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Human-Induced Wetland Degradation: A case study of Lake Amik
Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences Department of Geography,
Turkey has more than 250 wetlands covering a total area of approximately 1 million ha. 63
wetlands are of prime importance, among which the former Lake Amik exists. Even though lands of
over 1,3 million ha (totally 57%) have been disappeared as a consequence of wetland desiccation,
significant efforts were attempted to prevent the decrease in areas of wetlands during the past 15
years. The desiccation of Turkey’s wetlands emerged from various causes such as agricultural
activities, growth in industrial and residential areas, road constructions, malaria eradication, flood
prevention and etc. Nevertheless, these human interferences have caused crucial environmental
The former Lake Amik’s wetland, which had a total area of 31000 ha in the 1950s prior to
desiccation works, is a dramatic example of degraded wetlands in Turkey. The area is located in one
of the main routes of migratory birds. In fact, approximately half a million birds follow the Lake Amik
The initial cause of wetland desiccation in the area was the first attempt for cultivation of
cotton in the early 1940s. However, despite all high-cost projects carried out to drain this wetland
during the last 60 years, desiccation works failed except for the success in the decrease of the number
of malaria cases. As a matter of fact, serious unexpected results occurred such as low productivity
and salinity in newly obtained farming lands, failure in combating flood, resultant increase in poverty of
low-income farmers and disappearance of wetland habitat in the area. In addition, severe
deteriorations that took place in water quality and balance of the area have also simultaneously
annihilated living wetland organisms.
In this study, recent status of wetlands in Turkey and environmental, ecological and economical
problems encountered in and around the recently desiccated Lake Amik, one of the most significant
wetlands of Turkey, are discussed. Our results reveal that human interference in wetlands may give
rise to serious adverse effects on natural life cycle and local welfare. Thus, “the experience of Lake
Amik”, which is a remarkable example to degraded wetlands, proves both the non-recyclable damages
caused by human interference and the deficiency of technological applications in such environments.
Key words: Lake Amik, wetlands, wetland desiccation, Hatay, Turkey
Wetlands are very special ecosystems that have supported the living endeavors of human
beings and many other living things throughout history. They have had important roles in the
development of biological and cultural wealth on earth. Having provided the people living around them
with materials for sheltering and things for various uses for centuries, wetlands have simultaneously
provided them with a productive atmosphere for their activities of agriculture, stock raising, fishing,
hunting and etc. When it was understood at the end of the 1800s that the cause of malaria was
mosquito, activities for the desiccation of wetlands became widespread. In parallel to the technological
developments in the following years, losses of wetlands increasingly continued due to reasons such
as obtaining agricultural lands, opening settlements and etc. The philosophy, which envisaged the
control and exploitation of nature by human beings, laid the foundation for the eradication of wetlands.
Since the arrival of Europeans to America, half of the wetlands in the U.S.A. have been lost (Özeesmi,
1997). Despite their great intrinsic value, wetlands have been losing ground systems under human
use, so that most wetlands in Europe, and the Mediterranean in particular, have been lost (Hollis,
1995). In Spain, it is estimated that more than 60 % of wetlands have disappeared in the last 50 years.
Central-western Iberian Peninsula 94% of the original wetlands disappeared in the period between
1896 and 1996 (Gallego-Fernandez, 1999).
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Wetlands in Turkey have decreased fifty-fifty due to desiccation projects carried out only during
the 20th century (Arı, 2006). Today the amount of wetlands desiccated so far in Turkey may seem
small in amount when compared with many European countries. But two of four bird migration routes
in the Palearctic Region crossing Turkey have made Turkey key country for many migratory bird
species. Due to these characteristics, responsibility of Turkey in the protection of migratory bird
species is more important than that of any other country. Turkey has changed its approach to
wetlands and policies following the 1990s and became a party to Ramsar Convention that aims at the
protection of wetlands, in 1994 (Turkish Rebuplic of Ministry of Environment and Forestry, 2006). The
number of Ramsar sites in Turkey is only 12 for today and Turkey has Ramsar sites of 179.773 ha in
Within the last 15 years, Turkey has taken some important steps concerning the preservation of
wetlands. Instruments for the preservation of nature that are regulated by various national laws and
regulations exist in Turkey, which has signed many international conventions apart from being a party
to Ramsar, with a view to preserving wetlands. However, they have essential insufficiencies. Concerns
about wetlands continue due to reasons such as pollution, increasing water needs, illegal hunting and
agricultural pressure. Examples such as the fact that Tuz Lake, declared to be a Special
Environmental Conservation Region, was turned into an open sewer system, that Sultansazlığı,
having many preservation statuses including Ramsar, was surrounded by drainage nets and that it
was allowed to establish a factory by the coast of İznik Lake, being a natural protected site, show that
laws are not obeyed (Tırıl, 2003).
Turkey has valuable wetlands that have been damaged considerably since there are no
preservation statuses. For instance, one of them is Lake Amik which once upon a time constituted one
of the greatest lakes in Turkey. Located at the center of Amik Plain, Lake Amik had composed a rich
and active living atmosphere in its surrounding and become a place that people used continuously for
hundreds of years. Nevertheless, the lake was removed in 1972 as a result of tens of high-cost
desiccation activities which began in the 1940s. Due to a number of negative effects detected so far,
the experience of Lake Amik is an example that reflects the consequences of enterprises for removing
wetlands quite well. Activities spent for the desiccation of the lake turned into a series of endless and
countless projects over time. However, this objective was not given up with an incomprehensible
insistence. Nevertheless, from hundreds of years ago up to a recent past, the local people living
around the lake succeeded in establishing a life in harmony with the lake system. For the people living
in the region, two distinct lifestyles were composed, namely, lake period and post-lake period.
Lake Amik had a unique location since it was a wetland located in the Mediterranean climatic
zone in the most south of Turkey. Lake Amik was located at the center of Amik Plain (36° 28’-36° 14’;
36° 11’-36° 34’ E) in the Basin of Asi River located in the Eastern Mediterranean. The place is located
within the territory of the province of Hatay in Turkey. The plain territories are within the borders of four
districts (Antakya, Kırıkhan, Kumlu and Reyhanlı). Having a total surface area of 119.350 hectares,
the plain has an elevation of 100 m on average from sea level. At the very heart of the plain is the
depression of Lake Amik. The plain descends here up to 80 m. Amik Plain is located within the
depression of Kahraman Maraş-Hatay constituting the most northern part of a very long fault line
extending from Rift Valley in the East Africa up to the depression of Gor between Jordan and Israel
The figures of the past concerning the lake area are different from each other. According to the
1966 reports of the State Hydraulic Works (DSİ), the surface area of the lake is 7.000 ha and the
temporary lake area during flood periods is 52.000 hectares. According to Kumerloeve, the lake was
wider in the past centuries than the present. Covering an area of around 350 square kilometers in the
19th century, the lake receded to 300 square kilometers at the beginning of the 20th century
(Kumerloeve, 1988). Since the lake was shallow and there was little slope on the plain, small changes
of level caused great changes in the lake area.
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Figure 1. Location of study area
Method and Objective
Within the framework of the study, it was tried to detect the superiorities provided by the life
based on the lake in the past and natural and economic riches lost upon the desiccation of the lake
through interviews with the local people. Interviews, carried out with people at the age of over 50
chosen from the villages around the former lake, provided important information about the subject.
The benefits of the partial rehabilitation of the lake area and taking it under control by taking some
steps without delay were evaluated in the study. It was tried to detect what would be gained to the
region by reviving the lake again and granting this environment a preservation status since Lake Amik
is formed again during winter months despite tens of activities for preventing floods.
Changes in Living Conditions at and around Lake Amik
Since the lake had been a productive utilization area throughout history, the traces of the
settlement in the region date back to quite old times. According to the excavations carried on for years
by the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, the houses, palaces with front courtyard, defense
structures and temples, which were revealed during Atçana excavations, show that the place had
been a settlement region since 5000-4000 B.C. The findings, which were obtained during the
excavations and researches at various times in the mounds such as Cüdeyde, Atçana and Tayinat,
indicate that Lake Amik and its surrounding were a dense and active settlement in Neolithic and
Chalcolithic periods and during the Bronze Age (Yener and Wilkinson, 2001).
There was a population of around 50 thousand people in around 70 villages around the lake in
the 1950s. The main economic activities of the population here were stock raising, agriculture, fishing,
reed harvesting and hunting. Furthermore, people from various places in Turkey and tourists from
various European and Arabic countries also came to the region for hunting. Villagers accompanied
them, provided them with accommodation and gained income. On wide pastures occurring upon the
ebbing of the lake during summer, sheep and cattle were grazed and a limited but convenient area
was formed for agriculture (corn, tomato, pepper, black-eyed pea, lentil, cucumber, gherkin,
watermelon and etc.). The grass collected from the floor of the lake in summer was used for feeding
animals in indoor places in winter. Animal fertilizers provided the necessary organic material both for
the pasture soil and the lake. Wheat, millet, cotton, licorice and safflower were grown in the areas
suitable for agriculture around the lake. Since the wide pastures and marshes around the plain were
suitable for the nourishment of buffalos throughout the whole year, there were more than 3000
buffalos around Lake Amik in 1940. The buffalos were not given any feed and they were nourished in
a completely natural place in an economical way (Çağlar, 1940). Reeds from the lake were used in
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constructing houses and in making things such as reed mat, basket and packsaddle or incomes were
earned through selling them. The houses, which were called “Huğ” in the region, were constructed by
reeds from the lake without using a single nail. The air in the wall blocks and reeds undertook the
insulation function. Hence, they enabled houses to be heated more easily in winter while enabling
them to be cooler in summer. Fishing was an important activity of income. Hunted abundantly in Lake
Amik and Asi River and exported also to Arabic countries, “eel” was caught as much as 300 tons on
average annually. Bird hunting supported the nourishment of villagers as well and it helped the
production of their belongings such as pillows.
Figure 2. Area of Lake Amik prior to 1958 (Changed and redrawn from unpublished
notes of Karaca, 1989)
However, it was necessary to confront serious difficulties so as to benefit from what the lake
gave in the past. The houses that were made of reed in May became unusable due to the ascending
lake or floods by rain in November. People went to the mounds (there are more than 100 mounds
around the lake) until May and life continued in the tents provided by the state. Then, houses were
repaired again and again or reconstructed. This was repeated every year. In winter, transportation
among villages was provided by caiques. Women dealt more with collecting and agriculture while men
dealt with hunting, fishing, transporting people by caique and they were working as shepherds.
Women further processed milk products, made cheese and butter and sold them in the bazaars in the
vicinity. The lake-dependent life of the society living around Lake Amik until the midst of the 1970s
constituted an ecological-based culture.
Another feature that makes Lake Amik special is that it is just next to Belen passage (Mounts
Amanos-740 m) where 500 thousand birds pass annually. Completely covered by reed beds and
being shallow, this lake was the last resting and accommodation place of migratory birds in our
country. When the lakes of the Central Anatolia froze in winter, the ducks here came to Lake Amik and
were protected. The lake was located on one of the most important migration routes of birds that
migrated to Africa from Asia and Europe and hosted more than 200.000 birds on average annually
According to Kumerloeve, besides the fact that Lake Amik was the breeding site of
approximately 48 bird species, it was of great importance also concerning the introduction and naming
of some bird species here for the first time: “darter” (Anhinga rufa / Plotus Chantrei, 1822), “black
francolin” (Francolinus francolinus / Meinertzhagen, 1933) and “bearded tit” (Panurusbiarmicus /
Kumerloeve, 1958). A considerable amount of migratory birds in the region (57%) was composed of
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storks resting around the lake during migration. The place had a rich frog population in terms of their
Desiccation of the Lake and its Consequences
Desiccation activities began in Lake Amik for the first time in 1940. A comprehensive
desiccation project was prepared in 1966 as well and it was followed by another project. It has to be
stated that each of these projects included a number of and quite high-cost desiccation and flood
prevention affairs. Within the framework of the projects, two dams were constructed for preventing
floods while the constructions of two distinct dams are continuing.
Does the lake exist now? Or not? The answers to this question are contradictory. The lake even
exists on some maps prepared by the cartography services of the national visual media while it does
not exist on some. The current situation of Lake Amik rightfully cannot be comprehended. Indeed, the
lake has not been desiccated completely as targeted by the activities carried on so far. The activities
for desiccating Lake Amik have been successful in a limited area. It can even be stated that the lake is
formed every year even without floods in winter. This requires cleansing activities for constructing new
drainage canals and keeping the existing ones open continuously. Today Lake Amik is in a position of
being an arrangement depot covering the most hollow part of the former lake.
Photo 1. A view of Balıkgölü (Gölbaşı) drainage canal.
With desiccation, it was aimed at distributing the soil acquired from the lake (20.000 ha) to the
villagers without soil, minimizing the problems of soil and irrigation and succeeding in combating
malaria. However, on the contrary to what had been expected, the aims could not be attained and,
apart from receding malaria, high amounts of money was spent and is still being spent for these
activities (Çalışkan, 2003).
Success has not been attained in activities for preventing flood carried on so far either. Floods
of various sizes occurred on the plain once in 1956, 1969, 1970, 1975, 1976, 1980, 1987, 1989, 1998,
2001 and 2002 and twice in 2003 since 1956 when floods began to be observed in Amik Plain.
Although floods were observed more in February, March and April, they may occur within a long
period of time also covering November and May. Flood damages in Amik Plain are more at the center
of the desiccated Lake Amik. Since the former lake was located at the lowest level of the plain, Lake
Amik is formed again during great floods. The presence of flood waters here until March and April
causes people not to sow or the sown products to be damaged completely (DSİ, 2004b). Except for
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the flood in 1970 (7.052 ha), an area of more than 10.000 hectares remained under water during other
floods. Since great floods occurred one after the other in 1987, 1988 and 1989, the farmers in the
flood areas were unable to obtain any products for three years. Some 2.600 ha throughout Asi River
remained under water during the flood in 2002. During the flood in 2003, the lands (3.000 ha) of 8
villages remained under water and Lake Amik occurred again in such a way that would cover an area
of 7.000 ha. During the flood having occurred for the second time in 2003, the lands of the 8 villages
damaged during the previous flood were damaged again in the same way and a total of 322 houses in
3 different villages remained under water.
In addition to the fact that the expected aims were not attained with the loss of Lake Amik, stock
raising experienced collapse upon the eradication of the surrounding reed beds and pastures. Fishing
carried on in the lake ended and the source of income of the families making a living out of reeds
disappeared. The various sources of income had protected villagers against poverty. Nevertheless,
lands acquired from the lake were distributed to the villagers with no lands in parcels of 10.000 or
25.000 square meters. Thus, all villagers became farmers. However, poor farmers become poorer due
to problems such as floods, the increase in irrigation costs, salination and etc. annually. Since the
economic problems of farmers are caused by the same reason, the conditions of helping each other
and solidarity have disappeared as well.
Figure 3. Current area of partly desiccated Lake Amik and its around
According to the farmers on Amik Plain, important declines occurred also in productivity over
years by the desiccation of the lake. Even though the lands, where cotton is sown, expand every year,
the total production of cotton on the plain has not increased on the grounds of the decline in
productivity. At least 700 kgs of wheat and 500 kgs of cotton per 1000 square meters were obtained in
the previous years whereas now 250 kgs of wheat and 200 kgs of cotton can often be obtained.
Analyses of floor waters in and around the lake show that the use of floor water here as water for
irrigation would increase the problem of soil salinity. (Odemiş and Bozkurt, 2007). Salination also
occurred in some 5.000 ha of the lands obtained as a result of the desiccation of the lake (Çalışkan,
When intensive agriculture began in lands obtained from the lake, important deteriorations
emerged in water regime and water quality on the plain. Floods during winter and spring and irrigation
insufficiencies during summer cause important problems. Since the surface water resources of the
plain are insufficient during irrigation season, producers direct themselves to the use of underground
water and the level of underground water decreases considerably. It is estimated that more than 8
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thousand water wells exist on the plain. The underground water, which is drawn from approximately a
depth of 400 m at some points on the plain (this depth was 20 m on average before the lake was
desiccated), causes important increases in production costs (Odemiş and Bozkurt, 2007). Before the
lake was desiccated, artificial fertilizers and other chemicals were not used either. Therefore, a
problem of pollution occurs now in waters in and around the former lake.
With the eradication of the lake having a position of being an important ecosystem in Europe,
Africa and the Middle East, some fish and bird species on the land have disappeared and the number
of migratory birds, accommodating and/or reproducing on the lake, has rather decreased. Having lived
only on Lake Amik in Turkey and being one of the rare birds of Africa and Asia, “darter” (Anhinga rufa)
does not exist in Turkey any more either. Lake Amik was this bird’s last living area in the north (Tansu
Gürpınar). “Purple Gallinule” (Porphyrio porphyrio) was also a frequently encountered species in the
reed beds of the lake. Upon the desiccation of the lake, this bird left the region as well. What should
be kept in mind that the purple gallinule is the symbol of Göksu Delta and that it has an essential role
in delta’s acquisition of preservation status. In addition, the black francolin (Francolinus francolinus),
referred to in the region, has not been observed for a long period of time due to pressure of illegal
Due to the presence of birds, hunting was a very widespread activity among local people. It
should also be kept in mind that it created a broad mass of hunters around a wetland. As a matter of
fact, after Lake Amik was desiccated, the hunters in the province formed a great pressure in wetlands
in a very wide area they could reach. According to what Karaca quoted in 1998, victim-hunter
relationships were upset on a wide area upon the desiccation of Hotamış Lake in Konya after Lake
Amik. Hunters in Hatay began to go hunting as far as Samsun in the most north of Turkey. This result
may be detected as another negative point.
Photo 2. A view of the construction of Hatay airport on the ground of desiccated Lake Amik.
However, as lessons are not taken from mistakes, the series of mistakes does not seem to stop.
For instance, an airport of 3 km in length and 1 km in width was constructed at the very center of the
former lake and it began its service in December 2007. The altitude of the runway of the airport is
81.00 m. The claim that the runway would be above water level even during great floods, stated in the
report prepared by the State Hydraulic Works, is not true. According to this report, the water rose up to
the maximum level of 80.40 m during the floods in 2003 (DSİ, 2004a). However, exactly ten days after
the flood in 2001, the airport construction was under water for one meter. Furthermore, the airport is at
a very close point to the route of the bird herds using Belen Passage and a considerable amount of
birds passing from the region are big bird species (Çalışkan,2003b). The considerable majority of
damaged bird collisions in civil flights in Turkey are in the vicinity of the airport. Wetlands in the
Eastern Mediterranean have high risks during autumn migration and in terms of flight security in
winter. As a matter of fact, it was understood in a research report concerning the issue that it is not
possible to have secure flights on 140 days of the year due to the high risk occurred and that danger
emerges on 60 days due to risk of average level (Turkish Bird Research Society,1999). It is clear that
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the insistence on constructing an airport at the center of the former lake invites another mistake in the
future, namely “plane accidents”.
Figure 4. The Routes of migratory bird in Turkey and Hatay (Modified from Republic of
Turkey Ministry of Environment and Forestry: 2006 and Governership of Hatay: 2000)
With the desiccation of Lake Amik, the geographical, ecological and economic features of the
region were affected negatively. The idea that great benefits were achieved with the desiccation of the
lake changed due to the negative consequences emerging in time.
Recently the surrounding of Amik has not been shown to be an active route on many maps
showing bird migration routes in Turkey. Nevertheless, the belief that this route is no more used by
birds due to the eradication of Amik Lake is not true. During migration period, you can always
encounter great herds exactly over the airport. Despite everything, Lake Amik is a living lake. The fact
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that the desiccation of Lake Amik was a mistake has almost turned into an official opinion through the
confessions at various ranks of the state. The State Hydraulic Works evaluates that it may be
appropriate to form a lake area but an area of 20.000 ha is required for this. Nevertheless, it adds that
it would not be appropriate with the opinion that the expropriation cost would be high due to the
distribution of lands acquired from the lake area to farmers (DSİ, 2003). While the expropriation cost is
discussed, the cost of activities for desiccation for over 60 years has never been discussed so far.
Environmental costs and even the costs of negative economic effects have never been touched upon
either. For some reason, the idea of continuously repairing an endless mistake seems to have been
It is not too late to consider reviving Lake Amik. According to local people, birds were
permanent at and around the lake in the past from April to October. Nowadays there are still herds
staying for 2 or 3 days and going. Bird eggs are still encountered in cotton fields and bird herds are
still encountered around the drainage canals. The size of duck herds coming to the place during floods
is still striking. The consideration of regaining the lake has been stated by many researchers and
nature preservers (Kumerloeve 1987, Karaca 1987, Çalışkan 2002, Akyurt 2006). There are in fact
many alternatives to this end. Due to recommending turning the area of 4000 ha, where the airport is
located, into lake again, airport’s continuing its function and that the lake be in the form of a map of
Turkey, the recommendation of Akyurt seems interesting. It is inconvenient to claim that the airport
would not be damaged with this project. The birds, which would be attracted by the lake to be formed
here, would completely destroy flight security. An idea that centers the future of the airport would only
increase the damage. In my opinion, the choice of here as the place for the airport is not a coincidence
and it was made with a view to preventing the formation of the lake again. This appears to be contrary
to the interests of anyone apart from the groups making plans and investments only suitable for the
rent to occur according to the airport.
Many wetlands under danger in Turkey have been taken under control with various preservation
statuses. Being similar wetlands to Lake Amik, Manyas, Sultansazlığı, Akgöl, Yumurtalık, Seyfe Lake,
Gala Lake and etc. have various preservation statuses. The arrangement of the Former Lake Amik
and its surrounding as “a National Park”, as suggested by Kumerloeve, could create an important
touristic area on the world scale. Unless this is possible, it will be very appropriate to enable the
formation of the lake area again and to include the region in the status of “Special Environmental
Conservation Region” (ÖÇK). Lake Amik and its surrounding have enough elements and features to
reach the status of ÖÇK. However, through reviving the lake again and through some measures to be
taken (encouraging methods of organic agriculture in the region, providing support for archeological
studies, making some arrangements to revive natural life in the lake area and etc.), considerable
appropriateness would be provided. Necessary measures should be taken and supervision should be
provided in order for agricultural activities and other human activities not to give damage to historical
remains on the plain (Çalışkan, 2003).
Another natural lake in the region, Balıklı Lake (Gölbaşı) was a whole with Lake Amik before
Muratpaşa canal had been opened. Today it covers an area of approximately 4.000.000 square
meters. On the islands in the lake and in its surrounding live villagers who make a living out of fishing
and hunting (Karaca,1991). According to what Hasan Karaca, a voluntary nature preserver, quotes, it
is at the same time the place where the community of Anhinga rufa, composed of several individuals,
was last seen and shot in 1990 (Karaca, 1998). The wetlands in and around this lake suitable for
accommodation and incubation areas of migratory birds can be expanded by directing spring water
here. According to Karaca, the place has to be Amik Bird Paradise. However, Gölbaşı would have a
limited scope concerning birds only. The formation of the former lake area would improve the welfare
of local people and contribute to national economy besides giving us the opportunity of fulfilling what is
required by civilization about birds. Water regime, water quality and soil quality in the region would
improve. The lake area would help prevent floods as a reservoir. Another most important point would
be the promotion of the rich archeological and cultural heritage of the region to the whole world.
In forming the lake again, land expropriation costs can be obtained from the lands that are
rented out. Financial support can be provided for a certain time for the people to be influenced
negatively from this. With the revival of the lake, new and good-income job opportunities would
anyway be formed (stock raising, fishing, tourism and etc.). Besides helping the preservation of
ecological balance, these projects would also contribute to the development of recreational activities in
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Thanks to the inhabitants of Amik villages (February-2007):
Uzunköy village: Mehmet Kuyumcu (M/62), Zeynep Kuyumcu (F/58); Göktepe village: Hasan Genç
(M/65), Semiha Genç (F/62), Kumlu town: Mustafa Aladağ (M/72), Fatma Aladağ (F/72); Akkerpiç
village: Halaf Çınar (M/78), Meryem Çullar (F/72); Muratpaşa village: İsmail Yaşan (M/97), M.Nuri
Kurt (M/55), İbrahim İşkanat (M/61), Ahmet Polat (M/57), Hamo Yaşan (M/72), Cuma Yaşan (M/54),
Suvatlı village: Mehmet Özkaynak (M/73), Malik Çoban (M/62); Zülüflühan village: Cemil Taşlı
(M/75); Paşaköy village: Mustafa Yaban (M/74), Abdullah Yaban (M/60)
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Enstitüsü, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, İstanbul.
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Etkileri, Türk Coğrafya Dergisi, sayı: 41, İstanbul.
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DSİ (The State Hydraulic Works), 2004a, Hatay Havaalanının Yapılmakta Olduğu Sahanın Durumu
Hakkında Rapor, 03.06.2004, Hatay
DSİ (The State Hydraulic Works), 2004 b, Amik Ovası Taşkınlarının Önlenmesi İçin Yapılan
Çalışmalar Raporu, Hatay 2004.
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landscapes, Environmental Conservation, 26(3):190-199.
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