Article

Effect of Seedling Age and Density on Growth and Yield of Rice in Saline Soil

Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 03/1999; 2(30). DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.1999.860.862
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT

Two field experiments were carried out in saline soil receiving fertilizers NPK @ 130-75-75 kg ha-1, respectively, to see the effect of seedling age and number of seedling hill-1 on rice growth and yield. Rice seedlings of 25-, 35- and 55-day-old were transplanted in puddled field. Results revealed that seedlings of 25- to 35-day-old produced significantly higher number of tillers and productive tillers hill-1, paddy and straw yields compared with 55-day-old seedlings. In the second experiment, transplanting of two and three seedlings hill-1 of 35-day-old gave more promising results compared with one and four seedlings. Two seedlings hill-1 caused maximum increase in plant height, straw and paddy yield while more number of tillers and productive tillers were recorded with three seedlings hill-1.

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    • "). Younger seedlings establishes quickly in the main field and start growing at a faster rate compared to the conventional seedlings which remain in nursery-bed competing with one-another for four-five weeks before transplanting. Also, greater seedling age results in lower rice yield because older seedlings suffer from stem and root injury during pulling (Ashraf et al., 1999; Dizon et al., 1996 "
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    ABSTRACT: System of rice intensification (SRI) is a new method of rice (Oryza sativa L.) culture. This is an environment and ecology benign method that increases productivity and resource-use efficiency of irrigated rice by changing the way of managing soil, plants, water and nutrients. Emerged by chance in 1980s in Madagascar, it is now practiced on research farms and farmers’ fields in about 60 countries world-over. A record yield of 19 tonnes/ha has been reported by China, while in India 50–100% increases in yield have been reported over conventional rice culture. As per the general notion, SRI is not cultivar-specific. However, differential yield responses of cultivars have been observed under SRI at different locations in the country. SRI has been found to enhance yield of hybrids, and long- and medium-duration cultivars more than those of short-duration improved cultivars, and hence these are found more suitable for cultivation under SRI. Yield enhancement with SRI was greater under constrained soil conditions like acidic soils, red lateritic soil, etc. Wider spacing is one of the important principles of SRI and influences growth and yield of rice. Initially, planting spacing ranging from 25 cm × 25 cm to 50 cm × 50 cm was prescribed, but lateron wide spread experiments across the world showed 25 cm × 25 cm to be the best planting spacing for SRI. However, some studies have suggested even lower spacing 20 cm × 20 cm to be ideal for SRI. Spacing of 25 cm × 25 cm seems to be better in kharif season, while in rabi season in southern India, 20 cm × 20 cm spacing appears to more rewarding than 25 cm × 25 cm. Seedling age of 10–12 days is invariably found suitable for transplanting to obtain higher yield and resource-use efficiency. Although under SRI yields were best when irrigations were scheduled at 3 days after disappearance of ponded water (DADPW), but larger water savings with some yield penalty suggests the delaying irrigations till 5 or 7 DADPW. Regarding nutrient management, it could be concluded that yield, profitability and resource-use efficiency from SRI under integrated nutrient management capsule consisting of 50% RDF + 50% nutrients from organic sources were either higher or equal to those obtained from the use of 100% RDF. Weeds infestation is more in SRI, which could be managed most economically by employing integrated weed management, using cono-weeder as one of the component.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Indian Journal of Agronomy
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    • "Younger seedlings establishes quickly in the main field and start growing at a faster rate compared to the conventional seedlings which remain in nursery-bed competing with one-another for four-five weeks before transplanting. Also, greater seedling age results in lower rice yield because older seedlings suffer from stem and root injury during pulling (Ashraf et al., 1999; Dizon et al., 1996). There have been experiments designed for the evaluation of age of rice transplants ranging from 6–30 days, with most researchers conducting experiments with an arbitrarily selected seedling age at transplanting between 8 and 16 days. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: System of rice intensification (SRI) is a new method of rice (Oryza sativa L.) culture. This is an environment and ecology benign method that increases productivity and resource-use efficiency of irrigated rice by changing the way of managing soil, plants, water and nutrients. Emerged by chance in 1980s in Madagascar, it is now practiced on research farms and farmers’ fields in about 60 countries world-over. A record yield of 19 tonnes/ha has been reported by China, while in India 50–100% increases in yield have been reported over conventional rice culture. As per the general notion, SRI is not cultivar-specific. However, differential yield responses of cultivars have been observed under SRI at different locations in the country. SRI has been found to enhance yield of hybrids, and long- and medium-duration cultivars more than those of short-duration improved cultivars, and hence these are found more suitable for cultivation under SRI. Yield enhancement with SRI was greater under constrained soil conditions like acidic soils, red lateritic soil, etc. Wider spacing is one of the important principles of SRI and influences growth and yield of rice. Initially, planting spacing ranging from 25 cm × 25 cm to 50 cm × 50 cm was prescribed, but lateron wide spread experiments across the world showed 25 cm × 25 cm to be the best planting spacing for SRI. However, some studies have suggested even lower spacing 20 cm × 20 cm to be ideal for SRI. Spacing of 25 cm × 25 cm seems to be better in kharif season, while in rabi season in southern India, 20 cm × 20 cm spacing appears to more rewarding than 25 cm × 25 cm. Seedling age of 10–12 days is invariably found suitable for transplanting to obtain higher yield and resource-use efficiency. Although under SRI yields were best when irrigations were scheduled at 3 days after disappearance of ponded water (DADPW), but larger water savings with some yield penalty suggests the delaying irrigations till 5 or 7 DADPW. Regarding nutrient management, it could be concluded that yield, profitability and resource-use efficiency from SRI under integrated nutrient management capsule consisting of 50% RDF + 50% nutrients from organic sources were either higher or equal to those obtained from the use of 100% RDF. Weeds infestation is more in SRI, which could be managed most economically by employing integrated weed management, using cono-weeder as one of the component.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Indian Journal of Agronomy
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    • "Both 1000-grain weight and spikelet sterility % did not show significant differences among treatments, but their slight variations would have contributed to the differences in final grain yield among treatments (Table 4). Soga and Nozaki (1957) and Yoshida (1981) too reported that 1000-grain weight remained stable as far as there was no water stress during grain filling, and Ashraf et al. (1999) and Trillana et al. (2001) reported grain weight to be the least affected by the environment. Grain yield was significantly greater in DSR with 1W-3N and 2W-2N in TPR than the rest of water management tested, with no significant difference between the two values. "
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    ABSTRACT: Innovations in water saving technologies are the foremost needs in today's rice production as water has become the most limiting resource in agriculture. This study was conducted for evaluating conventional, system of rice intensification (SRI) and modified water management methods in direct-seeded and transplanted rice in order to determine the best water management practice that increases grain yield and water productivity. A 2x3 factorial experiment, where two methods of establishment (viz. direct seeding and transplanting with 8 day old seedlings (TPR)) and three water management methods (viz. conventional water management (CWM), two-week irrigation followed by two-week non-irrigation (2W-2N) and one-week irrigation followed by three week non-irrigation (1W- 3N)), was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. Soil moisture contents at 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm soil layers reached near the lower levels of the readily available water (RAW) during non-irrigation periods in 2W-2N and 1W-3N, but never depleted below RAW level. There were interactions between establishment method and water management for leaf area index (LAI), root parameters, yield and yield components, harvest index and water productivity. Conventional water management was inferior to 2W-2N and 1W-3N, and direct seeding and transplanting had no difference. Overall results showed that there are greater benefits of water saving, yield and net income with 1W-3N water management combined with direct seeding over SRI and CWM and transplanting for 120-day old Suphan Buri 1 hybrid.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Australian Journal of Crop Science
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