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Arecaceae: The Majestic Family of Palms


Abstract and Figures

Arecaceae (Syn. Palmae) is a monocotyledonous plant family containing species of tropical climbers, shrubs and trees commonly known as Palm trees or simply Palms (Figs 1-3). The Arecaceae is a monotypic family in the order Arecales. The family contains several commercially important species such as coconuts, area nuts and date palms, as well as a large number of indoor and ornamental species. Palms are commonly cultivated and well known horticulturally across the planet.
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Arecaceae: The Majestic Family of Palms
Published: September 25, 2014, 11:35 am
Author: Saika t Basu
Author: Ratnabali Sengupta
Author: Peima n Zandi
Editoria l Revi ew: David Hassen zahl
Topics: Bio log y
Biodi versity
Arecacea e in Ca yo Sombre ro, Venezu ela (By Rj castillo (Own work) [CC -BY-SA-3.0
(http://creativecommo], via Wikimed ia Com mons)
Arecaceae (Syn. Palmae) is a monocotyledonous plant family containing species of tropical climbers,
shrubs and trees commonly known as Palm trees or simply Palms (Figs 1-3). The Arecaceae is
a monotypic family in the order Arecales. The family contains several commercially important species such
as coconuts, area nuts and date palms, as well as a large number of indoor and ornamental species. Palms
are commonly cultivated and well known horticulturally across the planet.
Palms are most conspicuous in coastal areas in tropical and sub-tropical ecological zones as well as in the
Logi n Not a Member?
Arabian deserts and throughout the continents of Africa, Latin America, South and South-East Asia,
Oceania and coastal US and adjoining island groups. Palms are also common in tropical evergreen forests
and in every available ecological habitat in the tropics and sub-tropics covering a widely diverse
geographic distribution. In the tropical forests several palms constitute the canopy while others serve as
under growing bushes and shrubs.
Tall canopy forming Palms are adopted as safe nesting sites by several species of birds and smaller
mammals for their huge arching foliage that provide shade and protection against the elements of nature
and due to their heights serve also excellent nesting sites against different predators. Nypa fruticans is the
only Palm species that is well adapted to the mangrove biome and is seen distributed in the coastal and
estuarine zones of India, Bangladesh and several Pacific island groups. Palms like coastal mangrove
species serve as important wind breaks and are essential for protecting the erosion and destruction of
coastal areas from the impact of sporadic cyclones and tornados. However, due to extensive and non-
judicious exploitation of several coastal species across the planet (particularly in the developing and under
developed countries) the coastal regions have become extremely vulnerable to coan disturbances and
global climate change.
Palms are well known for their great heights, exclusive foliages, conspicuous inflorescences and big seeds.
Lodoicea maldivica is known for producing the largest seed in the entire plant kingdom. Palms are
predominantly perennial species and remaining green throughout the year. The inflorescence patterns of
Palms are noteworthy and show wide morphological and structural adaptations (Fig 4) necessary for their
successful evolution over a long geological past. They are characteristically branched, either racemose
panicles or often spadix-like spikes, enclosed and protected by one or more woody bracts (spathes).
Inflorescences usually occur either between the foliages or in some species beneath or above them; they
may be occurring either solitary or in multiple aggregation (Fig 4). Often the inflorescences is found to be
modified into an elongated organ, whip-like in appearance characterized by downward curving spines
(flagellum) enabling the plant to cling to nearby vegetation or available support and help in climbing.
Important Species
Some important species belonging to this majestic plant family include edible and commercially significant
members as well as ornamental and roadside as well as forest species: Areca Palm-Areca triandra, Royal
Palm-Roystonea regia; Foxtail Palm-Wodyetia bifurcata, Fishtail Palm-Caryota mitis; Edible Date
Palm-Phoenix dactilifera, Borassus flabellifer; Christmas Palm-Veitchia merillii, European Fan
Palm-Chamaerops humilis, Majestic Palm-Ravenea rivularis, Senegal Date Palm-Phoenix reclinata, Indian
Date Palm-Phoenix sylvestris, Bismarck Palm-Bismarckia nobilis; Queen Palm-Syagrus romanzoffiana,
Chinese Fan Palm-Livistona chinensis, Coconut Palm-Cocos nucifera, Sylvester Palm-Phoenix sylvestris;
Branched Palm-Hyphane indica; H. dichotoma etc.
Different ornamental species of palms from West Asia, South and South east Asia are presented in Fig 5.
The members of the family Arecaceae is presented in Table 1.
Table 1. Members of the Arecaceae family
Scientific & English name Origin Plant use Ref.
Acoelorrhaphe wrightii (Griseb. &
H. Wendl.) H. Wendl. ex Becc
Everglades palm
Central America Ornamental tree USDA,2014
Acrocomia vinifera Oersted
Coyol palm
South America Ornamental tree USDA,2014
Aiphanes caryotifolia (Kunth) H.A.
Wendl. Coyure palm
South America Ornamental tree USDA,2014
Archontophoenix alexandrae (F.
Muell.) H. Wendl. & Drude King
Alexander palm
North-east Australia Ornamental tree USDA,2014
Butia capitata (Mart.) Becc. Jelly
Argentina, Brazil,
Ornamental tree, fruit USDA,2014
Calyptronoma rivalis (O.F. Cook)
L.H. Bailey Manac palm
Puerto Rico, Haiti,
Dominican Republic
Ornamental tree USDA,2014
Caryota urens L. Toddy palm Indian sub continental,
South east Asia
Ornamental tree USDA,2014
Chamaedorea elegans Mart.
Parlour palm
Belize , Mexico,
Ornamental tree USDA,2014
Coccothrinax barbadensis (Lodd.
ex Mart.) Becc. Thatch palm
Venezuela , Caribbean
Ornamental tree USDA,2014
Cocos nucifera L. Coconut palm Tropical and subtropical
Ornamental tree, oil, milk,
Dypsis lutescens (H. Wendl.)
Beentje & Dransf. Butterfly palm
Madagascar Ornamental tree USDA,2014
Elaeis oleifera (Kunth) Cortes
American oil palm
South and Central
Ornamental tree, palm oil USDA,2014
Gaussia attenuata (O.F. Cook)
Becc. llume palm
Puerto Rico, Dominican
Ornamental tree USDA,2014
Livistona rotundifolia (Lam.)
Mart. Serdang palm
Sri Lanka, tropical Asia Ornamental tree USDA,2014
Phoenix dactylifera Date palm Persian gulf region (Iran,
Iraq, Saudi Arabia)
Fruit, juice Elshibli
Phoenix reclinata Jacq. Senegal
date palm
Tropical Africa Ornamental tree, fruit, palm
heart as vegetable, palm
wine from its sap
Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb.
Sugar Date Palm
Iran, India, Pakistan,
Nepal, Bhutan, Burma
and Bangladesh
Ornamental tree, fruit, sap,
palm heart as vegetable
Prestoea acuminata (Willd.) H.E.
Moore Sierran palm
Puerto Rico Ornamental tree, fruits feed
by parrots
Pritchardia affinis Becc. Kona
Hawaiian Islands Ornamental tree, seeds
were eaten by ancient tribes
Pritchardia glabrata Becc. &
Rock Hawaiian fan palm
Maui island in Hawaii Ornamental tree USDA,2014
Pritchardia hillebrandii (Kuntze)
Becc. Loulu palm
United states, tropical
Pacific Islands
Ornamental tree USDA,2014
Pritchardia limahuliensis H. St.
John Limahuli Valley pritchardia
Hawaii (United states) Ornamental tree USDA,2014
Pritchardia munroi Rock Kamalo
Hawaii (United states) Ornamental tree USDA,2014
Pritchardia perlmanii C.E.
Gemmill Wai'Oli Valley
Hawaii (United states) Ornamental tree USDA,2014
Pritchardia waialealeana Read
Poleline pritchardia
Hawaii (United states) Ornamental tree USDA,2014
Pseudophoenix sargentii H.
Wendl. ex Sarg. Florida cherry
United states, Belize,
Cuba, Bahamas
Ornamental tree USDA,2014
Ptychosperma elegans (R. Br.)
Blume Solitaire palm
Northeastern Australia Ornamental tree USDA,2014
Ptychosperma macarthuri (H.
Wendl. ex hort.) G. Nicholson
Macarthur feather palm
United states of America Ornamental tree USDA,2014
Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh) H.
Wendl. & Drude ex Drude
Needle palm
North America Ornamental tree USDA,2014
Roystonea borinquena O.F.
Cook Royal palm
Hispaniola(Puerto Rico),
Virgin Islands.
Ornamental tree, fruits used
to feed pigs
Sabal mexicana Mart. Texas
Sabal Palm
North America Ornamental tree, the palm
hearts and drupes are eaten
Sabal minor (Jacq.) Pers. Dwarf
Southern USA Ornamental tree USDA,2014
Serenoa repens (W. Bartram)
Small Saw palmetto
United states of America Ornamental tree USDA,2014
Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.)
Glassman Queen palm
Brazil Ornamental tree USDA,2014
Thrinax radiata Lodd. ex Schult. &
Schult. f. Florida Thatch Palm
South and central
Ornamental tree USDA,2014
Washingtonia filifera (Linden ex
André) H. Wendl. American
cotton palm ,desert fan
Southwestern North
Ornamental tree USDA,2014
Washingtonia robusta H. Wendl.
Mexican Fan Palm
Mexico Ornamental tree USDA,2014
References and Further Reading
Elshibli S (2009) Genetic Diversity and Adaptation of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.)PhD dissertation,
University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
USDA (2014) Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Family Solanaceae. United States Department of
Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. Available at:
[Accessed on 8th July, 2014]
Moore Jr., H.E. New Genera and Species of Palmae from New Caledonia. L.H. Bailey Horatorium
List of Arecaceae genera.
Kahn, F. and E.J.L. Ferreira (1995) A new species of Astrpocarryum (Palmae) from Acre, Brazil. Candollea
50: 321-328.
Tropical nature: Palms. JungleView- Stock Photography of Jacques Jangoux.
Henderson, A. (1986) A review of pollination studies in the Palmae. The Botanical Review 52:221-
Bozbuga, R. and A. Hazir (2008) Pests of the palm (Palmae sp.) and date palm (Phoenix dactylifera)
determined in Turkey and evaluation of red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier)
(Coleoptera:Curculionidae). EPPO Bulletin 38:127-130.
Hahn, W.J. (2002) A Molecular Phylogenetic Study of the Palmae (Araecacae) Based on atpB, rbcL, and
18S nrDNA Sequences. Systematic Biology 51:92-
Henderson, A. J. (2004) A Multivariate Analysis of Hyosphathe (Palmae). American Journal of Botany
Araceae (Palmae)
Araceae (Palmae)
Kahn, F. amd B. Milan. (1992) Astrpcaryum (Palmae) in Amazonia A preliminary treatment.
Uhl, N.W. (1972) Inflorescence and flower structure in Nypa fruticans. American Journal of Botany 59:729-
Yanase, H., S. Sata, K. Yamamoto, S. Matsuda, S. Yamamoto, and K. Okamoto. (2007) 73:2592-
Hedstrom, I. (1986) Pollen carriers of Cocos nucifera L. (Palmae) in Costa Rica and Ecuador (Neotropical
region). Revista de Biological Tropical 34: 297-301.
Lethal yellowing of coconut (Candidatus Phytoplasma palmae) Plantwise Knowledge Bank.
Koseck, P.R., D. S. Alviano, C.S. Alviano, and C.R. Gattass. (2007) The husk fiber of Cocos nucifera L.
(Palmae) is a source of anti-neoplastic activity. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research (2007)
40: 1339-1343.
Mahabale, T.S. (1967) Pollen grains in Palmae. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 4:299-
Galetti, M. and P.R. Guimaraes Jr. (2004) Seed dispersal of Attalea Phalerata (Palmae) by Crested
Caracaras (Caracara Plancus) in the Pantanal and a review of frugivory by raptors. Ararajuba 12:133-
Araceae (Palmae) (palm family) Arizona-Sonora Desert
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... Numerous biochemical and anticancer effects are also present in many of the plants in this family. The palm trees of this family are primarily found in coastal areas in the tropics and subtropics, as well as in the Arabian Desert (Basu et al., 2014). This family includes great diversities of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, sterols, triterpenes, glyceryl derivatives,...etc and biological activities as antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic, cardioprotective, cytotoxic,...etc (Mohammed et al., 2022). ...
Cancer, which is characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and division with loss of physiological functions. It is one of the most fatal diseases in the world. For thousands of years, natural treatments, particularly those made from natural products, have been used to cure a variety of diseases, including cancer. Several Arecaceae species have been suggested as potential treatments for a range of cancer types. Arecaceae have a long history of use in folk medicine to treat tumors and a variety of infectious disorders. The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNP) using the total ethanolic extract of Dypsis leptocheilos aerial parts (TEEDL) as a reducing agent was investigated for their cytotoxic activity (using the MTT assay) for the first time. A color change from faint yellow to reddish brown in the first stages of SNP synthesis, indicating the synthesis of nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles were also elucidated by using UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier Transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and Zeta potential. The purified silver nanoparticle preparation demonstrated more promising cytotoxic activity against tested various cell lines than TEEDL. Cell viability by using the MTT assay demonstrated the cytotoxic activity of (TEEDL-based SNPs) against breast cancer cells (MCF-7), liver carcinoma (HepG2), colon carcinoma (HCT-116), and prostate carcinoma (PC-3) cell lines with IC50 = 4.49 ± 0.23, 0.95 ± 0.05, 1.8 ± 0.1, and 2.74 ± 0.52 µg/mL, respectively. To find out which of the secondary metabolites are responsible for this activity, the metabolic profile of TEEDL was investigated. It detected 29 compounds. Finally, a network pharmacology analysis was conducted to find out the annotated genes identified by the major identified flavonoidal compounds. The results identified 145 genes annotated by the 10 major flavonoidal compounds. AKR1B1and CA7 were highly represented genes. Four-gene disease networks were constructed; (gene-breast cancers), (gene-liver cancers), and (gene-colon cancers), and (gene-prostate cancers). KEGG pathway analysis showed the top biological pathways related to all genes were nitrogen metabolism pathway, the VEGF signaling pathway, and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance.
... The palm date (PD) Phoenix dactylifera L, has remained an essential part of Arabian cuisine. In numerous countries, in North Africa, South-East Asia, the Middle East and arid and semiarid regions of America, the palm date contribute significantly to the sustenance of the agricultural industry (Al-Farsi and Lee, 2008;Sghaier-Hammami et al., 2009;Basu et al., 2014). Saudi Arabia is one of the leading dates producing nations (FAOSTAT, 2020). ...
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In order to determine the variation and the degree of diversity among the most well-known Saudi date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), this study applied various widely detectible fruit and seed features. The properties of the fruit and seeds were described using ten phenotypic traits. Eighteen date palm varieties from six production sites were used in this study (Ḥaʼil, Al-Madina, Al-Hassa, Al-Qassim, Kharaj, Najran). The data was analysed by Pearson r correlation. The principal components analysis (PCA) and UPGMA clustering were used to analyse the data set. According to PCA, the results showed significant variation among the analysed varieties. Our data shows that seed ratio varies among all varieties. The mean seed weight ratio varies between 4 and 13%. Varieties ‘Raziz’, ‘Lubab’ and ‘Wasily’ demonstrate higher seed ratio (over 10%). Whereas, Fankha depicts a 5 and 4% fresh and dry seed ratio. The statistical analysis indicates that the seed ratio in all 18 varieties is comparable in fresh and dry fruits. The result suggests variation among the numerous features due to dissimilarities and heterogeneity. However, the obtained results also propose the clustering and grouping of closely related features, e.g., weights of fresh and dry fruits. Eventually, it is suggested to conduct additional research on Saudi date palms utilizing more phenotypic traits in order to have a better understanding of the pack of morphological descriptors.
... Many plants of this family also have several biological and anticancer effects. The palm trees of this family can be distributed especially in tropical and subtropical coastal areas and can grow in the Arabian Desert [13]. This family has a lot of plants that have antioxidant and anti-cancer effects. ...
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Many studies have shifted the attention from the synthetic bioactive compounds to the naturally existing ones for the purpose of novel therapeutic agent(s). Such studies focused on the bioactive compounds from natural sources. The bioactive compounds from natural sources, which are developed in living systems, are supposed to be more biological friendly than synthesized ones, making them excellent therapeutic candidates for further discovery of drugs. Cancer is one of the leading deaths causes worldwide associated with uncontrolled proliferating cells. Chemotherapy is one of the first line treatment debulking surgery for many tumors. Hence, investigating the natural resources like plant and animal tissues to find out anti-cancer agents shows long standing interest for many researchers worldwide. In this study, we reviewed literatures for the medicinal uses of some Arecaceae family members with focus on their potentials as the anti-proliferating and/or cytotoxic agents, and further, making them a good source for potential anti-cancer agents.
... Les palmiers constituent l'un des plus importants groupes de plantes à fleurs tropicales. Borassus aethiopum est une espèce monophylétique et dioïque (individus mâles et femelles séparés) qui appartient à la famille des Arecaceae (Martius, 1838;Basu et al., 2014). Les palmiers sont très abondants et constituent le troisième groupe de plantes utilitaires au monde après celui des Poaceae et des Fabaceae (Stauffer, 2014). ...
Les rôniers (Borassus aethiopum Mart., Arecaceae) sont plus ou moins concernés par la menace dans leur milieu écologique. Ce travail vise à déterminer la structure spatiale et la dynamique de la population des rôniers à la réserve de Lamto, en zone de transition forêt-savane. La caractérisation de l’occupation du sol par l’algorithme des réseaux de neurones a été effectuée. La caractérisation environnementale a été possible grâce aux algorithmes de la empérature de surface (LST, Land Surface Temperature), de l’humidité de surface (NDWI, Normalized Difference Water Index) sur des images LANDSAT (TM 1988, ETM+ 2002 & OLI+ 2015) et du modèle numérique d’altitude de l’image SRTM, formulés à l’aide du logiciel ENVI 5.1. Les modèles d’analyses dont les multidistances (Fonction K(d) de Ripley) et les plus proches voisins (Average Nearest Neighbor) ont été appliqués pour déterminer la structure extrinsèque des rôniers. L’appariement de grappes et des valeurs arbitraires (Anselin Local Moran’s I) a été utilisé pour la structuration intrinsèque. Le croisement dans le SIG des données environnementales à l’appariement de grappes permet de faire ressortir l’influence environnementale à travers l’allure des réponses des grappes et l’abondance des plantes. La détection et délinéation de la couronne foliaire des rôniers sur une image multispectrale (GeoEye 1) de très haute résolution ont été effectuées à l’aide de la classification à base de règle (rule-based classification) dans ENVI. Il ressort de cette étude que la superficie des forêts est en hausse de 240 ha, malgré les feux de brousses. Elle est passée de 21,42% (610,42 ha) en 1988 à 29,85% (850,67 ha) en 2015. Les rôniers sont répartis au niveau plantule en agrégat, de caractère hétérogène. Celle des adultes présente une répartition aléatoire avec un caractère homogène. Les rôniers sont plus abondants avec des allures de réponses unimodales. Les températures et humidités de surface favorables à l’abondance des rôniers sont fonction de la formation de savane qui l’abrite. Cette analyse montre que les facteurs environnementaux contrôlent la répartition des rôniers. L’évaluation de la détection des rôniers au seuil de recherche de 10 mètres a permis d’obtenir une bonne précision en fonction du stade de développement. Elle est de plus de 90% chez les rôniers adultes et près de 50% chez les juvéniles.
... Palms may live from a few months to many years. New roots develop from the root initiation zone and sometimes they become visible at the base of trunk (Basu et al. 2014). ...
Palms numerous fungal pathogens show symptoms that are similar and common to many diseases, such as leaf spots and blights. The most susceptible stages of Chamaedorea cataractarum, C. seifrizii and C. costaricana palms are seedlings and juvenile plants. In addition to these problem, soil borne Fusarium solani is also an important threat to these palms, together with many other soil and air borne fungi. It is very important to understand the etiology of these diseases, in order to properly plan suitable management strategies. This chapter summarizes updated information about fungal diseases of palms species in the Chamaedorea genus.
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Palm is the largest monocot group widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. The importance of palm species ranges from food sources to landscape. Therefore, the identification and characterization of pathogens associated with these hosts have economic and ecological significance. During surveys in 2020 to 2021, leaf spots on diseased Sabal mexicana and rotting tissues of Areca triandra, Arenga pinnata, Dypsis leptocheilos, Washingtonia robusta were collected from three cities in southwestern China. Fungal isolates were identified using morphological characterization and phylogenetic analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA, beta-tubulin (tub2) gene and part of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef 1-α). Six Neopestalotiopsis isolates and 22 Pestalotiopsis isolates were obtained. These isolates were further confirmed as two novel species described here as P. guangdongnsis and P. sabal; and three new host records N. formicidarum, P. diploclisae, P. kandelicola; and one unclassified Neopestalotiopsis sp. Pathogenicity assays were conducted on potted Sabal mexicana leaves for all isolated taxa. The results revealed that all species isolated from this study induced weak lesions on Sabal mexicana leaves. Pathogens were reisolated, and Koch's postulates were fulfilled. The results from this study will be an addition to micro-fungi associated with palm trees. Moreover, pathogenicity test results revealed the opportunistic nature of pestalotioid species on Sabal mexicana. These results will provide a basic platform to understand the pathogenic mechanisms and lifestyle of pestalotioid species in the future.
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Stingless bees are effective pollinators of native tropical flora. Their environmental service maintains flow of pollen through pollination, increase reproductive success and influence genetic structure in plants. The management of stingless bees "meliponiculture", is an activity limited to the countryside in Ecuador. The lack of knowledge of their managers about pollen resources can affect the correct maintenance/production of nests. The objective is to identify botanical families and genera of pollen grains collected by stingless bees by morphological features and differentiate potential species using geometric morphometry. Thirty-six pot pollen samples were collected from three Ecuadorian provinces located in two climatically different zones. Pollen type identification was based on the Number, Position, Character system. Using morphological features, the families and genera were established. Morphometry landmarks were used to show variation for species differentiation. Abundance , diversity, similarity and dominance indices were established by counting pollen grains, as well as spatial distribution relationships by means of Poisson regression. Forty-six pollen types were determined in two study areas, classified into 27 families and 18 gen-era. In addition, it was possible to identify more than one species, classified within the same family and genus, thanks to morphometric analysis. 1148 ± 799 (max 4211; min 29) pollen grains were counting in average. The diversity showed a high richness, low dominance and similarity between pollen resources. Families Melastomataceae and Asteraceae, genera PLOS ONE
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The Arecaceae family contains wide classes of phytoconstituents and possesses wide range of pharmacological Activities members of this family are used in folk medicine for treatment of several diseases. Dypsis pembana (H.E.Moore) Beentje& J. Dransf. is a palm tree growing in Tanzania belongs to family Arecaceae. In this study, a detailed macromorphological characters of stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit in addition to micromorphological characters of the leaves of Dypsis pembana Family Arecaceae cultivated in Egypt were studied for the identification of the plant in both entire and powdered form, in addition to characterization of fatty acids of the leaves by GC-MS analysis. Thorough analysis of the chromatogram of the n-hexane fraction and careful matching examination of the acquired spectra resulted in identification of 12 phytochemicals and revealed the presence of saturated fatty acids mainly as Palmitic acid methyl ester, Lauric acid methyl ester, Methyl tetradecanoate, Methyl stearate , Margaric acid methyl ester, Eicosanoic acid methyl ester and Capric acid methyl ester and polyunsaturated fatty acids mainly as Linolenic acid methyl ester and Linoleic acid methyl ester in addition to other phytochemicals as 2,2-Dimethylocta-3,4-dienal , 3,7,11-Trimethyl-2,4- dodecadiene and 3,7,11,15-Tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol.
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In this study, silver-cobalt bimetallic hybrid nanoparticles were synthesized using green method from AgNO3 and CoCl2 metal precursors as well as the locally available root extract of Borassus aethiopum acting as the reducing agent. The formation of bimetallic nanoparticles was first noticed by a color change of the reaction mixture from light pink to light brown as the result of Surface Plasmon absorptions. The optical measurements using UV-Vis showed the maximum absorption wavelength at 420nm while the functional group identification using FT-IR revealed some replacements in the absorption of functional groups, disappearance, and appearance of some others in the spectra of the BMNPs relative to that of the root extract indicating that those involved in the bio-reduction process. In vitro antibacterial potency was investigated against five clinically isolated bacteria. The outcome of the result suggested that they inhibit the tested bacteria especially against Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Thus, it can be developed as a bio-control agent for the treatment of diseases caused by these bacterial pathogens.
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We observed Crested caracaras (Caracara plancus) consuming and dispersing fruits of the palm Attalea phalerata at Pantanal, Brazil. We reviewed the literature of seed dispersal by raptors and suggest that raptors may affect seed dispersal by three different paths: secondary seed dispersal by preying on frugivorous birds, primary seed dispersal of ornithocoric fruits and primary seed dispersal of large, lipid-rich fruits. The latter path may be an important long-distance seed dispersal mechanism for large seeds.
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Notoriously slow rates of molecular evolution and convergent evolution among some morphological characters have limited phylogenetic resolution for the palm family (Arecaceae). This study adds nuclear DNA (18S SSU rRNA) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA; atpB and rbcL) sequence data for 65 genera of palms and characterizes molecular variation for each molecule. Phylogenetic relationships were estimated with maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony techniques for the new data and for previously published molecular data for 45 palm genera. Maximum parsimony analysis was also used to compare molecular and morphological data for 33 palm genera. Incongruence among datasets was detected between cpDNA and 18S data and between molecular and morphological data. Most conflict between nuclear and cpDNA data was associated with the genus Nypa. Several taxa showed relatively long branches with 18S data, but phylogenetic resolution of these taxa was essentially the same for 18S and cpDNA data. Base composition bias for 18S that contributed to erroneous phylogenetic resolution in other taxa did not seem to be present in Palmae. Morphological data were incongruent with all molecular data due to apparent morphological homoplasy for Caryoteae, Ceroxyloideae, Iriarteae, and Thrinacinae. Both cpDNA and nuclear 18S data firmly resolved Caryoteae with Borasseae of Coryphoideae, suggesting that at least some morphological characters used to place Caryoteae in Arecoideae are homoplastic. In this study, increased character sampling seems to be more important than increased taxon sampling; a comparison of the full (65-taxon) and reduced (45- and 33-taxon) datasets suggests little difference in core topology but considerably more nodal support with the increased character sample sizes. These results indicate a general trend toward a stable estimate of phylogenetic relationships for the Palmae. Although the 33-taxon topologies are even better resolved, they lack several critical taxa and are affected by incongruence between molecular and morphological data. As such, a comparison of results from the 45- and 33-taxon trees offers the best available reference for phylogenetic inference on palms.
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In the present study, we investigated the in vitro anti-tumoral activities of fractions from aqueous extracts of the husk fiber of the typical A and common varieties of Cocos nucifera (Palmae). Cytotoxicity against leukemia cells was determined by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cells (2 x 10(4)/well) were incubated with 0, 5, 50 or 500 microg/mL high- or low-molecular weight fractions for 48 h, treated with MTT and absorbance was measured with an ELISA reader. The results showed that both varieties have almost similar antitumoral activity against the leukemia cell line K562 (60.1 +/- 8.5 and 47.5 +/- 11.9% for the typical A and common varieties, respectively). Separation of the crude extracts with Amicon membranes yielded fractions with molecular weights ranging in size from 1-3 kDa (fraction A) to 3-10 kDa (fraction B) and to more than 10 kDa (fraction C). Cells were treated with 500 microg/mL of these fractions and cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT. Fractions ranging in molecular weight from 1-10 kDa had higher cytotoxicity. Interestingly, C. nucifera extracts were also active against Lucena 1, a multidrug-resistant leukemia cell line. Their cytotoxicity against this cell line was about 50% (51.9 +/- 3.2 and 56.3 +/- 2.9 for varieties typical A and common, respectively). Since the common C. nucifera variety is extensively cultured in Brazil and the husk fiber is its industrial by-product, the results obtained in the present study suggest that it might be a very inexpensive source of new antineoplastic and anti-multidrug resistant drugs that warrants further investigation.
The paper gives an account of Palmae pollen grains, which usually have a smooth sporoderm but rarely are spiny or warty. The sporoderm is spiny in the Pandanaceae and smooth in the Sparganiceae, families closely related to the Palmae. The classification of the Palmae into subfamilies as given by Drude (1889) and Moore (1960) has been taken as standard, and the characteristics of pollen grains in various genera belonging to these have been compared. Apart from shape, size, polysporic or unisporic nature of the pollen grains, single double nuclei at the time of shedding, it is thought that more reliable characteristics for classification and phylogeny are the number and nature of the colpi. There is a strong correlation in the primitive nature of monocolpate pollen grains among many species of Cocos, but not in all species believed to belong to that genus. For example, C. schizophylla has a triradiating colpus, considered to be primitive. This agrees with the view expressed by Beccari (1917) and Beccari and Pichi-Sermolli (1956) regarding the redistribution of species of this genus. That Nipa is a distinct, isolated member of the Palmae is supported by its non-colpate pollen grains. In the closely related tropical palm, Phytelephas macrocarpa, pollen grains are monocolpate. These two members thus seem to be unrelated, a conclusion further supported by morphology, anatomy, and embryology. Palynologically and anatomically, Nipa shows affinities with the related families Pandanaceae, Aroideae, and Cyclanthaceae.
This paper covers the palm (Palmae sp.) and date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) pests which were determined by studies conducted in Turkey between 1941 and 2006. In total 15 species have been found to date: 1 belonging to Coccidae, 9 to Diaspididae, 1 to Margarodidae and 2 to Pseudococcidae families of the order Homoptera and 1 species to Scarabaeidae and 1 to Curculionidae families of the order Coleoptera. Among these pests, red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier) has caused a great deal of damage in recent years.
A review is given of the literature concerning palm pollination. Results of this review indicate great diversity in pollination, but three basic syndromes are common in the family, cantharophily, mellitophily, and myophily. Anemophily appears uncommon and derived. Evidence of a close association between certain beetles and palms may be indicative of ancestral cantharophily. Se presenta una revisión bibliográfica sobre la biología de la polinización de las palmas. Los resultados indican que hay una gran diversidad en cuanto a los modos de polinización, pero tres de ellos dominan, cantarófila, melitófila, y miófila. La amenófila parece escasa y derivada. La asociación íntima entre ciertos coleópteros y palmas surgiere que la polinización cantarófila es ancestral.
Previous systematic treatments of the neotropical palm genus Hyospathe have recognized from two to 18 species. An explicit, quantitative, repeatable sequence of operations for delimiting and testing groups of specimens and applying species concepts is carried out. Multivariate statistical analysis of morphological data is used to delimit and test groups of specimens. Cluster analysis is used to distinguish between characters and traits. Analysis of qualitative and quantitative characters reveals six groups of specimens, and the Phylogenetic Species Concept is applied to these groups. Two species, H. peruviana Henderson and H. frontinensis Henderson, are described as new. One of the specimen groups is large and widespread, and six geographically separate subgroups can be recognized within it. These subgroups can be distinguished by one or more significantly different quantitative characters. A Phylogenetic Subspecies Concept is applied to these subgroups. Three subspecies, H. elegans subsp. costaricensis Henderson, H. elegans subsp. sanblasensis Henderson, and H. elegans subsp. tacarcunensis Henderson are described as new, and two new combinations are made: H. elegans subsp. sodiroi (Dammer ex Burret) Henderson and H. elegans subsp. concinna (H. E. Moore) Henderson. One subspecies occurring in the Amazon region is complex morphologically and is not resolved by the methods used here.
ASTROCARYUM (PALMAE) EN AMAZONIE. TRAITEMENT PRÉLIMINAIRE. Le genre Astrocaryum est composé de 24 espèces amazoniennes: cinq appartiennent au sous-genre Pleiogynanthus et 19 au sous-genre Monogynanthus (3 à la section Munbaca et 16 à la section Ayri). Une clé d’identification est proposée, ainsi que la description de chaque espèce, complétée par de nouvelles observations et suivie de notes sur la distribution géographique, l’écologie et les utilisations. Six espeses nouvelles sont décrites. ASTROCARYUM (PALMAE) EN LA AMAZONIA. TRATAMIENTO PRELIMINAR. Astrocaryum consta de 24 especies amazónicas, 5 de las cuales pertenecen al subgénero Pleiogynanthus y 19 al subgénero Monogynanthus (3 a la sección Munbaca, 16 a la sección Ayri). Se presenta una clave para diferenciar las especies, y para cada una, su descripción con nuevos datos, así como notas sobre la distribución geográfica, la ecología y los usos. Se describen seis especies nuevas. In the Amazon, Astrocaryum includes 24 species of which five belong to the subgenus Pleiogynanthus and 19 to the subgenus Monogynanthus - three in the section Munbaca and 16 in the section Ayri. A key to these 24 species is presented followed by description based on new data, and notes on their distribution, ecology and uses. Six new species are described.