Joshi,R.C.& Sebastian,L.S.(eds.) 2006. Global advances in ecology and management
of golden apple snails.Philippine Rice Research Institute, Nueva Ecija. x + 588 p.
Lach,L.& Cowie,R.H. 1999. The spread of the introduced freshwater apple snail
Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck) (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae) on O‘ahu, Hawai‘i.
Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 58: 66–71.
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the management of the golden apple snail, September 6–11, 2004.National Pingtung
University of Science and Technology, Chinese Taipei. [vi] + 153 pp.
Levin,P. 2006. Statewide strategic control plan for apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) in
Hawai‘i.Eküpaka ka ‘äina – The Hawaiian Land Restoration Institute, Honolulu.
———., Cowie,R.H., Taylor,J., Burnett,K., Hayes,K.A.& Ferguson,C. 2006.
Apple snail invasions and the slow road to control: ecological, economic, agricultur-
al and cultural perspectives in Hawaii. In:Global advances in ecology and manage-
ment of golden apple snails (ed. R.C. Joshi & L.C. Sebastian), pp. 325–335. Philip-
pine Rice Research Institute, Muñoz, Nueva Ecija.
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Argentina to Asia. Micronesica, Supplement 3: 51–62.
Perera,G.& Walls,J.G. 1996. Apple snails in the aquarium. Ampullariids: their iden-
tification, care, and breeding.T.F.H. Publications, Neptune, Florida. 121 pp.
Rawlings,T.A., Hayes,K.A., Cowie,R.H.& Collins,T.M.2007. The identity, distribution,
and impacts of nonnative apple snails in the continental United States. BMC
Evolutionary Biology 7(97): [14 pp.] [published on line doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-7-97].
Erinna newcombi Adams & Adams (Mollusca:Lymnaeidae):a
Rediscovered Population in Hanakoa,Kaua‘i,Hawai‘i
D. BOYNTON†(Department of Education, P.O. Box 651, Waimea, Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i 96796, USA) &
K.R. WOOD (National Tropical Botanical Garden, 3530 Papalina Road, Kalaheo, Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i
96741, USA; email: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Erinna newcombi Adams & Adams (Newcomb’ssnail) is endemic to the island of Kaua‘i
and is currently federally listed as threatened by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
(USFWS). It occurs around freshwater springs where it apparently feeds on algae that
grow on submerged rocks. Recent field research indicates that the habitat preferences for
E. newcombi include fast-flowing perennial streams and their nearby springs, seeps, and
waterfalls (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2004). At the time of publication of the draft
recovery plan for Newcomb’s snail (2004), its known range included very small riparian
sites found in Kalalau Stream, Lumaha‘i River, Hanalei River (4 subpopulations),
Waipahe‘e tributary of Keälia Stream, Makaleha Stream (2 subpopulations), and the north
fork of the Wailua River.
The USFWS Draft Recovery Plan for Erinna newcombi includes the primary goal of
establishing baseline population numbers for the species. In addition, the plan calls for
field research specifically within the historical ranges of Hanakoa, Wainiha, and Hana-
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2006—Part 2: Notes 61
BISHOP MUSEUM OCCASIONAL PAPERS: No. 96, 2007
Figure 1.Erinna newcombi in Hanakoa (Photo by D. Boynton).
Figure 2.Rediscovered population of Erinna newcombi in Hanakoa, Kaua‘i.
käpï‘ai to confirm if the snails are present or not. In order to help facilitate the USFWS in
its recovery efforts, we present the following data on our observations of E. newcombi,
which was historically recorded around the falls of Hanakoa on 16 Jul 1907 (Hawai‘i
Biodiversity & Mapping Program 2006) and most recently observed there by the authors
on 25 September 2006.
Erinna newcombi Adams & Adams Rediscovered population
Seven individuals of E. newcombi were observed in Hanakoa Valley at the base of a water-
fall seep after turning only a few small algae-covered rocks, and they most likely occur in
much higher numbers. The site is on the margin of the falls and plunge pool, near the base
of the cliff face under wet rocks, fed by a continuous flow of spring water. Currently, the
falls are dominated by nonnative vegetation, including Ageratina riparia, Melinus minuti-
flora, Sacciolepis, Blechnum, Setaria palmifolia, Cyperus meyenianus, Bryophyllum pinna-
tum, and Pluchea carolinensis;native riparian elements include Kadua cookiana, K. elatior,
Plantago princeps var. longibracteata, Deparia cataracticola, Isachne pallens, Asplenium
unilaterale, Lipochaeta connata, Selaginella, Eragrostis variabilis, Carex meyenii, Mach-
aerina angustifolia, and Sphenomeris.The ecological components just below the falls are
dominated by nonnative invasive plant species of varying densities along the Hanakoa Falls
stream trail, including an overstory of kukui and mango, and an understory of common
guava, shampoo ginger, basketgrass, Christella dentata, and Arabian coffee. Other threats to
native species in this region include recent pig signs, abundant goats, Euglandina rosea,
marsh flies, and the American bullfrog (Rana catesbiana).
Material examined. KAUA‘I:Hä‘ena Distr, Hanakoa Valley west falls, end of main trail, seep-
ing vertical basalt with waterfall and plunge-pool, 340º aspect by east side of main running fall, 366
m[1,200 ft], 25 Sep 2006, K.R. Wood & D. Boynton 12171 (Photo voucher).
Hawai‘i Biodiversity & Mapping Program.2006. Hawai‘i Biodiversity and Mapping
Program, Natural Diversity Database, Honolulu.
U.S.Fish & Wildlife Service.2004. Draft recovery plan for the Newcomb’s snail (Erinna
newcombi). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland. 39 pp.
New records of alien Mollusca in the Hawaiian Islands:nonmarine snails
and slugs (Gastropoda) associated with the horticultural trade
KENNETH A. HAYES, CHUONG T. TRAN & ROBERT H. COWIE1(Center for Conservation Research and
Training, University of Hawai‘i, 3050 Maile Way, Gilmore 408, Honolulu, Hawai‘i 96822, USA;
email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org)
The nonmarine snails of the Hawaiian Islands have been cataloged by Cowie (1997),
reviewed by Cowie (1998a), and subsequent new records reported by Cowie (1998b, 1999,
2000). The horticultural industry has been implicated in the transport and introduction of
snails and slugs in various parts of the world (e.g., Robinson 1999; Barrientos 2000; Cowie
Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2006—Part 2: Notes 63
1. Research Associate, Hawaii Biological Survey, Bishop Museum, 1525 Bernice Street, Honolulu, Hawai‘i 96817,