.907'N, 166°17.215'W, 2–9 m, coll. S. Godwin,
25 Sep 2000 (1 ovigerous female) (BPBM-S 12266, Marine Invertebrate Collection).
Acknowledgements
This report was made possible through the support of the Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative for
NOW-RAMP-2000.
Literature Cited
Castro,P. 1997. Trapeziid crabs (Brachyura: Xanthoidea: Trapeziidae) of NewCale-
donia, eastern Australia, and the Coral Sea. In:Richer de Forges, B. (ed.), Les fonds
meubles des lagons de Nouvelle Calédonie (Sédimentologie, Benthos). Études et
Théses 3: 59–107.
———. 1998. The Hawaiian species of Trapezia (Crustacea, Brachyura, Trapeziidae),
symbionts of Pocillopora (Scleractinia). Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 55:
73–76.
———. 2000. Biogeographyof trapeziid crabs (Brachyura, Trapeziidae) symbiotic with
reef corals and other cnidarians. In:J.C. von Vaupel Klein & Schram, F.R. (eds.), The
Biodiversity Crisis and Crustacea. Proceedings of the Fourth International
Crustacean Congress, Amsterdam. Vol. 2. Crustacean Issues 12: 65–75.
———., Ng,P.K.L.&Ahyong,S.T.2004. Phylogenyand systematics of the Trapeziidae
Miers, 1886 (Crustacea: Brachyura), with the description of a new family. Zootaxa
643: 1–70.
Dana,J.D.1851. Conspectus Crustaceorum quae in Orbis Terrarum circumnavigatione,
Carolo Wilkes e Classe Republicae Foederatae Duce, lexit et descripsit J.D. Dana.
Pars VI. American Journal of Sciences and Arts (2) 11(32): 268–274.
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Galil,B. 1986. Tetraloides—a new genus of coral-inhabiting crabs. Crustaceana 50
[1985]: 68–77.
———. & Clark,P.F.1988. On a collection of Acropora-inhabiting trapeziids (Crus-
tacea Brachyura Xanthoidea) from East Africa. Tropical Zoology 1: 137–151.
Herbst,J.F.W. 1782–1804. Versuch einer Naturgeschichte der Krabben und Krebse
nebst einer Systematischen Beschreibung ihrer Verschiedenen Arten.Vols. 1–3.
Gottlieb August Lange, Berlin & Stralsund.
Linneaus,C. 1758. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines,
genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis synonymis, locis.Tenth edition. Vol.
1. Holmiae. iii + 824 p.
Maragos,J.E., Potts,D.C., Aeby,G., Gulko,D., Kenyon,J., Siciliano D., & Van Raven-
swaay,D.2004. 2000–2002 rapid ecological assessment of corals (Anthozoa) on shal-
low reefs of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Part 1: species and distribution. Pacific
Science 58(2): 211–230.
Miers,E.J.1886. Report on the Brachyura collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the
years 1873–76. In:Report on the scientific results of the voyage of H.M.S. Chal-
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Spottiswoode, London.
Serène,R.1984. Crustacés décapodes brachyoures de l’Océan Indien Occidental et de la
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Documentation of box jellyfish Carybdea sivickisi and Carybdea rastoni (Cubozoa:
Carybdeidae) at Maalaea Harbor,Maui
GERALD L. CROW (Waikïkï Aquarium, University of Hawaii, 2777 Kalakaua Ave, Honolulu, Hawai‘i
96815, USA; email: crow@waquarium.org) AHARON MIROZ (Maui Ocean Center, 192 Ma‘alaea Rd,
Wailuku, Hawai‘i 96793, USA), NORTON CHAN & KELLEY LAM (Waikïkï Aquarium, 2777 Kalakaua
Avenue, Honolulu, Hawai‘i 96815, USA)
Since the 1990s, box jellyfish have become high profile animals along beach shorelines of
the island of O‘ahu. Due to powerful stings affecting ocean visitors, and corresponding
beach closures, it has become increasingly important to document box jellies along
Hawaiian coastlines. Three species have been described in Hawaiian waters: 1) Charyb-
dea arborifera Maas that was synonymized with Carybdea rastoni by Mayer (1910); 2)
Charybdea moseri Mayer, placed in Carybdea alata by Mayer (1910); 3) Carybdea
sivickisi (Stiasny), reported in Hawaiian waters in 1996 (Matsumoto et al. 2002). Recent
observations at Ma‘alaea Harbor, Maui, documented two species including one new loca-
tion record and one new island record.
Carybdea sivickisi (Stiasny) New island record
Night lighting observations were conducted from shore near the condominiums at the
southern end of Ma‘alaea Boat Harbor on 23 July 2005, and 7 and 9 February 2006. Box
jellies attracted to the light, were hand netted and placed in 86% ethanol. Specimens were
all less than 12 mm in bell height. Some specimens will be used for future DNA research.
Carybdea sivickisi was originally observed from Hawai‘i in 1996 from the southern
and western coastlines of O‘ahu (Matsumoto et al.2002). This species appears to be wide-
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004–2005—Part 2: Notes 55