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Job satisfaction is very important factor of productivity and job quality, especially in health care workers. The aim of the paper was to assess some of the parameters of job satisfaction among heath care workers. The pilot cross-sectional study conducted in the Clinical Center Nis from February to June 2007. Instrument for investigation was MM-40 EA questionnaire (Örebo University, Sweden). Interviews of physicians and nurses were conducted by the Faculty of Medicine students. 770 health care workers (209 male, 561 female) were polled, mean age 40.65±9.82 years. Most of the participants thought that their work is interesting and stimulating, but that they work too hard. The health care workers were not satisfied with their influence on the work organization, as well as on the working environment conditions. More than half of participants had very good experiences with teamwork. The investigations in this field should have high priority in the country in transition.
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Original article
Dragana Nikic, Mirjana Arandjelovic, Maja Nikolic and Aleksandra Stankovic
Job satisfaction is very important factor of productivity and job quality, especially in
health care workers. The aim of the paper was to assess some of the parameters of job
satisfaction among heath care workers. The pilot cross-secional study conducted in the
Clinical Center Nis from February to June 2007. Instrument for investigation was MM-40
EA questionnaire (Örebo University, Sweden). Interviews of physicians and nurses were
conducted by the Faculty of Medicine students. 770 health care workers (209 male, 561
female) were polled, mean age 40.65±9.82 years. Most of the participants thought that
their work was interesting and stimulating, but that they worked too hard. The health care
workers were not satisfied with their influence on the work organization, as well as on the
working environment conditions. More than half of participants had very good experiences
with teamwork. The investigations in this field should have high priority in the country in
transition. Acta Medica Medianae 2008; 47(4):9-12.
Key words: health care workers, job satisfaction, questionnaire
Faculty of Medicine in Nis
Contact: Maja Nikolic
Public Health Institute Nis
50 Dr Zorana Djindjic Blvd.
18000 Nis. Serbia
Tel.: 018-226-384 lok140
*This investigation is within the project of
Ministry for Science and Technological
Development in Serbia (Project number 21016):
Initiation and development of coherent
engagement of all economic branches and their
workers into the health promotion, ethical codex
and quality of life as the condition for their
Job satisfaction in workers is a very
important parameter that influences productivity
as well as quality of work. This complex
phenomenon is an attitude towards one’s job that
has an impact not only on motivation, but also on
career, health and relation with co-workers (1-3).
Previous studies (4,5) show that job
satisfaction depends not only on nature of work,
but on one’s expectations regarding that work.
Generalisation always brings some risks since
there are different subjective factors and expe-
ctations in different professions important for job
Job satisfaction in health care workers has
a great impact on quality, effectiveness and work
efficiency and at the same time on health-care
costs. Besides its importance for patients and
health care system as a whole, professional sati-
sfaction in health care workers is directly connected
with absence from work, human relations and
organisation of work (6-8). In a lot of countries,
job satisfaction survey is regulary conducted, and
by monitoring obtained data it is possible to
notice omissions in organisation of work.
Health care workers face increased risk for
work discontent. Stress, burnout and complex
shift work are important determinants of health
care workers’ well-being and they also influence
their professional satisfaction (9,10).
Worldwide, studies showed that many
factors have impact on job satisfaction in health
care workers, such as: gender, age, level of
education, work experience, way of organisation
of work, working conditions, payment, working
hours, promotions and so on (11-15).
In our country, surveys on job satisfaction
have been scarecely done so far. The Ministry of
Health in Serbia intensified surveys on satisfaction
of health-care users, as well as of health care
workers, in order to give better health protection
in our country.
The aim of our study is to evaluate job
satisfaction in health care workers and to identify
factors that contribute to their professional
Material and methods
A transversal study was conducted in the
Clinical Center Nis in the period from February to
June 2007. Participation in the study was on
voluntary basis.
The sample involved health-care workers of
different education level. Out of 800 employees,
consent to interview was obtained from 770 of
Interviews were done by Nis Medical School
graduates using MM-040 EA (16) questionnaire
surveys. According to literature data the questionnaire
Job satisfaction in health care workers Dragana Nikić et al.
was designed by experts from Örebo University in
Sweeden in order to interview employees about
their working conditions that have impact on
their health. The questionnaire comprises five
parts. In this study the part regarding job
satisfaction was investigated using the MM 40
with the following four questions:
• Do you regard your work as interesting
and stimulating?
Do you have too much work to do?
• Do you have an opportunuty to influence
your working conditions?
Do your fellow workers help you with
problems you may have in your work?
There were four alternative response
categories to the questions (yes, often; yes,
sometimes; no, seldom; no, never).
For the statistical descriptive and analytic
processing, the Epi info 6.o statistical program
was used.
In this investigation, 770 health care
workers were enrolled, 209 male and 561 female
(Table 1). Mean age was 40.65 ±9.82 years.
There was no statistically significant difference in
age in different categories according to qualifi-
cations (Kruskal-Wallis χ2-test = 71.7, P>0.001)
The greatest number (427) of respondents
had secondary education, 212 of them were
general practitioners and specialists. About 5% of
employees had higher qualifications, and there
were about 10% of employees with scientific
position (masters and doctors of science).
Table 1. Characteristics of respondents
Male 209 27,14%
Female 561 72,86%
Mean age (Xsr± SD) 40.65±9.82
Under 35 years 394 51,16%
36 to 55 years 167 21.70%
Over 55 years 427 55,45%
Secondary education 427 55,45%
Higher qualification 44 5,71%
High qualification 212 27.53%
With scientific position 87 11.31%
The respondents answered the questions as it is
showed in tables 2-5.
Table 2. Answers to the question if the work was
interesting and stimulating (%)
Qualification often sometimes seldom never
secondary 46.11 41.35 10.77 1.77
higher 58.13 34.88 6,97 0.02
high 70.61 27.01 1,89 0.49
scientific position 77.01 20.69 0.00 2,21
From this table it can be seen that perceiving
work as interesting and stimulating increases
with qualifications, so the gratest number of
masters and doctors of science replied that their
job was interesting and stimulating (77.01%),
while the percentage is considerably lower in
employees with secondary education (46.11%).
Table 3. Respondents’ answers to the question if they
had too much work to do (%)
Qualification often sometimes seldom never
secondary 68.85 28.57 2,20 0.38
higher 75.00 25.00 0.00 0.00
high 74.06 24.52 1,42 0.00
scientific position 75.86 24.14 0.00 0.00
The gratest number of respondents think
they are often overloaded with work. The percenage
is between 68.85 to 75.86%.
Table 4. Respondents’ answers to the question if
they have an opportunity to influence their working
conditions (%)
qualification often sometimes seldom never
secondary 6.91 27.90 42.22 22.97
higher 23.83 16,66 40.47 19.04.
high 16.50 39.15 36.79 7.56
position 18.39 37.93 35.63 8.05
Respondents regarded their influence to
working conditions as poorly significant and they
mostly answered this question as „seldom“.
Table 5. Respondents’ answers to the question if their
fellow workers help with problems at work (%)
qualification often sometimes seldom never
secondary 50.62 39.21 7.94 2.23
higher 63.63 27.27 9.09 0.01
high 58.29 30.80 9,47 1.21
position 55.17 35.63 8.05 1.15
The majority of respondants were positive
about team work and organisation of work and more
than half of them claimed they often received
help from their colleagues.
Surveys on satisfaction of customer service
are most often used in organisations that have
market business in order to increase profit. If we
regard health as goods which qualities are to be
constantly improved, then surveys on patients’
satisfaction by health service are conducted
(17,18). But, health-care workers are seldom
interviewed about their working conditions,
regardless of the fact that they provide health
services and enhance health (19,20).
A questionnaire used in this study is mainly
used for examination of microclimatic conditions
of work environment, although there is a section
about job satisfaction. In most studies that used
Acta Medica Medianae 2008,Vol.47 Job satisfaction in health care workers
this widely accepted questionnaire, data on job
satisfaction were of secondary importance.
There are numeruous more detailed questio-
nnaries used worldwide for job satisfaction.
However, the basic aim of our investigation was
to identify problems in our health care institutions.
The results showed that obviously there is a
problem that requires greater attention. The
positive side of this study is that by examining
conditions in which health-care workers perform
their duties, parameters for employees’ satisfa-
ction were observed for the first time.
The results showed that more diverse and
qualified professional work is more stimulating.
But, it should be noted that more professional
work requires greater responsibilities and demands,
as well as more detailed preparations and great
previous knowledge of employees.
More than two thirds of employees think
they are overloaded with work. As the number of
employees in health-care institutions is in accorda-
nce with world’s normatives, it is employees
subjective experience on work overload, or organi-
sation of work is not adequate. It is well known
that work overload is greater if responsibilities
and duties are not adequately distributed.
Employees are not satisfied with their
influence on organisation of work and more than
one third think they can seldom influence the
work conditions. Such results are not satisfa-
ctory, and management education at all levels in
health-care institutions in our country should be
undertaken. Motivation of employees is also
important in solving problems in this field.
Team work, as an important factor in
functioning of health-care system, was assessed
in respondents and probably has an impact on
quality of health-care services.
The questionnaire used had only four questi-
ons, but it can be accepted as a very useful tool
for quick screening in a health-care institution,
especially if we take into account that in our
conditions fast and cheap methods are more
suitable than complex and more detailed ones. Of
course, obtained framework about presence of
certain problems in job satisfaction in health care
workers should be accepted as a basis for more
detailed investigation if necessary. A special attention
should be directed to education and information
of health care workers, to development of team
work and to organisation of work.
The majority of employed health care workers
think their job is interesting, and their perception
is in correlation with their qualifications. Most of
the respondents claim they are overloaded with
work, and the majority can rely on their fellow
workers. Minority of respondents think they can
influence their work conditions. These preliminary
results show that there is a need for education in
communication skills and prevention measures
for health improvements and job satisfaction. This
pilot investigation points out that it is necessary to
apply interventions in certain sections that are
related to job satisfaction in health care workers.
A greater engagement of relevant structures in
taking and directing necessary measures at the
work place to improve satisfaction and well-being
of the personnel is required.
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Dragana Nikić, Mirjana Aranđelović, Maja Nikolić i Aleksandra Stanković
Zadovoljstvo poslom zdravstvenih radnika je vrlo važan parametar koji utiče na
kvalitet pružanja zdravstvene zaštite, kao i motivaciju zaposlenih. Cilj ovog rada bio je
oceniti neke od parametara zadovoljstva poslom kod zdravstvenih radnika. Pilot studija
sprovedena je u Kliničkom centru u Nišu u periodu od februara do juna 2007 god.
Instrument istraživanja bio je upitnik MM-40 EA koji je izradio Örebo univerzitet iz
Švedske. Anketiranje su radili studenti završne godine Medicinskog fakulteta u Nišu.
Ispitano je 770 zdravstvenih radnika (209 muškaraca i 561 žena), prosečne starosti
40.65±9.82 godina. Većina anketiranih smatra da im je posao zanimljiv i stimulativan, ali
da previše rade. Zaposleni nisu bili zadovoljni svojim uticajem na organizaciju posla, kao i
uslovima rada. O timskom radu se više od polovine ispitanika izrazilo pozitivno. Očigledno
je da je potrebno veće angažovanje u cilju poboljšanja zadovoljstva zaposlenih kod nas, te
slična istraživanja treba ohrabriti. Acta Medica Medianae 2008;47(4):9-12.
Ključne reči: zdravstveni radnici, zadovoljstvo poslom, anketa
... Locke, iş doyumunu bireyin yaptığı iş veya işiyle ilgili edindiği deneyimler sonucunda memnuniyet duyması veya olumlu duygular hissetmesi olarak tanımlamaktadır 1 . Sağlık çalışanlarında iş doyumunun kalite, etkinlik ve iş verimliliği üzerine ve aynı zamanda sağlık hizmetlerinin maliyeti üzerine etkisi vardır 2,3 . Sağlık çalışanlarının işinden duymuş olduğu memnuniyetin, hastalar ve bir bütün olarak sağlık sistemi için öneminin yanı sıra, işe devamsızlık, insan ilişkileri ve iş organizasyonu ile doğrudan bağlantılı olduğu bilinmektedir 2,4 . ...
... Sağlık çalışanlarında iş doyumunun kalite, etkinlik ve iş verimliliği üzerine ve aynı zamanda sağlık hizmetlerinin maliyeti üzerine etkisi vardır 2,3 . Sağlık çalışanlarının işinden duymuş olduğu memnuniyetin, hastalar ve bir bütün olarak sağlık sistemi için öneminin yanı sıra, işe devamsızlık, insan ilişkileri ve iş organizasyonu ile doğrudan bağlantılı olduğu bilinmektedir 2,4 . ...
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Bu çalışmada, COVID-19 salgınının hastanede görev yapan sağlık çalışanlarının iş doyumu üzerine etkilerini ortaya çıkarmak amaçlanmıştır. Katılımcıların sosyo-demografik özelliklerini, COVID-19 salgınındaki çalışma durumlarını ve Minnesota İş Doyumu Ölçeği’ni içeren anket online olarak, bir eğitim araştırma hastanesinde görev yapan sağlık çalışanlarına uygulanmıştır. 2020 yılı Haziran - Ağustos ayları arasında çalışmaya katılmaya gönüllü olan 268 kişi anketi yanıtlamıştır. Çalışma sonucunda bekar olanların, COVID-19 tanısı konulanların, karantina süreci yaşayanların iş doyumları daha düşük bulunmuştur. Hasta bakımında aktif yer almayan kişilerin iş doyumunun diğerlerine göre daha yüksek olduğu saptanmıştır. COVID-19 hastalarının tedavi edildiği kliniklerde çalışanların, salgın sürecinde geçici konaklama merkezlerinde konaklayanların, haftalık çalışma süresi 45 saat ve üstü olan sağlık çalışanlarının iş doyumlarının daha düşük olduğu görülmüştür. COVID-19 hastalarının tedavi edildiği birimlerde çalışanlar başta olmak üzere sağlık çalışanlarının pandemi süresince iş doyumunu artırmaya yönelik önlemler alınması ve teşviklerde bulunulması gerekmektedir. Salgın süresince haftalık çalışma saatlerinin azaltılması, hastalık geçiren ve karantina süreci yaşayan çalışanların desteklenmesi ve sağlık çalışanlarına uygun şartlarda konaklama imkanı sağlanması önerilmektedir.
... Locke, iş doyumunu bireyin yaptığı iş veya işiyle ilgili edindiği deneyimler sonucunda memnuniyet duyması veya olumlu duygular hissetmesi olarak tanımlamaktadır 1 . Sağlık çalışanlarında iş doyumunun kalite, etkinlik ve iş verimliliği üzerine ve aynı zamanda sağlık hizmetlerinin maliyeti üzerine etkisi vardır 2,3 . Sağlık çalışanlarının işinden duymuş olduğu memnuniyetin, hastalar ve bir bütün olarak sağlık sistemi için öneminin yanı sıra, işe devamsızlık, insan ilişkileri ve iş organizasyonu ile doğrudan bağlantılı olduğu bilinmektedir 2,4 . ...
... Sağlık çalışanlarında iş doyumunun kalite, etkinlik ve iş verimliliği üzerine ve aynı zamanda sağlık hizmetlerinin maliyeti üzerine etkisi vardır 2,3 . Sağlık çalışanlarının işinden duymuş olduğu memnuniyetin, hastalar ve bir bütün olarak sağlık sistemi için öneminin yanı sıra, işe devamsızlık, insan ilişkileri ve iş organizasyonu ile doğrudan bağlantılı olduğu bilinmektedir 2,4 . ...
... Several studies that explored the factors influencing healthcare workers' job satisfaction level conducted in developed and developing countries suggest that the main factors affecting their job satisfaction include pay incentives, working conditions, doctor-patient relationship, stress, and interrelations and opportunities for promotion (17,18). Based on the above findings, a conclusion can be drawn that healthcare workers' job satisfaction, which is affected by many factors, is a pivotal parameter that influences productivity, commitment to work, healthcare costs, and quality of work (19). ...
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Introduction: Job satisfaction is organizational behavior, a vital element in an employee's lifecycle that significantly affects the productivity, quality of services, and efficient use of the organization's resources. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 172 Public Health professionals (PHP's) working in governmental public health institutions in the 18 states in North-Sudan. Data were collected utilizing a modified Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), with a Cronbach's alpha (0.80). The data were analyzed using SPSS version 24, including descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test, Pearson correlations, Chi-square, one-way ANOVA, and multiple logistic regression. The tests, applied at 95 % confidence interval, p<0.05, were considered significant, and odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) were used to explain the presence of an association between dependent and independent variables. Results: Majority (75.3%) of the public health physician-respondents noted that their interest led them to practice in the field. The PHP's job satisfaction was greatly affected by intrinsic factors and human resource management (HRM) factors (P<0.001). Their job satisfaction increased with their satisfaction with intrinsic and HRM factors, with (r) value ranging between (0.56-0.89). Gender is associated with job satisfaction, wherein males ((Л 2 = 0. 272) are more satisfied with their jobs than females (Л 2 = 0. 173). However, the satisfaction score related to HRM factors was not associated with employer, age, highest qualification, area of practice, and position (p> 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that those working in state MOH are less likely to be satisfied with their job [(B=-1.16; OR = 0.31; 95% CI. (0.10-1.00); p=0,050]. The work experience in public health has a positive and significant association with job satisfaction [(B=0.20; 1.52; 2.32) 95% OR= 1.22; 4.59; 10.20)]. Conclusion: The overall level of job satisfaction among the respondents was low; their satisfaction level was greatly affected by the intrinsic and extrinsic factors and the HRM variables. Males who have accumulated more work experience are more satisfied with their jobs. Policymakers must develop and implement interventions to increase their levels of job satisfaction among females.
... The most significant factor for patient satisfaction has been shown to be employee job satisfaction [53]; happy employees mean happy patients [54]. Several studies have shown this connection between health care workers' job satisfaction and work effectiveness, quality, and commitment [55,56]. In addition to employee satisfaction, there is research indicating that increased employee retention can improve patients' care experiences [57][58][59]. ...
... 6 Nurses who are contented with the job are highly committed and devoted to their professional calling thus enhancing their productivity and quality of patient care. 6,7 Nurses' job satisfaction has been shown to be influenced by a constellation of factors including organizational commitment, 6 turnover intention 8 and burnout. 9 One of the key factors influencing nurses' job satisfaction is chief nurse's ward management behavior. ...
Full-text available
OBJECTIVES: Chief nurse's ward management behavior is a key factor affecting job satisfaction of nurses working directly under them. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chief nurse's ward management behavior on job satisfaction of nurses working in major district hospitals in Bhutan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 246 nurses working across 18 district hospitals in Bhutan. Data on nurses' job satisfaction and chief nurse's ward management behavior were collected using Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ)-short version and Supervisory Behavior Description Questionnaire (SBDQ) respectively. A generalized linear model (GLM) with a binomial distribution was used to indicate the relationship between chief nurse's ward management behavior and nurses' job satisfaction. RESULTS: The result showed that 54.09% of nursing employees were satisfied with their job. In terms of chief nurse's ward management behavior, chief nurses of Bhutan are inclined to display behavior which is more of an autocratic nature than democratic. There was a strong positive correlation between chief nurse's ward management behavior and nurses' job satisfaction. The GLM also indicated a strong positive relationship between the nurses' job satisfaction with chief nurse's ward management behavior. CONCLUSION: Nurses' job satisfaction was significantly and positively associated with chief nurse's ward management behavior. This finding call for an interventional program to promote chief nurse's ward management behavior.
... All employees expressed low level of satisfaction with motivation, opportunity for creativity and innovation, independence, responsibility and recognition, while the main aspects of dissatisfaction were salary, working conditions, promotion opportunities and insufficient recognition from superiors Mosadeghrad, Ferlie and Rosenberg, 2008. Employees are moderately satisfied with their work and loyal to the organization they work for Nikić et al., 2008. Employees are satisfied with the teamwork and work they do, while they demonstrated dissatisfaction with the working conditions, amount of work they do and the impact they have on the organization Mahmoud, 2008 There is a positive correlation between job satisfaction and level of education, leadership, organizational commitment and support Satisfaction with the work environment and group cohesion, individual responsibility and work in the hospital predict the intention to change jobs. ...
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The quality of service in the public health sector is an essential aspect that influences patient satisfaction. Providing quality in public health sector means delivering health service in an affordable, safe and effective manner, with minimal risk and harm for patients. In other words, it means fulfilling patients’ needs and surpassing their expectations. In order to provide patients with good-quality and satisfactory service, many public health organizations implement quality standards that contribute with many benefits and advantages, among which employee satisfaction stands out. The objective of the research was to evaluate the attitude of employees in public health institutes towards the dimensions of job satisfaction and their perception of the level of TQM implementation, with regard to the employees’ sociodemographic characteristics. In order to achieve this objective, ANOVA was used to test the hypotheses and determine the difference between observed sociodemographic characteristics with regard to the dimensions of job satisfaction and the application of TQM principles in research. Beside that, correlation coefficient was used to test the connection between overall job satisfaction and the level of TQM implementation (overall TQM principles). The findings suggest that level of education and the length of service have a significant effect on the differences in assessments among employees, while position in the workplace affects within certain dimensions of job satisfaction, as well as within their perception of the TQM implementation. Results have also shown that there is a statistically significant relationship between job satisfaction and the level of implementation of TQM principles. The present study provides valuable guidelines for public health sector managers since the results of the research indicate the level of perception of the implementation of TQM principles and job satisfaction dimensions with which employees are the most and the least satisfied, thus pointing out to management in public health sector institutions the areas in which certain improvement measures should be implemented. As this study focuses specifically on Institutes of Public Health, future research could be expanded to encompass other public health institutions such as hospitals and private clinics as well as other sectors.
... Also, healthcare worker job satisfaction is directly linked with work absenteeism, human relations and organization of work. (Dragana, Arandjelovic, & Maja, 2008). ...
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The increased intention of healthcare workers to leave the health sector is one of the many negative impacts of job dissatisfaction and poor working conditions among healthcare workers in Nigeria. This study assessed the level of job satisfaction and the intention of leaving the country or medical practice among primary healthcare workers in Lagos, Nigeria. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional among 235 respondents, selected using a multistage sampling method. An adapted self-administered questionnaire from the Minnesota questionnaire short form and the Job Description Index (JDI) was used for data collection. Data were analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0. Descriptive statistics were performed while Chi-square was used to determine the association between categorical variables and the level of significance was set at p <0.05. About half (50.6%) of the healthcare workers were satisfied with their jobs. Highest score 37.00 (32-40) for job satisfaction was found in the domain of management process; while the lowest score 16.00 (13-20) was found in the salary domain. The majority of the healthcare workers 201(85.5%) had the intention of leaving Nigeria for a better opportunity abroad. Healthcare workers were satisfied with the management process but dissatisfied with pay. Targeted interventions to improve the morale of healthcare workers at the primary healthcare level is recommended.
... These interventions should focus on improving the source of job satisfaction such as the perceived ability to deliver good patient care, good relationships, respect from the superiors, supportive leadership, good salary, competitive pay and bonuses, participation in developing own work schedule, job security, self-growth in the form of professional training and job promotion, job autonomy, opportunity to decision-making and develop multidisciplinary actions in the context of health [73][74][75][76]. Nikić et al. [77] also point out the need for improving the communication skills and health as interventions that may lead to increase job satisfaction among health care workers. It should also be taken into consideration that high job satisfaction may favour the occurrence of secondary posttraumatic growth (SPTG). ...
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Introduction Medical personnel is an occupational group that is especially prone to secondary traumatic stress. The factors conditioning its occurrence include organizational and work-related factors, as well as personal features and traits. The aim of this study was to determine Secondary Traumatic Stress (STS) indicators in a group of medical personnel, considering occupational load, job satisfaction, social support, and cognitive processing of trauma. Material and methods Results obtained from 419 medical professionals, paramedics and nurses, were analyzed. The age of study participants ranged from 19 to 65 ( M = 39.60, SD = 11.03). A questionnaire developed for this research including questions about occupational indicators as well as four standard evaluation tools: Secondary Traumatic Stress Inventory, Job Satisfaction Scale, Social Support Scale which measures four support sources (supervisors, coworkers, family, friends) and Cognitive Processing of Trauma Scale which allows to evaluate cognitive coping strategies (positive cognitive restructuring, downward comparison, resolution/acceptance, denial, regret) were used in the study. Results The results showed that the main predictor of STS symptoms in the studied group of medical personnel is job satisfaction. Two cognitive strategies also turned out to be predictors of STS, that is regret (positive relation) and resolution/acceptance (negative relation). The contribution of other analyzed variables, i.e., denial, workload and social support to explaining the dependent variable is rather small. Conclusions Paramedics and nurses are at the high risk of indirect traumatic exposure and thus may be more prone to secondary traumatic stress symptoms development. It is important to include the medical personnel in the actions aiming at prevention and reduction of STS symptoms.
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Mesleki doyum, günümüzde birçok disiplin tarafından oldukça kapsamlı bir şekilde incelenen karmaşık bir olgu olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Öyle ki çalışanların mesleki doyumlarının belirlenmesi çalışan performansının değerlendirilmesi açısından önemlidir. Çalışmanın amacı, Kuzgun, Sevim ve Hamamcı (1999) tarafından geliştirilip geçerlilik ve güvenirliği yapılan Mesleki Doyum Ölçeği’nin Doğrulayıcı Faktör Analizini sağlık personeli örnekleminde gerçekleştirmektir. Tarama modelli araştırma özelliği gösteren çalışmada bu amaçla ölçekle ilgili geçerlilik ve güvenilirlik testleri yapılmıştır. Araştırmanın evrenini hekim, hemşire, idari ve teknik personel ile sosyal çalışmacılar oluşturmaktadır. Çalışma kapsamında toplamda Konya’daki hastanelerde çalışan 500 sağlık ve sosyal hizmet çalışanına ulaşılmıştır. Yapılan Doğrulayıcı Faktör Analizine ait uyum indeksleri x2(517,86)/sd(165)=3,14; SRMR=0,09; CFI=0,93; RMSEA=0,09; PNFI=0,78; IFI=0,93 ve PGFI=0,65 şeklinde hesaplanmıştır. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre uyum indekslerinin literatürde istenilen değerlerin üstünde olduğu, bu nedenle de modelin reddedilemeyeceği ifade edilebilmektedir. Mesleki Doyum Ölçeği’nin geçerliliğini test etmek amacıyla yapılan Doğrulayıcı Faktör Analizi’nin ardından ilgili ölçeğin güvenirlik analizleri yapılmıştır. 20 maddelik Mesleki Doyum Ölçeği’nin Alpha değeri 0,907 olarak tespit edilmiştir. Alt boyutlara ilişkin Alpha değerleri incelendiğinde ise Niteliklere Uygunluk alt boyutu için 0,898; Gelişme Fırsatı (isteği) alt boyutu için 0,726 olarak bulunmuştur. Sonuç olarak MDÖ’nün yapı geçerliliğinin sağlık ve sosyal hizmet çalışanları örnekleminde doğrulandığı, gerekli güvenirlik şartlarını da sağladığı, bu nedenle de geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçüm aracı olarak sağlık ve sosyal hizmet çalışanları üzerinden kullanılabileceği söylenebilir.
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All health care organisations deal with proposed actions for achievement of goals with the best use of human resources. In that respect, close attention must be paid to motivation of individuals by means of initiative, rewards, leadership, and organisational context within which the work is being organised. The goal is to develop organisational processes and workplace environment that will help them to show the expected results. Motivation is the process of initiation, an activity aimed at achieving specific goals. Employees who do not have clear goals or have no goals at all work slowly, execute given tasks poorly, show lack of interest and complete fewer tasks than the employees who have clear and challenging goals. Employees with clearly defined goals are energetic and more productive. Behaviour modification includes the use of four means to achieve this goal, known as intervention strategies. These strategies are: positive incentive, negative incentive, punishment and lack of reaction.
Background: Stress and stress-related illnesses are increasing among medical specialists. This threatens the quality of patient care. in this study we investigated (a) levels of job stress and job satisfaction among medical specialists, (b) factors contributing to stress and satisfaction and (c) the effect of stress and satisfaction on burnout. Methods: A questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 2400 Dutch medical specialists. Measures included job stress, job satisfaction, burnout, personal characteristics, job-characteristics and perceived working conditions. Results: The final response rate was 63%. Of the respondents, 55% acknowledged high levels of stress, and 81% reported high job satisfaction. Personal and job characteristics explained 21%-6% of the variance in job stress and satisfaction. Perceived working conditions were more important, explaining 24% of the variance in job stress and 34% of the variance in job satisfaction. Among perceived working conditions, the interference of work on home life (odds ratio [OR] 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-1.76) and not being able to live up to one's professional standards (OR 1.57, 95% Cl 1.37-1.80) were most related to stress. Feeling poorly managed and resourced (OR 2.07, 95% Cl 1.76-2.43) diminished job satisfaction. Burnout was explained by both high stress and low satisfaction (41% of variance explained) rather than by stress alone. Interpretation: Our study showed a protective effect of job satisfaction against the negative consequences of work stress as well as the importance of organizational rather than personal factors in managing both stress and satisfaction.
To test Herzberg's (1966, 1987; Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959) motivator-hygiene theory, I examined the relationship between work values and job satisfaction. Educators (N # 386) from 18 Canadian secondary schools were asked to report the degree to which they experienced 16 work values and five dimensions of job satisfaction. Factor analysis suggested five sets of work values: intrinsic work-related, intrinsic work-outcome, extrinsic job-related, extrinsic job-outcome, and extrinsic people-related. Regression analyses identified the best predictors for each of the five dimensions of job satisfaction. The results support and extend Herzberg's theory. In addition to those identified by Herzberg, other factors contributed portions of variance to the five dimensions of job satisfaction.
The present study compares patient satisfaction scores with job satisfaction scores of the physicians providing their care in 16 general internal medicine teaching hospital group practices. Practice sites with more satisfied patients were also more likely to have more satisfied housestaff and faculty physicians. Additionally, higher satisfaction scores for both physician groups and patients were consistently associated with a greater percentage of patients experiencing continuity of care, lower patient no-show rates, more efficient use of ancillary staff in providing direct patient care, and more reasonable charges for a routine follow-up visit. These findings suggest that improving physician and patient satisfaction may have economic as well as psychological and social benefits. (C) Lippincott-Raven Publishers.
The objective of the present study was to test for multigroup invariance in measurement models and structural models between job characteristics, psychosocial intervening variables, health outcomes and sickness absenteeism. Four types of occupation were represented in the study: blue-collar workers (n= 241), white-collar workers (n= 209), elderly-care workers (n= 338) and child-care workers (n= 336). A ® rst-order, six-factor multigroup con® rmatory factor analysis model (i.e. measurement model) composed of two perceived job characteristics (job autonomy and skill discretion), appraised workload, job satisfaction, stress-related ill-health and sickness absenteeism provided a good model ® t. Invariance tests showed that the six-factor model ® ts well for all occupations. A partially recursive mediated multigroup structural model showed both similarities and di V erences across occupations as regards the relationships between independent latent variables (job autonomy, skill discretion), intervening latent variables (appraised workload, job satisfaction) and dependent latent variables (stress-related ill-health, sickness absenteeism). By comparing a generic model with occupation-speci® c models across occupations, this study showed that occupation-speci® c models were more plausible. The results indicate that it is important to examine di V erent occupational contexts in detail to better understand how certain psychosocial factors at work in¯ uence strain in di V erent occupations. Since job characteristics can potentially be amended, the ® ndings have important implications for the di V erentiation of prevention and intervention in di V erent occupations.
Measurements of the work ability subjective assessment, using the work ability index (WAI), are widely applied in the examination of workers. The measurement results suggest that the low level of work ability, which is determined by work-burden factors, health condition, and lifestyles of persons under study, can be a predictor of earlier retirement. The aim of the study was to find out whether WAI can be used in Polish conditions and to identify personal traits and/or job characteristics and conditions of its performance that generate the risk of low work ability. The cross-sectional study embraced 669 men and 536 women at the working age, representing different occupations and exposed to various factors. They self-assessed their work ability by completing a questionnaire that allows to determine WAI values. They also characterized their jobs in terms of physical burden, occupational stress, harmful and strenuous factors, work fatigue, chronic fatigue, and lifestyle. Based on the energy expenditure and health condition (number of diseases), the work burden was objectively defined. A model of multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effect of the analyzed factors on the risk of low or moderate work ability. The level of work ability in the study group was lower than that observed in analogous occupational groups in other European countries. The results of the analysis indicate that job characterizing factors and workers' individual traits exert a stronger effect on the level of WAI components, which reflect a subjective assessment of work abilities, than factors concerning health conditions. Highly stressogenic work and low tolerance of work burden as well as personal traits (age, frequent alcohol consumption among men and non-occupational burdens among women) represented risk factors responsible for low or moderate VAI values. The measurement of work ability index is an indirect assessment of workers' physical state, and it slightly depends on objective work burdens.
Most studies of organizational stratification have remained largely at the narrative or inferential level. Few attempts have been made to empirically assess the consequences of a status system. This paper sought to examine the proposition that stratification is inversely related to job satisfaction and adaptiveness. Although not overwhelmingly demonstrated, there is presumptive evidence that stratification does have an impact upon the organization. It was concluded that medical technologists prefer a supportive, well-structured environment that provides an opportunity for them, through participation, to maintain a degree of control over their work setting. Practical implications of the findings and recommendations were made.